Historical Timeline Summary

   The following event dates help to illustrate a series of "turning points" ranging from about 3,000 B.C. to the present day. These are illustrated in context to regular conjunctions of Neptune and Pluto about every 500 years. [E.M.]

3,113 B.C. - Trivia / Mayan Calendar -  "Late in the 18th century in the low-lying rain forests of Central America, archeologists found the remains of a magnificent civilization, which up until then no one even suspected had existed. They discovered the great ceremonial centers of the Maya, with their vast plazas, towering pyramid-temples, some of which rose up out of the jungle hundreds of feet. There was also found monolithic structures, intricately carved stones with hieroglyphic inscriptions, which no one could decipher until just relatively recently. And part of what was revealed on these structures or stela, was an extremely accurate calendar. The Mayas believed, as did the Assyrians and other ancient peoples, that time was a way of measuring the soul of the Universe. The universe breathed in and breathed out. Life was created, destroyed, created anew. One cycle of 'inhalation and exhalation' was called a 'Great Cycle'. The last Mayan 'Great Cycle', 4 Ahau 8 Camku, reportedly began on August 13th, 3113 B.C. 4 Ahau Cambku is currently in a final phase called 'Katun 19, 13 Ahau', which began in 1992 and ends, with a prophecy of world destruction, on Dec. 23, 2012."

3,102 B.C. - Trivia / Kali Yuga - "According to Vedic tradition, we are in the fourth World Age, or Kali Yuga [Iron Age], furthest from the celestial seat of Brahma, an age when humans are capable of understanding only gross material reality. The traditional date in India for the beginning of the Kali Yuga is February 18, 3102 B.C. The duration for the Kali Yuga is believed to last for 432,000 years."

*Trivia:  According to Hesiod, the present race of man [the iron race] had been preceded by three earlier races – the golden race, the silver race, and the bronze race respectively. Each of these three peoples had been destroyed by cataclysms, at the command of the gods, the most recent of which had been the flood of Deucalion. The disappearance of Atlantis, rather intriguingly, was dated by Plato to the third cataclysm before this flood of Deucalion."

3,100 B.C. - History Begins -  "Reportedly, a society that possesses writing is 'historic'. One that does not is 'prehistoric'. By 3,100 B.C., the Sumerians had a system of writing that could communicate anything they wanted to say. In other words, human history begins with Sumeria not long before 3,000 B.C."

3,100 B.C. - "Scorpion" Rules Egypt - "In the protodynastic period of Egypt  'Scorpion' ruled  and was followed by Narmer."

3,100 B.C. - First Dynasty / Egypt -  "Traditional date when the two regions of Egypt were believed to have been united under the rule of Narmer [known as Menes, to the Greeks] and the First Egyptian Dynasty was founded. Incidentally, the number of years credited to some kings of the 1st and 2nd Dynasty is so high, that, in those particular cases, they are most likely not correct. It has sometimes been postulated that this high number of years does not reflect the length of a reign but the age at which the king died. Such high numbers for reigning kings also appear in the Sumerian King Lists."

3,043 B.C. - Configuration - "Neptune-Pluto conjunction. Note: This date represents an approximation only; the calculation may be off by several years."

3,000 B.C. - Altithermal - "It is suspected by Earth scientists that the sun shone particularly brightly about this time. This episode is called the Altithermal, and may have contributed to the rise of the early civilizations. Another similar high heat episode occurs around 1,000 A.D."

2,953 B.C. - I Ching - "The I Ching, or Book of Changes, is the most widely read of the five Chinese Classics. The book was traditionally written by the legendary Chinese Emperor Fu Hsi [2,953-2,838 B.C.]. It is possible that the the I Ching originated from a prehistoric divination technique which dates back as far as 5,000 B.C. Futher commentaries were added by King Wen and the Duke of Chou in the eleventh century B.C."

Commentary: "Apparently, 3,000 B.C. [or thereabouts] signifies a remarkable time for recorded history. I have reason to be somewhat suspicious, however,  about the 'beginning' of history at this time; since 4,000 B.C. [or thereabouts] was for many centuries a popular date [according to Judaism and Christianity] for the beginning of all creation! Is this why some history books continue to place the most important events in recorded history after 4,000 B.C.?" [E.M.]

2,575 B.C. - Egyptian Old Kingdom - "A traditional date for the beginning of the Egyptian Old Kingdom [2,575 B.C.- 2,134 B.C.] period, or the Fourth Egyptian Dynasty [2,575 B.C.- 2,551 B.C.]. Unlike the pyramids before [3rd Dynasty] and after [5th and 6th Dynasties], the pyramids at Giza [attributed to the 4th Dynasty] were wonderfully well made and have endured the passage of thousands of years more or less intact. For this very reason scholars are beginning to see the light - that these structures may in fact be tens of thousands of years older than previously expected."

2,550 B.C. - Configuration - "Neptune-Pluto conjunction."

2,530 B.C. - Great Pyramid / Egypt - "According to popular history, this was the date when King Khufu [Cheops] completed construction of the Great Pyramid at Giza. At its uppermost point the whole structure reached a height of 481 feet. According to another report, the Giza pyramids were already ancient at the time of Khufu's restoration. On a scale of 1:43,200 the Great Pyramid serves as a model, and map projection, of the northern hemisphere of the earth. During all the centuries of darkness experienced by Western civilization when knowledge of our planet's dimensions was lost to us, all we ever needed to do to rediscover that knowledge was to measure the height and base perimeter of the great Pyramid and multiply by 43,200." [Link: 1]

Commentary: "Curious that major Egyptian Dynasties roughly occur about the same time as Neptune-Pluto conjunctions? Also curious is the claim that the great pyramids are no older than 4,000 B.C." [E.M.] 

2,125 B.C. - Sumerian King Lists -  "Reportedly, 'From the Sumerian King Lists an important caesure becomes apparent, the great Flood or Deluge. Names and events are either antediluvial or post diluvial. In later epics the flood signals the end of mythological times, when things were formed, and inaugerates the beginning of historical times. About eight [in other versions ten] antediluvial kings are mentioned with their periods of government. Extremely large areas were attributed to the kings before the flood. Added together they would have ruled for 241,200 years. Composed centuries after the times they refer to, the Sumerian King Lists were copied by generations of scribes and standardized in the process until the cononical version appeared in Old Babylonian times with kings extending up to that period. Reportedly, the surviving clay tablet was dated by the scribe who wrote it in the reign of King Utukhegal of Erech [Uruk], which places it around 2,125 B.C. After kingship had descended from heaven, Eridu became the seat of kingship. In Eridu Aululim reigned 28,800 years as king. Alalgar reigned 36,000 years. Two kings, reigned 64,800 years. Eridu was abandoned and its kingship was carried off to Bad-tabira. . . . Total: Five Cities, eight kings, reigned 241,200 years. The FLOOD then swept over. After the Flood had swept over, and kingship had descended from heaven, Kish became the seat of Kingship. In Kish .... Total: twenty-three kings, reigned 24,510 years, 3 months, 3 1/2 days. Kish was defeated; its kingship was carried off to Eanna. In Eanna, Meskiaggasher, the son of [the sun god] Utu reigned as En [Priest] and Lugal [King] 324 years - Meskiaggasher entered the sea, ascended the mountains. Enmerkar, the son of Meskiaggasher, the king of erech who had built Erech, reigned 420 years as king. Lugalbanda, the shepherd, reigned 1,200 years. Dumuzi the fisherman, whose city was Kua, reigned 100 years. Gilgamesh, whose father was a nomad (?) reigned 126 years. Urnungal, the son of Gilgamesh, reigned 30 years. Labasher reigned 9 years. Ennundaranna reigned 8 years. Meshede reigned 36 years. Melamanna reigned 6 years. Lugalkidul reigned 36 years. Total: twelve kings, reigned 2,130 years. Erech was defeated, its kingship was carried off to Ur...."

2,100 B.C. - Amorites / Damascus - "According to one report, Amorites came from the Arabian peninsula and were the first important Semitic settlers in the area of Damascus. They established many small states."

2,074 B.C. - 11th Dynasty / Egypt - "A traditional date for the Eleventh Egyptian Dynasty [2074 B.C.-2064 B.C.]."

2,057 B.C. - Configuration - "Neptune-Pluto conjunction."

2,040 B.C. - Egyptian Middle Kingdom - "Traditional date for the beginning of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom  period 2,040 B.C.-1,640 B.C."

2,010 B.C. - Temple of Ur - "In the early 1900's, the builders of the Baghdad railway placed a station about 120 miles north of Basra because the landmarked site was a recognized travellers' rest. Here, an enormous solitary hill rose above the desert - a hill known to the Bedouins as Tell al Muqayyar [Mound of Pitch]. But some thousands of years ago this desert waste was a lush, fertile valley with cornfields and date groves. As was soon to be discovered, within this great mound was the towering multi-levelled Temple of Ur, along with the rest of the ancient city.
   In 1923 , the archaeologist Sir Charles Leonard Wooley, with a joint team from the British Museum and the University of Pennsylvania, set out to excavate the mound because some years earlier a collection of very old texts, engraved on stone cylinders, had been unearthed near the summit. One of these cylinder-seals [as they became known] had revealed the name of Ur-nammu, King of Ur in about 2,010 BC, and so it was determined that this was probably the location of Abraham's home." [Laurence Gardner, Genesis Of The Grail Kings]

2,000 B.C. - Last Dynasty? / Sumeria - "After the last Sumerian dynasty fell around 2,000 B.C., Mesopotamia drifted into conflict and chaos for almost a century. It is quite likely that the Third Dynasty of Ur, in Sumer, established around 2,000 B.C. a number of colonies called Ur in tablets from Nuzu, Alalakh and Hattusa. The Ur of the Chaldees, where Abraham was born, seems to have been one of the northern Urs. After the collapse of the Ur Dynasty, the colony continued its commercial way of life under the new masters who took over."

*Trivia: - "Abraham's home, Ur of the Chaldees, was a prominent city of the Sumerian Empire, and contemporary texts record that Ur was sacked by the king of nearby Elam soon after 2,000 BC. Although the city was rebuilt, the center of power then moved north to Haran in the kingdom of Mari. This was the very city to which Terah took Abraham and the others. But Haran was not just the name of a flourishing city: it was also the name of Abraham's brother [the father of Lot], who had died before the family left Ur of the Chaldees [Genesis 11:27-28]. Other cities in northern Mesopotamia were also named in accordance with Abraham's forefathers, as discovered by archaeologists excavating the region from 1934. In studying the clay tablets of reports from governors and commissioners of the era, they found the names of Terah [Abraham's father], Nahor [Terah's father], Serug [Nahor's father], and Peleg [Serug's grandfather].
   "Clearly the patriarchs represented no ordinary family, but constituted a very powerful dynasty. But why would such a long-standing heritage of prominence and renown come to an abrupt end and force Abraham out of Mesopotamia into Canaan? A Sumerian text from 1960 BC [at about the time terah moved his family from Ur to Haran] could well hold the initial key, for it states, 'The gods have abandoned us like migrating birds. Smoke lies on our cities like a shroud'."

*Trivia: "The family of the Hebrew patriarchs [Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob] is depicted in the Bible as having had its chief seat in the northern Mesopotamian town of Harran - then [mid-2nd millennium B.C.] belonging to the Hurrian kingdom of Mitanni. From there Abraham, the founder of the Hebrew people, is said to have migrated to Canaan [comprising roughly the region of modern Israel and Lebanon]. In Genesis 14, Abram [Abraham] is called a Hebrew [abrv] and is portrayed as a fighting prince. Reportedly, the initial level of Israelite culture resembled that of its surroundings; it was neither wholly original nor primitive. The tribal structure resembled that of West Semitic steppe dwellers known from the 18th-century-B.C. tablets excavated at the north central Mesopotamian city of Mari; their family customs and law have parallels in Old Babylonian and Hurro-Semite law of the early and middle 2nd millennium."

Commentary: "Another major Egyptian Dynasty [Middle Kingdom] and another Neptune-Pluto conjunction appear at roughly 500 years from the last occurence [Old Kingdom]. Abraham and the Jewish religion [for some reason] now begin to capture our attention as the most significant events in history. As for Egypt, it begins to appear a villain." [E.M.]

1,628 B.C. - Volcanic Eruption  / Aegean Sea - "New data about climatically-effective volcanic eruptions during the past several thousand years may be contained in frost-damage zones in the annual rings of [pine] trees. There is good agreement in the timing of frost events and recent eruptions, and the damage can be plausibly linked to climatic effects of stratospheric aerosol veils on hemispheric and global scales. The cataclysmic proto-historic eruption of Santorini [Thera], in the Aegean, is tentatively dated to 1,628-1,626 B.C. from frost-ring evidence. Other dates attributed to the eruption of Thera include: 1,645, 1,503, and 1,470 B.C."

1,600 B.C. - Hittite Empire  - "The Hittites Empire stretched from Mesopotamia to Syria and Palestine. Their invasion spelled the end of the Old Babylonian Empire in Mesopotamia. The Hittite civilization dominated Mesopotamia from 1,600 B.C. to 1,200 B.C. The Bible mentions the Hittites among the early inhabitants of Palestine, and that intermarriage between Hebrews and Hittites took place. Ezekiel 16:3 goes so far as to tell the Jerusalemites that they are a hybrid people; their father, so to speak, is Amorite, and their mother, Hittite."

1,564 B.C. - Configuration - "Neptune-Pluto conjunction."

1,550 B.C. - Egyptian New Kingdom - "Beginning of Egyptian New Kingdom [1550 B.C.-1070 B.C.] period. This was also the 'Egyptian Empire,' because it ruled over Asians as well as Egyptians. 1,540 B.C. represents a traditional date for the 18th Egyptian Dynasty  [1540 B.C.-1514 B.C.]."

1,530 B.C. - Trivia / Kassites - "About 1,530 B.C., a century and a half after the death of Hammurabi, Babylonia and Assyria alike were conquered by charioteers from the north, a group called 'Kassites' by the later histories. Under the Assyrian king, Ashur-Dan, the last Kassite king was driven from the Babylonian throne in the twelfth century B.C."

1,525 B.C. - Queen Hatshepsut / Egypt - "In Egypt Queen Hatshepsut, one of the XVIII Dynasty rulers, was born. Her name translates as 'The Foremost of Noble Ladies'."

1,500 B.C. - Heroic Age - "A traditional date for the 'Heroic Age' [1,500 B.C. - 1,000 B.C.] of Greece and Israel. Reportedly, the customs of both Greeks and Hebrews in the 'Heroic Age' were often alien to their descendants in the classical periods."

1,500 B.C. - Aryan Invasian? - "According to popular history, by 1,500 B.C. charioteers invaded Asia and put an end to the Indus Valley region. The invaders of India called themselves 'Aryans,' from their word for 'noble.' They spoke an Indo-European language known as 'Sanskrit.' It is because they brought this language into India, while other charioteers spread related languages westward into Europe, that we call the language-family Indo European. In 1999 researchers reported that gene patterns confirmed that Caucasoid invaders entered India between 1,000 and 2,000 BC."

1,500 B.C. - Independent Assyria  - "According to popular history, Assyria becomes an independant kingdom."

1,504 B.C. - Tuthmosis III / Egypt - "Tuthmosis III [1587 - 1375 B.C.] was one of the most significant Egyptian rulers during the 18th Dynasty. As a young man he was co-regent to Queen Hatshepsut, his sister, and when she died in 1,480 B.C. Thothmes, whose name means 'born of Thoth,' ruled on his own as supreme Pharoah. There were rumours that the young man had murdered his sister to gain the crown but there is no proof to support this allegation."

Commentary: "At this 500-year juncture, the Egyptian New Kingdom begins. Coincidence again?" [E.M.]

1,080 B.C. - Trivia / Philistines -  "Philistines defeat Israelites at Aphek; Shiloh destroyed."

1,070 B.C. - 21st Dynasty / Egypt - "A traditional date for the 21st Egyptian Dynasty  [1070 B.C.- 945 B.C.]."

1,071 B.C. - Configuration - "Neptune-Pluto conjunction. Neptune-Pluto cycles last about 495 years - half a millennium. They characterise an underlying driving-force behind history, an undertow of reality which marries the inevitable ram-force of Pluto with the imaginal, ideational power of Neptune.  Note: Neptune-Pluto configurations later than 600 B.C. represent estimated projections only. They are caluclated here by subtracting alternating multiples of  493 years."

1,050 B.C. - Jewish Monarchy - "The Gezer calendar was most probably derived from the Canaanite cycle before the establishment of the Jewish monarchy in 1,050 B.C. Evidence of the calendar's Canaanite origins is found in the Old Testament, which indicates that Hebrews were using Canaanite month names."

1,050  B.C - Milarepa - "In 1050 Milarepa sought vengeance on unscrupulous relatives for mistreating his mother and sister."

1,048 B.C. - Saul - "A reported date when the Israelite tribes united under their first king, Saul."

1,040 B.C. - Samuel  - "According to popular history, Samuel judges the tribes."

1,028 B.C. - Saul Rules Israel - "A traditional date when Saul ruled in Israel. Other dates attributed to Saul include: ca. 1,025-1,005 B.C."

1,013 B.C. -  Trivia / Philistines -  "Philistines defeat Israelites at mount Gilboa: Saul and Jonathan killed; David rules Judah."

1,008 B.C. - King of the Jews / David - "David of Bethlehem married Saul's daughter to become King of Judah [corresponding to half of the Palestinian territory] in around 1,008 B.C. Subsequently, he also acquired Israel [the balance of the territory] to become overall King of the Jews."
   "From the time of King David, the dynasty of Abiathar [2 Samuel 20:25] was established in the hierarchy of senior priests. The line of Zadok was the primary priestly heritage and the line of Abiathar was second in authority. In addition to the traditional priestly styles, the Essenes also preserved the names of the Old Testament archangels within their governing structure. Hence, the Zadok priest was also the archangel Michael, while the Abiathar priest [whatever his personal name] was also the angel Gabriel. Being subordinate to the Zadok/Michael [the Lord - 'like unto God'], the Abiathar/Gabriel was designated Angel of the Lord [the ambassador of the Michael-Zadok]. This angelic system is detailed in the Book of 1 Enoch 4:9, wilst the War Scroll 9:15-17 identifies the angels' order of priestly ranking during the Gospel era."

Commentary: "Who is writing our history books anyway? Arabs? Jews? First Egypt, then Jewish patriarchs take center stage." [E.M.] 

625 B.C. - Medes United - "About 625 B.C., the Medes were united under a vigorous king, Cyaxares [Uvakhshtra], who reigned from 625-585 B.C. In alliance, the Medes and Chaldaeans destroyed Assyria."

609 B.C. - Jehoahaz - "A traditional date when Jehoahaz ruled in Judah 609 B.C."

612 B.C. - Nineveh Destroyed  - "Nineveh destroyed by Chaldeans [Neo-Babylonians] and Medes."

612 B.C - Independence / Judah - "As Assyria declined, Judah declared itself independent again, and, under Josiah, who reigned from 640-609 B.C., Yahwism won a temporary victory in Judah. Jerusalem was made the center of all worship, and all subsidiary cult centers were wiped out. A book of the law, our present Biblical book of Deuteronomy [Greek for - second law], centered on Yahwism, was prepared and was 'rediscovered' in the Temple with great publicity and attributed to the hand of Moses. The question arises, however, about how Moses could really have been the author of the Five Books of Moses, since the last book, Deuteronomy, describes in great detail the precise time and circumstances of Moses' own death. According to a noted archaeologist [Israel Finkelstein], we now know that the early books of the Bible and their famous stories of  early Israelite history were first codified [and in key respects composed] at an identifiable place and time: Jerusalem in the seventh century BCE."

604 B.C. - Birth / Lao-tse? - "Chinese philosopher and founder of Taoism is born."

604 B.C. - Trivia / King Nebuchadnezzar - "The Old Testament book of 2-Kings tells of how, from 606-586 BC, Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon [King Nebuchadnezzar II from 604 BC] laid seige to Jerusalem. He captured king Jechoniah of Judah and carried him off to Babylon along with 'all of Jerusalem, and the princes, and all the mighty men of valour, even ten thousand captives, and all the craftsmen and smiths; none remained save the poorest sort of people of the land' [2-Kings 24:14]."
   "The best-known biblical ziggurat was the Tower of Babel [Genesis 11:1-9], built on the Babylonian plain of Shinar - an alternative name for Sumer. This ziggurat fell into ruin long ago, but it was replaced by another, built by Nebuchadnezzar II [604-562 BC] who also constructed the famous Hanging Gardens of Babylon, one of the Seven Wonders of the World. Although also now long gone, the ground-plan of the second Babylon ziggurat shows that it was actually a large-scale replication of the ziggurat of Ur."

600 B.C. - Birth / Mithra? - "According to popular tradition, Mithras was born of a virgin on December 25th, around 600 B.C."

600 B.C. - Trivia / Old Testament - "The Old Testament as we have come to know it was a largely retrospective work, first compiled between the 6th and 2nd centuries BC, but relating to the events of hundreds and even thousands of years before."

600 B.C. - Dissolution / Assyria - "By 600 B.C., Assyria had been thoroughly wiped out, and vanished from the pages of history."

600 B.C. - Chaldean Puppet / Judah - "By 600 B.C., Judah found itself a puppet again. Now it was the Chaldean Empire that was master."

582 B.C. - Birth / Pythagoras? - "Pythagoras [582-507 B.C.], the Greek philosopher and mathematician, was born. Reportedly, there is no certainty regarding the exact year when Pythagoras was born. The same might be said for Buddha. One of the more popular dates for the birth of Pythagoras is 570 B.C."

578 B.C. - Configuration - "Neptune-Pluto [8° Taurus] conjunction."

563 B.C. - Birth / Buddha? - "Buddha [563-483 B.C.], was born." [Link: 1]

559 B.C. - Achaemenian Dynasty / Iran - "The Dynasty which ruled Iran from the time of Cyrus the Great [559 B.C.] to the invasian of Alexander the Great [330 B.C.]."

551 B.C. - Birth / Confucius - "Confucius [551-479 B.C.], was born."

540 B.C. - Birth / Mahavira - "Mahavira [540-483 B.C.], the founder of Jainism , was born."

539 B.C. - Trivia / Persian Empire - "Cyrus the Great of Persia creates great empire, conquers Babylon, and frees the Jews."

539 B.C. - Athenian Democracy - "Athenian democracy develops."

538 B.C. - Jews Return / Judah - "A new Babylonian king allows the Jews to return to Judah and rebuild the Temple. While many do return, a significant number remain in Babylonia. While in Babylonia, a number of Hebrew prophets had been influenced by the dualism of Zoroaster."

538 B.C. - Second Jewish Temple -  "Beginning of Second Jewish Temple [538 B.C. - 70 A.D.] period."

537 B.C. - Cyrus / India - "Cyrus the Persian campaigns west of the Indus River."

Commentary: "An apparent Age of Enlightenment. Jews are captured and released." [E.M.]

108 B.C. - Chinese Korea - "In 108 B.C., Korea was conquered by China."

105 B.C. - Germainic Tribes / Italy - "By 105 B.C., Germanic tribes were beginning to threaten Italy, and had defeated a third force sent against them."

88 B.C. - Italian Citizenship / Rome - "Roman reforms grant citizenship to all Italians."

84 B.C. - Configuration - "Neptune-Pluto [15-16 Taurus] conjunction [84-83 B.C.]."

73 B.C. - Slave Rebellion / Spartacus - "In 73 B.C., a third slave rebellion broke out, under the leadership of a gladiator from Thrace named Spartacus. It raged over Italy for two years before being put down by Pompey and Marcus Licinius Crassus."

71 B.C. - Roman Seleucid - "Romans conquer the Seleucid empire."

69 B.C. - Configuration - "Uranus-Pluto [Gemini] conjunction."

67 B.C. - Mithraism / Roman Empire - "Reportedly, 'The popular Cult of Mithra [or Mithras] was indeed an embarrassment to the early church. Its roots are probably in Syria and it is believed to be an offshoot of the Persian cult of Zoroaster. It seems to have been introduced into the Roman Empire around 67 B.C. Born in a stable to a virgin, birthday celebrated on 25 December, died and reborn, Passover celebrated around Easter, whose rites of worship involved the ingestion of food and drink that were symbolic of eating the flesh of Mithra, and all this 600 years before the birth of Christ. Also included were rites of baptism, the belief in immortality, resurrection, a judgement at the end between Heaven and Hell, and a saviour who died and was resurrected to act as a mediator between man and God.' It is important to remember that the popular definitions of Mithraism have mutated over the centuries to conform with the molds of contemporary society. Popular definitions in circulation today are probably way off the mark from what Mithraism meant to people in the beginning."

63 B.C. - Roman Palestine -  "In 63 BC Roman legions first entered Palestine, and Pompey the Great, the Roman general who led the conquering forces, placed the Jewish state under the control of the governor of Syria. Judea is annexed to Rome about this time, and the Maccabean kingdom came to an end a century after the Maccabean revolt. Another Roman general and statesman, Mark Antony, later gave the throne to Herod the Great, who began his rule in 37 B.C."

63 B.C. - Elected to Office / Julius Caesar - "The Democratic statesman and general Gaius Julius Caesar gained popularity and was duly elected to primary office in 63 BC."

Commentary: "Pagan tribes begin to threaten the Roman Republic - which has all but taken control of the then known world." [E.M.]

374 - Huns Enter Europe - "The Huns crossed the Ostrogothic frontier and entered Europe. The Ostrogoths could not stand against the Huns. Ermanaric, who had ruled over their large territory, was [according to legend] forced to kill himself in despair at seeing his kingdom vanish under the thundering hooves of the Hunnish horsemen. The Visigoths, who lived just  across the Danube from the Romans, clamored in terror to be allowed across the river. The Romans allowed the Goths to enter, but it was not entirely an act of mercy, for the Roman officials plundered the Goths and profited in this manner."

379 - Roman Emperor Theodosius I - "Theodosius I [347-395 A.D.] became Roman Emperor [who ruled from the east]. He was an ardent Christian and began an active persecution of pagans."

394 - Theodosius I - "Theodosius I put an end to the Olympic games after they had been part of the Greek tradition for nearly 12 centuries."

395 - Roman Christianity - "Before his death in 395 A.D., Roman Emperor Theodosius I arranged to have the Empire divided between his two sons. The elder, Arcadius [377-408 A.D.] ruled the east from Constantinople. The younger, Honorius [384-423 A.D.] ruled the west, not from Rome itself, but from Milan in northwestern Italy. The two sons of Theodosius, however, were both incompetent, and the Empire was never to be united again. Theodosius had also made Christianity the sole religion of the Empire, and Constantinople assumed preeminence over other Christian centres in the East as Rome did in the West."

397 - Council of Carthage - "Criteria for the selection of New Testament Gospels established."

400 - Visigoths / Italy - "The East Roman Empire got rid of Alaric and his Visigoths by encouraging him to turn westward. Alaric invaded Italy in 400 A.D., but he was met by Stilicho [a Vandal]. In the war of German against German, Stilicho beat Alaric in northern Italy, and Alaric was forced to withdrawl."

400 - Genesis Commentary - "The oldest and first complete Jewish commentary on Genesis is Genesis Rabbah. It was complied about 400 A.D., but includes teachings much earlier. Verses outside Genesis are brought in to further explain Genesis. There are comments, questions, and arguments from the great Rabbis about the meaning of each verse in Genesis one."

405 - Latin Vulgate Bible - "Eusebius Hieronymus, or 'St. Jerome' [347-420 A.D.] translated the Hebrew writings into Latin. His version of the Bible, the 'Vulgate' [from a Latin word for 'the common people'] was completed in 405 A.D. and  became the official version up to the Renaissance. Jerome was commissioned by Pope Damasus I [366-384]. Augustine was disturbed at Jerome for setting aside the inspired  Septuagint [LXX] to go back to the original Hebrew text that no one else could understand."

407 - Roman Withdrawl / Britain - "Roman withdrawl from Britain begins."

406 - German Gaul - "On December 31, 406, other Sueves and Vandals crossed the Rhine River and moved into Gaul. This time the Germanic tribesmen who entered the West Roman Empire were never driven out. The tribesmen took the land, made the laws, dominated the native Romans, and turned them into peasants and serfs."

409 - German Spain - "Sueves and Vandals crossed Gaul with scarcely any opposition and, by 409 A.D., were settling down in Spain. This successful invasion was blamed on Stilicho, who had done everything he could to protect Italy at least. In August 408 A.D., he was executed. The German tribesmen, who made up much of the 'Roman' army, deserted in indignation."

410 - German Rome - "Alaric marched into Italy again and, in 410 A.D., his soldiers actually took Rome. For the first time since the sack by the Gauls, exactly eight centuries before, Rome was in Foriegn hands. Alaric remained only six days, then marched into southern Italy where he died of fever. The Visigoths then trekked into Spain where they fought successfully against the German tribes that were already there."

410 - Cassianite Order - "The Cassianite Order has an interesting history. Although St. Benedict is customarily regarded as the father of Western monasticism, he was actually preceded by John Cassian, who founded his Cassianite monastery in about AD 410 [albeit following innovatory communal endeavors by Martin, Bishop of Tours, and Honoratius, Archbishop of Arles]. The significant advance in monastic discipline made by Cassian [to be followed by Benedict and others] was its separation and independence from the organization of the episcopal Church. Cassian denounced the taking of holy orders as a 'dangerous practice', and declared that monks should 'at all costs avoid bishops'. Initially an ascetic hermit in Bethlehem, John Cassian established his twin schools near Marseilles - one for men, and one for women. Hence, Marseilles became a recognized conventual centre: the birthplace of the Candlemas ritual which succeeded the earlier torchlight procession of Persephone of the Underworld. Similarly, the Feast of the Madonna originated at St. Victor's Basilica in Marseilles." [Laurence Gardner, Bloodline Of The Holy Grail]

411 - Configuration - "Neptune-Pluto [22-23 Taurus] conjunction [411-412]."

413 - Triple Set of Walls / Constantinople - "Beginning in 413 A.D, and taking 34 years to complete, a triple set of walls was built across the landward approaches to Constantinople."

418 - Visigoths / Toulouse - "The Visigoths moved into southwestern Gaul, and there settled down and made it into a land of their own. They established their capital in 418 A.D. at the Gallic city of Toulouse. Reigning over them from 418-451 A.D., was Theodoric I, a son of Alaric. The kingdom of Toulouse was the first of the Germanic kingdoms to be established."

428 - Vandals / Africa - "The Roman general, Bonifacius [in charge of the African province with Carthage as its capital], decided to seek help among the German tribesmen. In 428 A.D., the Vandal leader, Gaiseric [sometimes called Genseric] and some 80,000 Vandals were carried in Roman ships to Africa."

431 - Vandals / Hippo - "Gaiseric takes Hippo, the city where St. Augustine [who died in 430 A.D.] had reigned as bishop."

432 - Christian Ireland - "Ireland had never been part of the Roman Empire, but it had converted to Christianity, beginning about 432, as a result of the labors of Patricius [St. Patrick], a missionary from Britain. What developed was called the Celtic Church, one that differed in some respects from orthodox Catholic doctrine."

433 - Attila the Hun - "In 433 A.D., two brothers, Attila [406-453 A.D.] and Bleda [d. 455 A.D.], began to rule over the Huns. The Huns, which later expanded in all directions, drove some of the German tribes across the Rhine [which led to the establishment of the Germanic kingdoms]."

436 - Roman Withdrawl Complete / Britain -  "Roman withdrawl from Britain complete."

439 - German Carthage - "Gaiseric took Carthage in 439 A.D., and established what was, under him, the strongest of the Germanic kingdoms. In 450 A.D., Gaiseric was still on the throne, and had developed a navy of his own. The Vandals of Carthage were the only Germanic kingdom to be strong at sea."

446 - German England -  "The most decisive event in the formation of English took place in 446 A.D., when Germanic tribes left their homes in Germany and Denmark on the shores of the Baltic and landed in England under their mythical leaders Hengist [stallion] and Horsa [horse]."

448 - Merovingian Dynasty - "One of the greatest threats posed to the early Roman Church prior to 751 was the royal Merovingian dynasty of Gaul. They were male-line descendants of the Fisher Kings, with an ancestry tracing back to the family of Jesus and were named after their founder Meroveus, whom the Franks had proclaimed their Guardian at Tournai in AD 448. The Merovingians reigned by an ancient tradition of Messianic right and inheritance passed down from generations of ancestors. In keeping with the Grail Code, they served as guardians of their people, rather than territorial overlords. Hence, they were styled 'Kings of the Franks', but never Kings of France." [Laurence Gardner, Realm Of The Ring Lords]

449 - Anglo Saxon England -  "Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain begins."

840s - Vikings / England, Ireland, Scotland - "In the 1840's, the Viking raids were in full swing. The Vikings controlled the Atlantic Ocean and could sail wherever they wished and move up any river without fear of opposition.. Whiles the Danes ravaged the eastern coast of England, the Norse took over much of Scotland and Ireland. In Ireland they founded Dublin in 841."

843 - Divided / Frankish Kingdom - After the treaty of Verdun, the Frankish kingdom was divided among the sons of Louis I. Louis II, the German, ruled over the eastern third of the Empire. The youngest son, Charles II the bald, ruled over the western third. Lothair, the eldest son, ruled over the middle third, and had the title of Emperor which, after Charlemagne, was meaningless."

845 - Vikings / Paris - "In 845, one group of Viking ships sailed up the Elbe River to Hamburg, which they destroyed, while another group sailed up the Seine River to lay siege to Paris. Some of the Viking ships even found their way into the Mediterranean."

850 - European Feudalism - "Most of western Europe during the Dark Ages had turned to feudalism, as a result of Viking raids."

900 - Muslim India - "Islamic Muslims begin to invade India. For over half a millennium most of India was under Muslim rule and a third of the population accepted Islam."

900 - Inca Empire - "According to one report, the Inca Empire commenced between 900 A.D. and 1,000 A.D. and ended with the Spanish conquest in 1,532 A.D., so that it lasted only about 500 years. The Inca Dynasty was composed of thirteen Emperors or Incas. The name of the first and founder was Manco Camac. When Manco Camac was crowned and called Inca, both the Aymaras and Quiches adopted the name of Inca in honor of their new ruler."

905 - Configuration - "Neptune-Pluto [28 Taurus] conjunction."

911 - Norman French -  "Charles II of France grants Normandy to the Viking chief Hrolf the Ganger. The beginning of Norman French."

947 - Configuration - "Uranus-Pluto [Cancer] conjunction. Uranus-Pluto conjunctions and oppositions might bring sudden and radical changes, like a cathartic diarrhoea, yet their full integration takes ages."

950 - Trivia / Jewish Expansion - "A large Jewish community develops [950-1391] in Spain, where Jews experience a high degree of freedom under Christian and Muslim rulers. Jews settle in England, France, and Germany. During this time [950-1100], many developments occurred in the area of Jewish study. Maimonides, for example, modernized Bible and Mishnah study."

955 - Christian Russia? - "Princess Olga, while regent of Kievan Russia, converts to Christianity."

960 - Sung Dynasty / China - "In 960 the Sung Dynasty had begun. The Sung period divides into two phases: Northern Song [960-1127] and Southern Song [1127-1279]. The division was caused by the forced abandonment of north China in 1127 by the Song court, which could not push back the nomadic invaders."

962 - "Holy Roman Empire" - February 2nd, 962: "The Empire, as refounded by Otto, was viewed as the reestablishment of the Roman Empire in the west, even more so than in the case of Charlemagne over a century and a half before. Because it was created by the Pope, it was distinguished from the old Empire, which had been founded by pagans, and was spoken of as the 'Holy Roman Empire.' It is usually referred to by that name in history books." [Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 137]

987 - Hugh Capet / "France" - "After Louis V died [987], the French nobility gathered and elected Hugh Capet as king. With Hugh Capet's election, we need no longer refer to the land as the West Frankish realm. We can call it 'France.' " [Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 138]

988 - Christian Russia - "Prince Vladimir I [St. Vladimir] is baptized and converts Kievan Russia to Christianity."

1000 - Bible Translation / Old English - "In the late tenth century, a monk named Aldred inserted his complete Old English translation of the Gospels between the lines of text in the Lindisfarne Gospels, a magnificent eigth-century illuminated gospel book now in the British Library." [Leonard J. Greenspoon, Bible Review, December 2003, p. 16]

Commentary: "Another barbarian horde [the Vikings] appear just in time to threaten the 'civilized' world. Also, by this time in history, nearly all the countries in Europe have turned Catholic." [E.M.]

1362 - Language of Law / English  - "The Statute of Pleading replaces French with English as the language of law. Records continue to be kept in Latin. English is used in Parliament for the first time."

1368 - Ming Dynasty / China - "Yu-chang founded the Ming Dynasty in 1368 and in 1371 he drove the Mongols out of Beijing. After more than a century of ruling the Mongolians retreated to the Mongolian heartland. The Ming dynasty was succeeded by the Qing [Manchu] dynasty in 1644."

1398 - Configuration - "Neptune-Pluto [2-3 Gemini] conjunction [1398-1399]."

1400 - English Vowel Shift -  "The great Vowel Shift begins."

1420 - Center for Navigation / Portugal - "Henry [1394-1460] founds center for navigation at Sagres, at the extreme southwestern tip of Portugal."

1431 - Burned at the Stake / Joan of Arc -  "On May 30th, 1431, Joan of Arc was burnt at the stake. It was the charge of witchcraft that enabled the Inquisition to try and condemn Jean d'Arc in 1431. In 1457, Jean's sentence of heresy was revoked, and she is the only victim of the Inquisition to have been granted this admission. It was done so that, in response to popular French demand, she could be canonised."

Commentary: "Now it is glorious England's turn to begin subjugating the known world." [E.M.]

1861 - Confederate Constitution / U.S.A. - February, 1861: "At a convention in Montgomery, Alabama, the seven seceding states created the Confederate Constitution, a document similar to the United States Constitution, but with greater stress on the autonomy of each state. Jefferson Davis was named provisional president of the Confederacy until elections could be held." [Link: 1]

1861 - Civil War / U.S.A. - "When President Lincoln planned to send supplies to Fort Sumter, he alerted the state in advance, in an attempt to avoid hostilities. South Carolina, however, feared a trick. On April 10, 1861, Brig. Gen. Beauregard, in command of the provisional Confederate forces at Charleston, South Carolina, demanded the surrender of the Union garrison of Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor. The Garrison commander Anderson refused. On April 12, Confederate batteries opened fire on the fort, which was unable to reply effectively. At 2:30 p.m., April 13, Major Anderson surrendered Fort Sumter, evacuating the garrison on the following day. The bombardment of Fort Sumter was the opening engagement of the American Civil War. Although there were no casualties during the bombardment, one Union artillerist was killed and three wounded (one mortally) when a cannon exploded prematurely when firing a salute during the evacuation. From 1863 to 1865, the Confederates at Fort Sumter withstood a 22 month siege by Union forces. During this time, most of the fort was reduced to brick rubble. Fort Sumter became a national monument in 1948." [Link: 1]

1863 - Conscription Act / U.S.A. - March, 1863: "Because of recruiting difficulties, an act was passed making all men between the ages of 20 and 45 liable to be called for military service. Service could be avoided by paying a fee or finding a substitute. The act was seen as unfair to the poor, and riots in working-class sections of New York City broke out in protest. A similar conscription act in the South provoked a similar reaction."

1863 - Emancipation Proclamation / U.S.A. - January 1st, 1863: "In an effort to placate the slave-holding border states, Lincoln resisted the demands of radical Republicans for complete abolition. Yet some Union generals, such as General B. F. Butler, declared slaves escaping to their lines 'contraband of war,' not to be returned to their masters. Other generals decreed that the slaves of men rebelling against the Union were to be considered free. Congress, too, had been moving toward abolition. In 1861, Congress had passed an act stating that all slaves employed against the Union were to be considered free. In 1862, another act stated that all slaves of men who supported the Confederacy were to be considered free. Lincoln, aware of the public's growing support of abolition, issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, declaring that all slaves in areas still in rebellion were, in the eyes of the federal government, free." [Link: 1]

1865 - Appomattox - April 9th, 1865: "General Lee's troops were soon surrounded, and on April 7, Grant called upon Lee to surrender. On April 9, the two commanders met at Appomattox Courthouse, and agreed on the terms of surrender. Lee's men were sent home on parole - soldiers with their horses, and officers with their side arms. All other equipment was surrendered."

1865 - Assassinated / Abraham Lincoln - "On April 14, as President Lincoln was watching a performance of 'Our American Cousin' at Ford's Theater in Washington, D.C., he was shot by John Wilkes Booth, an actor from Maryland obsessed with avenging the Confederate defeat. Lincoln died the next morning. Booth escaped to Virginia. Eleven days later, cornered in a burning barn, Booth was fatally shot by a Union soldier. Nine other people were involved in the assassination; four were hanged, four imprisoned, and one acquitted."

1865 - Confederate Defeat / U.S.A. - "May 10th, 1865: "Remaining Confederate troops were defeated between the end of April and the end of May. Jefferson Davis was captured in Georgia on May 10."

1865 - Slavery Abolished / U.S.A. - December 18th, 1865: "Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution ratified, abolishing slavery."

1866 - Dynamite - "Alfred Nobel invented dynamite."

1871 - Descent of Man / Charles Darwin - "Ever since Charles Darwin published his Descent of Man in 1871, a dispute has prevailed over whether humankind evolved by a gradual process through millions of years, or whether Adam and Eve were the first mortals, created by God, as told in the Old Testament book of Genesis."

1871 - Founded / German Reich - "Reported date when the German Reich was founded."

1881 - Jewish Imigrants / Palestine - "In the late 19th century Jewish imigrants from Europe and Russia began moving to Palestine, buting land and building farming communities. As their numbers grew, some jews, known as Zionists, dreamed of establishing a modern Jewish state in the land of King David." [N.G.M./October/2002]

1887 - Radar - "German, Heinrich Hertz invented radar."

1890 - Trivia / British Empire - "By the 1890's, the British Empire occupied no less than one-fifth of the entire global land mass."

1891 - Configuration - "Neptune-Pluto [7-8 Gemini] conjunction [1891-1892]."

1892 - Combustion Engine - "Rudolf Diesel invented the internal combustion engine."

1893 - Stock Market Crash / U.S.A. - "U.S. Stock market crash."

1897 - First Zionist Congress - "In 1897, the first Zionist Congress takes place. The movement of Zionism [dedicated to founding a Jewish state] was founded by Theodor Herzl in the late 1800s as a response to the Dreyfus Affair in France. Alfred Dreyfus, a French army officer, was falsely convicted of treason and imprisoned but was later exonerated when it was proved he was a victim of an anti-Semitic conspiracy. American Jewry provided relief for many of the east European Jews who suffered as a result of World War I."

1900 - Tractor - "Benjamin Holt invented the first tractor."

1901 - Radio Receiver - "The first radio receiver, successfully received a radio transmission."

1902 - Volcanic Eruption / Mount Pelée - "Mount Pelée, on the island of Martinique in the Caribbean Sea, erupted at 7:50 a.m. on May 8, 1902. A giant black plume darkened the sky, while a superheated cloud of hot ash, toxic gases, and magma fragments raced down the volcano's sides at hurricane-force speeds. Within minutes, the city of St. Pierre had been destroyed, its 30,000 inhabitants dead."

1902 - Air Conditioner - "Willis Carrier invented the air conditioner."

1903 - Airplane - "The Wright brothers invented the first gas motored and manned airplane."

1905 - Theory of Relativity - "Albert Einstein published the Theory of Relativity and made famous the equation, E = mc2." 

1906 - Plastic - "Bakelite, the first thermo-setting plastic was formed in 1906 by the Belgian-born American chemist Leo Hendrik Baekeland."

1910 - Talking Motion Picture - "Thomas Edison demonstrated the first talking motion picture."

1911 - Republic of China - "The republic [1911-1949] that Sun Yat-sen and his associates envisioned evolved slowly. Sun Yat-sen died of cancer in Beijing in March 1925, but the Nationalist movement he had helped to initiate was gaining momentum."

1911 - Trivia / Atoms - "Most physicists became convinced of the existence of atoms, during the twenty years spanning the last decade of the nineteenth century and the first decade of the twentieth. The first experiments that can be said to have detected atoms, which used the first, primitive elementary particle accelerators, were not done until just after this period, in 1911/12." [Lee Smolin, Three Roads To Quantum Gravity]

1912 - First Tank - "The first tank patented by Australian inventor De La Mole." 

1914 - World War I - "In the years following the French and American Revolutions there were events happening in Europe which generations later had a profound effect on the lives of millions of people. Political alliances were forced, creating the conditions that allowed the rise of the three major European superpowers of the nineteenth century. These powers were personified  by the dynamic families who were the hereditary rulers - the Romanovs of Russia, the Habsburgs of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and the Hohenzollerns of Prussia who became the Kaisers of Germany. The bloody conflict which ensued between these great European dynasties was to include the British and French Empires and involve America in a European commitment which has lasted to modern times. Specifically, Russia and Germany were destined to dominate nineteenth century politics in Europe and gave birth to conflicting political ideologies which were instrumental in bringing about the holocausts of two world wars in our own century. It would be too easy to dismiss these wars as isolated events, but the fact is that their causes date back to events in the nineteenth century  and to the political doctrines which had been germinating for several decades before the outbreak of the great War of 1914-18."

1916 - Radio Tuners - "Radios tuners invented, that received different stations."

1917 - Balfour Declaration - "Great Britain issues the Balfour Declaration which states that the British government 'views with favor' the building of a Jewish home land in Palestine. Consequently, Jewish immigration to this region increases."

1917 - Bolshevik Revolution / Russia - "The Bolsheviks were a group of Marxists led by Vladimir Ilich Lenin. Lenin was a great writer and philosopher that eventually would rule all of Russia. The Bolsheviks were able to overthrow the Provisional Government of Russia in April, 1917 and began to win the support of the military. Lenin advocated a country that was run by the people. He believed that the workers were oppressed by the Czar and that it was important to the future of the people that all monarchical power be returned to the people. This type of democracy advocated by Lenin quickly began to disappear. Lenin simply could not win the revolution without absolute control of the Bolsheviks. He took power for himself and eventually became the first President of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The Romanov family, which had ruled the country for 300 years from the seventeenth century, were deposed."

1918 - Radio Circuit - "The superheterodyne radio circuit invented by Edwin Howard Armstrong. Today, every radio or television set uses this invention." 

1919 - Short-Wave Radio - "Short-wave radio invented."

1920 - Israeli/Palestinian Conflict - "After World War I, British agents made conflicting promises concerning Palestine to Arabs and Jews, which led to anti-Jewish riots in Palestine in 1920 and 1929. Also After World War I, anti-Semitism grew in Europe, especially in Russia and Germany, leading to eventual official government policies of anti-Semitism in those countries."

1921 - Robot - "Artificial life begins - the first robot built."

1922 - British Palestine - "As part of the settlement ending World War I, the Ottoman Empire was dismantled, and Britain governed Palestine with a League of Nations mandate. Under the British [who endorsed the Zionist vision of a national homeland in Palestine], Jewish immigration steadily increased, alarming local Arabs. Riots and terrorism erupted as both sides lashed out at each other - and the British. As pressure mounted after World War II, Britain turned to the UN for a solution." [N.G.M./October/2002]

1922 - USSR - "By late 1922, the Bolsheviks had organized the Marxists of Ukraine, Beloruss, and Transcaucasia to form a 'socialist republic' with Russia. The Soviet Union had arrived."

1927 - Television - "Philo Taylor Farnsworth invented a complete electronic TV system."

1939 - WW II - "Stalin and Hitler hated each other, but respected each others military might. They signed a treaty called the 'Non-Agression Pact of 1939.' This treaty stated that they would never go to war against each other and that they would divide Poland and the Baltic States between them. In September 1939, Germany invaded Poland and while the world panicked as Britain and France declared war on Hitler, starting World War II, Stalin very quietly moved in and took the Baltic States and half of Poland. The world didn't even realize what Stalin had done until months later and quickly let him off the hook when he explained that he was only "protecting" these people from the Germans. He proved himself justified in June of 1941, when Hitler broke their agreement and invaded the Soviet Union. Hitler easily crushed the Red Army."

1940 - Color Television - "Peter Goldmark invented modern color television."

1942 - Digital Computer - "John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry built the first electronic digital computer."

Commentary: "During the past 500 years, the British Navy has come and gone as the world's greatest 'Super Power'. The United States of America moves onto the world stage as a country advertising Liberty and Justice for All." [E.M.]

2384 - Configuration - "Neptune-Pluto [11-12 Gemini] conjunction. Neptune-Pluto cycles last about 495 years - half a millennium. They characterise an underlying driving-force behind history, an undertow of reality which marries the inevitable ram-force of Pluto with the imaginal, ideational power of Neptune. This combined force helps us define our underlying historical reality on a collective-unconscious level - this world-view and body of collective experience being a combination of actualities and perceptions." [Link]