Timecapsule Timeline

Calendar Months

Color Code:

7th Century A.D.

600 - Map of Europe - "Map of Europe, 600 A.D."

600s - Alvars / India - "The earliest saints who appeared after Buddhist era on the Indian scene were Alvars (a.k.a. Alwars). They came from present day Tamilnadu. [NP] According to modern scholars the Alvars flourished between seventh and ninth centuries A.D. They were worshippers of Vishnu and are known as Bhagavata (followers of Lord Vishnu; also known as Vaishnavas). Vishnu's incarnation is Krishna, who is popular as Krishna in Western India. The Guptas in North and Pallavas in South were followers of Vishnu and Bhagavata teachings. The Alvars who are twelve in number were great mystics and sang their mystic experiences in simple poems known as Pashuras composed in ecstatic love towards the Lord which depict different bhavas (attitudes). [NP] The greatest Alvar was Nammalvar, also known as Satakopan and belonged to lowly Vellala caste. He composed four Tamil Vedas-- Thiruvaimoli, his famous hymn speaks of God as all pervading spiritual principle who assumes different human forms for the upliftment of devotees. [....]"

[Based on: http://www.kamat.com/indica/faiths/bhakti/alvars.htm]

600 - Frankish Kingdom - "In the Frankish kingdom, the sons, and then the grandsons, of Clovis fought eachother constantly, but in the shifting of boundaries, two chief areas came to exist. On the east was Austrasia [eastland], from which the Franks had come and which was largely Frankish in culture. On the west was Neustria [newland]. Austrasia was to be the nucleus of the future Germany; Neustria of the future France." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World

600 - Talmud Completed - "The Talmud was completed about 600 A.D."

Consider that the Jewish Talmud - which Rabbis declare outranks the Torah or anything in the Bible - is loaded with the most venomous hatred of Jesus, the New Testament, and Christians. The Talmud calls Jesus "a bastard" (Yebamotth 49b), has Him boiling in excrement in hell (Gittin 56b), says Christians deserve to be killed (Sanhedrin 43a), that the New Testament is "blank paper" (Shabbath 116a), etc. Talk about "Hate Crimes"!   

*Trivia: "[....] The discovery of the Talmud [1236-1240?] and the change it brought about in the consciousness of Christendom changed the Jewish question fundamentally. What used to be seen as questions of religious tolerance had now become an issue of civil order. The Christian king could tolerate outsiders who based their religion on a flawed but sincere understanding of the Old Testament; however, they could not tolerate outlaws and subversives using the trappings of religion as a cover for social revolution. [....]" [Based on: E. Michael Jones, editor of Culture Wars]

600 - Astrology Systems? - "[....] With the introduction of Greek culture into Egypt, both astronomy and astrology were actively cultivated in the region of the Nile during the Hellenistic and Roman periods. Astrology was further developed by the Arabs from the 7th to the 13th century , and in the Europe of the 14th and 15th centuries astrologers were dominating influences at court. The Mayans of Central America and the Aztecs also developed their own form of astrology. Other cultures and civilizations around the world also developed their own astrological systems independently. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_astrology] - [T.D. - 08/02/08]

600 - Bible Translation / "English" - "Bible translation into English goes back at least to the seventh century, when the poet and cowherd Caedmon retold Bible stories in his Anglo-Saxon verse. Shortly thereafter, Bishop Aldhelm of Sherborne translated the Psalms into Anglo-Saxon, and England's first church historian, the venerable Bede, reportedly began to translate the Gospel of John, although his work is now lost. Two centuries later, the English king Alfred the Great (871-899) included an Old English version of the Ten Commandments in his law code; at about the same time, extensive interlinear glosses, which explained Latin terms in English, began to appear in biblical manuscripts." [Based on: Leonard J. Greenspoon, Bible Review, December 2003, p. 16]

600 - Period of Migrations / "German" People - "All the Aryan peoples have had their heroic age, the achievements of which form the basis of later saga. For the Germans this was the period of the Migrations, as it is called, in round numbers the two hundred years from 400 to 600, at the close of which we find them settled in those regions which they have, generally speaking, occupied ever since. [....]"

[Based on: http://www.authorama.com/nibelungenlied-2.html] - [T.D. - 12/08/07]

603 - Birth / Pacal Votan - "Pacal was born in 603 AD and lived during the era of the Classic Maya."  

606 - Harsha / Northern India - "Harsha [590-647] unified the northern sections of India."

607 - Perihelion / Halley's Comet - March 15th, 607 A.D.: "1P/607 H1 (15 March 607)"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halley%27s_Comet] - [T.D. - 06/12/07] 

607 - "Pope" Boniface III / Rome, Italy -

The Bishop of Rome is the bishop of the Holy See and is more commonly referred to as the Pope. The first Bishop of Rome to bear the title of "Pope" was Boniface III in 607, the first to assume the title of "Universal Bishop" by decree of Emperor Phocas. [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bishop_of_Rome]


In Roman Catholic tradition, Peter is considered the first bishop of Antioch, and later bishop of Rome and therefore the first pope. The first epistle ends with "The church that is in Babylon, chosen together with you, salutes you, and so does my son, Mark." (1 Pet 5:13), but Babylon has sometimes been taken figuratively to mean Rome. The preterist view of the Book of Revelation concludes that Babylon is figurative for Jerusalem. It could also be a symbolic code name for Antioch or some other large city. More literally, it could refer to some city in Mesopotamia.

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Peter#Roman_Catholic_Church]

615 - Mayan Throne / Pacal Votan - "He [Pacal Votan] acceded to the throne in 615 AD at the age of 12."  

618 - Tang Dynasty / China - "The Tang dynasty [618-907] is regarded by historians as a high point in Chinese civilization - equal or even superior, to the Han period." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World

620 - Turks vs. Persians - "In 620-628 the Turks strengthened the Heraclius campain against the Persians."

622 - Astronomic Configuration - June 15th, 622: "Sun [26 Gemini], Moon [11 Cancer], Mercury [24 Gemini], Venus [7 Cancer], Mars [1 Virgo], Jupiter [8 Pisces], Saturn [28 Cancer], Uranus [29 Leo], Neptune [4 Virgo], Pluto [22 Aries]."

622 - "Birth" / Islam - "On June 15th, 622, the Prophet Muhammad [570-632 A.D.] fled to Medina. His preaching was soon accepted, and the community-state of Islam emerged."

623 - Configuration - "Uranus-Neptune [Virgo] conjunction [623-624]. Uranus-Neptune energies work surreptitiously. They influence awareness and the inner movies playing within the world psyche."

631 - Era of Power / Pacal Votan - "Interestingly, the period from 631 - 683 AD is significant. This 52 year period represents Pacal’s era of power, which is actually the seventy-third 52 year cycle since the beginning of the Long Count in 3114 BC."  

632 - Solar Eclipse - "January 27th"

632 - 1st Muslim Caliph - "Abu Bakr became the first Caliph on Muhammad's death."

633 - Black Madonna? / Northern France - "In 633, a mysterious little boat sailed into the harbour of Boulogne-sur-mer in northern France. There was no one aboard, just a 3-foot statuette of a Black Madonna and child, together with a copy of the Gospels in Syriac. No one knew where the boat had come from, but it caused quite a stir and its enigmatic occupant [known as Our Lady of the Holy Blood] became the insignia of the Magdalene cathedral of Notre Dame at Boulogne - an object of considerable veneration until it was destroyed in the French Revolution." [Based on: Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, Laurence Gardner]

634 - Configuration - Uranus-Pluto [Scorpio/Taurus] opposition [634-636]. Uranus-Pluto conjunctions and oppositions might bring sudden and radical changes, like a cathartic diarrhoea, yet their full integration takes ages."

634 - 2nd Muslim Caliph - "Omar follows Abu Bakr, as the second Muslim Caliph."

644 - 3rd Muslim Caliph - "Othman, the third Caliph, ruled from 644-656. He established the official version of the Koran, and was killed during a rebellion."

645  - Hakuho Period / Japan  - "Japanese Hakuho Period [645-710]: begins after Taika Reform."

654 - Christian England - "In 654, Penda of Mercia, the last important pagan king of England, was killed in battle. His son, who succeeded, was Christian; and with that, paganism disappeared from England." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World

655 - Exile / Dagobert - "By 655, Rome was in a position to begin dismantling the Merovingian succession and, at that time, the Mayor of the Austrasian Palace [akin to a modern prime minister] was firmly under papal control. When King Sigebert II died, his son Dagobert was only five years old and mayor Grimoald took the first step in the bishops' plan. To begin, he kidnapped Dagobert and had him conveyed to Ireland, to live in exile among the Scots Gaels. Then, not expecting to see the young heir again, Grimoald told Queen Immachilde that her son had died." [Based on: Realm Of The Ring Lords, Laurence Gardner]

656 - 4th Muslim Caliph - "Ali, Muhammad's son-in-law, succeedes Othman and becomes the fourth Muslim Caliph. Ali's succession was disputed and, in 661, Ali was killed."

657 - Configuration - "T-Square. More common, these comprise an opposition with another planet squaring it. These present acute situations in which a lot happens, and chunks of the world go through enormous carve-ups, busy periods, shifts or shocks. Great effort has to be invested, though remarkable developments can take place, such as the configuration of 657-668."

659 - Chinese Annexation / Turkish Territory - "By 659 the Chinese declared the annexation of the whole territory of the western Turks. This is the Chinese servitude mentioned in the Orkhon Inscriptions."

661 - Sunnis vs. Shiites - "Muawiya, a second cousin of Muhammad, became Caliph. Muawiya and his family are called the Ommayads, and the government they headed is called the Ommayad Caliphate. Ali's death split the Muslim world in two, and that split has never been healed. Those who accepted Muawiya and all who followed him are Sunnites [from an Arabic word meaning 'the orthodox way']. Those who clung to Ali and considered everyone since to have been usurpers are the Shiites [from an Arabic word meaning 'sect']." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World

664 - Muslims / Kabul, Afghanistan - "Muslims took Kabul, Afghanistan."

664 - Roman Catholic England - "In 664, Oswiu of Northumberland, whose armies had killed Penda, called the their respective cases, and Oswiu decided in favor of Roman Catholicism. With that, Celtic Christianity began to vanish from England, though it remained significant for a time in Ireland and Scotland." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World

671 - Solar Eclipse - "December 7th"

674 - Reinstatement / Dagobert  - "Having married his second wife, Gizelle de Razes [a niece of the Visigoth king], Dagobert was reinstated in 674, after an absence of nearly twenty years, and the Roman intrigue was thwarted - but not for long." [Based on: Laurence Gardner, Realm Of The Ring Lords]

676 - Muslims / Samarkand - "Muslims took Samarkand."

677 - Greek Fire - "The Byzantines had developed a mixture with a naphtha base that burned on contact with water. It was used to repell Muslim ships [and others] attempting to invade Canstantinople." [Asimov's Chronology Of The World]

679 - Fatality / Dagobert - "Two days before Christmas 679, Dagobert was hunting near Stenay in the Ardennes when he was confronted in the forest and lanced to death - impaled to a tree by a henchman of his own powerful mayor, Pepin the Fat of Herstal. The Church of Rome was quick to approve the assassination and immediately passed the Merovingian administration in Austrasia to the ambitious Pepin. In due course, he was succeeded by his illegitimate son, the well-known Charles Martel, who sustained the Roman endeavour by gaining control of other Merovingian Territories." [Based on: Realm Of The Ring Lords, Laurence Gardner]

680 - Bulgars / Bulgaria - "In 680, the Bulgars defeated a Byzantine army and settled down in the region south of the Danube, which is now Bulgaria." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World]

682 - Kutluk / Orkhon - "In 682, Kutluk reestablished a Turkish state on the Orkhon. Kutlug was succeeded by his brother Kapagan, who was himself succeeded by Bilge Khagan." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World]

683 - Fatality / Pacal Votan - "He [Pacal Votan] died at the age of 80 in 683 AD and was entombed in the Temple of Inscriptions at Palenque which was dedicated in 692 AD. Part of his legacy, left behind after his death, includes the Lost Book of the Seven Generations which is mentioned in the Books of the Chilam Balam."  

684 - Perihelion / Halley's Comet - October 2nd, 684 A.D.: "1P/684 R1 (2 October 684)"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halley%27s_Comet] - [T.D. - 06/12/07] 

693 - Configuration - "Uranus-Pluto [Cancer] conjunction. Uranus-Pluto conjunctions and oppositions might bring sudden and radical changes, like a cathartic diarrhoea, yet their full integration takes ages."

698 - Muslims / Carthage - "Muslims took Carthage."

700 - Muslims / Palestine - Taking advantage of the weakened Byzantine Empire, Arab armies conquered Palestine in the seventh century A.D. as they spread Islam to the Mediterranean and beyond." [Based on: N.G.M. / October / 2002]

8th Century A.D.

700 - Map of Europe - "Map of Europe, 700 A.D."

700s - Padmasambhava - "Padmasambhava ... Wylie: padma 'byung gnas; Mongolian ... lovon Badmajunai, Chinese: ??? (pinyin: Liánhua-she-ng), The Lotus Born, was an Indian sage Guru and is said to have transmitted Tantric Buddhism to Bhutan and Tibet and neighbouring countries in the 8th century. In those lands he is better known as Guru Rinpoche ('Precious Guru') or Lopon Rinpoche,[1] or, simply, Padum in Tibet,[2] where followers of the Nyingma school regard him as the second Buddha. He said: 'My father is the intrinsic awareness, Samantabhadra. My mother is the ultimate sphere of reality, Samantabhadri. I belong to the caste of non-duality of the sphere of awareness. My name is the Glorious Lotus Born. I am from the unborn sphere of all phenomena. I consume concepts of duality as my diet. I act in the way of the Buddhas of the three times.' [citation needed]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Padmasambhava]

700 - Ommayad Caliphate - "In 700, the Ommayad Caliphate stretched from Tibet to the Atlantic Ocean. It was the most extensive Empire that the world had yet seen. The nations it had conquered lost part of their identity. Zoroastrianism in Persia vanished. In the same way, Christianity disappeared from Syria, Egypt, and North Africa." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World]

700 - Emerald Tablet? - "The so-called Emerald Tablet of Hermes  is said to contain the essence of the lost wisdom from before the days of the Biblical Flood. According to occult sources, this tablet was discovered in a cave by the Mystic Appoloninus of Tyana who was regarded by the early Church as a rival to Jesus. The first published version of the Emerald Tablet dates from an Arabic source of the eighth century CE and it was not translated into Latin in Europe until the thirteenth century."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emerald_Tablet

707 - Configuration - "Uranus-Neptune [Virgo/Pisces] opposition [707-710]."

710 - Nara [Tenpyo] Period / Japan  - "Japanese Nara [Tenpyo] Period [710-794]."

712 - Japanese History  - "Kojiki [Records of Ancient Matters], the first Japanese history."

712 - Muslim Rule? / India - "[....] Muslim rule in the subcontinent [India] began in 712 CE when the Arab general Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh and Multan in southern Punjab,[1] setting the stage for several successive invasions between the 10th and 15th centuries CE from Central Asia, leading to the formation of Muslim empires in the Indian subcontinent such as the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal Empire. [....] The Mughal Empire suffered a gradual decline in the early eighteenth century, which provided opportunities for the Afghans, Balochis, Sikhs and the Marathas to exercise control over large areas in the northwest of the subcontinent until the British East India Company gained ascendancy over South Asia.[2] [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_India] - [T.D. - 06/06/10]

712 - Hsuan Tsung / China - "The T'ang Empire reached its peak under Hsuan Tsung, the sixth Emperor of the dynasty, who reigned from 712 to 756. Under him, China was prosperous and peaceful. China was, in this period, clearly the most technologically advanced nation in the world, and was to remain so for centuries." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World]

715 - Muslims / Spain - "In 711, the Muslims of North Africa, under Tariq ibn Ziyad, crossed the narrow straight of Gilbraltar and entered Spain. By 715, all of Spain except for the mountains on the northern coast was in Muslim hands." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World]

720 - Japanese History - "Nihongi [chronicles of Japan], the second Japanese history and major source of Shinto mythology."

724 - Buddhism / Japan - "In Japan, Shomu, the 45th Emperor, by the traditional count, ruled from 724 to 749. It was a period of great cultural activity. Shomu and his Empress were ardent Buddhists and, under him, Buddhism became almost a state religion. His capital city was Nara, and in it he built a temple that is, to this day, the largest wooden building in the world. In it, he built a 530-foot seated figure of Buddha out of bronze, one of the two largest bronze figures in the world." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov]

730 - Configuration - "Grand Trine. Unusual. A triangle with three outer planets in mutual trine to each other. This can bring easy times, up to the point of laxity or sclerosis, or periods of flowering in which the pressure lifts, allowing 'non-essential' yet important cultural developments to take place. Trends are expanded upon, and things run along nicely. Boundaries can become loosened, leading either toward prosperity and security, or toward degeneration and slow disintegration. Example: 730-740, with Uranus, Neptune and Pluto in trine between earth signs, which brought the Carolingian ascendancy and zeniths in India, Japan, China, Kiev [Ukraine] and Cordoba [Spain]."

732 - Muslims / France - "In 732, a Muslim general, Abd-er-Rahman, led his forces into the Frankish kingdom, and what is now southern France quickly fell to him." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov]

740 - Judaism / Russia - "Judaism spreads to Russia [740-970] where the kingdom of Khazar becomes Jewish." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov]

741 - Fatality / Charles Martel - "When Martel died in 741, the only Merovingian of any notable authority was Dagobert's nephew Childeric III. Meanwhile, Martel's son Pepin the Short, was the Mayor of Neustria." [Based on: Realm Of The Ring Lords, Laurence Gardner]

750 - Abbasid Caliphate - "In 750, the Ommayad army was defeated by one under Abu-I-Abbas, a descendant of Abbas, an uncle of Muhammad. The Ommayad family was almost all wiped out, after less than a century of rule, and Abu-I-Abbas became caliph. This founded a new dynasty and began the Abbasid Caliphate." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov]

751 - First Appearance / Donation of Constantine - "When the Donation made its first appearance in the middle 8th century it was alleged to have been  written by Emperor Constantine some 400 years earlier, although strangely never produced in the interim. It was even dated and carried his supposed signature. What the document proclaimed was that the Emperor's appointed Pope was Christ's elected representative on Earth, with the power to create kings as his subordinates since his palace ranked above all the palaces in the world, while the papal dignity was above that of any earthly ruler. The Pope was formally styled  therein as the Vicar  of the Son of God [Vicarius Filii Dei], with the distinction of 'Vicar' denoting a deputized or vicarious office. The provisions were put into operation by the Vatican in 751, whereupon the Merovingian Kings of the Grail bloodline in Gaul [France] were deposed and a whole new dynasty was supplemented  by way of a family of hitherto mayors. They were dubbed Carolingians and their only king of any significance was the legendary Charlemagne. By way of this strategy, the whole nature of monarchy changed from being an office of community guardianship to one of absolute rule and, by virtue of this monumental change, the long-standing Grail Code of princely service was forsaken as European kings became servants of the Church instead of being servants of the people." [Realm Of The Ring Lords, Laurence Gardner]

*Trivia: "In practical terms, Church kingship prevailed from the 8th century and has continued, through the ages, to the present day. But the fact is that, under the strict terms of sovereign practice, all such monarchies and their affiliated governments have been invalid." [Based on: Realm Of The Ring Lords, Laurence Gardner, p. 14]

751 - Trivia / Fisher Kings - "Prior to the year 751, kings of the Grail succession were priests in their own right; they were priest-kings, known as Fisher Kings. But when their rights to priesthood were undermined by the Roman Church, the legacy was forsaken in all but the Gaelic realms." [Based on: Realm Of The Ring Lords, Laurence Gardner]

751 - Frankish King / Pepin I - "In 751 Pepin the Short, in league with Pope Zachary, secured Church approval for his own coronation as King of the Franks in place of Childeric. The Church's long-awaited ideal had come to fruition, and from that time onwards kings were endorsed and crowned only by self-styled Roman perogative. And so it was that, with the full blessing of the Pope, Pepin became King of the Franks and Childeric was deposed. The pledge of allegiance made by the Roman Church in AD 496 to King Clovis and his descendants was broken and, after two and a half centuries, the Church was suitably geared to usurp the ancient legacy of the Merovingian bloodline, thereby taking control of the Frankish realm by appointing its own kings. Childeric was publicaly humiliated by the bishops, and his hair [kept long in the Old Testament Nazarite tradition] was cut brutally short. He was incarcerated in a monastery, where he died four years later, and thus began a new dynasty of French kings, the Carolingians - so named after Pepin's father, Charles [Carolus] Martel." [Based on: Laurence Gardner, Realm Of The Ring Lords]

755 - Conjunction / Sun & "Sacred Tree" - December 3rd, 755: "The relevant connection between the Sun, the Sacred Tree, and the Mayan Calendar is shockingly simple. Researchers have discovered that the end of the Mayan Long Count coincides with a rare alignment between the Earth, the Sun, and the Galaxy. Specifically, the alignment we are talking about occurs when the winter solstice Sun of the year 2012 AD conjuncts the Sacred Tree (formed by the intersection of the ecliptic and the Milky Way). To be more precise, the solstice Sun aligns with the ecliptic and the galactic equator, which is the imaginary line that marks the center of the Milky Way band. Presently [2004], the Milky Way crosses the ecliptic through the constellation of Sagittarius, which also happens to be the direction of Galactic Center. In other words, on the morning of Dec 12, 2012, we will witness the heliacal rising of the Galactic Center with the winter solstice Sun as they emerge together over the Eastern horizon. This convergence is determined by precession. It should be noted that the Sun conjuncts the Sacred Tree on December 3, 755 AD; however, precession has caused the conjunction date to approach the winter solstice."  

760 - Perihelion / Halley's Comet - May20th, 760 A.D.: "1P/760 K1 (20 May 760)"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halley%27s_Comet] - [T.D. - 06/12/07] 

762 - Muslims / Bagdad - "The second Abbasid Caliph, Al-Mansur, who ascended the throne in 754, began the building of a new capital on the Tigris river in 762. This was Bagdad." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov]

768 - Charlemagne / Frankish Empire - "When Pepin I died, in 768, the kingdom was divided between his two sons, Carloman and Charles. After Carloman's death, Charles ruled alone. Charles is usually called 'Charlemagne' [French for 'Charles the Great']. As the 700s came to a close, it was clear that Charlemagne's Frankish Empire was by far the strongest Christian power that Europe had seen since the time of Theodosius I four centuries earlier. It included all the western lands that recognized the religious headship of the Pope, except for the British Isles and the Duchy of Benevento." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov]

773 - Charlemagne / Italy - "In 733, Charlemagne invaded Italy, defeated the king of Lombardy, and had him carried off to prison. Charlemagne absorbed northern and central Italy." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov]

773 - Configuration - Uranus-Pluto [Gemini/Sagittarius] opposition [773-776]. Uranus-Pluto conjunctions and oppositions might bring sudden and radical changes, like a cathartic diarrhoea, yet their full integration takes ages."

778 - Pluto in Capricorn - A reported date when Pluto entered Capricorn.

[Based on: http://www.isleofavalon.co.uk/GlastonburyArchive/ephem/ed-lite2.html] - [T.D. - 11/22/08]

788 - Shankara - "Shankaracharya is the first among the three acharyas who reformed Hindu religion by giving their own interpretation to the ancient sacred texts. At the time, the vedic texts which have come down to Indians through the ages and only orally studied were the monopoly of a certain class. This knowledge was known as shruti, or learning by careful listening. The vedas were in very old esoteric language were beyond the reach of the common man. The tremendous task of interpreting the true catholic spirit of Hindu philosophy was yet to be undertaken, and the three acharyas, Shankaracharya (c 788 - 820 AD), Ramanujacharya (11th century AD), and Madhwacharya (13th century AD) - all hailing from southern part of India are credited for the status of present day Hindu thought and philosophy. [....]"

[Based on: http://www.kamat.com/indica/faiths/bhakti/shankaracharya.htm]

787 - Danes / Kent - "In 787, the first Scandinavian raiders [Danes - from Denmark] reached the southern tip of Kent." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov]

792 - Vikings / Britain -  "Viking raids and settlements in Britain begin."

*Related Links:


794 - Danes / Scotland - "In 794, the Danes struck areas of Britain that lay north of the Saxon kingdoms, in what is now Scotland." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov]

794 - Configuration - "Uranus-Neptune [Virgo] conjunction. Uranus-Neptune energies work surreptitiously. They influence awareness and the inner movies playing within the world psyche."

795 - Vikings / Irish Coast - "Vikings attack the coast of Ireland."

9th Century A.D.

800 - Map of Europe - "Map of Europe, 800 A.D."

800 - Birth / Scholasticism - "The death of Boethius in the sixth century marked the close of the ancient Greek school of philosophy. The ninth century saw the rise of the new school of Scholasticism, which sought to reconcile philosophy with theology. [....]"

[Based on: The Secret Teachings of All Ages, by Manly P. Hall (Paperback Edition 2003), p. 27]

*Trivia: "Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means "that [which] belongs to the school", and was a method of learning taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. Scholasticism originally began to reconcile the philosophy of the ancient classical philosophers with medieval Christian theology. It is not a philosophy or theology in itself, but a tool and method for learning which puts emphasis on dialectical reasoning. The primary purpose of scholasticism was to find the answer to a question or resolve a contradiction. It is most well known in its application in medieval theology, but was eventually applied to classical philosophy and many other fields of study. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scholasticism]

800 - Uighur Realm / China - "About 800, a group of Turkish people, known as the Uighurs, established a large realm in the regions north of China, in what is now Mongolia and southern Siberia, but they remained fairly friendly with the Chinese." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov]

800 - Carolingian Renaissance - "On December 25, 800, Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne the Emperor of Rome, and once again there was an Emperor in the west - except that the east did not recognize Charlemagne's promotion. Charlemagne ruled over his Empire with a tight fist, and over the Pope as well. He encouraged the revival of learning and, for a time, one could speak of a 'Carolingian Renaissance.' The leading light of the  Carolingian Renaissance was an English scholar, Alcuin, who established a school in Charlemagne's capital at Aachen, and who reformed educational procedures in the Empire. He developed a way of writing letters compactly and neatly, which gave rise to 'Carolingian minuscule,' or what we now call small letters as opposed to capitals." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov]

800 - Sican Civilization / Northern Peru - "Not to be confused with the similarly named archaeological site of Sipán, the Sicán were an ancient civilisation that developed in northern Peru between 800 and 1300 AD. Also known as the Lambayeque culture, they were a people of metal workers and pyramid builders descended from the Moche, with trade connections and influence from peoples in the nearby mountains, rainforest and regions such as modern day Ecuador. Their trade system also gave them access to feathers from the Amazon to the east and lapis lazuli from Chile, far to the south. [....]"

[Based on: http://enperublog.com/2007/12/27/the-sican/] - [T.D. - 01/30/10]

*Links: http://enperublog.com/2007/12/16/peru-connection-with-central-america/

802 - Saxon Kingdom / England - "In 802, Egbert became king of Wessex. He made Wessex the strongest of the Saxon nations, and it remained so after his death in 839." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov]

802 - Krum / Bulgaria - "In 802, the Bulgarians gained a strong monarch in the person of Krum [d. 814]. Krum was able to extend his rule north of the Danube river and set up an empire over the region now occupied by Bulgaria, Rumania, and Hungary. In 811, Krum fought the Byzantines and defeated them in a great battle in which the Byzantine Emperor, Nicephorus I [who had become emperor in 802], lost his life. Krum then fought his way to the outskirts of Constantinople and laid seige to it in 813 and again in 814; however, he died in the course of the second seige. His son, and afterward, his grandson succeeded him. They made peace with the Byzantines, but continued to expand westward into what is now Yugoslavia. Bulgaria was strengthing even as the Frankish Empire was weakening." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov]  Map of Europe

814 - King Louis I / Frankish Kingdom  - "After Charlemagne's death in 814, Louis I [his only son] inherited the Frankish kingdom. Louis I was a weak king who spent much of his reign trying to divide up his realm among four sons, three of whom survived him." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov]

822 - Abd ar-Rahaman II / Muslim Spain - "Abd ar-Rahaman II [788-852] ruled over Muslim Spain, coming to the throne in 822. He pushed the Franks out of the Spanish March and fought off the Christians in the small northern kingdoms. He also put down Christian rebellions within his own dominions." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov]

11. Baktun 10. Baktun of the Holy Wars. A.D. 830-1224.

Collapse of Classic Maya and Central Mexican civilization, 1 Reed Quetzalcoatl and rise of Toltecs; Chan Chan and Chimu civilization Andes; rise of I'fe in Nigeria; flourishing and spread of Islam and confrontation with Christian civilization - the Crusades; rise of Tibetan civilization; Sung Dynasty, China, printing press, gunpowder; Khmer Dynasty, Southeast Asia. Great Zimbabwe, East Africa.

[Based on: The Mayan Factor / Path Beyond Technology, by Jose Arguelles, Copyright 1939-, 1987, p. 115]

830 - Trivia / Mayan Civilization - "The Maya also achieved an understanding of astronomy and mathematics which surpassed the Babylonians and possibly the Egyptians; all without the use of telescopes or any other form of external material technology, including metallurgy and the wheel. This period of advanced civilization lasted until about 830 AD, at which point the Mayan civilization ... abruptly transformed in a number of ways."  

*Trivia: "The 'Seven Generations' refer to the 138 year period from the dedication of Pacal’s tomb [692 A.D.] to the end of the ninth baktun, which ended in 830 AD. In the Long Count this period lasts from to These seven generations represent the peak of the Mayan time-science project. The result of which was the recording in stone of their astronomical and mathematical calibrations. The end of this baktun also marks the end of the Classic Maya. Following the end of the ninth baktun were the thirteen years of emptiness, or forgetfulness (830 – 843 AD)."  

836 - Configuration - "Uranus-Pluto [Pisces] conjunction [836-837]. Uranus-Pluto conjunctions and oppositions might bring sudden and radical changes, like a cathartic diarrhoea, yet their full integration takes ages."

837 - Perihelion / Halley's Comet - February 28th, 837 A.D.: "1P/837 F1 (28 February 837)"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halley%27s_Comet] - [T.D. - 06/12/07] 

*Trivia: "837: In this year, it is calculated that Comet Halley may have passed as close as 0.03 AU (3.2 million miles) from Earth, by far its closest approach. Its tail may have stretched 90 degrees across the sky.[7]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halley%27s_Comet] - [T.D. - 06/12/07]

840 - Solar Eclipse - "Emperor Louis' Eclipse [May 5th]."

840 - Vikings / England, Ireland, & Scotland - "In the 1840's, the Viking raids were in full swing. The Vikings controlled the Atlantic Ocean and could sail wherever they wished and move up any river without fear of opposition.. Whiles the Danes ravaged the eastern coast of England, the Norse took over much of Scotland and Ireland. In Ireland they founded Dublin in 841." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov]

843 - Divided / Frankish Kingdom  - After the treaty of Verdun, the Frankish kingdom was divided among the sons of Louis I. Louis II, the German, ruled over the eastern third of the Empire. The youngest son, Charles II the bald, ruled over the western third. Lothair, the eldest son, ruled over the middle third, and had the title of Emperor which, after Charlemagne, was meaningless." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov]

843 - Beginning / "Thirteen Heavens Period," South America - "843 AD marks the beginning of another prophetic cycle called the thirteen heavens and the nine hells. Each of these heaven and hell cycles is a period of fifty-two years, the length of a Calendar Round. Thus, the thirteen heavens lasted from 843 – 1519 AD, ending right before the Spanish invasion."

845 - Vikings / Paris - "In 845, one group of Viking ships sailed up the Elbe River to Hamburg, which they destroyed, while another group sailed up the Seine River to lay siege to Paris. Some of the Viking ships even found their way into the Mediterranean." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov]

850 - Feudalism / Europe  - "Most of western Europe during the Dark Ages had turned to feudalism, as a result of Viking raids." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov]

850 - Trivia / Hungarians - "East of the Bulgars were the Magyars, another Asian nomadic tribe who were now crowding the Khazars eastward toward the Caspian Sea. They were called Ugrians, and this has been distorted to 'Hungarians,' perhaps because, at their height, they frightened the west Europeans as much as the Huns had several centuries earlier. Another indication of their frightfulness is seen in the fact that 'Ogre' is also derived from 'Ugrian.' In 850, however they were still occupying the Ukraine in relative peace." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov]

850 - Trivia / Icelandic Eddas - "[....] In the Icelandic Eddas, the oldest of which we have as they were written down in the latter part of the ninth century, are preserved the earliest records of the form it had taken among the northern Germanic peoples. Our Nibelungenlied, which is the chief source of our knowledge of the story as it developed in Germany, dates from about the year 1200. These two versions, the Northern and the German, though originating in this common source, had diverged very widely in the centuries that elapsed between their beginning and the time when the manuscripts were written in which they are preserved. Each curtailed, re-arranged, or enlarged the incidents of the story in its own way. . [....] The Eddas, as the extensive collection of early Icelandic poems is called, are the fullest record of Germanic mythology and saga that has been handed down to us, and in them the saga of Siegfried and the Nibelungen looms up prominently. The earliest of these poems date from about the year 850, and the most important of them were probably written down within a couple of centuries of that time. They are thus in part some three centuries older than the German Nibelungenlied, and on the whole, too, they preserve more of the original outlines of the saga."

[Based on: http://www.authorama.com/nibelungenlied-2.html] - [T.D. - 12/08/07]

856 - Earthquake / Corinth, Greece - "Earthquake location: Corinth, Greece. Earthquake magnitude: N/A. Number of recorded fatalities: 45,000."  [The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207]

865 - Danes / Northumbria -  "The Danes occupy Northumbria."

867 - Trinity Debate Trivia -

[....] From the 5th century, the Church of Rome continued in the West, while the Byzantine Church emerged from its centers at Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem. Each of the churches sought supremecy over the other, and a main point of contention was an argument as to whether Jesus was the Son of God or whether he was God incarnate. Along with this, the nature of the Holy Spirit (or Holy Ghost) became a matter of heated discussion, and the whole affair became known as the Trinity Debate. This erupted into a fever in 867, when Patriarch Photius of Constantinople excommunicated Pope Nicholas I of Rome because he fronted an inferior Faith!"
    The Catholics of Western Christendom then decried to ratify what was called the Filioque Article. This had been introduced at the Council of Toledo in 598, and it declared that the Holy Spirit proceeded "from the Father and from the Son" (Latin: filioque). The eastern Orthodox bishops claimed otherwise, stating that the Spirit proceeded "from the Father through the Son" (Greek: dia tou huiou). It was a somewhat intangible and extraordinary point of theological dispute, but it was good enough to split formal Christianity down the middle. In reality, it was simply a trivial excuse to perpetuate the dispute over whether the Church should be politically managed from Rome or Constantinople. The result was the formation of two quite distinct Churches from the same original, and the unresolved dialogue drove a wedge firmly between the factions. [....]

[Based on: Laurence Gardner, Lost Secrets of the Sacred Ark, pp. 141-142]

871 - King Alfred  / England -  "Alfred becomes King of Wessex. He has Latin works translated into English and begins practice of English prose. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is begun." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov]

878 - Configuration - "Uranus-Neptune [Virgo/Libra Pisces/Aries] opposition [878-881]."

887 - Configuration - Uranus-Pluto [Scorpio/Taurus] opposition [887-889]. Uranus-Pluto conjunctions and oppositions might bring sudden and radical changes, like a cathartic diarrhoea, yet their full integration takes ages."

Earthquake Trivia / 9th Century - "Number of notable earthquakes this century: at least 1. Number of earthquake deaths this century: 45,000." [- E.M.]

10th Century A.D.

900 - Map of Europe - "Map of Europe, 900 A.D."

900 - Inca Empire - "According to one report, the Inca Empire commenced between 900 A.D. and 1,000 A.D. and ended with the Spanish conquest in 1,532 A.D., so that it lasted only about 500 years. The Inca Dynasty was composed of thirteen Emperors or Incas. The name of the first and founder was Manco Camac. When Manco Camac was crowned and called Inca, both the Aymaras and Quiches adopted the name of Inca in honor of their new ruler."

*Trivia: "Where the rain forests of Guatemala now stand, a great civilization once flourished. The people of Mayan society built vast cities, ornate temples, and towering pyramids. At its peak around 900 A.D., the population numbered 500 people per square mile in rural areas, and more than 2,000 people per square mile in the cities -- comparable to modern Los Angeles County. [....] Sever, NASA's only archeologist, has been using satellites to examine Mayan ruins. Combining those data with conventional down-in-the-dirt archeological findings, Sever and others have managed to piece together much of what happened: From pollen trapped in ancient layers of lake sediment, scientists have learned that around 1,200 years ago, just before the civilization's collapse, tree pollen disappeared almost completely and was replaced by the pollen of weeds. In other words, the region became almost completely deforested. [....] (Changes in cloud formation and rainfall are occurring over deforested parts of Central America today, studies show. Is history repeating itself?) Using classic archeology techniques, researchers find that human bones from the last decades before the civilization's collapse show signs of severe malnutrition.
   "Archeologists used to argue about whether the downfall of the Maya was due to drought or warfare or disease, or a number of other possibilities such as political instability," Sever says. "Now we think that all these things played a role, but that they were only symptoms. The root cause was a chronic food and water shortage, due to some combination of natural drought and deforestation by humans. [....] By 2020, only 2% to 16% of the original rain forest will remain if current rates of destruction continue. [....] A message from 900 A.D.: it's never too late to learn from your ancestors." [11/15/04]  

900 - Muslim India - "Islamic Muslims begin to invade India. For over half a millennium most of India was under Muslim rule and a third of the population accepted Islam." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov]

900 - Pathetic Papacy - "In this period [900-950], the Papacy struck bottom. It was the plaything of the Roman nobility, and its influence dwindled almost to nothing. There were 14 Popes between 900 and 950." [Based on: Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 136]

900s - Sri Vaishnavism - "[....] Origin - Earlier sources do not mention Sri, the consort of Vishnu. Sri becomes part of Vishnuism at a later stage and apparently Sri was worshiped independently before her cult was integrated into Vaishnavism. Now she is considered inseparable from Vishnu, who carries the mark of sri-vasa, ineradicably representing Sri, his consort. In later Gaudiya traditions she is identified with expansion of Radha. This most prominent form of South Indian Vaishnavism is called Sri Vaishnavism,[neutrality is disputed] because of its strong emphasis on the role of Sri, drawing largely from alvars popular goddess roots.[7] Sri Vaishnavism is believed to have originated in the devotional hymns and songs of the said Alvars, a group of saints of the medieval Bhakti movement in South India. All such hymns and songs were organized by Nathamuni, who is considered as the first guru of the sect. His work was consolidated and expanded by Yamunacharya, who is believed to one of the grandsons of Nathamuni. Thereafter, Ramanujacharya continued to develop the theology of Sri Vaishnavism. [NP] Philosophy - People belonging to Sri Vaishnavism follow Vishistadvaita philosophy, although it is not implied that every Sri Vaishnavaite has to be a Vishistadvaitin. Sri Vaishnavism is characterized by various distinct beliefs. One of them is the role of a guru or acharya as a mediatrix (purushakara) in the attainment of the paramapadam(a name given to Moksha). Also, the followers consider the 4000 divya prabandams (sacred hymns) written by the Alvars as Tamil Vedas, equivalent to the sanskrit Vedas. Due to such primacy given to divya prabandams and classical vedanta, Sri Vaishnavism is also called as ubhaya vedanta sampradayam (literally system of dual vedanta). [....]

*Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sri_Vaishnava - [T.D. - 07/25/10]

*Trivia: "The Nalayira Divya Prabandham (Tamil: ....) is a collection of 4,000 verses (Naalayira in Tamil means 'four thousand') composed before 8th century AD,[1] by the 12 Alvars, and was compiled in its present form by Nathamuni during the 9th – 10th centuries. The work is the beginning of the canonization of the 12 Vaishnava poet saints, and these hymns are still sung extensively even today. The works were lost before they were collected and organized in the form of an anthology by Nathamuni."

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Divya_Prabandha] - [T.D. 01/23/10]

900 - Comparative Semitics - "[....] From the beginning of the tenth century, many Jewish scholars who lived in an Islamic cultural environment realized that comparison of Hebrew with other related languages, specifically Arabic and Aramaic, could assist in the understanding of the more obscure passages of the Bible and especially its hapax legomena. Thus began the study of Comparative Semitics, in which for various reasons Hebrew initially had a dominant role, but which was later to develop a more scientifically philological character. [....]" [Based on: A History of the Hebrew Language, Angel Saenz-Badillos, 2000 edition, p. 5]

900 - Chichen Itza Pyramid - "Between AD 900 and AD 1,200, a nine-tiered pyramid of Quetzalcoatl/Kulkukan was completed at Chichen Itza. Like many of the monuments dedicated to this diety it was constructed on top of an earlier sacred mound that had occupied the same site." [Based on: Heaven's Mirror, Quest For The Lost Civilization, by Graham Hancock and Santha Faiia, p. 5]  

900 - Trivia / Hebrew Manuscripts - "For many years the oldest Hebrew manuscripts went back to only 900 C.E. However, in 1947 parts of the Bible were found [Dead Sea Scrolls] that dated back to the 2nd century B.C.E."

905 - Configuration - "Neptune-Pluto [28 Taurus] conjunction. Neptune-Pluto cycles last about 495 years - half a millennium. They characterise an underlying driving-force behind history, an undertow of reality which marries the inevitable ram-force of Pluto with the imaginal, ideational power of Neptune. This combined force helps us define our underlying historical reality on a collective-unconscious level - this world-view and body of collective experience being a combination of actualities and perceptions." [Link 1]

906 - Magyar Victory / Moravian Kingdom - "In 906, the Magyars conquered and destroyed the Moravian kingdom, and, in its place, they formed a strong state where once the Avars had ruled three centuries before. They spent the next fifty years raiding the east Frankish realm, spreading destruction, so that they are still remembered as 'ogres' in western legends. [....] In 950, they were still a terrible threat to the Franks to their west and the Bulgarians to their south." [Based on: Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 135]

907 - End / T'ang Dynasty, China - "The T'ang dynasty came to an end in 907, and China fell into disunity again." [Based on: Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 136]

911 - Norman French -  "Charles [the Simple] of France grants Normandy to the Viking chief Hrolf the Ganger. The beginning of Norman French." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World]

912 - Perihelion / Halley's Comet - July 18th, 912 A.D.: "1P/912 J1 (18 July 912)"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halley%27s_Comet] - [T.D. - 06/12/07] 

912 - King Abd er-Rahman / Moorish Spain - "Moorish Spain reached its peak under Abd er-Rahman III (891-961), its eighth ruler. He became king in 912 and was still king in 950. He pacified the country, kept it strong, advanced its agriculture and industry, and encouraged learning. His capital, Cordova, had about half a million population and was the strongest and largest city in Europe except for Constantinople itself. Cordova was the center of European learning, for there the old books of the Greeks and Romans were preserved and translated." [Based on: Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, pp. 135-136]

916 - Muslim Defeat / Italy - "Despite attacks from the Bulgarians and Russians, the Byzantine Empire in this period [900-950] remained strong. [....] They defeated the Muslims in 916 at the Garigliano River, and forced them out of Italy forever." [Based on: Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 136]

918 - King Henry I / East Frankish Empire - "Henry I, the Fowler (876-936), was elected king of the East Frankish Empire." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 135]

919 - Gunpowder / China - "It was some time in this period [900-950], however, that the Chinese discovered gunpowder - perhaps as early as 919." [Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 136]

930 - Kingdom of Castile - "The country of Burgos eventually became the kingdom of Castile." [Based on: Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 135-136]

933 - Magyar Defeat / Henry I - "Henry I, the Fowler (876-936), was the strongest East Frankish king in 40 years and, in 933, was the first to defeat the Magyars in battle. It did not stop the Magyar raids, but it did cause them to call a temporary halt."  [Based on: Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 135]

936 - King Otto I / East Frankish Empire - "Henry I saw to it that the kingship remained in his family. He arranged to have the nobility choose his eldest son, by his second wife, as his successor. When Henry died in 936, that son succeeded him as Otto I (912-973), sometimes called 'Otto the Great.' " [Based on: Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 135]

947 - Configuration - "Uranus-Pluto [Cancer] conjunction. Uranus-Pluto conjunctions and oppositions might bring sudden and radical changes, like a cathartic diarrhoea, yet their full integration takes ages."

950 - Louis IV / West Franks - "Louis IV (921-954), son of Charles the Simple, ruled over the West Franks." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World]

950 - Jewish Expansion - "A large Jewish community develops [950-1391] in Spain, where Jews experience a high degree of freedom under Christian and Muslim rulers. Jews settle in England, France, and Germany. During this time [950-1100], many developments occurred in the area of Jewish study. Maimonides, for example, modernized Bible and Mishnah study."

955 - Christian Conversion / Princess Olga, Russia - "Princess Olga, while regent of Kievan Russia, converts to Christianity."

960 - Sung Dynasty / China - "In 960 the Sung Dynasty had begun. The Sung period divides into two phases: Northern Song [960-1127] and Southern Song [1127-1279]. The division was caused by the forced abandonment of north China in 1127 by the Song court, which could not push back the nomadic invaders."

962 - "Holy Roman Empire" - February 2nd, 962: "The Empire, as refounded by Otto, was viewed as the reestablishment of the Roman Empire in the west, even more so than in the case of Charlemagne over a century and a half before. Because it was created by the Pope, it was distinguished from the old Empire, which had been founded by pagans, and was spoken of as the 'Holy Roman Empire.' It is usually referred to by that name in history books." [Based on: Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 137]

965 - Configuration - "Uranus-Neptune [Libra] conjunction. Uranus-Neptune energies work surreptitiously. They influence awareness and the inner movies playing within the world psyche."

975 - Mississipian Period? - September 2nd, 2008: "[....] The figures on the walls of the cave in east-central Missouri now provide crucial details of the prehistoric timeline of the region. And there's recent evidence that the paintings in Picture Cave predate the Cahokia Mounds as the birthplace of what archaeologists refer to as the Mississipian period. [NP] According to archaeological records, the Mississipian period saw the creation of some of the first large towns and city centers north of Mexico. The convential belief has been that this period started around 1050 A.D., but the drawings in Picture Cave indicate the period began earlier and in a different location. [....] The ancient symbols contain mysteries, some of which are inevitably lost forever. Others are pieces to a puzzle that archaeologists have poured over for centuries. [....] A specialist hired by Duncan [Jim Duncan] and Diaz-Granados [Carol Diaz-Granados] analyzed tiny amounts of organic matter in the pigments of the paint and dated them to 975 to 1025 A.D. [....]" [Based on: COLUMBIA MISSOURIAN article (Find could change Mississippians' timeline / New evidence indicates Missouri cave paintings predate civilization at Cahokia Mounds.) by Michael Gibney, p B6, S.L.P.D., 09/02/08]

987 - Hugh Capet / "France" - "After Louis V died [987], the French nobility gathered and elected Hugh Capet as king. With Hugh Capet's election, we need no longer refer to the land as the West Frankish realm. We can call it 'France.' " [Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 138]

*Trivia: "The Emperor Otto III recognized Hugh Capet's title and, in return, Hugh surrendered Lorraine to the Emperor. (Lorraine was the remnant of the middle kingdom inherited by Charlemagne's oldest son, a kingdom which had been fought over and disputed by the East and West Franks ever since.)." [Based on: Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 138]

988 - Christian Conversion / Russia - "Prince Vladimir I [St. Vladimir] is baptized and converts Kievan Russia to Christianity." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov]

989 - Perihelion / Halley's Comet - September 5th, 989 A.D.: "1P/989 N1 (5 September 989)"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halley%27s_Comet] - [T.D. - 06/12/07] 

996 - 1st German Pope / Gregory V - "During this period [950-1000], the Popes were weak and were under the complete domination of the Holy Roman Emperors. In 996, Gregory V (972-999) became Pope. He was a cousin of Emperor Otto III, and was the first German Pope." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 138]

999 - 1st French Pope / Sylvester II - "Gregory V was succeeded in 999 by Sylvester II (945-1003), the first French Pope, who had been a tutor of Otto III, and who was a learned mathematician and scientist. He understood Arabic, which was necessary, since the ancient Greek books existed only in Arabic translations at this time." [Based on: Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 138]

*Trivia: 999 AD The first Frenchman to be pope, becomes Sylvester II, former tutor of the Emperor Otto III (note: Sylvester I (314) had been pope during the reign of Constantine, who like Merovingians facilitated Christianity, but remained pagan until his deathbed). The new French pope, Sylvester II had been Abbot of the monastery founded by Columbanus, Bobbio; became one of its scholars, excelling in mathematics which had been learned in Arab schools in Spain; thence, he became Master at Reims. The French Merovingian infiltration had begun —-in 999—- 666 upside down! Clue: Sylvester died on what would become the eve of the Feast of Fatima, May 12 Observe closely the progression of the infiltration in the following entries: [....] *Link: http://watch.pair.com/virgo-black.html - [T.D. - 01/30/10]

1000 - Bible Translation / Old English - "In the late tenth century, a monk named Aldred inserted his complete Old English translation of the Gospels between the lines of text in the Lindisfarne Gospels, a magnificent eigth-century illuminated gospel book now in the British Library." [Based on: Leonard J. Greenspoon, Bible Review, December 2003, p. 16]

1000 - Late Maya Period - "This period following this transformation [- 830 AD] can be referred to as the New Empire, or late Maya. By the end of the tenth century AD, the center of Mayan life had shifted to the northern Yucatan. Also, there was a shift in their activities. No longer did they construct huge stone monuments recording countless dates and relationships of temporal cycles. Instead, there was the emergence of a shorthand notation of the calendar system and the records were kept, not in stone, but in hieroglyphic manuscripts called codices, of which only four survive. This period is further characterized by a rising frequency of human sacrifice and warfare as well as the formation of new political alliance known as the League of Mayapan."  

11th Century A.D.

1000 - Map of Europe - "Full Map of Europe, 1000 A.D."

1,000 - Altithermal - "It is suspected by Earth scientists that the sun shone particularly brightly about this time [3,000 B.C.]. This episode is called the Altithermal, and may have contributed to the rise of the early civilizations. Another similar high heat episode occurs around 1,000 A.D."

1000 - Nibandhas / Hinduism - "From the 11th century onwards nibandhas were composed - encyclopedic works that collected Hindu legal traditions, information about Hindu holy places, Hindu rituals, and customs of all sampadayas. Hindus became aware of Hinduism as distinct from Islam." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov]

1000 - Hoysala Dynasty / India - "Founded by a tribal chief Nripa Kama, the dynasty [1000 A.D. to 1346 A.D.] is well remembered for the beautifully carved temples of Belur, Halebidu, Somanathapur, Shravanabelagola and others. Sandwiched between the Cholas to the south and the Badami Chalukyas in the north, Hoysala kings had a difficult time to keep their kingdom intact. But this did not affect their prosperity and administrative stability. Like most kings from Karnataka, Hoysalas were famous for their religious tolerance. They were also great patrons of art and culture."

[Based on: http://www.kamat.com/kalranga/deccan/hoysala.htm] - [T.D. 01/17/11]

1000 - Calendar Hats / Europe - "Wizards really did wear tall pointed hats - but not the crumpled cloth kind donned by such fictional characters as Harry Potter, Gandalf and Merlin. The wizards of early Europe wore hats of gold intricately embellished with astrological symbols that helped them to predict the movement of the sun and stars. This is the conclusion of German archaeologists and historians who claim to have solved the mystery behind a series of strange yet beautiful golden cone-shaped objects discovered at Bronze Age sites across Europe. Four of the elaborately decorated cones have been uncovered at sites in Switzerland, Germany and France over the past 167 years. Their original purpose has baffled archaeologists for decades."  

1000 - Cahokia / North America - "[....] Between 1000 A.D. and 1200 A.D., Cahokia was home to more than 20,000 people. The main complex spread over 4,000 acres and was linked by roads to satellite communities in what became East St. Louis and St. Louis. [....] Dozens of mounds, including all but one in what became St. Louis, were leveled or used for fill dirt. Many of the area's irreplaceable prehistoric artifacts were plundered or destroyed. [....] The Illinois General Assembly deserves credit for recognizing the possibilities of the site, and for helping to preserve it. There is nothing like Cahokia anywhere else in North America. It's long past time this special site got the respect, and space, it deserves." [Based on: Opinion Page article (A larger setting for an ancient gem), p. B8, S.L.P.D., 02/20/06]

*Related links: http://www.burlingtonnews.net/ohiogiants.html

1000 - History / Central America - "... there are tremendous problems with Central American history prior to the period of Aztec expansion. Indeed, before about AD 1000 there is almost no  'history' at all - and less and less the further back in time we look. In consequence, scholars know next to nothing about the origins of the three earliest and high civilizations that have been identified in the region: the Olmecs, who supposedly flourished, mainly along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico, from well before 1500 BC until about the time of Christ; the Maya, who paralleled and then succeeded them and whose living descendants are still found throughout Central America today; and the civilization that built  the awe-inspiring sacred domain of Teotihuacan almost 2000 years ago." [Based on: Heaven's Mirror, Quest For The Lost Civilization, by Graham Hancock and Santha Faiia, p. 13]

1001 - Declared Forgery / Donation of Constantine - "The Donation was first declared to be a forgery by the Saxon Emperor Otto III in the year 1001. Intrigued by the fact that Constantine had moved his personal capital from Rome to Constantinople, Otto recognized that this was actually a ruse to preempt any Merovingian ambition to perhaps centre their own kingly operation in Rome in opposition to the Imperial bishops. Although Otto was a German, his mother was an East Roman who was well aware that this same fear had existed in the late Merovingian era, at which time the further deception of the Donation of Constantine was implemented." [Based on: Realm Of The Ring Lords, Laurence Gardner]

1004 - Utah Villiages - "Archaeologists led reporters into a remote canyon Wednesday [06/30/04] to reveal an almost perfectly preserved picture of ancient life: stone pit houses, granaries and a bounty of artifacts kept secret for more than a half century [since about 1950]. [....] Archaeologists said the villiages were occupied more than 1,000 years ago and may be as old as 4,500 years. [....] Hundreds of granaries, ranging from cupboard-sized to several yards across, are in some cases hundreds of feet up nearly inaccessible cliffs. [....] Waldo Wilcox, the rancher who sold the land and returned Wednesday [06/30/04], kept the archaeological sites a closely guarded secret for more than 50 years." [By Paul Foy, A.P., 07/01/04]

*Trivia: "Hidden deep inside Utah's nearly inaccessible Book Cliffs region, 130 miles from Salt Lake City, the prehistoric villages run for 12 miles and include hundreds of rock art panels, cliffside granaries, stone houses built halfway underground, rock shelters, and the mummified remains of long-ago inhabitants. The site was occupied for at least 3,000 years until it was abandoned more than 1,000 years ago, when the Fremont people mysteriously vanished. [....] The secret is coming to light after the federal and state governments paid Wilcox $2.5 million for the 4,200-acre ranch, which is surrounded by wilderness study lands. The state took ownership this year but has not decided how to control public access. [....] Metcalfe said a team of researchers has documented about 200 pristine sites occupied as long as 4,500 years ago, 'and we've only looked in a few places.' [....] Archaeologists think the sites may have been occupied as long as 7,000 years ago; they could shed light on the earliest inhabitants of North America, who are believed to have arrived by way of the Bering Strait 10,000 years ago. [....] 'I didn't let people go in there to destroy it,' said Wilcox, whose parents bought the ranch in 1951 and threw up a gate to the rugged canyon. 'The less people know about this, the better.' Over the years, Wilcox occasionally welcomed archaeologists to inspect part of the canyon, 'but we'd watch 'em.' When one Kent State researcher used a pick ax to take a pigment sample from a pictograph, Wilcox 'took the pick from him and took him out of the gate.' [....] He [Wilcox] said he gave up the land after the San Francisco-based Trust for Public Land, which transferred the ranch to public ownership, promised to protect it. [....] Archaeologists didn't realize the full significance of Range Creek until 2002. While many structures are standing or visible, others could be buried. Archaeologists have not done any excavations, simply because 'we have too big a task just to document' sites in plain view, Jones said. After The Associated Press started inquiring, Metcalfe decided to hasten an announcement. Next week, he plans to take news organizations to the ranch, 30 miles off the nearest paved highway over rough, mountainous terrain. A gate inside Range Creek Canyon blocks access; a dirt road continues from there about 14 miles down the canyon to a ranch house, now a hub of archaeological activity." [Paul Foy, A.P., 06/25/2004]

1006 - Supernova? - May, 1006

A star twinkles for eons, then suddenly shines brighter than any other heavenly object save the sun and moon. It's a supernova, the titanic explosion of a great star somewhere in the Milky Way galaxy. The show in the sky can last for days or weeks. One such stellar event, recorded around the globe in 1006, is thought to have been recorded in Arizona by an ancient Hohokam stargazer who depicted the event in rock art, said two astronomers, John Barentine of Apache Point Observatory in New Mexico and Gilbert A. Esquerdo, research assistant with the Planetary Science Institute in Tucson. The two scientists presented their theory at the American Astronomical Society meeting this week in Calgary, Alberta. "The supernova of 1006 was perhaps the brightest such event visible from Earth for thousands of years, reaching the brightness of a quarter moon at peak," Barentine explained. [....] While many scientists have agreed for 40 years that rock art found near Peñasco Blanco at Chaco Canyon National Monument in New Mexico depicts the supernova of 1054, there is no known prior mention of the connection between the White Tanks artifact and the supernova of 1006, Barentine said. But it's not surprising someone on this continent recorded the 1006 event, he said. "It would have been so bright it would have cast shadows on the ground; it was that bright." The supernova was observed, beginning May 1, by star watchers in what we know as Asia, the Middle East and Europe, he said. To back up their hypothesis, Barentine and Esquerdo created a model of the night sky of May 1, 1006, to show that the relative position of the supernova to the constellation Scorpius matches placement of scorpion and star symbols on the rock. [....]

[Based on: Article (Astronomers: Hohokam stargazer may have recorded 1006 supernova) by Larry Copenhaver, Tucson Citizen, Published: 06/06/06] - [Paragraph indents untranscribed to save space. - E.M.]

*Link: http://www.tucsoncitizen.com/daily/local/14926.php

1008 - Codex Leningradensis - "Reportedly, The oldest surviving manuscript of the complete Bible is the Codex Leningradensis which dates to 1008 A.D."

1009 - Pluto in Sagittarius - December 21st 1909: "Estimated date when Pluto entered [0 degrees] Sagittarius."

1017 - Ramanuja? - "The traditional biographies of Ramanuja place his life in the period of 1017–1137, yielding a lifespan of 120 years. However, the unusual length and roundness of this lifetime has led scholars to propose that Ramanuja was born 20–60 years later, and died as many as 20 years earlier than the traditional dates. Any chronology depends crucially on the major historical event mentioned in the traditional biographies: the persecution of Vaishnavas under the Chola king Kulothunga and Ramanuja's subsequent 12-year exile in Melkote, in Karnataka. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ramanuja] - [T.D. - 12/15/08]

*Links: http://www.kamat.com/indica/faiths/bhakti/ramanuja.htm

1020 - Hapsburg Castle - "Around 1020–1030 Count Radbot, of the nearby county of Klettgau in the Duchy of Swabia, had the castle erected 35 km southwest of Klettgau, on the Aar, the largest tributary of the High Rhine. It is believed that he named the castle after a hawk (German: Habicht) seen sitting on its walls. Some historians and linguists believe the name may come from the Middle High German word 'hab / hap' meaning ford, as it is located near a ford of the Aar River. [N.P.] Radbot's grandson, Otto II, was the first to take the Habsburg Castle name as his own, adding "von Habsburg" to his title and creating the House of Habsburg. [N.P.] Habsburg Castle's importance diminished after Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph moved the family's power base to Austria in 1276. Habsburg Castle remained property of the House of Habsburg until 1415, when Duke Frederick IV of the Empty Pockets lost the canton of Aargau to the Swiss Confederacy. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Habsburg_Castle]

1022 - Burning at the Stake / France - "The first sentence of burning at the stake for heresy was passed down by the King of France, Robert the Pious, in 1022."

1024 - Pluto in Capricorn - January 5th, 1024: "Estimated date when Pluto entered [0 degrees] Capricorn." *Links: http://www.isleofavalon.co.uk/GlastonburyArchive/ephem/ed-medi1.html

1029 - Configuration - Uranus-Pluto [Cancer/Capricorn] opposition [1029-1031]. Uranus-Pluto conjunctions and oppositions might bring sudden and radical changes, like a cathartic diarrhoea, yet their full integration takes ages."

1037 - Seljuk Turks / Afghanistan - "Another tribe of Turks came south from Turkistan, the region north of the civilized Middle East. They were the Seljuk Turks, so-called after the grandfather of their leaders, who were Toghril Beg [990-1063 B.C.] and Chagar Beg, two brothers. From 1037, they defeated the Ghaznavid monarch and developed a realm of their own in what is now Afghanistan and northern Iraq." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov]

1041 - Pluto in Aquarius - February 5th, 1041: "Estimated date when Pluto entered [0 degrees] Aquarius."

1049 - Configuration - "Uranus-Neptune [Libra/Aries] opposition [1049-1052]."

1050  - Milarepa / Tibet? - "In 1050 Milarepa sought vengeance on unscrupulous relatives for mistreating his mother and sister."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milarepa

1054 - Supernova - "Light from the supernova that produced the Crab Nebula first reached Earth in 1,054 and remained visible, even during the day, for two weeks."

1054 - Great Schism / Christianity - "Christianity divided into the Roman Catholics [whose influence spread over all of western Europe from Spain to Poland] and the Greek Orthodox [whose influence spread over the Byzantine Empire and Russia]. The division has never been healed to this day."

1055 - Seljuk Turks / Baghdad - "Tughril Beg, who headed what had become a Seljuk Turk Empire, entered Bagdad in 1055 and was given the title of Sultan [ruler] by the Caliph, who still held his state in that city although he was utterly powerless."

1057 - Pope Stephen IX - 1057 : Stephen IX (X), French Abbot of Monte Cassino, Benedict’s monastery, becomes pope and surrounds himself with leading “Reformers” per the Merovingian mandate to “Reform the Church” (meaning “Crush the Church” per the conspiracy).

*Link: http://watch.pair.com/virgo-black.html - [T.D. - 01/30/10]

1057 - Earthquake / Chihli, China - "Earthquake location: Chihli, China. Earthquake magnitude: N/A. Number of recorded fatalities: 25,000."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207]

1058 - Pope Nicholas II - 1058: Nicholas II, French from Burgundy becomes a leading reformer pope

*Link: http://watch.pair.com/virgo-black.html - [T.D. - 01/30/10]

1059 - Rennes-le-Chateau, France - The church of Rennes-le-Chateau flourished during the 9th century. The church at Rennes-le-Chateau was consecrated to Mary Magdalene in 1059 and, in 1096 [the year of the First Crusade], the great Basilica of St. Mary Magdalene was begun at Vezelay. It was here that St. Francis of Assisi founded the Franciscan Friars Minor [later the Capuchins] in 1217. It was also at Vezelay in 1146 that the Cistercian abbot St. Bernard of Clairvaux preached the Second Crusade to King Louis VII, Queen Eleanor, their knights, and an assembled congregation of 100,000. Indeed, the enthusiasm of the Crusades was intimately allied to the veneration of the Magdalene." [Based on: Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, Laurence Gardner]

1060 - Christian Crusades - "The beginning of the Crusades can be dated from the 1060's when Pope Alexander II granted indulgences to the knights who had fought the Moorish invaders in Spain."

1063 - Pluto in Pisces - February 7th, 1063: "Estimated date when Pluto entered [0 degrees] Pisces."

1066 - Perihelion / Halley's Comet - March 20th, 1066 A.D.: "1P/1066 G1 (20 March 1066)"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halley%27s_Comet] - [T.D. - 06/12/07] 

*Trivia: "1066: The comet was seen in England and thought to be a bad omen: later that year Harold II of England died at the Battle of Hastings. It is shown on the Bayeux Tapestry, and the accounts which have been preserved represent it as having then appeared to be four times the size of Venus, and to have shone with a light equal to a quarter of that of the Moon. This appearance of the comet is also noted in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Having first seen it as a young boy in 989, Eilmer of Malmesbury declared prophetically in 1066: 'You've come, have you?…You've c—ome, you source of tears to many mothers, you evil. I hate you! It is long since I saw you; but as I see you now you are much more terrible, for I see you brandishing the downfall of my country. I hate you!' [8]. Chaco Native Americans in New Mexico recorded this 1066 comet in their petroglyphs.[9]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halley%27s_Comet] - [T.D. - 06/12/07]

1066 - Norman Conquest / England -  "The Norman conquest of England began in 1066 AD with the invasion of the Kingdom of England by the troops of William, Duke of Normandy ("William the Conqueror"), and his victory at the Battle of Hastings [10/14/66]. This resulted in Norman control of England, which was firmly established during the next few years. The Norman Conquest was a pivotal event in English history for several reasons. It largely removed the native ruling class, replacing it with a foreign, French-speaking monarchy, aristocracy and clerical hierarchy. This in turn brought about a transformation of the English language and the culture of England. By subjecting the country to rulers originating in France it linked England more closely with continental Europe, while lessening Scandinavian influence, and set the stage for a rivalry with France that would continue intermittently for more than eight centuries. It also had important consequences for the rest of the British Isles, paving the way for further Norman invasions in Wales and Ireland, and the extensive penetration of the aristocracy of Scotland by Norman and other French-speaking families. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norman_Conquest] - [T.D. - 11/22/08]

1070 - Fall of Jerusalem - Following the fall of Jerusalem [1070] and the loss of Asia Minor with the battle of Manzikert [1071], the Byzantine emperor Michael VII asked assistance from Pope Gregory VII, who planned but could not actually launch an expedition to rescue the empire and the Holy Sepulchre." [Based on: The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions, Keith Crim]

1073 - Pope Gregory VII - "A monk named Hildebrand [1020-1085 A.D.] was elected to the Papacy, and took the name of Gregory VII. It was his notion that the Pope was the final court in Christendom; that the Pope could not err; that all secular princes, including the Emperor, owed the Pope allegience; and that the Pope could depose kings and emperors at will." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov]

*Trivia: 1073: Gregory VII of Tuscany, part of the Carolingian kingdom of the Franks, and Cluniac monk becomes pope and transforms the Church into a legal institution with a monarchial form of government. He seems not to have played his “expected role” as he came into conflict with the Holy Roman Emperor when he issued a general ban on lay investiture. He died exiled captive of the Normans.

*Link: http://watch.pair.com/virgo-black.html - [T.D. - 01/30/10]

1087 - Pope Victor III - 1087: Victor III, Abbot of Monte Cassino, Benedict’s monastery, becomes pope.

*Link: http://watch.pair.com/virgo-black.html - [T.D. - 01/30/10]

1088 - Pope Urban II - 1088: Urban II, French Prior of Cluny (Reformed Benedictines) becomes the pope. Urban was of the “Eudes” family, not only the name of the King of the Franks, Eudes, who ruled 888 to 898 and considered one of the antecedent kings of the Capetian House of France, but also the name of the Royal Capetian line of Burgundy, great grandson of Hugh Capet, Eudes I the RED of Burgundy who acceded 1079, NINE years before Urban (Eudes) became pope. And Eudes the Red acceded in that specific year because his brother, Hugh I of Burgundy, had abdicated to become the Prior of Cluny! Now something is very amiss here ! Is this just coincidence ? Both were sons of Henry of Burgundy who married Sibylle of Barcelona. Henry was son of Robert I of Burgundy, who was the son of Hugh Capet. Barcelona, home of their mother, was part of the Spanish March connected to Septimania and, here too, the Duke of Aquitaine in 1012 was Eudes of Aquitaine ! And Aquitaine and Septimania are extremely significant :

It happens that Septimania (Languedoc) is exactly where the Jesus-Magdalene heresy flourished, and where there was a large population of Cathar Jews who were given independent status by Pepin, Carolingian King. Thence their own kings ruled as: “seed of the Royal House of David”, each acknowledged as “King of the Jews”, most famous of whom was Guillem de Gellone, the Prince of Orange. Confusing this issue, these kings also claimed to be of Merovingian descent ; but not confusing when one realizes that Jesus was of the House of David and Mary Magdalene was from the town Magdala, 4 miles from Tiberius, founded by Herod Antipas, who was an Edomite descendant of Esau with whom Benjaminites married. Additionally, Absolom, David’s son, who pulled a coup d’etat on his own father in an attempt to take his throne, had a rebel following who would have joined the Benjaminite cause. Absalom died when his long hair got caught in branches in the forest during the Coup. (2 Sam:18:9) And the Merovingians, first Dynasty of French kings, were the Long Haired Kings!!

“The details of the separate kingdom of Septimania were erased from history books; but the descendant bloodlines were apparently the “heretical Royal Bloodlines”as : Dukes of Aquitaine, Dukes of Lorraine, Dukes of Guise; Counts of Barcelona, Counts of Toulouse, Counts of Auvergne; Counts of Razes. (HBHB, pp 368-371) And it was precisely a Duke of Aquitaine who founded Cluny! Thus, Septimania now becomes extremely important, for now Urban II, descendant of the Eudes of Septimania and Cluny Prior, is the pope who will call the first Crusades resulting in the crowning of a direct lineal descendant of Guillem de Gellone, named Godfroi de Bouillon, Duke of Lorraine , as King of Jerusalem! Aquitaine is so-named on maps of Second Century Roman Empire and comprised then, the whole area from Languedoc, South France, to Poitou and Anjou. Septimania was the area that was later known as the Languedoc.

*Link: http://watch.pair.com/virgo-black.html - [T.D. - 01/30/10]

1089 - Pluto in Aries - March 18th, 1089: "Estimated date [also 1090] when Pluto entered [0 degrees] Aries." *Links: http://www.isleofavalon.co.uk/GlastonburyArchive/ephem/ed-medi1.html

1090 - Configuration - "Uranus-Pluto [Aries] conjunction. Uranus-Pluto conjunctions and oppositions might bring sudden and radical changes, like a cathartic diarrhoea, yet their full integration takes ages."

1090 - Trivia / Assassins - "In 1090, a Shiite fanatic, Hasan Sabbah, founded a terrorist group dedicated to the murder of enemy leaders. It was thought that they were fed hassish to increase their disregard of death and were therefore called 'hassishim' [hashish eaters]. The Assassins took over a mountain stronghold and the leader was, therefore, known as the 'Old Man of the Mountain.' From then on there began a reign of terror against Sunnites." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World]

1095 - Council of Piacenza -  "At the council of Piacenza [March 1095], Emperor Alexius II Comnenus also asked for mercenaries, and Pope Urban II at the council of Clermont [November 1095] responded by calling the first of successive crusades to the East." [Based on: The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions, Keith Crim]

1095 - Astronomic Configuration - November 27th, 1095: "Sun [10 Sagattarius], Moon [8 Scorpio], Mercury [0 Capricorn], Venus [13 Capricorn], Mars [23 Leo], Jupiter [22 Capricorn], Saturn [11 Virgo], Uranus [21 Aries R], Neptune [29 Cancer R], Pluto [5 Aries R]."

1095 - Formal Beginning / Christian Crusades -  November 27th, 1095: "Military expidetions were undertaken by western European Christians between 1095 and 1270 A.D. to recover Jerusalem and other Palestinian places of pilgramage from Muslim control. According to one report, the Crusades began formerly on Tuesday, November 27th, 1095."

*Trivia: "When Pope Urban II summoned the First Crusade in 1095, his plan belonged to the realm of logos. He wanted the knights of Europe to stop fighting one another and tearing the fabric of Western Christendom apart, and to expand their energies instead in a war in the Middle east and so extend the power of his church. But when this military expedition became entangled with folk mythology, biblical lore, and apocalyptic fantasies, the result was catastrophic, practically, militarily, and morally." [Based on: Karen Armstrong, The Battle For God, A History of Fundamentalism, p. xvii]

1095 - The Middle Ages - "A traditional date for the beginning of the Middle Ages [1095-1304]."

*Trivia: "Traditionally, the church forbade not only research but even reading of the Bible by laymen. Throughout the Middle Ages, possession of a Bible written in the vernacular was a crime punished by burning at the stake." [Based on: The Woman's Encyclopedia of Myths and Secrets, Barbara G. Walker, p. 97]

1095 - Banking / Western Europe - "The need to transfer large sums of money to finance the Crusades provides a stimulus to the re-emergence of banking in western Europe." [Link: 1]

1095 - Church-Controlled European Monarchies - "By the Middle Ages, the Church controlled the majority of the European monarchies, with Scotland being a notable exception, as a result of which King Robert the Bruce and the whole Scottish nation were excommunicated by the Pope. The Church, therefore, influenced governments, parliaments and educational establishments, as it still does today. And by implication, if not by direct instruction, the military forces of the pseudo-kings operated at church command." [Based on: Realm Of The Ring Lords, Laurence Gardner]

1096 - Peasants' Crusade - "In 1096, an eccentric monk, Peter the Hermit, led a peasants' Crusade consisting of several thousand men, women and children across Europe to liberate Jerusalem from the Arabs. The majority of these unfortunates were massacred en route by bands of outlaws and the armies of the Byzantine Empire, which included the modern countries of Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Greece, and Turkey."

1096 - Crusaders / Speyer - "[....] On May 3, 1096 Emicho [or Emico or Emmerich, of Leiningen] arrived at the gates of Speyer at the head of his crusading army and confronted the Jews there with the choice of baptism or death. The logic of Emicho's choice makes the confrontation seem more orderly than it probably was. In reality, the situation was probably similar in all of the towns along the Rhine, Main, and Danube rivers when the crusading armies appeared. A large mob milled around the town square with nothing to do as negotiations took place behind the scenes. Then, either growing impatient with the delays or fired up by a self-appointed preacher, the mob would go off and sack homes in the Jewish quarter, motivated in equal parts by a desire to punish infidelity, a desire to avenge long-standing grudges, particularly those surrounding the lending of money, or a desire to requisition material needed for the upcoming military campaign against the Muslims. [....]" [Based on: E. Michael Jones, editor of Culture Wars]

1096 - Crusaders / Worms - May 24th, 1096: "[....] The same pattern repeated itself in other cities. On May 24, three weeks after pillaging Speyer, Emicho and his crusaders arrived in Worms, where similar carnage followed. The crusaders milled around the town square until a riot broke out, at which point the mob ran amok and killed 300 Jews. The crusaders "slaughtered young and old alike." When the crusaders arrived in the Jewish quarter, they broke into the Jews' homes and looted them, trampling the Torah scrolls they found there underfoot. [....]" [Based on: E. Michael Jones, editor of Culture Wars]

1096 - Crusaders / Mainz - May 25th, 1096: "[....] When Emericho and his band of crusaders arrived in Mainz on May 25, the same pattern repeated itself. After the Jewish community leaders paid the archbishop and a local count large sums of money, the Jews were granted refuge in their palaces. When the bishop's guards and the local constabulary proved incapable of defending his palace, the bishop fled to his estate in nearby Rudesheim, and the Jews were left to their own devices when the mob swarmed into the palace to murder and pillage. [....]" [Based on: E. Michael Jones, editor of Culture Wars]

*Trivia: "[....] Thomas Walsh, who is unabashedly pro-Catholic in his account of the era, makes no apologies for the behavior of the crusaders, who 'massacred Jews, in the summer of 1096, at Trier, Worms, Mainz, Cologne wherever they advanced along the Main and the Danube; and when they took Jerusalem, they soiled their victory by a hideous butchery of Jews.' The Second Crusade, he tells us, 'was marred by similar atrocities in Cologne, Mainz, Speyer, Strasbourg, and elsewhere.' [....]" [Based on: E. Michael Jones, editor of Culture Wars]

*Trivia: "[....] Once mob fury became unleashed in attacks on the Jews, the next victims were the local secular clergy, who often knew the Jews and sometimes protected them from attack. The Jews' main defender was invariably the local bishop, the only one with sufficient will and power—and often a fortress and soldiers as well-—to oppose the crusaders. [....]" [Based on: E. Michael Jones, editor of Culture Wars]

*Trivia: "[....] The main point of contention between Jews and both the proletarians who migrated to the cities for work and the emerging bourgeoisie which employed them was usury. The slaughter of the Jews which took place during the Spring of 1096 was the reaction of the uprooted to a combination of Jewish messianic politics and resentment against Jewish usury. Commenting on the type of people who were drawn to join the crusade, Walsh in no way means to impugn the motives of everyone who put on the sign of the cross. Nonetheless, those armies became a magnet for 'some fanatics, some criminals escaping from the law, some adventurers with no more belief in Christ than the Jews themselves had,' and, most importantly for our purposes, 'some debtors eager to escape from the crushing burden of high interest.' [....]" [Based on: E. Michael Jones, editor of Culture Wars]

*Trivia: "Many Jews are killed [1096-1320] during the Crusades. Some Jews are able to escape to Poland."

1096 - Basilica of St. Mary Magdalene / Vezelay - In 1096 [the year of the First Crusade], the great Basilica of St. Mary Magdalene was begun at Vezelay." [Based on: Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, Laurence Gardner]

1099 - Astronomic Configuration - July 15th, 1099: "Sun [0 Aquarius], Moon [13 Libra], Mercury [10 Aquarius], Venus [27 Aquarius], Mars [28 Aquarius], Jupiter [1 Taurus], Saturn [18 Libra], Uranus [3 Taurus], Neptune [4 Leo R], Pluto [8 Aries]."

1099 - Crusaders / Jerusalem - "Crusaders took Jerusalem by storm on July 15th, 1099 and massacred virtually every inhabitant; It has been estimated that Europe was Christianized at a cost of about 8 million to 10 million lives."

Earthquake Trivia / 11th Century - "Number of notable earthquakes this century: at least 1. Number of earthquake deaths this century: 25,000." [- E.M.]

12th Century A.D.

1100 - Map of Europe - "Map of Europe, 1100 A.D."

1110 - Trivia / Council of Anhem - "[....] Furthermore, we find anathemas fulminated against this lottery of fate, at the council of Vares, which forbids 'all ecclesiastics, under pain of excommunication, to perform that kind of divination, or to pry into futurity, by looking into any book, or writing, whatsoever.' The same prohibition is pronounced at the council of Agda in 506, of Orleans, in 511, of Auxerre in 595, and finally at the council of Aenham in 1110; the latter condemning 'sorcerers, witches, diviners, such as occasioned death by magical operations, and who practiced fortune-telling by the holy-book lots'; and the complaint of the joint clergy against de Garlande, their bishop at Orleans, and addressed to Pope Alexander III., concludes in this manner: 'Let your apostolical hands put on strength to strip naked the iniquity of this man, that the curse prognosticated on the day of his consecration may overtake him; for the gospels being opened on the altar according to custom, the first words were: and the young man, leaving his linen cloth, fled from them naked [translated from the original document in the Archives of Orleans, France].' "

[Based on: H.P. Blavatsky, Isis Unveiled, reprint (1998, Vol. 2) of the 1877 edition, pp. 21-22]

1100 - Old Testament  Manuscript - "The oldest Old Testament manuscript used by the King James translators was dated to approximately A.D. 1100. Obviously, that old manuscript from A.D. 1100 was a copy of a copy of a copy, etc. for over two thousand years. How could we be sure that the text in the A.D. 1100 copy of the Scriptures was identical with the original text as given to the writers by God and inspired by Him?"

1117 - Crusading Army Destroyed / Emicho  of Leiningen - "[....] He [Emicho] never made it to the Holy Land, but he continued his predations up and down the German-speaking world's major waterways. In 1117, he got caught up in a battle with the Hungarians, in the course of which his army was destroyed, and he barely escaped with his life. Legend had him returning to live in the mountains near Worms. Long after his life must have ended, the people of the Rhineland still tecounted stories of the 'Emperor of the Last Days,' and many of those same people anticipated his return as eagerly as their forebears had joined his army. [....]" [Based on: E. Michael Jones, editor of Culture Wars]

1118 - Knights Templar - "Hugh de Payens, a vassal of the count of Champagne, France and eight other Crusader knights form the Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and the Temple of Solomon. They were approved as a holy order by the Vatican, and proceeded to fight in the Crusades, gain converts, and ultimately re-take the city of Jerusalem and the ruins of the Temple of Solomon. While there, they carried out what would now be called archaeological investigations, digging in and around the Temple. While no one knows for sure, they may have found a great treasure. Later authors will speculate that this treasure is the Shroud of Turin, or an occult manuscript. They were a strict order of warrior/monks, and the Rule of their Order was based on obedience, poverty and chastity. They were a major force in the Crusades, and although individual members were permitted to own nothing, the order itself grew rich. They gained lands, castles, money, power, and prestige. They were also the forerunners of the banking business. They provided such services as safe deposit, agents for collection of debts and taxes, trusts for heirs, mortgage brokers, and issued paper money which could be exchanged for hard currency with any other Templar outpost. They also had the best communications network in the world. All their outposts were connected by courier, and they used codes and ciphers for private messages between each other. This was doubly effective since most people were completely illiterate, and couldn't have even read a plain message. It was networks such as this, and similar networks in other sacred orders, which started to bring Europe out of the dark ages. During their existence, the Templars also made many enemies. They were rich, powerful and secretive. They were accused of performing occult rites in their round temples."

1119 - Pluto in Taurus- April 27th, 1119: "Estimated date when Pluto entered [0 degrees] Taurus."

1119 - Pilgrim Fatalities / Jerusalem to Jordan - "Despite the establishment of a Christian army of occupation in the Holy Land, European pilgrims traveling to the sacred sites still faced many dangers. At Easter 1119 a group of 300 pilgrims travelling from Jerusalem to Jordan were attacked and killed by the Saracens. King Baldwin II of Jerusalem was so shocked by this atrocity that he took steps to prevent it ever happening again. Events of this nature sparked the eventual conception and deployment of Templi Militia, or Knights of the Temple of Solomon in Jerusalem [Order of Knights Templar]. Although this account  gives the generally accepted version of the foundation of the Templars, controversy still surrounds its origins."

1128 - Constitution / Knights Templar - "In drafting the constitution for the Order of Knights Templar in 1128, St. Bernard de Clairvaux specifically mentioned 'a requirement for the Obedience of Bethany, the castle of Mary and Martha'. " [Laurence Gardner]

1136 - Configuration - "Uranus-Neptune [Libra] conjunction. Uranus-Neptune energies work surreptitiously. They influence awareness and the inner movies playing within the world psyche."

1138 - Celibacy / Catholic Priests - "The Church was so frightened of women that a rule of celibacy was instituted for priests; as a rule which became law in 1138 - a rule which persists even today [2002]."

1139 - Lateran Council - "The Lateran Council decrees that no churchman could be married. Those that were married found their marriages suddenly annulled! The Holy Family is fast becoming a cult that rivals the Trinity. Mary the Virgin Mother is well on the way to becoming a Goddess in her own right. The east front of Chartres cathedral is dedicated to the BVM (Blessed Virgin Mary) and inside is a relic: the robe she is said to have been wearing at the moment of her Assumption into heaven.
   "The same council also prescribed imprisonment and confiscation of property for heresy, and threatened to excommunicate secular rulers who did not punish heretics. The Inquisitions begin about here. There wasn't one Inquisition, there were dozens. They were convened by Popes, Bishops, and local rulers. They were both regional and local. The first ones were started to deal with such heretical sects of Christianity as the Albigenses (also called Cathars,) and Waldenses. They dealt with and punished every kind of heresy, from different interpretations of the Bible to people with pagan leanings who refused to give up their traditional country ways and submit to the authority of the Church. Estimates of the number of victims the Inquisitions killed vary widely, from 50,000 to 9 million. The 9 million figure is probably high, and up until the 15th century most of the victims were themselves Christian, and not pagan. We have seen the same type of "social correction" in this century when our American government arrested, hunted down, tried, convicted and killed, sometimes without a trial, those who disagreed with it, and they were all Americans. The Inquisitions never died. The offices still exist today."

*Trivia: "[....] —two of the three Lateran councils convened in the 12th century made a point of condemning usury—but it was growing at an alarming rate, not unlike compound interest on a bigger and bigger debt. As Glick points out, the Jews were often guilty of 'leading the least productive members of society into ruin by encouraging them to consume beyond their means.' The Jew could charge people like that 40 percent interest, which when compounded, insured that the borrower would never get out of debt. In a situation like that, the crusades, which promised, as one of their incentives, suspension of payment on debt, seemed like a godsend. [....]" [Based on: E. Michael Jones, editor of Culture Wars]

1141 - Configuration - Uranus-Pluto [Scorpio/Taurus] opposition [1141-1142]. Uranus-Pluto conjunctions and oppositions might bring sudden and radical changes, like a cathartic diarrhoea, yet their full integration takes ages."

1145 - Second Crusade - December 1st, 1145: "[....] On December 1, 1145, Pope Eugenius III, responding to a report that a Muslim army had overrun the principality of Edessa in what is now southeastern Turkey, called for a second crusade to protect Jerusalem from what were sure to be renewed attacks. As part of the spiritual and temporal incentives he needed to recruit a large army, the pope promised those who agreed to serve as crusaders remission of debts both spiritual and temporal. In addition to a plenary indulgence, the pope offered remission of all interest on debts and postponement of payment until the crusaders' return. 'The King of France,' according to Ephraim bar Jacob, 'then allowed an order to be published to the effect that one who resolved to go to Jerusalem on the Crusade must be forgiven his debts to Jews. Most of the loans made by French Jews, however, were made on mere credit; through this they lost their fortunes.' [....]" [Based on: E. Michael Jones, editor of Culture Wars]

*Trivia: "At Vezelay in 1146 the Cistercian abbot St. Bernard of Clairvaux preached the Second Crusade to King Louis VII, Queen Eleanor, their knights, and an assembled congregation of 100,000. Indeed, the enthusiasm of the Crusades was intimately allied to the veneration of the Magdalene." [Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, Laurence Gardner]

*Trivia: "The second crusade, the Crusade of Kings, reportedly endured from 1147-1149."

1145 - Perihelion / Halley's Comet - April 18th, 1145 A.D.: "1P/1145 G1 (18 April 1145)"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halley%27s_Comet] - [T.D. - 06/12/07] 

1150 - Middle English Period -  "The oldest surviving manuscripts of Middle English range from 1100 to1150 A.D."

1151 - Pluto in Gemini - May 8th, 1151: "Estimated date when Pluto entered [0 degrees] Gemini."

1156 - Trivia / Usury - "Two brothers borrow 115 Genoese pounds and agree to reimburse the bank's agents in Constantinople the sum of 460 bezants one month after their arrival in that city. In the following century the use of such contracts grows rapidly particularly when profits from time differences are seen as not infringing canon laws against usury."

1162 - Extraordinary Powers / Knights Templars - "In January 1162 Pope Alexander III issued a special papal bull granting the Templars extraordinary powers. They were released from all spiritual obedience except to the Pope himself, were allowed to have their own chaplains and burial grounds and were freed from paying tithes but could receive them instead."

1163 - Cornerstone / Notre Dame de Paris - 1163: "1163 Cornerstone laid for Notre Dame de Paris - construction begins." [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Notre_Dame_de_Paris]

1169 - Earthquake / Sicily - February 11th, 1169: "Earthquake location: Near Mt. Etna, Sicily. Earthquake magnitude: N/A. Number of recorded fatalities: 15,000."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207]

1179 - Third Lateran Council - "[....] The Third Lateran Council 1179, like Bernard, reiterated the traditional critique of the Jews. Taken together, the increasing threat which Jewish usury posed to the social order and church property combined the subsequent attack on Jews at the time of the crusades, which occurred at least partially in response to it, forced the church to refocus its attention on the Jews after a hiatus of centuries. The Third Lateran Council of 1179 passed a number of resolutions on the Jews, most of which were, as Synan notes, 'already traditional policy of many years' standing.' The long constitution in which most of these provisions occur is the oldest extant form of the famous Sicut Judaeis non, already mentioned and to recur regularly in the future. [....]" [Based on: E. Michael Jones, editor of Culture Wars]

1171 - King Henry II / Ireland  - "Henry II conquers Ireland."

1184 - Glastonbury Fire - "A good many valuable writings and relics were destroyed in the Glastonbury fire of 1184."

1187 - Muslim Holy Land - "The Crusaders are pushed out of the Holy Land [1187-1296] by the Moslem armies of the mid-east. The place that was the Temple of Solomon is built over, and is today a Moslem shrine."

1189 - Third Crusade - "The third crusade reportedly endured from 1189 to 1192."

1190 - Carmelites / Mt. Carmel - "The Order of the Brothers of Our Lady of Mount Carmel or Carmelites (sometimes simply Carmel by synecdoche; Latin: Ordo Fratrum Beatissimæ Virginis Mariæ de Monte Carmelo) is a Catholic religious order perhaps founded in the 12th century on Mount Carmel, hence its name. However, historical records about its origin remain uncertain.[1] Saint Bertold has traditionally been associated with the founding of the order, but few clear records of early Carmelite history have survived and this is likely to be a later extrapolation by hagiographers.[2] [....] Carmelite tradition traces the origin of the order to a community of hermits on Mount Carmel that succeeded the schools of the prophets in ancient Israel, although there are no certain records of hermits on this mountain before the 1190s. By this date a group of men had gathered at the well of Elijah on Mount Carmel. These men, who had gone to Palestine from Europe either as pilgrims or as crusaders, chose Mount Carmel in part because it was the traditional home of Elijah. The foundation was believed to have been dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary. The conventual buildings were destroyed several times, but a monastery of Discalced Carmelite friars was built close to the original site under the auspices of Fr. Julius of the Saviour and duly consecrated on 12th June 1836. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carmelites]

*Links: http://carmelites.net/tradition/history.html

1198 - Pope Innocent III - "[....] The situation changed dramatically when Innocent III was named pope in 1198. It was a momentous time in many respects, a time when the supreme pontiff declared war on both heretics at home and infidels abroad, and one might add, the infidels at home, the Jews, as well, after inheriting 'a Church that had been sliding ominously in efficiency and esteem.' When Innocent III became pope, 'the status of European Jews was radically altered, and the policy of the Church became imbued with an increasingly aggressive and polemical spirit. The war against the heretics of Languedoc included the Jewries of the cities involved and it was not long before 'the crusade against the Albigensians led to the crusade against the Jews.' [....]" [Based on: E. Michael Jones, editor of Culture Wars]

Earthquake Trivia / 12th Century - "Number of notable earthquakes this century: at least 1. Number of earthquake deaths this century: 15,000." [- E.M.]

13th Century A.D.

1200 - Map of Europe - "Map of Europe, 1200 A.D."

1200 - Sant Mat - "Sant Mat was a loosely associated group of teachers that became prominent in the northern part of the Indian sub-continent from about the 13th century. Theologically, their teachings are distinguished by an inward, loving devotion to a divine principle, and socially by an egalitarianism opposed to the qualitative distinctions of the Hindu caste system, and to those between Hindus and Muslims. [1] [NP] The sant lineage can be divided into two main groups: The northern group of Sants from the provinces of the Punjab, (Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh), who expressed themselves mainly in vernacular Hindi, and the southern group, whose language is archaic Marathi, represented by Namdev and other Sants of Maharashtra.[1] [....] The first generation of north Indian sants, (which included Kabir and Ravidas), appeared in the region of Benares in the mid 15th century. Preceding them were two notable 13th and 14th century figures, Namdev and Ramananda. The latter, according to Sant Mat tradition, was a Vaishnava ascetic who initiated Kabir, Ravidas, and other sants. Ramanand's story is told differently by his lineage of "Ramanandi" monks, by other Sants preceding him, and later by the Sikhs. What is known is that Ramananda accepted students of all castes, a fact that was contested by the orthodox Hindus of that time. Sant Mat practitioners accept that Ramananda's students formed the first generation of Sants.[5] [NP] These Sants developed a culture of being close to marginalized humans in society including women, and the untouchables (Atishudras). Some of the more notable Sants include Namdev (d.1350), Kabir (d.1518), Nanak (d.1539), Mira Bai (d.1545), Surdas (d.1573), Tulsidas (d.1623), and Tukaram (d. 1650). [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sant_Mat] - [T.D. - 09/06/09]

1200 - Templar Bankers - "By the beginning of the thirteenth century the Templars had become the international bankers of Europe and were appointed treasurers of the French Royal family and the Vatican."

*Trivia: "The Grand masters of the military orders of warrior monks, which included the Templars, the Knights of St. John and the Teutonic Knights, had gained considerable political power. By the thirteenth century their Orders controlled 40 per cent of the frontiers of Europe."

1200s - Gnostic Revival / Southern France - "[....] Unlike Graetz, who turns the Jews into cynical manipulators of the Albigensians, Cantor claims that the Jews succumbed to the Jewish version of the same error, namely, Cabala, because 'The Jewish community of Provence was the place where the Cabala started.' In vehemently rejecting Maimonides' rationalism, the rabbis of Provence succumbed to a 'pastiche of mysticism, demonology, and astrology. [....]' The Zohar, the definitive cabalistic text would not get written for another century, 'but its origins lie in Provence in the early 13th century, precisely at the same time as the flourishing of the Catharist heresy.' Citing Gershom Scholem as his authority on the matter, Cantor claims that 'Cabala was a late continuation or revival of ancient Jewish Gnosticism.' Gnosticism was 'hermetic among the Jews' as it was among Freemasonry, which was the English Protestant appropriation of Cabala, 'but blatantly separatist among the Christians. . . . it surfaced at the same time and in the same place, southern France, among both Christians and Jews. In the case of the Christians it takes the form of Catharism; among the Jews, of Cabalism.' When Gnosticism first appeared in the ancient world, 'the Gnostic community was the greatest internal threat that Christianity faced in the first two centuries of its existence.' It was no less a threat to Christian society in the 13th century. [....]" [Based on: E. Michael Jones, editor of Culture Wars]

1200 - Sufi Expansion - "A much more massive expansion of Islam after the 12th century was inaugurated by the Sufis [Muslim mystics], who were mainly responsible for the spread of Islam in India, Central Asia, Turkey, and sub-Saharan Africa."

1200 - Hindu Repression - "Repression of Hinduism under Muslim rule: from 1200-1800 A.D."

1200 - Jewish Persecution - "Jewish persecution continues in Western Europe [1200-1400]."

1201 - Configuration - "Uranus-Pluto [Cancer] conjunction. Uranus-Pluto conjunctions and oppositions might bring sudden and radical changes, like a cathartic diarrhoea, yet their full integration takes ages."

1202 - Fourth Crusade - "The infamous fourth crusade [1202-1204] took Canstantinople from the Byzantines and established a Latin Empire [1206-1261] in Greek lands." [Based on: Keith Crim, The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions]

1204 - French Normandy -  "King John loses the province of Normandy to the King of France."

1204 - Dominicans & Franciscans - "[....] By 1200 the Albigensians and the Waldensians had firmly established their presence in Lombardy and Languedoc. In 1204, Innocent III dispatched Diego de Acebes, the bishop of Osma, to preach among the Cathari in Languedoc. What followed was the rise of the new Mendicant orders—the Dominicans and the Franciscans—as the Church's frontline troops in the war against heterodoxy. Unlike the Benedictines, who were bound to a place by the rule of Benedict, the Dominicans and the Franciscans could move around and fight heretical ideas, wherever the ideas emerged—in the cities and in the South of France and north of Italy where the Cathari had established themselves. By the time Dominic died in 1221, his order was at work throughout Europe and well on the way to creating the Inquisition, which would be the way the Church would combat heresy and the subversion that went with it for the following centuries. [....]" [Based on: E. Michael Jones, editor of Culture Wars]

*Trivia: "[....] Empowered by the Church, the newly founded mendicant orders— in particular, the Dominicans—began studying both Hebrew and Arabic and reading the sacred writings of the Jews in order to understand them better. The confidence of the Church in following the only possible option that was consistent according to Sicut Judaeis non began to bear fruit early on among the Jews, who began to convert in significant numbers toward the end of the 13th century. And when they did they brought the insider's information with them and began sharing it with those in authority. [....]" [Based on: E. Michael Jones, editor of Culture Wars]

1206 - United Mongolian Tribes - "In 1206 an assembly of Mongolian tribes at Karakorum united under Genghis Khan."

1207 - Birth / Maulana Rumi - 1207: "MAULANA RUMI, Jalal-ud-Din (1207-73)—The famous author of the greatest mystic poem called Masnavi or Mathnawi. He was just a school teacher (Maulvi) but under the powerful influence of his spiritual guide and preceptor, Shamas Tabrezi, he very soon rose to the eminent position of a great spiritual guide (Maulana) and became a teacher of mankind, in the higher (spiritual) values of life. Immediately on his death, he was worshipped as a Saint."

[Based on: http://www.ruhanisatsangusa.org/gloss.htm]

*Trivia: "RUMI (Jalal-ud-Din Rumi)—(1207-1273 A.D.)—Greatest of the Sufi poets of Persia; the author of many odes in praise of his Master, Shamas-i-Tabrez. His monumental work, the immensely long 'Spiritual Masnavi' is a collection of ethical precepts, illustrated from Koran, and the sayings of Mohammad."

[Based on: http://www.ruhanisatsangusa.org/gloss.htm]

*Trivia: "MASNAVI or MATHNAWI—A long spiritual poem by Jalal-ud-Din Rumi (1207-73), greatest of the Sufi poets of Persia, am ardent disciple of the illustrious Shamas Tabrezi (the Sun of Spirituality), a perfect spiritual guide of his time. It is a wonderful masterpiece in Persian literature and describes the plight of the outcast soul from the day of first separation from God. The book is held in high reverence and its careful study is supposed to serve as a passport to heaven."

[Based on: http://www.ruhanisatsangusa.org/gloss.htm]

1208 - Fatality / Papal Legate, Languedoc - "[....] The prosecution of heresy in Languedoc must have been effective, because in 1208 the papal legate there was murdered. Raymond of Toulouse was held responsible and Innocent in response preached a crusade to liberate the area from heresy. In 1209 an army assembled at Lyon and then marched southward, engaging in indiscriminate slaughter. When one of the soldiers was asked how he could tell the heretics from the Catholics, he was told to slaughter them all and let God sort them out. The struggle would outlast Innocent's papacy by at least 13 years, coming to something of a conclusion in 1229 when Languedoc became part of the French royal domain. [....]" [Based on: E. Michael Jones, editor of Culture Wars]

1209 - Albigensian Crusade - "In 1209 the Church launched a crusade against the Cathars and thousands were killed. The knight who led the crusade, when asked by his men  who they should put to the sword and who they should spare in the towns they attacked, replied with the immortal words, 'Kill them all. God will know His own.' "

1212 - Children's Crusade - "The Children's Crusade of 1212 ended with the loss of thousands of French and German children." [Based on: Keith Crim, The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions]

1215 - Fourth Lateran Council - "[....] It was during the pontificate of Innocent III that the Orders of Dominican and Franciscan Friars rose to prominence as the auxiliaries of the Church. The Fourth Lateran Council of 1215 enacted measures against both Jews and heretics, and it was the newly created mendicant orders, in particular the Dominicans, who were assigned the task of implementing those proposals. The Dominican order was in large measure responsible for the attack on the Talmud, the rambling commentary on the Torah which had become the heart of the Jewish religion; it was also responsible for the establishment of the Inquisition, and it was largely responsible, under the direction of Dominican General Raymond of Penaforte, for the campaign of converting the Jews which got waged over the next two centuries. [....]" [Based on: E. Michael Jones, editor of Culture Wars]

*Trivia: "[....] According to one historian, the first paragraph of the Fourth Lateran's Title 68, initiated 'a new era in European Jewish history,' by specifying that henceforth all Jews 'shall be readily distinguishable from everyone else by their type of clothing' The point of the clothing was to guard unsuspecting Christians against intercourse with Jews.' . [....]" [Based on: E. Michael Jones, editor of Culture Wars]

*Trivia: "[....] Louis IX implemented the anti-Jewish edicts of the Fourth Lateran Council by ordering all Jews within his realm to wear 'a circle or felt or yellow cloth, stitched upon the outer garment in front and in back' about 'the size of a palm,' so that the simple folk might not fall unsuspecting into intercourse with Jews of the sort which Raymund Lull would warn against. The combined power of Church and State was brought to bear on the Talmudic Jews, and they considered the loving ministrations of the Mendicants 'an unmitigated disaster' and 'unquestionably the nadir of Jewish fortunes' precisely because so many Jews were persuaded by their efforts and voluntarily embraced Christianity as a result. [....]" [Based on: E. Michael Jones, editor of Culture Wars]

1215 - Genghis Khan / Beijing - "In 1215, Genghis Khan captured Beijing."

1215 - Public Confrontation / King John, England - "When King John attempted to sell off the country's [England's] fisheries and to erect navigational tolls on the Thames, the public rose up and confronted him at Runnymede in 1215, forcing him to sign the Magna Carta, which includes provisions guaranteeing the rights of free access to fisheries and waters. In thirteenth-century England it was a capital offense to burn coal in London, and violaters were executed for the crime." [Based on: Robert F. Kennedy Jr., Crimes Against Nature, pp. 20-21]

1217 - Franciscan Friars Minor - "St. Francis of Assisi founded the Franciscan Friars Minor [later the Capuchins] in 1217."

1218 - Fifth Crusade - "The fifth crusade [1218-1221] attacked Egypt but failed to hold the important city of Damietta." [Based on: The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions, Keith Crim]

1220 - Configuration - "Uranus-Neptune [Scorpio/Taurus] opposition [1220-1223]."

1222 - Perihelion / Halley's Comet - September 28th, 1222 A.D.: "1P/1222 R1 (28 September 1222)"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halley%27s_Comet] - [T.D. - 06/12/07] 

1223 - Bible Censorship / Spain - "In 1223, James the First, King of Aragon, Spain, ordered that 'No man shall possess books of the Old or New Testament in Romance [the common language].' "

12. Baktun 11. Baktun of the Hidden Seed. A.D. 1224-1618.

Expansion of Islam to India, Central and Southeast Asia, West Africa; seclusion of Tibet; rise of Turks, Mongols, conquest of China; seclusion of Japan; rise of Zimbabwe, East Africa, I'fe and Benin, West Africa; peak of Christian civilization, West Europe, and rise of Orthodox Russian civilization, East Europe; Reformatioon and split of Christian Church; spread and triumph of European civilization in conquest of Inca and Aztec empires; beginning of European colonization, decline of sacred world view (hidden seed).

[Based on: The Mayan Factor / Path Beyond Technology, by Jose Arguelles, Copyright 1939-, 1987, p. 115]

1228 - Sixth Crusade - "The sixth crusade [1228-1229] led by Frederick II of Germany, though opposed by Innocent III, gained control of Nazareth, Bethlehem, and Jerusalem, along with access to the sea, by peaceful negotiation." [Based on: The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions, Keith Crim]

1229 - Bible Censorship / France - "In 1229 the Religious Synod of Toulouse, France, issued an edict that said: 'Lay [common] people shall not have books of scripture.' "

1230 - Solar Eclipse - "Major European Eclipse [May 14th]"

1231 - Papal Inquisition - "Pope Gregory formally institutes the papal Inquisition. He later turned over the tasks to members of the Dominican and Franciscan orders, who had independent power over local clergy and bishops. The Dominicans were so zealous in their work that they were called 'Domini Canis,' or Hounds of God. Two informants were usually sufficient to cause someone to be brought to trial. Torture was frequently used to elicit a confession. Punishments ranged from fines and penance to painful death. Since the church was not permitted to shed blood, the accused were turned over to the civil authorities who would carry out the sentence."

*Trivia: "[....] Gregory IX was the first pope to discover the Talmud. He was shocked by what he discovered, but he did not, as a result, abrogate Sicut Judaeis non and its prohibition against harming the Jew. What changed was his understanding of what the Jews believed and how they acted on those beliefs, and that changed largely as a result of his discovery of the Talmud. [....]" [Based on: E. Michael Jones, editor of Culture Wars]

1232 - Banned / Maimonist Writings  - "[....] Innocent III had claimed that the Church was as the ruler of the Jews in the lands that comprise Christendom. As some indication that the Jews felt the same way, Abraham of Montpellier wrote to Gregory IX in 1232 and asked him to ban Maimonides. Unable to resolve their own internal disputes, the Jews turned to the Church—in particular, the Dominicans—to use the Inquisition to resolve the issue of Maimonides' orthodoxy for them. Eventually, Abraham and his party won out and the Mendicants burned Maimonides' writings at their request. Jewish historians take this fact as an indication that the Inquisition was 'perhaps actively looking for an excuse to strike out at the Jews.' But it is clear that the Dominicans in this instance were caught between two groups of Jews who could not resolve their own dispute. It is likewise clear that they thought that the Church could. Hence, the fact that both sides appealed to the Inquisition for a judgment. Abraham of Montpellier, according to one Jewish historian, was 'imitating the example of Pope Gregory IX,' when he 'issued a ban against the Maimonist writings at the beginning of 1232.' The orthodox Jews wanted 'the Dominican Friars to proceed against Jewish heretics in the same fashion as against Christian dissenters.' The avidity with which this group of Jews sought out the Dominicans belies the claim made by one Jewish historian that 'Christian orthodoxy now appeared willing and eager to try and equate Jews with heretics.' It was the Jews who sought the Church's aid in ridding the synagogue of heretics, not the other way around. The incident served as the opening act in the great drama of the Church's discovery of and crusade against the Talmud. 'Forty days did not pass from the burning of our teacher's [Maimonides] works until that of the Talmud,' one chronicler wrote. His account though 'can hardly be considered factual. Nonetheless, the thrust of his argument reveals the perspective of contemporary Jews.' It also shows that 'in a certain measure Jews were responsible for the inauguration of the crusade against their writings.'
   "That crusade began in 1236 when Nicholas de Rupella or Nicholas Donin, an apostate Jew from La Rochelle who had become first a Christian and then a member of the Dominican order (some sources claim he was a Franciscan) was granted an audience with Pope Gregory IX and called his attention to the blasphemies which were contained in the collection of Hebrew writings known as the Talmud. Donin's outspoken opinions had caused him to be expelled from the synagogue 11 years before he met with the pope, so revenge could have been a motive, but Donin took with him an acute understanding of the role which the Talmud played in Jewish life. It was, as Graetz claimed in his history, 'the mainstay of Jewish civilization'; it was also full of blasphemies—claiming, among other things, that Christ was now being cooked in boiling excrement in hell and that he was the illegitimate son a Roman solider and a whore by the name of Mary. At this moment in history, the Talmud was virtually unknown among the Christians, who, like Pope Gregory IX, still labored under the illusion that the Jews followed the Torah, books which Catholics considered canonical as well. [....]" [Based on: E. Michael Jones, editor of Culture Wars]

1235 - Heretic Prosecution / Pope Gregory IX - "An order comes out of the Vatican, authorising the commencement of an Inquisition to re-establish the orthodoxy of the faith. The charge of heresy soon becomes entangled with the charge of witchcraft, and in this form took until the seventeenth century to die away. In 1235 Anno Domini, Pope Gregory IX produced the documents that formalized the detection and prosecution of heretics as part of church procedure, throughout the dominions of the Christian church. This action built on a good century of growing concern, violent outbursts and partial legislation, most notably that of his predecessor Innocent III, who made penalties for the practice of heresy part of the church, or canon, law. What Gregory IX achieved, which gives him the dubious privilege of being considered the founder of the Inquisition, was a structure that could enforce those laws." [Link: 1]

1238 - Birth / Madhva - "[....] Madhva was born on the Vijayadashami day of 1238 A.D. to a pious couple Nadillaya Narayan Bhatta and Vedavati, in a village Pajaka near Udupi ( in present day Karnataka). His earlier name was Vasudeva. [....] 'There is one God, the embodiment of positive Divinity. He is "Narayana." He is also Ishwara Brahma, Vishnu, and has many other names. You can address Him by any name.' - he preached. [NP] 'This world is God's reflection. Through this reflection only one has to try hard to realize God.' - he exclaimed. [NP] 'The entire nature extols God. His existence is evident in the sounds of sea, in the wind in singing of birds and howls of beasts. These all pay homage to God. his existence should be recognized which is possible after self-training.' he advised. He gave new interpretation to caste system prevailing during his times. (Actually he was nearer to Vedic seers in this aspect.) The caste was related more to one's nature than his/her birth. Birth was not important to determine caste. It signified one's behavior or nature. A spiritually enlightened chandala (outcaste) was better than an ignorant brahmin.' People were drawn to his teachings. [NP] By the time Madhva returned to Udupi he had good number of followers. The installation of Lord Krishna's image in the Udupi temple and establishment of eight mathas (known as the ashamathas) marked his great achievement of this period. [....]"

[Based on: http://www.kamat.com/indica/faiths/bhakti/madhwacharya.htm] - [T.D. - 01/17/11]

1239 - Letter to Paris / Pope Gregory IX - "[....] On June 9, 1239, Pope Gregory finally responded to Donin's 35 petitions by dispatching him with a letter to William of Auvergne, bishop of Paris. His letter substantiates the points we have already made about the changed perception of Jews that resulted from the discovery of the Talmud. The Jews, Gregory wrote, 'so we have heard, are not content with the Old Law which God gave to Moses in writing: they even ignore it completely and affirm that God gave another Law which is called 'Talmud,' that is 'Teaching,' handed down to Moses orally. . . . In this is contained matter so abusive and so unspeakable that it arouses shame in those who mention it and horror in those who hear it.' The offenses are so great that Gregory uses the word 'crime' to describe them. He also claims that the Talmud is 'the chief cause that holds the Jews obstinate in their perfidy.' As a result, he ordered that 'on the first Saturday of Lent to come [March 3rd, 1240], in the morning which the Jews are gathered in the synagogues, you shall, by our order seize all the books of the Jews who live in your districts and have these books carefully guarded in the possession of the Dominican and Franciscan friars.' If those friars found the books offensive, they were to be burned at the stake. [....]" [Based on: E. Michael Jones, editor of Culture Wars]

1240 - Confiscation / Jewish Books - March 3rd, 1240: "[....] The papal directive commanded that all the books of the Jews be confiscated on the first Sabbath of Lent in the following year—March 3, 1240—while the Jews would be at their synagogue services, and then be transferred to the Dominicans and Franciscans for safe keeping. If, after examination, the books proved to be as pernicious as Donin claimed, they were to be burned on June 20. [....]" [Based on: E. Michael Jones, editor of Culture Wars]

1240 - Conference on the Talmud - June, 1240: "[....] St. Louis IX, King of France, was equally upset by the harm which the Talmud was doing, not least of all, the fact that it set up 'an impassable barrier' to their conversion. As a result he called a conference on the Talmud. In June 1240, the already mentioned Nicholas Donin engaged in an extended debate with Rabbi Yechiel ben Joseph of Paris. The disputation was held under royal auspices and presided over by the queen mother, Blanche of Castile. One Jewish commentator claims that 'the entire event epitomized the declining status of Jews in that century and their transformation in Christian minds into little more than embodiments of blasphemous doctrine.' But a closer reading of the encounter shows that the rabbi, who had every right to feel intimidated by the circumstances surrounding the debate, in spite of assurances of freedom of speech, was simply dumbfounded by the fact that he had to defend what amounted to Jewish esoteric writings in a hostile environment. Nothing like this had ever happened before in roughly the millennium since the Talmud had been compiled. Rabbi Yechiel, lacking any precedent for conducting a disputation of this sort, simply didn't know how to respond. When asked whether it were true that the Talmud claimed that 'Jesus was condemned to an eternity in hell, immersed in 'boiling excrement' ' and that Mary, his mother, was a whore, the Rabbi could only respond by saying that, yes, as a matter of fact, those passages were in the Talmud, but they did not refer to 'that' Jesus or 'that' Mary. 'Not every Louis born in France is the king of France,' Yechiel maintained, giving new meaning to the term 'chutzpah.' 'Has it not happened,' he continued, 'that two men were born in the same city, had the same name, and died in the same manner? There are many such cases.' [....]" [Based on: E. Michael Jones, editor of Culture Wars]

1240 - Paris Disputation - "[....] In the generations that followed the Paris disputation of 1240 and the initial burning of the Talmud in 1242, mendicant inquisitors throughout Europe continued to persecute rabbinic literature, compelled the Jews to submit to their inflammatory sermons, and, where possible, often worked toward the complete destruction of specific Jewish communities. Early in the 14th century, Bernard Gui burned the Talmud even in the absence of Jews." [Cohen, p. 424]

1242 - Talmud Burned / Paris France - "[....] With defenders like Rabbi Yechiel, the Talmud needed no enemies. The result of the debate was the public burning of the Talmud in Paris at the Place de Greve. Over one 36 hour period in June of 1242, over 10,000 volumes were consigned to the flames. As if determined to prove that what the Christians had said about them was essentially correct, a group of Jews appealed the sentence directly to Rome, 'complaining that they could not practice their religion without the Talmud.' The Jewish religion was now firmly rooted in the mind of the Church not as biblical Judaism, but rather a heretical deviation. The decision to return the Talmud to the Jews caused outrage in a number of quarters. [....]" [Based on: E. Michael Jones, editor of Culture Wars]

*Trivia: "[....] One bishop who was outraged that the pope allowed the Jews to keep their Talmud concluded , that the Jews had lied to the pope, and it would be 'most disgraceful and a cause of shame for the Apostolic Throne, if books that had been so solemnly and so justly burned in the presence of all the scholars and of the clergy, and of the populace of Paris were to be given back to the masters of the Jews at the order of the pope—for such tolerance would seem to mean approval.' In May 1248, he concluded that 'the said books are unworthy of tolerance.' [....] In 1254 Louis IX renewed the ordinance ordering the burning of the Talmud, as did both of his successors during their reigns. When Louis X readmitted the Jews into France, he specifically barred them from bringing the Talmud with them. [....]" [Based on: E. Michael Jones, editor of Culture Wars]

1242 - Permission to Arm / Inquisitors - "Inquisitors were granted permission to arm a limited number of their household, [not themselves, as it must be remembered the Inquisitors were Dominican and Franciscan monks]."

1244 - Letter to St. Louis / Pope Innocent IV - "[....] In a letter to St. Louis, King of France, in May 1244, Innocent IV, Gregory's successor began to draw conclusions from what the Church had just learned. 'The wicked perfidy of the Jews,' he claimed, 'does not properly heed the fact that Christian piety received them and patiently allows them to live in Christendom through pity only. Instead, it commits such grave sins that are stupefying to those who hear of them and horrible to those who tell of them.' In other words, the Talmud's blasphemies as well as the injunctions about defrauding the unsuspecting goyim threatened the very conditions under which Jews were tolerated. They called for a rethinking of the whole social compact vis a vis the Jews. [....]" [Based on: E. Michael Jones, editor of Culture Wars]

1244 - Catholic Forces / Montsegur - "[....] In 1244 Catholic forces stormed Montsegur, which had harbored men who murdered Dominican preachers, and Catholic troops burned 200 heretics at the stake without a trial. More immediately, Raymond of Toulouse was flogged publicly in 1209 for employing Jews and heretics at his court and swore to obey a set of injunctions dictated by the papal legate, one of which ordered him 'to remove the Jews from the administration of public and private affairs in all your lands' and never 'to restore them to the same or to other offices, nor to take any Jews for any administrative office, nor ever to use their advice against Christians.' [....]" [Based on: E. Michael Jones, editor of Culture Wars]

1244 - Cathar Defeat / Pyrenees - "The Cathars did not accept their persecution  by the Church meekly but fought back with all the resources at their disposal. Final defeat came, however, at Montsegur in the foothills of the Pyrenees when in March 1244 more than 200 Cathar priests were massacred by Christian forces."

1248 - Seventh Crusade - "The seventh crusade [1248-1254] failed to recapture Jerusalem, which had fallen to Muslim mercenaries [1244]." [Keith Crim, The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions]

1252 - Right to Torture / Inquisition - "Pope Innocent IV, in the bull Ad extirpanda granted the Inquisition the right to torture."

1254 - Ordinance Renewed / Talmud Burning - "[....] In 1254 Louis IX renewed the ordinance ordering the burning of the Talmud, as did both of his successors during their reigns. When Louis X readmitted the Jews into France, he specifically barred them from bringing the Talmud with them. [....]" [Based on: E. Michael Jones, editor of Culture Wars]

1256 - Defeat / Assassin Stronghold - "The most powerful and well documented Islamic secret society which operated in the middle east was the sect known popularly as the Assassins. The Assassin stronghold was finally overrun by the Mongols in 1256 and the order was scattered. However, as late as 1754 the British consul at Aleppo claimed that the Order of Assassins still survived in Persia, Syria, and India."

1263 - Talmud Disputation / Barcelona, Spain - "[....] In 1263 another disputation over the Talmud took place, this time in Barcelona, between another converted Rabbi, Saul of Montpellier, now known as Pablo Christiani (or Paul Chretien) and Rabbi Moses ben Nachman of Gerona. Christiani was no low-level convert. He had studied Jewish literature under the direction of Rabbis Eliezer ben Emmanuel of Trascon and Jacob ben Elligah Alttes of Venice. Christiani must have been influenced by the Order of Preachers while still a Jew because he joined the Dominicans almost immediately after converting, and, in a manner consistent with the papally approved apostolate of the Dominicans, Pablo Christiani devoted the rest of his life to bringing about the conversion of the Jews.
   "The disputation, which was held over four sessions, lasting from July 20 to July 27, 1263, was organized by Raymund of Penaforte, General of the Dominicans and the man who told Gregory IX to listen to Nicholas Donin in 1236. Largely as a result of the debate and the efforts of Raymond, the focus of the Inquisition shifted from southern France to the Iberian peninsula, where it inaugurated 'a second stage in the development of the new anti-Jewish polemic.'
   "Raymond de Penaforte was born near Barcelona in the small village of Villafranca del Penades between 1174 and 1180. He entered the Order of Preachers in 1222, and eight years later Gregory IX summoned him to Rome to be his confessor. Raymond remained at that post for another eight years until 1238, when he became Master General of the Dominicans. If there is one man responsible for the fact that the Jews disappeared from western Europe by 1500 it is Raymond of Penaforte. [....]" [Based on: E. Michael Jones, editor of Culture Wars]

*Trivia: "[....] It was Penaforte who persuaded James I of Aragon to bring the Inquisition to Aragon. It was he who was 'the moving spirit of Gregory IX in all that affected the Jews,' including Gregory's sympathetic reception of Nicholas Donin. In 1250 Raymond had taken the initial steps to establish an academy for the study of Arabic in Tunis, to be staffed by Dominicans, who reasoned that conversion was impossible unless they learned the language and sacred scriptures of those whom they hoped to convert. In addition to that, 'certain friars were thus instructed in the Hebrew language, so that they could overcome the malice and the errors of the Jews.' [....]" [Based on: E. Michael Jones, editor of Culture Wars]

1267 - Papal Bull / Turbato Corde - "[....] In 1267, at the beginning of Lull's period of conversion, Clement IV issued the bull Turbato Corde. With his heart in turmoil (hence the title), Clement gave some indication that proselytizing was a two-way street in medieval Europe, because in it he complained 'that exceedingly numerous reprobate Christians, denying the truth of the Catholic faith, have gone over, in a way worthy of damnation, to the rite of the Jews.' Clement's response was to treat the relapsi as if they were heretics, i.e., by subjecting them to the Inquisition, and to punish the Jews who helped them relapse. The appeal was issued primarily to the Mendicants, who ran the machinery of the Inquisition for the Church. [....]" [Based on: E. Michael Jones, editor of Culture Wars]

1268 - Earthquake / Cilicia, Asia Minor - "Earthquake location: Cilicia, Asia Minor. Earthquake magnitude: N/A. Number of recorded fatalities: 60,000."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207]

1269 - Pluto in Capricorn - A reported date [also 1270] when Pluto entered Capricorn.

[Based on: http://www.isleofavalon.co.uk/GlastonburyArchive/ephem/ed-medi2.html] - [T.D. - 11/22/08]

1273 - Rudolph of Habsburg - October 1st, 1273: "[...] By 1276, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant, Rudolph of Habsburg, had moved the family's power base from Habsburg Castle to the Archduchy of Austria. Rudolph had become King of Germany/Holy Roman Emperor in 1273, and the dynasty of the House of Habsburg was truly entrenched in 1276 when Rudolph became sovereign ruler of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled for the next six centuries. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Habsburg]

1274 - Status of "Reincarnation" / Council of Lyons - "In the Council of Lyons, in 1274, it was stated that; 'after death the soul goes promptly either to heaven or to hell. On the day of judgment, all will stand before the tribunal of Christ with their bodies to render account of what they have done.' The Council of Florence of 1439 uses almost the same wording to describe the swift passage of the soul either to heaven or hell. Implicit in both of these councils is the assumption that the soul does not again venture into physical bodies."  

1278 - Pugio fidei adversus Mauros et Judeos - "Penaforte's most famous pupils in the school of conversion were Pablo Christiani, with whom he worked out, in the words of Jeremy Cohen, 'tactics [that] often resulted in a considerable number of conversions' and Raymond Martini, author of the Pugio Fidei, the Dagger of the Faith, a book which was, in Cohen's words again, 'the most learned and best documented polemic against Judaism which the Middle Ages produced.'
   "Martini was born between 1210 and 1215. In 1250 he left for Tunis to attended the studium arabicum which Penaforte had established there. By the time Martini had completed his Pugio fidei adversus Mauros et Judeos in 1278, a revolution in the Catholic understanding of the Jews had taken place. [....]" [Based on: E. Michael Jones, editor of Culture Wars]

*Trivia: "[....] Martini identified contemporary Judaism as 'a new religion which we were not commanded at Sinai.' . [....]" [Based on: E. Michael Jones, editor of Culture Wars]

*Trivia: "[....] Raymund Lull made much the same point. Born roughly 20 years after Martini on Mallorca, Lull underwent a conversion from a dissolute life at the court in Aragon during the period from 1265 to 1275. Like Martini and other men of his generation, Lull considered the Jews not as preservers of the Old Testament but 'outlaws.' Having forsaken the Torah, they now lived 'extra legem.' Like Martini, Lull dedicated his life to their conversion. Lull, according to Cohen, 'devised grandiose schemes for converting the Jewish community to Christianity, systematically and completely as for those Jews who would ultimately persist in refusing baptism, he advocated their permanent expulsion from Christian society.' [....]" [Based on: E. Michael Jones, editor of Culture Wars]

1278 - Papal Bull / Vineam Soreth - "[....] In 1278, Pope Nicholas III 'formally made preaching and missionizing among the Jews part of the apostolate of both the Dominican and Franciscan orders.' In his bull Vineam Soreth, Nicholas urged the mendicants to 'overcome the obstinacy of the perverse Jews. . . . Summon them to sermons in the places where they live . . . Inform them of evangelical doctrines with salutary warnings and discreet reasoning.' [....]" [Based on: E. Michael Jones, editor of Culture Wars]

1279 - Kublai Khan / China - "Kublai Khan completes what his grandfather began [The Quest of China] and ends the Sung Dynasty." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov]

1279 - Yuan Dynasty / China - "Reportedly, the Yuan dynasty ranged from 1279-1368."

1283 - Configuration - Uranus-Pluto [Scorpio/Taurus] opposition [1283-1286]. Uranus-Pluto conjunctions and oppositions might bring sudden and radical changes, like a cathartic diarrhoea, yet their full integration takes ages."

1290 - Jews Expelled  / England - "In 1290, Jews are expelled from England because they are too poor to pay taxes."

1290 - Earthquake / Chihli, China - September 27th, 1290: "Earthquake location: Chihli, China. Earthquake magnitude: N/A. Number of recorded fatalities: 100,000."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207]

1291 - Fall of Arce - "With the fall of Acre [1291] Latin rule in the Holy land collapsed. Crusading ventures afterward mainly attempted to curb Ottoman Turkish expansion." [Based on: Keith Crim, The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions]

1292 - Trivia / Jewish Conversions - "By the end of the 13th century, Jews began to convert en masse. In 1292 the Jewish congregation in Apulia in Italy disappeared because, as one Jewish historian puts it, 'the friars succeeded in harassing the Jews sufficiently so that most accepted baptism.' A manuscript in the Vatican Library confirms the conversion of a great number of Apulian Jews by Bartolomeo and two colleagues in 1292. And Neapolitan documents dating from 1294 . . . reveal that thirteen hundred Jewish families in Apulia have converted—probably a total of at least 8000 proselytes. Other contemporary sources relate that many Jews fled from Apulia at this time, causing the Jewish community in at least some cities to vanish completely. The Hebrew chronicler Solomon ibn Verga wrote that 'Some were forced to convert. . .and the rest departed for distant lands.' As a result the Jewish community in Apulia ceased to exist. Sincere conversion to Christianity is an oxymoron for Jewish historians, but even they are forced to concede that 'the inquisitorial endeavor achieved success during the last decade of the 13th century.' The historical record also indicates that the majority of conversions at this time were sincere, which is to say, not forced. [....]" [Based on: E. Michael Jones, editor of Culture Wars]

1293 - Earthquake / Kamakura, Japan - May 20th, 1293: "Earthquake location: Kamakura, Japan. Earthquake magnitude: N/A. Number of recorded fatalities: 30,000."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207]

1299 - Mercantile Economy / Europe - "By the late 13th century, most economic transactions were taling place with money, and Europe shifted from a largely barter economy to a money economy."

Earthquake Trivia / 13th Century - "Number of notable earthquakes this century: at least 3. Number of earthquake deaths this century: 190,000." [- E.M.]

14th Century A.D.

1300 - Map of Europe - "Map of Europe, 1300 A.D."

1300 - Mongol Decline - "Despite their initial success, the Mongols had lost their power rapidly in the 14th century. They lost power because they did not adopt the Chinese language and customs from the earlier dynasties."

1300 - Islam / Indonesia - "Islam was introduced to Indonesia in the 14th century."

1300 - Astrology / Europe - "[....] With the introduction of Greek culture into Egypt, both astronomy and astrology were actively cultivated in the region of the Nile during the Hellenistic and Roman periods. Astrology was further developed by the Arabs from the 7th to the 13th century, and in the Europe of the 14th and 15th centuries astrologers were dominating influences at court. The Mayans of Central America and the Aztecs also developed their own form of astrology. Other cultures and civilizations around the world also developed their own astrological systems independently. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_astrology] - [T.D. - 08/02/08]

1301 - Perihelion / Halley's Comet - October 25th, 1301 A.D.: "1P/1301 R1 (25 October 1301)"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halley%27s_Comet] - [T.D. - 06/12/07] 

*Trivia: "1301: The artist Giotto di Bondone could have observed the comet and his depiction of the Star of Bethlehem in the Nativity in the Arena Chapel cycle completed in 1305 is a candidate for an early depiction." [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halley%27s_Comet] - [T.D. - 06/12/07]

1304 - European Renaissance - "A traditional date for the beginning of the European Renaissance [1304-1576]."

1305 - Execution / William Wallace - August 23rd, 1305: "[....] This year [2005] marks the 700th anniversary of the execution of Wallace [in 1305], who led the Scots in their battle to free themselves from English rule and whose story was brought to the screen by Mel Gibson in the 1995 film 'Braveheart.' [....] Wallace's sword was kept at Dumbarton Castle for 600 years. King James IV is said to have paid for it to be given a new hilt in 1505." [ Based on: A.P. article, 03/31/05]       

1307 - Configuration - "Uranus-Neptune [Scorpio] conjunction. Uranus-Neptune energies work surreptitiously. They influence awareness and the inner movies playing within the world psyche."

1307 - Persecution / Knights Templar  - "In 1307 King Phillip IV of France was facing bankruptcy and owed the Templars a considerable amount of money. Phillip claimed that the Inquisitor of the realm had informed him that the two-hundred year old order of knights devoted to the protection of the Holy Land and pilgrims, [or to the slaying of pagans, depending on how you look at it], was corrupt, infested by Satanists and ritualised homosexuality. The facts that the Templars were also one of the great banks of the Middle Ages, possessed great quantities of land in Europe and were, furthermore, owed a great deal of money by Phillip, were not taken into consideration; this was after all a religious matter. The Templars were too attractive a target for even the Pope to ignore; else he considered that defending the Templars would bring about a head-on conflict that would only damage the Church. Wholesale torture produced it's usual results; and those who still refused to confess or retracted their forced confessions were burnt. This included the Grand Master and other masters of the order. The property of the Templars was transferred to the other old crusading order, the Knights Hospitaller, but only after the various governments had deducted the expenses of the trial. Phillip had his debts cancelled and further required expenses for the administration of the property. It was popularly supposed that the Hospitallers were poorer after receiving this gift than before. On November 22nd, 1307, the Pope issued a bull to all the Christian rulers in Western Europe ordering them to arrest any member of the Order residing in their countries."

1312 - Disbanded / Knights Templar - "The investigation of the Templars' crimes was thorough and lasted several years. It was not until 1312 that the Pope officially disbanded the Order."

1314 - Fatality / Jacques de Molay - "In March 1314, after several delays caused by the inability of the Pope fully to to accept the guilt of the Templars, Jacques De Molay [Grand Master of the Order] was offered the chance to submit to the Church and when he refused he was burnt to death at the stake. Just before he died de Molay announced  that he was innocent and cursed the French king and the Pope. He said that Phillip would be summoned to his maker within twelve months and the Pope before forty days. Clement died on the 20th of April and Phillip died on 29 November. In Germany, Portugal, Switzerland and Aragon the Templars were declared innocent and in Cyprus, where the Order had its headquarters, all the knights were aquitted of the charges brought by King Phillip. Before his execution de Molay had nominated a trusted knight called larmenuis as his successor and told him to secretly reorganize the order and gather together its scattered knights. It is from this point in history that the Templars disappear effectively from public view."

1320 - Birth / Hafiz - 1320: "HAFIZ (1320—-1389 A.D.)—A great Persian Saint-poet born at Shiraz. Hafiz is the pen name which means 'one who knows Koran by heart'. His real name was Shams-ud-Din Mohammed which means 'Sun of the Religion founded by Prophet Mohammed'. Hafiz enjoys great popularity among the Muslims and Hindus alike both as a saint as well as a poet.

[Based on: http://www.ruhanisatsangusa.org/gloss.htm]

1320 - Aztec Empire / South America - "The Aztecs declare an empire in South America."

1323 - Practica Inquisitionis - At the onset of what is called the Medieval Inquisition, the great crusades to the Holy Lands were over. These, in any case, were against pagans rather than heretics, and pagans were cases for conversion rather than inquisition. For instance, in the Practica Inquisitionis of 1323, written by the Dominican friar Bernardo Gui, he specifies amongst his targets Jews that have been converted and then relapsed. The Medieval Inquisition can be considered to occur between 1235 and 1400, and is characterised by the direct control of the Pope, administration by the monastic orders of the Dominicans and Franciscans, and finding its opponents in the Cathars, the Spiritual Franciscans and Waldesians, all genuine schismatic reform movements."

1325 - Aztec Tenochtitlan - "Work was begun on the city of Tenochtitlan, which became the Aztec capital in AD 1,325." [Heaven's Mirror, Quest For The Lost Civilization, by Graham Hancock and Santha Faiia, p. 13]

1336 - Vijyanagar Kingdom / South India - "The Vijyanagar kingdom [1336 A.D. to 1565 A.D.] was started in South India on a humble note to resist Muslim invasion of the Hoysala territory by Mallik Kafur's destructive campaign. However, within fifty years, the Vijayanagar (a.k.a. Vijayanagara) kingdom came to be known as a powerful empire and reigned the Indian southern peninsula for nearly 200 years. It required four Muslim kingdoms to come together to destroy the unwieldy large empire at the battle of Talikota. [NP] The big empire was visited by many foreigners who left vivid descriptions of the prosperity, strong powerful army and busy maritime trade. (See: Hu-En-Tsang.) [NP] Their capital was at Vijayanagar on the banks of Tungabhadra river, which today (2000) contains many great ruins. [NP] Krishnadevaraya of Vijayanagar was a great patron of art and literature and an accomplished poet himself in Telugu. The Hampi ruins are scattered over the area of fourteen square miles known as world's biggest open-air museum."

[Based on: http://www.kamat.com/kalranga/andhra/vnagar.htm] - [T.D. 01/17/11]

1337 - Hundred Years War / England & France - "In the early stages of the war between England and France, the net balance of ransom, loot, bounty and plunder favoured the English. Later, when the tide began to turn, new unpopular taxes were introduced to finance the English war effort."

1343 - Configuration - "Uranus-Pluto [Aries] conjunction [1343-1344]. Uranus-Pluto conjunctions and oppositions might bring sudden and radical changes, like a cathartic diarrhoea, yet their full integration takes ages."

1347 - Bubonic Plague / Western Europe  - "Plague arrives in Western Europe from the Crimea. The 'Black Death' [1347-1351], a form of bubonic plague, was reportedly responsible for the deaths of tens of millions of people; about 30 percent of the Chinese population, 1/4 of the European population, and 1/3 of the Muslim world."

1348 - Bubonic Plague / London - September, 1348: "In 1348, the bubonic plague which had been sweeping across Europe arrived in Britain through the southern coast ports. Known as the Black Death, the disease was spread by fleas living in the fur of rats and attacked a population already weakened by a series of famines. The plague reached London by September 1348 and Scotland, Wales and Ireland in the winter of 1349. Estimates place the total dead as somewhere between a tenth and a third of the population [for the period 1348-50]." [Link: 1]

1348 - Jewish Expulsions - "Many people blame the Jews for the Black Plague, which kills thousands in Europe. Consequently, Jews are expelled from many countries. Jewish immigration to Poland increases."

*Trivia: "[....] The papal tradition of protecting the Jews manifested itself during the time of the Black Death, when Jews were accused of spreading the plague, and suffered accordingly. In October 1347, a fleet of Genoese ships brought the plague to Italy from the Crimea. By 1350, 25 million people had died. Many of those who survived blamed the Jews. Bands of flagellants roamed the countryside trying to stem the plague with their penances. When a group of them arrived in Frankfurt in July 1349, 'they rushed directly to the Jewish quarter and led the local population in wholesale slaughter.' In September 1348 Pope Clement VI issued a statement exonerating the Jews from responsibility for the plague. [....]" [Based on: E. Michael Jones, editor of Culture Wars]

1348 - Trivia / English Language -  "English replaces Latin as the medium of instruction in schools, other than Oxford and Cambridge which retain Latin."

1348 - Order of the Garter - "Because it used the symbol of the Rosy Cross in its symbolism the Order of the Garter has been linked with the Rosicrucians. The Order was founded in 1348 by King Edward III of England and dedicated to the Virgin Mary, the Christianized version of the pagan Great Mother Goddess."

1362 - Trivia / English Language  - "The Statute of Pleading replaces French with English as the language of law. Records continue to be kept in Latin. English is used in Parliament for the first time."

1368 - Ming Dynasty / China - "Yu-chang founded the Ming Dynasty in 1368 and in 1371 he drove the Mongols out of Beijing. After more than a century of ruling the Mongolians retreated to the Mongolian heartland. The Ming dynasty was succeeded by the Qing [Manchu] dynasty in 1644."

1369 - Bible Censorship / Germany - "In 1369, King Charles IV, Emperor of Germany issued an edict that ordered Archbishops to launch 'inquisitors and confiscate' Bibles written in the common language. Though valiant efforts by a few to translate portions from the 'sacred' Latin Bible did occur, it did not stop official sanctions against them. Government decrees placed the death sentence on any who possessed a Bible in the common language and they were burned to death." [Link: 1]

1378 - Christian Rosenkreuz? - The Fama Fraternitatis presented the legend of a German doctor and mystic philosopher referred to as "Frater C.R.C." (later identified in a third manifesto as Christian Rosenkreuz, or "Rose-cross"). The year 1378 is presented as being the birth year of "our Christian Father," and it is stated that he lived 106 years. After studying in the Middle East under various masters, possibly those adhering to Sufism[5] or Zoroastrianism, he was unable to spread the knowledge he had acquired to any prominent European figures. Instead, he gathered a small circle of friends/disciples and founded the Rosicrucian Order (this can be deduced to have occurred in 1407). [....] Others believe Rosenkreuz to be a pseudonym for a more famous historical figure, usually theorized as Francis Bacon. [....]"

*Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosicrucian

*Trivia: "[....] Between 1607 and 1616, two anonymous manifestos were published, first in Germany and later throughout Europe.[2] These were Fama Fraternitatis RC (The Fame of the Brotherhood of RC) and Confessio Fraternitatis (The Confession of the Brotherhood of RC). The influence of these documents, presenting a "most laudable Order" of mystic-philosopher-doctors and promoting a "Universal Reformation of Mankind", gave rise to an enthusiasm called by its historian Dame Frances Yates the "Rosicrucian Enlightenment".[3] [....]

*Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosicrucian

1378 - Perihelion / Halley's Comet - November 10th, 1378 A.D.: "1P/1378 S1 (10 November 1378)"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halley%27s_Comet] - [T.D. - 06/12/07] 

1380s - Bible Translation / Middle English - "The dramatic story of the English Bible really begins with the theologian and philosopher John Wycliffe, whose translation of much of the Bible into Middle English appeared in the 1380s. His translation was part of a reformist project to make the Bible and its teachings available to the general public. Wycliffe's translation was based on the Latin text known as the Vulgate, prepared by Jerome in the 4th century C.E. The church opposed Wycliffe's work, not just because it was a translation, but because it was a translation into English, then the language of the common folk. (The aristrocracy spoke French.) His translation was banned, and, in 1409, Bible translation was forbidden in England. Wycliffe died in 1384, before the ban; but his bones were later dug up and burned as posthumous punishment for his alleged heresy." [Based on: Leonard J. Greenspoon, Bible Review, December 2003, p. 16]

1384 - Fatality / John Wycliffe - "Theologian and philosopher John Wycliffe dies."


Page last updated 11/07/12