Historical Timeline

Calendar Months

   Most newspaper article events happen anywhere from days, to months, to years before they reach publication. Consequently, most newspaper articles on this timeline are preceded by the date of the newspaper in which they appear. (Note: Detailed data source transcription for all news article quotes - this timeline - generally didn't begin until 2003.) [E.M. / D.R.D.]      *Color Code

January 1989

1989 - Astronomic Configuration - "A Stellium, includes three or more planets conjunct each other within close succession. 1989 saw a stellium involving Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, and stelliums of this kind are more common. A stellium represents a tremendous ending and new beginning, a concurrence of three or more cycles. The past is lost, and a journey into a wide-open future follows. The next conjunction comes in over 13 centuries' time in 3,370."

1989 - Fatality / Emperor Herohito, Japan - January 7th: "Japan's Emperor Herohito dies at age 87."

1989 - U.S. President George H. W. Bush - January 20th, 1989: "The 41st American President,  George H. W. Bush [Republican], begins his term. Dan Quayle was sworn in as vice president."

1989  - First Black Governor / U.S.A. - January 26th, 1989: "L. Douglas Wilder, the lieutenant governor of Virginia, launched his successful campaign to become the first elected black governor of a U.S. state."

1989  - Trial / Oliver North - January 31st, 1989: "Jury selection began in the trial of former National Security Council aide Oliver North, charged in connection with the Iran-Contra affair. He was later convicted on three counts, but those convictions were set aside, and the case was not retried."

February 1989

1989  - Thwarted Pay Increase / U.S. Congress - February 7th, 1989: "Bowing to public outrage, both houses of Congress voted to kill their scheduled 51 percent pay increase."

1989  - Soviet Union Leaves Afghanistan - February 15th,  1989: "The Soviet Union announced that the last of its troops had left Afghanistan, after more than nine years of military intervention."

1989 - Bounty / Salman Rushdie - February 24th: "Iranian Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini has placed a bounty on author Salman Rushdie's head for writing the book The Satanic Verses."

1989  - Slovene Opposition Party - February, 1989: "The Slovenes formed an opposition party to Communist rule."

March 1989

1989  - Launched / World Wide Web - March, 1989: "The first versions of HTML that launched the Web appeared. Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web."

*Trivia "Tim Berners-Lee, who received a $1.2 million cash prize Tuesday [06/15/04] for creating the World Wide Web, says he would never have succeeded if he had charged money for his inventions. [....] Berners-Lee is originally from Britain and was knighted last December. He has mostly avoided both the fame and the fortune won by many of his Internet colleagues. Despite his prize he remained modest about his achievements. [....] Berners-Lee first proposed the Web in 1989 while developing ways to control computers remotely at CERN, the European nuclear research lab near Geneva. He never got the project finally approved but his boss suggested he quietly tinker with it anyway. He fleshed out the core communication protocols needed for transmitting Web pages: the HTTP, or hypertext transfer protocol, and the so-called markup language used to create them, HTML. By Christmas day 1990, he finished the first browser, called simply WorldWideWeB.' Although his inventions have undergone rapid changes since then, the underlying technology is precisely the same. His recent project - which experts say is potentially as revolutionary as the World Wide Web itself - is called the Semantic Web. The project is an attempt to  standardize how information is stord on the Internet and to organize automatically the junge of data found today on the Net into a 'web' of concepts. By attaching meaning to data behind the scenes, computers can do a better job of searching for information." [Based on: Mans Hulden, A.P., 06/16/2004]

1989  - Merger / Time Warner - March 4th, 1989: "Time Inc. and Warner Communications Inc. announced a deal valued at $14 million to merge into the world's largest media and entertainment conglomerate."

1989 - X15 Solar Flare - March 6th, 1989: "On this date in history an X15 solar flare ["5th-largest solar flare" recorded since 1976] blasted from the Sun."

[Based on: http://spaceweather.com/solarflares/topflares.html] - [T.D. 12/12/06]

1989 - Volcanic Eruption / Pacaya Volcano, Guatemala - March 7th-10th, 1989: "Vigorous explosive activity from Pacaya 7-10 March deposited ash to the S coast (more than 50 km away), and lava flows advanced several kilometers from two flank vents. Activity at Pacaya in recent months had been characterized by moderate summit Strombolian activity and production of small lava flows from upper flank vents. About 1600 seismic events/day were recorded through most of February. A slight increase in seismicity was observed 25-27 February, and the number of events varied from 1700 to 2300, 28 February-6 March. A logarithmic increase began 7 March at about 0600, continuing until the onset of the main eruption at about 1300. [....]"

*Trivia: "Pacaya is a complex volcano constructed on the S rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlan Caldera. In 1565, the first recorded historical eruption from Pacaya caused ashfall for three days in Guatemala City. Following explosions in July and October 1965, Strombolian activity was generally continuous until March 1989 when explosive activity removed ~75 m of the MacKenney cone summit and enlarged the crater. Strombolian activity began again in January 1990 and has continued intermittently since then. This latest episode of activity, although smaller in terms of area impacted by tephra, is similar to the activity during July-August 1991, which again destroyed part of the cone and damaged towns W of the volcano. [....]

[Based on: http://www.volcano.si.edu/volcanoes/region14/guatemal/pacaya/var_01.htm#sean_1402]

1989  - Conflict / Beirut Lebanon - March 8th, 1989: "In Lebanon, daily artillery barrages between Christian and Syrian forces and their militia allies began in Beirut; at least 930 people were killed before a cease-fire took hold the following September."

1989 - "Great Magnetic Storm" / Power Failure, Canada & U.S.A.  - March 13th, 1989: "On March 13, 1989, at 2:44 am, a transformer failure on one of the main power transmission lines in the HydroQuebec system precipitated a catastrophic collapse of the entire power grid. The string of events that produced the collapse took only 90 seconds from start to finish. There was no time for any meaningful intervention. The transformer failure was a direct consequence of ground induced currents from a space weather disturbance high in the atmosphere. 6 million people lost electrical power for 9 or more hours. [....]"

[Based on: http://www.windows.ucar.edu/spaceweather/blackout.html]

*Links: http://www.nasa.gov/topics/earth/features/sun_darkness.html

*Trivia: "[....] A large space storm in 1989 made currents on the ground that caused a failure in the Hydro-Quebec electric power system. This prevented 6 million people in Canada and the US from having electricity for over 9 hours. The same storm caused the atmosphere to inflate and dragged the LDEF satellite to a lower orbit earlier than expected. [....]"

[Based on: http://science.nasa.gov/ssl/pad/sppb/edu/magnetosphere/mag6.html] - [3rd paragraph]

*Trivia: "... in 1989, when a fierce CME [coronal mass ejection] struck the Earth, it blew out HydroQuebec's power grid, leaving almost seven million people without electricity, and a multimillion-dollar damage bill." [N.G.M., July 2004, p. 15]

1989  - U.S. Secretary of Defense / Dick Cheney - March 17th, 1989: "The Senate unanimously confirmed Wyoming Congressman Dick Cheney to be secretary of defense, following the failed nomination of former Sen. John Tower."

1989 - Stepping Down / Dick Clark - March, 1989: "Entertainment highlights during the week of March 20th - 26th: "Dick Clark announced he was stepping down as host of 'American Bandstand,' after 33 years." [Based on: A.P., 03/21/05]

1989 - Oil Spill / Exxon Valdez, Alaska - March 24th, 1989: "Good Friday, The nation's worst oil spill occurred as the supertanker Exxon Valdez ran into Bligh Reef in Alaska's Prince William Sound and began leaking 11 million gallons of crude."

*Trivia: "ExxonMobil Corp. has paid $3.2 billion [as of March 2004] for cleanup and fees in the 1989 oil spill in Valdez, Alaska.  A federal judge has ordered the company to pay an additional $7 billion in punitive damages and interest." [A.P., 03/25/04]

1989 - 1st Free Elections / Soviet Union - March 26th, 1989: "The first free elections took place in the Soviet Union. Boris Yeltsin was elected [to Congress of People's Deputies]. Voters in the Soviet Union filled 1,500 of more than 2,000 seats in the new Congress of People's Deputies, beginning embarrassing defeats for the Communist Party."

1989 - ET Contacts? - "In a letter written in March, 1989 to Robert Nelson, Hodowanec [Greg Hodowanec] states that 'Generally, our contacts are limited to 20-30 minutes ... since there appear to be other ETs out there interested in joining in also, and so there is some interference after a while. Some of these other ETs use other methods of communications such as tones and what appear to be guttural voices.' " [Tim Swartz, The Lost Journals of Nikola Tesla, p. 35]

April 1989

1989 - "Mars Flashes?" - "... in a letter dated April 4, 1989 to Nelson. '... my [Gregory Hodowanec] 'contacts' with Mars continue with much information being exchanged. However, due to the increasingly astounding nature of these exchanges, I am now limiting further releases to only two long-time observers (witnesses) of my research efforts. This is being done so as not to jeopardize these contacts with unwanted notoriety or publicity in the media. There are now nine 'Mars Flashes'  for the record. Perhaps, in the future, I may release some of these." [Tim Swartz, The Lost Journals of Nikola Tesla, p. 35]

1989 -  Fatality / Hu Yaobang, China - April 15th, 1989: "In China thousands of students in Shanghai and Beijing took to the streets to mourn the death of Hu Yaobang; the protests culminated in the Tiananmen Square massacre."

1989  - Tensions / China - April 18th, 1989: "Thousands of Chinese students demanding democracy tried to storm Communist Party headquarters in Beijing."

1989  - Protests / China - April 21st, 1989: "Tens of thousands of people crowded into Beijing's Tiananmen Square ['Heaven's Gate']. Cheering students waved banners demanding greater political freedoms." [Link: 1]

1989  - Student Strike / China - April 24th, 1989: "Thousands of students went on strike in Beijing."

1989  - Student Protest / Tiananmen Square, China - April 27th, 1989: "In China more than 150,000 students and workers calling for democracy marched, cheered and sang as they took over Tiananmen Square in central Beijing."

May 1989

1989  - Conviction / Oliver North - May 4th, 1989: "Fired White House aide Oliver North was convicted of shredding documents and two other crimes and acquitted of nine other charges stemming from the Iran-Contra affair. The three convictions were later [1991] overturned on appeal."

1989 - "President" Slobodan Milosevic / Serbia - May 8th, 1989: "Yugoslavia was made up of six republics. Milosevic became president of Serbia, alarming non-Serb Yugoslavians, who feared Serb domination." [Based on: Reuters, World Almanac and KRT - St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p. A13, 06/26/05]

*Links: http://www.worldstatesmen.org/Yugoslavia.html
              http://www.un.org/icty/indictment/english/mil-2ai011029e.htm

1989  - Hunger Strike / China - May 13th, 1989:  "Approx. 2,000 students began a hunger strike in Tiananmen Square, China."

1989 - Died / Gilda Radner - May 20th, 1989: "Reportedly died [from ovarian cancer] this date in history: Actress / Comedian, Gilda Radner. She was 42."

1989  -
Protestors / Tiananmen Square, China - May 18th, 1989: "In China a million protestors filled Tiananmen Square."

1989  - Foreign Relations / Soviet Union & China - May 18th, 1989: "During his visit to Beijing, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev met with Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping, formally ending a 30-year rift between the two Communist powers."

1989  - Censored Media / China - May 20th, 1989: "During China's pro-democracy protests, Beijing officials ordered CBS and CNN to end their live on-scene reports."

1989  - Pro-Democracy March / China - May 21st, 1989: "Thousands of native Chinese marched in Hong Kong, Paris, Tokyo and scores of other cities in a worldwide show of support for the pro-democracy demonstrators in Beijing. "

1989  - Protest Marches / China - May 23rd, 1989: "An estimated 1 million people in Beijing and tens of thousands in other Chinese cities marched to demand that Premier Li Peng resign."

1989  - Trivia / Li Peng, China - May 24th, 1989: "China's top army command published a letter strongly supporting hard-line Premier Li Peng, who was reportedly locked in a power struggle with rival factions who opposed his strong stance against student protesters."

1989  - Status / Tiananmen Square, China - May 27th, 1989: "Leaders of the Chinese student protest movement proposed that demonstrators hold one more rally, then end their occupation of Tiananmen Square, an idea that was later abandoned."

1989  - "Goddess of Democracy" / Tiananmen Square, China - May 30th, 1989: "Student demonstrators at Tiananmen Square in Beijing erected a 33-foot statue they called the 'Goddess of Democracy'."

June 1989

1989  - Gov't. Crackdown / Tiananmen Square, China - June 2-4th, 1989: "In China hundreds - possibly thousands - of people died as Chinese army troops stormed Beijing to crush the pro-democracy movement. A surge in imports and loose money supplied fuel for a potent mix of corruption and double-digit inflation. Hundreds of thousands of discontented Chinese took to the streets of Beijing, demanding more reform - but the military crushed the protests in the Tiananmen Square crackdown. Zhao Ziyang was ousted. The West and Japan cut off aid. Bao Tong was the only Communist Party official arrested in the Tianamen Square uprising. He was released with ill-health in 1996. Han Dongfang, leader of China's first independent trade union spent 22 months behind bars for his role in the pro-democracy uprising. Ren Wanding was also again jailed for giving speeches in the pro-democracy protests."

1989  - Fatality / Ayatollah Khomeini - June 3rd, 1989: "Iran's spiritual leader, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, died. He held the office of supreme leader."

1989  - Constitutional / American Flag Burning - June 21st, 1989: "The Supreme Court ruled that burning the American flag as a form of political protest is protected by the First Amendment."

1989  - Party Chief Jiang Zemin / China - June 28th, 1989: "China's new Communist Party chief, Jiang Zemin, said his government would show no mercy to leaders of the crushed pro-democracy movement, which he termed a 'counterrevolutionary rebellion'."

1989 - Off Line / Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Plant - "Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Plant owned by the Sacramento Municipal Utility District goes off line. The 913 megawatt facility is closed by a vote of the electorate in June 1989."

July 1989

1989  - Ozone Treaty - July 1st, 1989: "The Montreal Protocol, which was an international treaty dealing with ozone-destroying pollutants, went into effect. The treaty sought to cut in half production of chemicals posing the greatest risk to ozone."

1989  - Disposition / Oliver North - July 5th, 1989: "Former National Security Council aide Oliver North received a $150,000 fine and a suspended prison term for his part in Iran-Contra. The convictions were later overturned. "

1989  - Test Flight / U.S. Stealth Bomber - July 17th, 1989: "The controversial B-2 Stealth bomber underwent its first test flight at Edwards Air Force Base in California, two days after a technical problem forced a postponement."

1989 - Birth / Daniel Radcliffe ["Harry Potter"] - July 23rd, 1989: "Reportedly born [London, England] on this date in history: Daniel Radcliffe [the actor who played Harry Potter]."

1989 - Astronomic Configuration Trivia: July 23rd, 1989: "Sun [0 Leo], Moon [26 Pisces], Mercury [5 Leo], Venus [28 Leo], Mars [22 Leo], Jupiter [28 Gemini], Saturn [9 Capricorn R.], Uranus [2 Capricorn R], Neptune [10 Capricorn R], Pluto [12 Scorpio D]."  

1989  - Hostage Crisis / Lebanon - July 30th, 1989: "In Lebanon, the pro-Iranian group Organization for the Oppressed on Earth threatened to kill an American hostage, Marine Lt. Col. William R. Higgins, unless Israel released Sheik Abdul-Karim Obeid, a cleric seized by Israeli commandos."

1989 - Fatality / American Hostage, Lebanon - July 31st, 1989: "A pro-Iranian group in Lebanon released a grisly videotape purportedly showing the hanged body of American hostage William R. Higgins."

1989 - Trivia / Mad Cow Disease - July 1989: "The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) bans the importation of ruminant animals from countries with confirmed cases of BSE." [Based on: St. Petersburg Times, 03/12/01]  

August 1989

1989 - Multiple Opposition - "A Multiple Opposition includes two or more conjuncting planets opposed by one or more planets in the opposite sign. A recent historic example arose in  1989, when Saturn and Neptune conjuncting in Capricorn were opposed by Jupiter [beginning in August] and Chiron conjuncting in Cancer. These are uncommon, though crucial. They have a climactic quality of breakthrough or starting-over, of catharsis and rapid advance. Things reach critical mass, and past and future are contrasted wildly."

1989  - Status / Hostage Crisis, Lebanon - August 3rd, 1989: "Shiite Muslim kidnappers in Lebanon suspended their threat to execute another American hostage, three days after the purported hanging of Lt. Col. William R. Higgins."

1989  - Status / Hostage Crisis, Lebanon - August 4th, 1989: "Iranian President Hashemi Rafsanjani offered to help end the hostage crisis in Lebanon, prompting President Bush to say he was 'encouraged'."

1989  - Lunar Eclipse - August 16th, 1989: "A rare 'prime time' lunar eclipse occurred over most of the United States, although clouds spoiled the view for many."

1989  - Voyager 2 / Neptune - August 21st, 1989: "The U.S. space probe Voyager 2 fired its thrusters to bring it closer to Neptune's mysterious moon Triton.  On August 24th, Voyager 2 passed within three thousand miles of Neptune sending back striking photographs."

1989  - Drug War / Colombia - August 24th, 1989: "Colombian drug lords declared 'total war' on the government."

1989  - Fraud & Conspiracy Trial / Jim Bakker - August 28th, 1989 - "Former televangelist Jim Bakker's fraud and conspiracy trial opened in Charlotte, N.C.; Bakker was convicted of all counts the next October."

1989 - Time Experiments? / Russia - "A tragedy occurred on August 30, 1989: an extremely strong explosion sounded at the Institute's branch office on the Anjou islands. The explosion destroyed not only the experimental module of 780 tons but also the archipelago itself that covered the area of 2 square kilometers. According to one of the versions of the tragedy, the module with three experimenters collided with a large object, probably an asteroid, in the parallel world or heading toward the parallel world.
   "Having lost its propulsion system, the module probably remained in the parallel world. The last record made in the framework of the experiment and kept at the Institute archives says: 'We are dying but keep on conducting the experiment. It is very dark here; we see all objects become double, our hands and legs are transparent, we can see veins and bones through the skin. The oxygen supply will be enough for 43 hours, the life support system is seriously damaged. Our best regards to the families and friends!' Then the transmission suddenly stopped." [Olga Zharina, 03/01/2004, Pravada]    

September 1989

1989  - U.S. Aid / Colombia - September 3rd, 1989: "The United States began shipping a $65 million package of military aircraft and weapons to help Colombia's war against drug lords."

1989  - Last Titan 3 Rocket - September 4th, 1989: "The Air Force launched its last Titan 3 rocket, which reportedly carried a reconnaissance satellite. Since 1964, the Titan 3 had sent more than 200 satellites into space."

1989 - Hurricane Hugo - September 10th, 1989: "Hurricane Hugo, swept through the Caribbean and the Carolinas Sept. 10-22 causing at least 40 deaths and $6 bil in damage in the Carolinas alone." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 554]

1989  - Exodus / East Germany - September 10th, 1989: "Hungary gave permission for thousands of East German refugees and visitors to emigrate to West Germany. The exodus of East German refugees from Hungary to West Germany began, by way of Austria."

1989 - Ground Broken / Temple of ECK, MN - September 11th, 1989: "Ground is broken for the Temple of ECK in Chanhassen Minnesota."  [E.M.] [See: http://www.eckankar.org/Temple/]

*Trivia: "The Temple of ECK is a center from which the message of the Light and Sound of God will reach many seekers. Behind the stone, mortar, wood, and glass of the ECK Temple is one purpose: to give the ECK teachings to all who want them." [Based on: Sri Harold Klemp]

1989  - Miss America / Missouri - September 16th, 1989: "Debbye Turner of Missouri was crowned Miss America at the pageant in Atlantic City, N.J."

1989  - Hurricane Hugo / Caribbean Islands - September 17th, 1989: "Hurricane Hugo slammed into several Caribbean islands, including St. Croix, which was the hardest hit."

1989  - Hurricane Hugo / Puerto Rico - September 18th, 1989: "Hurricane Hugo reached Puerto Rico, causing extensive damage as it continued to barrel toward the U.S. mainland."

1989  - Disposition / Soviet Union - September 20th, 1989: "Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev pulled off a major shake-up of the Soviet Communist Party, dropping three Politburo members."

1989 - Hurricane Hugo / South Carolinia - September 21st, 1989: "Hurricane Hugo, packing winds of up to 135 mph, crashed into Charleston, S.C."

*Trivia: "Hurricane date(s): September 16th-22nd, 1989. Number of recorded deaths: 504." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 206]

1989 - X9.8 Solar Flare - September 29th, 1989: On this date in history an X9.8 solar flare ["12th-largest solar flare" recorded since 1976] blasted from the Sun.

[Based on: http://spaceweather.com/solarflares/topflares.html] - [T.D. 12/12/06]

1989  - East German Emigration - September 30th, 1989: "Thousands of East Germans who had sought refuge in West German embassies in Czechoslovakia and Poland began emigrating under an accord between Soviet bloc and NATO nations."

1989 - Resolve to Dismantle / Nuclear Bombs, South Africa - September 1989: "South Africa resolves to dismantle its six nuclear bombs." [Based on: N.G.M., August 2005, p. 112]

October 1989

1989  - Homosexual Marriages / Denmark - October 1st, 1989: "In Copenhagen, Denmark, 11 homosexual couples were married. It was the first time any country allowed such marriages."

1989  - Protest / East Germany - October 2nd, 1989: "Nearly 10,000 people marched through Leipzig, East Germany, demanding legalization of opposition groups and adoption of democratic reforms in the country's largest protest since 1953."

1989  - Convicted / Jim Bakker - October 5th, 1989: "A jury in Charlotte, N.C., convicted former PTL evangelist Jim Bakker of using his television show to defraud followers.

1989  - Nobel Peace Prize / Dalai Lama - October 5th, 1989: "The Dalai Lama, the spiritual and temporal leader of Tibet, was named winner of the Nobel Peace Prize."

1989 - Democratic Socialism / Hungary  - October 7th, 1989: "Hungary's Communist Party renounced Marxism in favor of democratic socialism during a party congress in Budapest."

1989  - UFO / USSR - October 9th, 1989: "The official Soviet news agency Tass reported that a spaceship of some kind, complete with a trio of tall aliens, had visited a park in the city of Voronezh."

1989  - Point Loss / Dow Jones  - October 13th, 1989: "The Dow Jones Industrial Average plunged 190 points, triggering memories of the 1987 crash."

1989 - Earthquake / San Francisco - October 17th, 1989: "The 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake [Watsonville] hit the San Francisco area minutes before the start of a World Series game there and 67 people died and 3,000 were injured. It caused $7 [$10] billion worth of damage. The Spreckel's Temple of Music in Golden Gate Park was damaged and later restored. 28,000 structures were damaged and several freeways ruined. 42 people died on the Cypress Freeway. At the train station in SF Dr. Margaret McChesney commandeered a tour bus to take frightened passengers home and navigated the driver safely through barricades of cars and gangs of marauding youths on 3rd St."

1989 - X13 Solar Flare - October 19th, 1989: "On this date in history an X13 solar flare ["7th-largest solar flare" recorded since 1976] blasted from the Sun."

[Based on: http://spaceweather.com/solarflares/topflares.html] - [T.D. 12/12/06]

1989 - Balance of Power / National Assembly, Saudi Arabia - October 22nd: "The National Assembly, meeting in Ta'if, Saudi Arabia, endorses a Charter of National Reconciliation, which reduces the authority of the president by transferring executive power to the cabinet. The National Assembly now has an equal number of Christian and Muslim members instead of the previous six to five ratio."

1989 - Public Mourning / East Berlin - October 29th, 1989: "At least 20,000 East Berliners observed a minute of silence for those killed while attempting to flee over the Berlin Wall, the first such public mourning since Communist Party authorities built the wall in 1961."

1989 - Photovoltaic Cell -  "Scientists at the High Technology Center of Boeing develop a stacked photovoltaic cell that converts 37 percent of solar radiation into electricity. The cell consists of two types of PV materials mounted on top of each other. The upper cell consists of gallium arsenide and captures the energy of blue light, while the second cell is made of gallium antimonide, converting red light into electricity. Scientists at Sandia National Laboratories develop a single PV cell containing silicon that converts 20.3 Percent of radiation in electricity."

November 1989

1989  - Open Border / Germany & Czechoslovakia - November 1st, 1989: "East Germany reopened its border with Czechoslovakia, prompting tens of thousands of refugees to flee to the West."

1989  - Pro-Democracy Rally / East Germany - November 4th, 1989: "Up to a million East Germans filled the streets of East Berlin for a pro-democracy rally."

1989 - Open Border / East & West Germany - November 9th, 1989: "The Border separating Western from Eastern Germany was effectively opened. The following days were most unusual for the whole of Germany - considering the usual German ways, one could almost speak of anarchy: Shops stayed open as long as they wanted [the usual, mandatory closing time was 6:30pm in 1989], a GDR passport served as a free ticket for public transport, and in general there were more exceptions than rules in those days. Of course, Berlin was in the focal point of these changes. The Fall of the Berlin Wall, which will always be used as a symbol for the end of the Cold War, made the 'West' available in the middle of the 'East', resulting in widespread chaos. Later - much later - normality took hold again. Later, the bickering started, and later, there was talk of a 'wall in the heads'.'But during the November of 1989, almost everyone was overwhelmed by happiness - a national and emotional exception."

1989  - Failing Integrity / Berlin Wall - November 10th, 1989: "Workers began punching a hole in the Berlin Wall, a day after East Germany abolished its border restrictions."

1989  - Expansion / IBM & Microsoft - November 13th, 1989: "IBM and Microsoft expanded their partnership and agreed to develop software for MS-DOS, MS OS/2, and MS LAN."

1989  - Protests / Prague, Czechoslovakia - November 20th, 1989: "More than 200,000 people rallied peacefully in Prague, Czechoslovakia, demanding democratic reforms and the ouster of Communist Party leader Milos Jakes."

1989 - Assassination / Rene Mouawad - November 22nd, 1989: "Lebanese President-elect Rene Mouawad is slain [11/22/89] in car." [Based on: A.P. research, 02/15/05]

1989  - Disposition / Czechoslovakia - November 24th, 1989: "Czechoslovakia's hard-line party leadership resigned after more than a week of protests against its policies."

1989  -
Alexander Dubcek / Czechoslovakia - November 25th, 1989: "More than 500,000 demonstrators gathered in Prague, Czechoslovakia, where they scoffed at a Communist Party shakeup and cheered Alexander Dubcek, the reformer ousted in 1968."

1989  - "Velvet Revolution" / Czechoslovakia - November 29th, 1989: "The Czechs ended the Communist party's 40-year monopoly on power. The revolution in Czechoslovakia was called the 'Velvet Revolution' because of the little violence."

December 1989

1989 - Natural vs. Artificial Time - "The fundamental significance of the 13:20 (natural) and 12:60 (artificial) frequencies has only been decoded quite recently as of December, 1989 AD. This discovery is the result of a specially engineered time-release prophetic mechanism that was built into the Temple of Inscriptions, the tomb of Pacal Votan. Within the tomb, there is a small hollow stone duct which travels from the tomb itself, across the sarcophagus lid, up some seventy feet along the secret stairwell, and terminates at the top platform of the pyramid. The archeologists who discovered Pacal’s Tomb did so only because they noticed a small curious looking stone tile along the inner chamber of the temple. This tile was actually a portion of the stone duct which descended into the tomb. In this way, the archeologists discovered that there must be a secret passageway into the lower part of the Pyramid. After three years of work they reached the tomb of Pacal Votan.
   "The hollow stone duct is called Telektonon, which means Earth Spirit Speaking Tube or the Talking Stone of Prophecy. Thus, the discovery of Pacal’s tomb in 1952 AD fulfilled the purpose of the speaking tube. The opening of the tomb in 1952 AD occurred exactly 1260 years after it’s dedication in 692 AD. From the dedication of the tomb to the end of the cycle of thirteen baktuns, 2012 AD, is exactly 1320 years. The Telektonon prophecy of Pacal Votan essentially asserts that without replacing the Gregorian Calendar with the Thirteen Moon Calendar, the human race will forfeit its future by triggering a biospheric collapse. The Earth Spirit Speaking Tube extends all the way down into the crystal heart of Gaia Herself and allows Her to communicate directly with any individual being through synchronic alignments of various dimensions. Her voice is being heard now by all those who listen with an open heart."  

1989  - Political Disposition / East Germany - December 1st, 1989: "East Germany's Parliament abolished the Communist Party's constitutional guarantee of supremacy."

1989  - Political Disposition / East Germany - December 3rd, 1989: "East German Communist leader Egon Krenz, the ruling Politburo and the party's Central Committee resigned."

1989 - School Shooting / Montreal - December 6th, 1989: "[....] Canada's worst mass shooting ... happened in Montreal. Gunman Marc Lepine killed 14 women at the Ecole Polytechnic on Dec. 6, 1989, before shooting himself." [Based on: A.P. article (Man kills one, wounds 19, then is killed), p. A9, S.L.P.D., 09/14/06]

1989 - Birth / Taylor Swift - December 13th, 1989: "Taylor Alison Swift (born December 13, 1989) is an American singer-songwriter. Raised in Wyomissing, Pennsylvania, Swift moved to Nashville, Tennessee, at the age of 14 to pursue a career in country music. [... .]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taylor_Swift]

1989 - Volcanic Activity / Redoubt Volcano, Alaska - December 14th - June 1990 [see link].

http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1103-03-&volpage=erupt - [T.D. - 01/31/09]

1989  - "Operation Just Cause" / Panama - December 20th, 1989: "The United States launched Operation Just Cause, sending troops into Panama to topple the government of General Manuel Noriega. Guillermo Endara replaced Noriega. [see Dec 19] The US invasion of Panama began and ended Feb 13, 1990. It cost $182 million and left 23 US casualties with 320 wounded."

1989  - Revolt / Romania - December 22nd, 1989: "In Romania there was a revolt and miners riots. Romania's hard-line Communist ruler, Nicolae Ceausescu, was toppled in a popular uprising. Ion Ileascu and other top Communist functionaries of Ceausescu seized control. Ileascu ruled until November 1996."

1989  - Executions / Romania - December 25th, 1989: "Ousted Romanian President Nicolae Ceausescu and his wife, Elena, were executed following a popular uprising."

1989  - Chairman Alexander Dubcek / Czechoslovakia - December 28th, 1989: "Alexander Dubcek, former Czechoslovak Communist leader deposed in 1968 in a Soviet-led Warsaw Pact invasion, was named chairman of the country's parliament."

1989 - Civil War / Somali - "Somaliland fought a civil war [1989-1991] with the regime of Somali President Mohamed Siad Barre."

1989   - Occupation / Kosovo - "In 1989, the Milosevic regime in Yugoslavia made constitutional changes to consolidate power over the provinces of Kosovo and Vojvodina. Kosovo, whose 1.9 million people are 90% Albanian, lost its autonomy and was placed under Serbian rule. The constitution passed without the approval of the parliament of Kosova. The Serbs fired most Albanians and closed many enterprises. Muslim unrest followed and Kosovo was occupied. 90% of the population of Kosovo was made up of some 2.2 million ethnic Albanians."

1989  - School Shooting / California - "In 1989, an AK-47 assault rifle was used in an assault on school children in Stockton, California."

1989  - Conviction? / O.J. Simpson - "In 1989, O.J. Simpson was convicted of battering his wife, Nicole Simpson."

1989 - Muslim Insurgency / Kashmir, India - "Jammu and Kashmir is the formal name of India's portion of Kashmir, the only Muslim-majority state in this predominantly Hindu country. Islamic militants have waged a bloody insurgency since 1989 for independence of the Himalayan territory or its merger with Pakistan. More than 65,000 people, most of them civilians, have been killed in the conflict." [A.P., 06/29/04]

1989  - Debut / AOL - "America Online [AOL] made its debut."

1989  - COBE Satellite - "A satellite name COBE [Cosmic Background Explorer] was launched. It carried extremely sensitive microwave detectors that were being used to detect the cosmic background radiation from the Big Bang."

1989 - 1st Online Campus - "The University of Phoenix enrolled 8 students in the world's first online campus [http://www.uopphx.edu/online]."

1989  - 486 Microprocessor - "Intel shipped the first 486 microprocessor, an enhanced version of the 386. It held more than 1 million transistors and included a built-in floating point unit and 8K of internal RAM."

1989  - Trivia / Air Bags, U.S.A. - "Chrysler was the first car maker to install air bags in all vehicles."

1989 - Arms Exports / China to U.S.A. - "It is estimated that Chinese military companies exported more than 3 million guns [1989-1993] to the US."

1989  - Best Selling Car / Honda Accord - "The Honda Accord was the best-selling car in the US."

1989 - Dismantled / 1st U.S. Nuclear Power Plant - "The Shippingport Atomic Power Station is decommissioned after 32 years of operations and its still radioactive main reactor is taken from Penn. to Hanford Military Reservation in Wash. This is the first US nuclear power plant to be dismantled."

1989  - Construction / U.S. Seawolf Submarines - "General Dynamics began building the Seawolf nuclear submarines. Each one cost about $2.1 billion."

1989 - Volcano Trivia / 1989 - "Number of volcanic eruptions [and, or] notable volcanic events this year: at least 2. Number of recorded deaths: 0." [E.M.]

1989 - Hurricane Trivia / 1989 - "Number of notable hurricanes this year: at least 1. Number of hurricane deaths: 504." [E.M.]

1989 - Earthquake Trivia / 1989 - "Number of notable earthquakes this year: at least 1. Number of earthquake deaths: 67." [E.M.]

1989 - "Natural Disaster" Deaths / 1989 - "Estimated number of people who died from natural disasters this year: at least 571." [E.M.]

1980s - "Natural Disaster" Deaths / 1980-1990 - "Estimated number of people who died from natural disasters this decade [1980-1990]: at least 134,362." [E.M.]

January 1990

1990  - Surrender / Manuel Noriega - January 3rd, 1990: "Ousted Panamanian leader Manuel Noriega surrendered to U.S. forces, 10 days after taking refuge in the Vatican's diplomatic mission."

1990  - Disposition / China - January 10th, 1990: "Chinese Premier Li Peng lifted Beijing's 7-month-old martial law and said that by crushing pro-democracy protests the army had saved China from 'the abyss of misery'."

1990  - Civil War / Caucasus - January 16th, 1990: "The Soviet Union sent more than 11,000 reinforcements to the Caucasus to halt a civil war between Armenians and Azerbaijanis."

1990  - 1st McDonalds / Moscow - January 31, 1990: "McDonald's Corporation opened its first fast-food restaurant in Moscow."

1990 - NDMA - "The Proprietary Association of America was formed in 1881 as the Association of Manufacturers and Dealers in Proprietary Articles. The Proprietary Association subsequently changed its name to the Nonprescription Drug Manufacturers Association in 1990, and then in 1999 to the Consumer Health Care Products Association in 1999." [Link: 1]

February 1990

1990  - Premier Andrei Lukanov / Bulgaria - February 3rd, 1990: "The parliament of Bulgaria elected economist Andrei Lukanov to replace a hard-line Communist as premier. Lukanov became the prime minister after rising to the number 2 spot of the Communist hierarchy under Zhivkov. He oversaw the party's formal break with Stalinism and victory in the first free elections."

1990  - Protests / Moscow - February 4th, 1990: "Cheering protesters thronged Moscow streets to demand that the Communists surrender their stranglehold on power."

1990  - Oil Spill / California - February 7th, 1990: "An 811-foot tanker, the American Trader, spilled hundreds of thousands of gallons of Alaskan crude oil off the coast of Huntington Beach, California."

1990  - Benzene Contamination / U.S. Mineral Water - February 9th, 1990: "Perrier Group of America Inc. announced it was voluntarily recalling its inventory of mineral water in the United States after tests showed the presence of benzene in a small number of bottles."

1990 - Release / Nelson Mandela  - February 11th, 1990: "Nelson Mandela, leader of the African National Congress, was released after spending 27 years behind prison walls. Mandela was released by President F.W. DeKlerk, as the first step in the creation of a multi-racial democracy."

1990  - Legal Disposition / Ronald Reagan - February 22nd, 1990: "Former President Reagan's videotaped testimony for the trial of former national security adviser John Poindexter was released in Washington; in his deposition, Reagan said he never had 'any inkling' his aides were secretly arming the Nicaraguan Contras."

March 1990

1990  - Soviet Jewish Refugees / East Jerusalem - March 3rd, 1990: "President Bush sparked controversy by expressing opposition to the settlement of Soviet Jewish refugees in East Jerusalem."

1990  - Political Disposition / Soviet Republics - March 4th, 1990: "Voters in the Soviet republics of Russia, Byelorussia and the Ukraine participated in local and legislative elections, resulting in notable gains for reformists and nationalists."

1990  - Lenin Statue Removal / Romania - March 5th, 1990: "To the cheers of onlookers, workers in Bucharest, Romania, finally succeeded in removing a 25-foot, seven-ton bronze statue of Vladimir Lenin from its foundation."

1990  - Labor Disposition / Soviet Union - March 6th, 1990: "The Soviet parliament overwhelmingly approved legislation allowing people to own factories and hire workers for the first time in nearly seven decades."

1990  - Independence / Lithuania - March 11th, 1990: "The Lithuanian parliament voted to break away from the Soviet Union and restore its independence. The Supreme Council promulgated the historic document: 'On the Re-establishment of the Independent State of Lithuania.' Validity of the 1938 Constitution was briefly reinstated and the provisional Fundamental Law was adopted."

1990  - President Mikhail Gorbachev / Russia - March 14th, 1990: "The Soviet Congress elected Mikhail S. Gorbachev president of the Soviet Congress, a day after creating the post."

1990  - Free Elections / Latvia - "March 19th, 1990: Latvia's political opposition claimed victory in the republic's first free elections in 50 years, and reformers also claimed victories in crucial runoffs held in Russia, Byelorussia and Ukraine."

1990  - Independence / Namibia - March 20th, 1990: "Namibia became an independent nation, marking the end of 75 years of South African rule. The South African colony gained independence after 25 years of guerrilla war. Namibians began petitioning the U.N. as early as 1947, developing political parties, most notably SWAPO [South West Africa People's Organization] to voice opposition to South African rule."

1990  - U.S. Nuclear Technology / Iraq - March 28th, 1990: "British customs officials announced they had foiled an attempt to supply Iraq with 40 American-made devices for triggering nuclear weapons, following an 18-month investigation by U.S. and British authorities."

1990s - Devalued / Swedish Crown - "In the beginning of the 1990s the bankers Salomon Brothers, which had provided the Swedish government with huge loans, demanded that the Swedish crown be devalued. The government complied." [Juri Lina, The Barnes Review, September/October 2004, p. 14]

April 1990

1990  - Convicted? / John Poindexter - April 7th, 1990: "Former national security adviser John M. Poindexter was convicted of five counts at his Iran-Contra trial. However, a federal appeals court later reversed the convictions."

1990 - Status / Biological Weapons Program, Soviet Union - April 11th, 1990: "U.S. and U.K. demand that the Soviet Union cease their biological weapons program. Gorbachev later 'officially' cancels the program."

1990 - Guilty Plea / Michael Milkin - April 14th, 1990: "Junk bond financier Michael Milkin pleaded guilty to fraud related charges, Apr. 14; agreed to pay $500 mil in restitution; sentenced Nov. 21 to 10 years in prison." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 555]

1990 - Pluto 17 Scorpio - April 15th, 1990: Pluto at 17 degrees Scorpio, R.; October 24th, D. ...

*Link: http://www.astro.com/swisseph/ae/1900/ae_1990.pdf

1990 - Birth / Emma Watson - April 15th, 1990: Emma Charlotte Duerre Watson (born 15 April 1990) is an English actress and model. [NP] Watson rose to prominence playing Hermione Granger in the Harry Potter film series. Watson was cast as Hermione at the age of nine, having previously acted only in school plays.[2] From 2001 to 2011, she starred in all eight Harry Potter films alongside Daniel Radcliffe and Rupert Grint.[3] Watson's work on the Harry Potter series has earned her several awards and more than £10 million.[4] She made her modelling debut for Burberry's Autumn/Winter campaign in 2009.[....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emma_Watson] - [T.D. - 04/15/12]


1990  -
Hostage Release / Lebanon - April 23rd, 1990: "Freed American hostage Robert Polhill, released in Lebanon the day before, enjoyed his first full day of freedom in nearly 39 months at the U.S. Air Force hospital in Wiesbaden, West Germany."

1990  -  Deployment / Hubble Telescope - April 25th,  1990: "The Hubble Space Telescope was deployed from the space shuttle 'Discovery'." Links: http://hubblesite.org/

1990  - Hostage Release / Lebanon - April 30th, 1990: "Hostage Frank Reed was released by his captives in Lebanon, the second American freed in eight days."

1990  - Independence Coalition / Slovenia - April, 1990: "A pro-independence coalition won in Slovenia."

May 1990

1990 - Cyclones / SE India - "Cyclone date(s): May 6th-11th, 1990. Number of recorded deaths: 450." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 206]

1990  - Political Disposition / Baltic States - May 12, 1990: "The presidents of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania forged a united front by reviving a 1934 political alliance in hopes of enhancing their drive for independence from the Soviet Union."

1990  - Free Elections / Romania - May 20th, 1990: "Romania's ruling National Salvation Front scored victories in the country's first free elections in more than 50 years."

1990 - X9.3 Solar Flare - May 24th, 1990: On this date in history an X9.3 solar flare ["14th-largest solar flare" recorded since 1976] blasted from the Sun.

[Based on: http://spaceweather.com/solarflares/topflares.html] - [T.D. 12/12/06]

1990  - Arab League Summit / Iraq - May 28th, 1990: "Iraqi President Saddam Hussein opened a two-day Arab League summit in Baghdad with a keynote address in which he said if Israel were to deploy nuclear or chemical weapons against Arabs, Iraq would respond with 'weapons of mass destruction'."

1990  - President Boris Yeltsin / Russia - May 29th, 1990: "Boris N. Yeltsin was elected president of the Russian republic in the third round of balloting by the Russian parliament. This gave him a base from which to attack Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev."

1990 - Earthquake / N. Peru - "May 30th, 1990: Earthquake location: N. Peru. Earthquake magnitude: 6.3. Number of recorded fatalities: 115."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 208]

1990 - NBC Debut / "The Seinfeld Chronicles" - Entertainment highlights during the week of May 28-June 3, 1990: " 'Seinfeld' made its debut as 'The Seinfeld Chronicles' on NBC." [Based on: A.P. article, p. A5, S.L.P.D., 05/29/06]

June 1990

1990  - Yitzhak Shamir / Israel - June 8th, 1990: "Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir announced he had succeeded in forming a new right-wing coalition government, ending a three-month-old political crisis."

1990 - Earthquake / W. Iran - "June 20th, 1990: Earthquake location: W. Iran. Earthquake magnitude: 7.7. Number of recorded fatalities: 40,000+."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 208]

1990  - Reported Flaw / Hubble Telescope - June 27th, 1990: "NASA announced that a flaw in the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope was preventing the instrument from achieving optimum focus."

July 1990

1990  - Independence / Kosovo - July, 1990: "In Albania young people demonstrated against the regime in Tirana, 5,000 citizens sought refuge in foreign embassies. Albanian delegates of the parliament of Kosova declared the independence of Kosova from Serbia. Subsequently Serbia abolished the parliament and government of Kosova, closed down the only Albanian daily, and took over the state-owned television and radio."

1990  - Group 7 Summit / Houston, Texas - July 11th, 1990: "Leaders of the so-called 'Group of Seven' nations concluded their summit in Houston by encouraging Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev to enact reforms in return for Western aid."

1990  - Resignation / Boris Yeltsin - July 12th, 1990: "Russian republic president Boris N. Yeltsin shocked the 28th congress of the Soviet Communist Party by announcing he was resigning his party membership."

1990 - Movie Release / "Ghost" - Entertainment highlights during the week of July 9th-15th, 1990: "The movie "Ghost" was released." [Based on: A.P. article, p. C2, S.L.P.D., 07/10/06]

1990  - Protests / Moscow - July 15th, 1990: "Tens of thousands of people marched in Moscow to protest the Communist Party's control of the government, the army and the KGB."

1990 - Earthquake / Luzon, Philippines - "July 16th, 1990: Earthquake location: Luzon, Philippines. Earthquake magnitude: 7.8. Number of recorded fatalities: 1,621."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 208]

1990  - Convictions Set Aside / Oliver North - July 20th, 1990: "A federal appeals court set aside Oliver North's Iran-Contra convictions, reversing one outright."

1990  - Foreign Relations / Iraq & Kuwait - July 24th, 1990: "Iraq, accusing Kuwait of conspiring to harm its economy through oil overproduction, massed tens of thousands of troops and hundreds of tanks along the Iraqi-Kuwaiti border."

August 1990

1990  - Georgian Sovereignty - August, 1990: "South Ossetia, a region of north central Georgia with a population of about 100,000, declared itself sovereign. Ethnic Ossetians speak a language similar to Persian."

1990 - Incubator-Baby Deaths? / Kuwait - "The 15-year-old Kuwaiti Ambassador's teenager daughter in a televised appearance publicly declared a number of Iraqi-sponsored incubator baby deaths in Kuwait." [Based on: Video: The Great Deception]

1990  - Iraqi Invasion / Kuwait - August 2nd, 1990: "Iraq invaded Kuwait, seizing control of the oil-rich emirate. The day came to be known in Kuwait as 'Black Thursday'. 330 Kuwaitis died during the occupation and war. Sadam Hussein, leader of Iraq, took over Kuwait. G. Bush led an inter-national coalition for sanctions and a demand for withdrawal."

1990  - Operation Desert Shield - August 7th, 1990: "President Bush ordered U.S. troops and warplanes to Saudi Arabia to guard the oil-rich desert kingdom against a possible invasion by Iraq. The US Persian Gulf War began. It ended Feb 28, 1991. It cost $8.1 billion and left 383 US casualties with 458 wounded."

*Trivia: "The U.S. government's Energy Information Administration projects [from 2004] that in 20 years, the Persian Gulf will supply between one-half and two-thirds of the oil on the world market - the same percentage as before the 1973 embargo. Fifty years later, in other words, the Middle East will have regained all its old power over oil - and the U.S. government knows it. Whether or not Washington's war in Iraq was directly motivated by oil, American planners clearly hoped it would lay the groundwork for a stable, democratic Middle East - which, among other benefits, would in Washington's view put the world's oil supply in more trustworthy hands." [National Geographic Magazine, p. 108, June 2004]

*Trivia: "Osama bin Laden, before the Persian Gulf war, offered his services to the Saudi Arabian king to fight Saddam Hussein with 100,000 men in order to keep the Americans off Arabian soil but was turned down." [St. Louis Post-Dispatch article, 09/23/04, by Eva Adams, Union Mo.]

*Trivia: - "A total of 320 tons [290,300 kilograms] of DU [depleted uranium] projectiles were fired by the U.S. during the Gulf War:" [Link: 1]

*Trivia: There are two ways to determine if the use of a particular weapon in military operations is illegal. The easiest way is if the weapon is used in violation of a treaty that forbids its use and the State using it is a party to that treaty. If there is no treaty on a specific weapon, then one must determine if the use of that weapon would violate existing rules and principles of binding humanitarian (armed conflict) law. Under these rules (the "weapons test") – derived from The Hague Conventions, the Geneva Conventions, and all other sources of military law – a weapon may be banned if: (1) it has harmful effects outside the legal field of battle (the "geography" test); (2) it has harmful effects after the war is over (the "time" test); (3) its use is unduly inhuman or causes undue suffering (the "humaneness" test); or (4) it has a harmful effect on the environment (the "environment" test). The first two tests arise from the requirement that weapons may not be indiscriminate. Because there is no specific weapon treaty forbidding the use of depleted uranium, the illegality of DU must be shown by the second method.

Weaponry containing depleted uranium (DU) fails all four tests. [....]

[Based on: article by by Karen Parker, J.D. September 30, 2003 @
http://www.mindfully.org/Nucs/2003/Leuren-Moret-ICT13dec03.htm - bottom of page]

1990  - Foreign Relations / Iraq & Israel - August 12th, 1990: "Iraqi President Saddam Hussein sought to tie any withdrawal of his troops from Kuwait to an Israeli withdrawal from the occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip."

1990  - Foreign Relations / Iraq & U.S.A. - August 19th, 1990: "Iraqi President Saddam Hussein offered to free all foreigners detained in Iraq and Kuwait provided the United States promise to withdraw its forces from Saudi Arabia and guarantee that an international economic embargo would be lifted."

1990  - Hostage Release / Lebanon - August 24th, 1990: "Irish hostage Brian Keenan was released by his captors in Lebanon after being held more than four years."

1990 - Fatality / Stevie Ray Vaughan - Entertainment highlights during the week of August 27th-September 2nd, 1990: Guitarist Stevie Ray Vaughan [age 35] and three members of Eric Clapton's entourage were killed [08/27/06] in a Helicopter crash in Wisconsin. [Based on: A.P. article, p. C2, S.L.P.D., 08/28/06]

1990  - Foreign Relations / Iraq & Kuwait - August 28th, 1990: "Iraq declared occupied Kuwait the 19th province of Iraq, renamed Kuwait City Kadhima, and created a new district named after President Saddam Hussein. A puppet regime under Alaa Hussein was set up. Alaa Hussein was convicted of treason in 2000 and sentenced to death. Saddam Hussein, saying he sympathized with his foreign captives, pledged to free detained women and children."

September 1990

1990  - Foreign Relations / Iraq & Iran - September 10th, 1990: "Iran agreed to resume full diplomatic ties with onetime enemy Iraq."

1990 - Formal End / WW II  - September 11th, 1990: "The four victorious allies of World War 2 and the two Germanys formally ended World War II, signing a treaty that cleared the way for a united Germany on October 3rd."

1990  - Hostile Threats / Iraq - September 23rd, 1990: "Iraq threatened to destroy Middle East oil fields and attack Israel if other nations tried to force it from Kuwait."

October 1990

1990 - Reunification / Germany - October 3rd, 1990: "West Germany and East Germany ended 45 years of postwar division, declaring the creation of a new unified country. The Berlin Wall came down."

1990  - Conflict / Israel & Palestine - October 8th, 1990: "Israeli police opened fire on rioting Palestinians on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, killing 17."

1990  - Public Unrest / Czechoslovakia - October 11th, 1990: "About 60-thousand people rallied in Prague, Czechoslovakia, in support of a government proposal to seize all Communist Party property without compensation."

1990  - Syrian Troops / Lebanon - October, 1990: "Syrian troops entered Beirut, to [ostensibly] help end the 15-year Lebanese civil war."

1990 - Civil War End / Lebanon - October 13th, 1990: "The Syrian airforce attacks the Presidential Palace at B'abda and Awn takes refuge in the French embassy. This date is regarded as the end of the civil war."

1990 - Official Opening / Temple of ECK, MN - October 22nd, 1990: "Official 'opening' of the Temple of ECK in Chanhassen Minnesota." [E.M.] [See: http://www.eckankar.org/Temple/]

*Trivia: "The Temple of ECK is a center from which the message of the Light and Sound of God will reach many seekers. Behind the stone, mortar, wood, and glass of the ECK Temple is one purpose: to give the ECK teachings to all who want them." [Based on: Sri Harold Klemp]

November 1990

1990 - Budget Bill / U.S.A. - November 5th, 1990: "Pres. Bush signed Nov. 5, a bill to reduce budget deficits $500 bil over 5 years, by spending curbs and tax hikes." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 555]

1990  - US Troop Deployments / Persian Gulf - November 8th, 1990: "President Bush ordered a new round of troop deployments in the Persian Gulf, adding up to 150-thousand soldiers to the multinational force facing off against Iraq."

1990 - Public Criticism / Judaism - November 9th, 1990: "Israeli newspaper HaAretz publishes interview in which Strugnell characterized Judaism as 'a horrible religion' & lamented the survival of Jews as a group." [Link 1]

1990 - Trivia / U.S. Clean Air Act - December 15th, 1990: "Pres. Bush Nov. 15 signed into law a strengthened version of the 1970 Clean Air Act." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 555]

1990  - Politics / Hungary - November 26th, 1990: "Hungary held a national referendum in which voters decided that the country's next president would be chosen by parliament, following free elections."

1990  - Private Religious Practice / Albania - November, 1990:  "In Albania private religious practice began to be allowed."

December 1990

1990  - President Milosevic / Serbia - December, 1990: "In Serbia Milosevic won the presidency and his Socialist [formerly Communist] Party captured 194 of 250 parliamentary seats."

1990 - Updated Charter / Royal House of Stewart - "On 14 December 1990, the Brussels Registrars signed, sealed and authenticated an updated Charter of the Royal House of Stewart, detailing the complete family descent from the time of Robert the Bruce down to date." [Laurence Gardner, Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, p. 294]

1990  - Resignation / Eduard Shevardnadze - December 20th, 1990: "Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze shocked Soviet lawmakers by announcing his resignation, warning that 'dictatorship is coming'."

1990  - Slovenian Secession / Yugoslavia - December 23rd, 1990: "Slovenians voted overwhelmingly in favor of their republic's secession from Yugoslavia."

1990  - Trivia / US Census - "December 26th, 1990: "The US government reported that its 1990 census had counted a total 249 million, 632,692 people."

1990  - Weedstock / Wisconsin - "In Wisconsin the first Weedstock Festival, a pro-marijuana event, was held."

1990  - Lesbians & Gays / Russia - "In Russia the Moscow Union of Lesbians and Gays was founded."

1990  - Democratic Party / Bosnia - "[....] In 1990, in the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Karadzic cofounded the party of the Bosnian Serbs, Srpska Demokratska Stranka (SDS), and became its first president. The SDS was formed to challenge nationalist Muslim and Croat parties in the November 1990 multi-party elections, and won 72 of the 240 Assembly seats. The mission of the SDS was to form a unified Serbian state, or Greater Serbia, by linking Serboccupied parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia with Serbia. Karadzic declared a large portion of the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina as exclusively Serbian. However, large numbers of Bosnian Muslims and Croats already resided in these territories. The SDS mission, therefore, included a policy of ethnic cleansing to eliminate non-Serb populations in these areas. In order to implement such a policy, the SDS needed to convince the Bosnian Serb population that preemptive action against non-Serbs was critical for self-preservation. [....]"

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radovan_Karad%C5%BEi%C4%87
              http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bosnia_and_Herzegovina#Bosnian_War_.281992.E2.80.931995.29

1990  - U.S. Sanctions / Pakistan - "President Bush imposed sanctions against Pakistan under the 1986 Pressler Amendment when he was unable to certify that Pakistan did not have a nuclear bomb. This stopped the sale of 28 F-16 airplanes to Pakistan for which $658 million was already paid to General Dynamics. Pakistan had ordered and paid for 71 F-16 fighter bombers. $157 million was returned. In 1998 New Zealand agreed to lease the planes for about $105 million and the money to be paid to Pakistan."

1990 - Trivia / Asian Students, U.S.A. - "A study [1990-1992] by the University of Michigan showed 96% of fifth graders in Japan had higher test scores in math than their American counterparts. Students of Taiwan in the 11th grade outscored American students by 86% and Japanese students scored 92% higher than the American average."

*Trivia: "The US census counted over 1.6 million Chinese Americans with 40% of them in California."

1990  - U.S. Military Buildup / Kuwait - "540,000 American troops assembled to drive Iraqi forces from Kuwait."

1990 - Controversy / Sinead O'Conner - "Sinead O'Conner banned the national anthem from her show in New Jersey. In turn,  the singer was banned from any future performances at the Garden State Arts Center." [S.L.P.D.]

1990  - Trivia / U.S. Military Budget - "The US military budget was about $350 billion a year. That's about $1,400 per every man, woman and child, or $5,600 per 4 person family."

1990  - Political Demonstrations / Mongolia - "In Mongolia demonstrations against Russian rule began. The Mongolian Communist soon voted to dissolve itself."

1990  - President Jean-Bertrand Aristade / Haiti - "In Haiti the first democratic elections were held and won by Jean-Bertrand Aristide, a left-leaning former Catholic priest."

*Trivia: "Aristide became Haiti's first elected president in 1990. He was ousted in a coup, then reinstated by American forces in 1994." [A.P., 02/20/04]

*Trivia: "Jury selection began Monday [08/16/04] for a Haitian paramilitary leader [Louis-Jodel Chamblain] convicted in abstentia of killing a businessman and ordering a massacre in the early 1990s. He is facing the charges again [2004] after returning to lead a revolt [2004] against President Jean-Bertrand Aristide. Louis-Jodel Chamblain was a co-leader of the paramilitary Front for the Advancement and Progress of the Haitian People, a group that was blamed for the killings of about 3,000 people from 1991-1994 during the regime that followed Aristide's first ouster in 1991." [News Services, 08/17/04] 

*Trivia: "When U.S. troops came to the country [Haiti] in 1994 to restore Aristide, Chamblain fled to the neighboring Dominican Republic. In 1995 he was convicted in abstentia and given two life sentences. He returned to help lead the rebellion this year [2004] that ousted Aristide for a second time and sent him into exile." [News Services, 08/17/04]

1990  - T. Rex / South Dakota - "A 50-foot female T. rex, 65 million years old, was discovered on a Cheyenne River Reservation in South Dakota by Sue Hendrickson. The government seized the skeleton in 1992 and in 1997 it was put up for auction by Sotheby's on behalf of Maurice Williams, a Sioux Indian and owner of the ranch where it was found. The proceeds will be held in trust by the government. Backers of the Chicago Field Museum of Natural History paid $8.36 million."

1990 - Trivia / Climate Control - "A leading expert on climate disputed on Tuesday [12/14/04] the U.S. government contention that cutbacks in carbon dioxide emissions are not yet warranted to check global warming. 'The science says you've got to reduce emissions,' Rajendra K. Pachauri said in an interview midway through the two-week international climate conference. [....] The 10 warmest years globally, since records were first kept in the 19th century, have all occured since 1990, the top three since 1998. Specialists here [International Climate Conference] this week [December 2004] will issue a report saying 2004 ranks as the fourth-warmest or fifth-warmest year recorded. [....]" [A.P., 12/15/04]

1990  - Gasoline Chemicals / U.S.A. - "Congress mandated that oil companies put air-cleaning chemicals into gasoline to reduce carbon monoxide and smog in the largest urban centers."

1990 - Volcanic Eruption / Honshu, Japan - "Adatara is a stratovolcano made up of three cones. These cones are basaltic to andesitic in composition. The summit of Adatara is a lava dome. Adatara has had two historical eruptions. The last eruption of Adatara was in 1990. [....]"

[Based on: http://library.thinkquest.org/16132/html/volcanoinfo/recentdisasters/adatara.html  ]

1990  - Artificial Nitrogen Fertilizers / Worldwide - "In 1990, about 50 million tons of artificial nitrogen fertilizers were being used on a global scale."

1990 - Depression-Causing Antidepressants? - "Top Food and Drug Administration officials said publicly for the first time Monday [09/13/04] that scientific trials of frequently prescribed antidepressants [Prozac, Zoloft, Paxil, Luvox, Celexa, Lexapro, Effexor, Wellbutrin, Serzone, and Remeron] have powerfully demonstrated that children that took the medications faced an increased risk of suicide. [....] Concerns about a possible link between the drugs and suicide were raised in the media and by some psychiatrists in 1990." [Based on: Elizabeth Shogren, Los Angeles Times, 09/14/04]

1990  - Digital TV - "A digital method for transmitting TV pictures was invented."

1990  - NTT Telescope / Chile - "The NTT [New Technology Telescope] in Chile, the pride of the European astronomical community was inaugurated. Its mirrors span 3.5 meters and is the first telescope built with active or computer assisted optics."

1990  - Human Genome Project - "The Human Genome Project began and planned to sequence all human DNA by 2005. The database did not just store sequences, but linked them with citations to enable new discoveries. James Watson served as its 1st head. His opposition to gene patents helped force him from the position in 1992."

1990 - First Browser / "WorldWideWeb" - "Berners-Lee first proposed the Web in 1989 while developing ways to control computers remotely at CERN, the European nuclear research lab near Geneva. He never got the project finally approved but his boss suggested he quietly tinker with it anyway. He fleshed out the core communication protocols needed for transmitting Web pages: the HTTP, or hypertext transfer protocol, and the so-called markup language used to create them, HTML. By Christmas day 1990, he finished the first browser, called simply WorldWideWeB.' [by Mans Hulden, A.P., 06/16/04]

1990 - Letters to Gail, Volume III - "Copyright 1990: Letters to Gail, Volume III, by Paul Twitchell [d. 1971]."

1990 - Cyclone Trivia / 1990 - "Number of notable cyclones this year: at least 1. Number of cyclone deaths: 450." [E.M.]

1990 - Volcano Trivia / 1990 - "Number of volcanic eruptions [and, or] notable volcanic events this year: at least 1. Number of recorded deaths: 0." [E.M.]

1990 - Earthquake Trivia / 1990 - "Number of notable earthquakes this year: at least 3. Number of earthquake deaths: 41,736." [E.M.]

1990 - "Natural Disaster" Deaths / 1990 - "Estimated number of people who died from natural disasters this year: at least 42,307." [E.M.]

1991

1991 - Operation Desert Storm - January 17th, 1991: "In January 1991, Operation Desert Shield became Operation Desert Storm, as the allies - meaning, essentially, America and Britain - battered Iraq with hi-tech bombs and missiles. The mad, irrelevant doctrine of air superiority did not do a scrap of harm to Saddam's regime, nor did it dislodge him from Kuwait. But when the alliance finally summoned up the courage to launch a land attack, the Iraqi army ran for its life. Thousands of its soldiers were slaughtered in the sand. Inside Iraq, there were mass uprisings against the hated dictator. The allies took fright and called off the chase, for fear that the oil-rich region would be reduced to chaos. The Republican Guard crushed the rebellion, and once more Iraq was safe for Saddam to brutalise."

*Trivia: "Of the 580,000 troops who served in the 6-week 1991 Gulf War, 11,000 are now dead, and by the year 2000, 325,000 were on permanent medical disability frome multiple causes.
   "Of 251 Mississippi veterans in a study group who had normal babies before, 67 percent have now had babies born with birth defects. Some researchers, both here and abroad, believe that the 320 tons of depleted uranium weapons (DU) that were dropped on Iraq and a huge saran depot that we destroyed with fallout on 100,000 of our troops, could be responsible for their horrendous statistics. Over 1500 tons of DU have been used in our latest Iraq [2003] invasion. [....] Much of Iraq's air, soil, and water is saturated with tiny cancer-causing uranium particles that when inhaled, can lead to an early death. One recent study reported that 8 out of a 20-person unit that returned from Iraq in 2003 showed classic symptoms of DU exposure.
   "The World Health Organization (WHO) reported that before the Gulf War, Iraq had one of the best health systems in the entire Middle East Region. They now report that in the year 2000, Iraq had a total of 195,374 new cases of cancer and 126,677 deaths."

*Links: http://www.veteransforpeace.org
              http://globalresearch.ca/articles/MOR407A.html
              http://www.life.com/Life/essay/gulfwar/gulf02.html

 
1991 - Depleted Uranium Weapons / Iraq - "[....] The 1991 introduction of depleted uranium weapons in Iraq, the radioactive trash from the 'nuclear project', broke a 46 year taboo. These radioactive weapons, the 'Trojan Horse of Nuclear War', continued to be used over the past decade and are still being used today [2005]. [....]"

[Based on: http://www.mindfully.org/Nucs/2003/Leuren-Moret-ICT13dec03.htm]

*Trivia: [....] Vietnam was a chemical war for oil, permanently contaminating large regions and countries downriver with Agent Orange, and environmentally the most devastating war in world history. But since 1991, the U.S. has staged four nuclear wars using depleted uranium weaponry, which, like Agent Orange, meets the U.S. government definition of Weapons of Mass Destruction. Vast regions in the Middle East and Central Asia have been permanently contaminated with radiation. [....] The first DU weapons system was developed for the Navy in 1968, and DU weapons were given to and used by Israel in 1973 under U.S. supervision in the Yom Kippur war against the Arabs. The Phalanx weapons system, using DU, was tested on the USS Bigelow out of Hunters Point Naval Shipyard in 1977, and DU weapons have been sold by the U.S. to 29 countries. Military research report summaries detail the testing of DU from 1974-1999 at military testing grounds, bombing and gunnery ranges and at civilian labs under contract. Today 42 states are contaminated with DU from manufacture, testing and deployment. [....] A Japanese professor, Dr. K. Yagasaki, has calculated that 800 tons of DU is the atomicity equivalent of 83,000 Nagasaki bombs. The U.S. has used more DU since 1991 than the atomicity equivalent of 400,000 Nagasaki bombs. Four nuclear wars indeed, and 10 times the amount of radiation released into the atmosphere from atmospheric testing! No wonder our soldiers, their families and the people of the Middle East, Yugoslavia and Central Asia are sick. But as Henry Kissinger said after Vietnam when our soldiers came home ill from Agent Orange, 'Military men are just dumb stupid animals to be used for foreign policy.' [....]"

[Based on: http://www.sfbayview.com/081804/depleteduranium081804.shtml]

1991 - X10 Solar Flare - January 25th, 1991: On this date in history an X10 solar flare ["11th-largest solar flare" recorded since 1976] blasted from the Sun.

[Based on: http://spaceweather.com/solarflares/topflares.html] - [T.D. 12/12/06]

1991 - Earthquake / Pakistan, Afghanistan Border - "February 1st, 1991: Earthquake location: Pakistan, Afghanistan Border. Earthquake magnitude: 6.8. Number of recorded fatalities: 1,200."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 208]

1991 - Trivia / Gulf War End - February 27th, 1991: "The Gulf War ends."

*Trivia: "Kuwait spent $128 million to remove two million landmines after the Gulf War." [Link: 1]

*Trivia: "On the 'Highway of Death,' 11 miles north of the Kuwait border, a collection of tanks, armored personnel carriers and other military vehicles are rusting in the desert. They also are radiating nuclear energy. In 1991, the United States and its Persian Gulf War allies blasted the vehicles with armor-piercing shells made of depleted uranium - the first time such weapons had been used in warfare - as the Iraqis retreated from Kuwait. The devastating results gave the highway its name." [Link: 1]

*Trivia: "Researchers have found that veterans of the 1991 Gulf War are more likely to suffer from chronic symptoms, including memory and thinking problems, debilitating fatigue, severe muscle and joint pain, depression and rashes. But the cause has proved elusive. Theories include stress, bacterial infection, chemical or biological weapons, pollutants from burning oil fields, depleted-uranium munitions, and vaccinations for anthrax and other potential biological weapons." [News Services, 07/20/2004]

*Trivia: "Veterans of the 1991 Persian Gulf War exposed to pollution from oil well fires, exhausts and other sources may face an increased risk of lung cancer, a government advisory group reported Monday [12/20/04]. [....]" [News Services]

1991 - U.S. Military Women / Gulf War - 1991: "More than 40,000 women serve in the war zone. Fifteen are killed, and two are taken prisoner." [Based on: St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p. A10, 07/10/05]

1991 - Trivia / "Dances With Wolves" - March, 1991: "Entertainment highlights during the week of March 20th - 26th: " 'Dances With Wolves' won seven Academy Awards, including a best-director Oscar for Kevin Costner." [Based on: A.P., 03/21/05]

1991 - X9.4 Solar Flare - March 22nd, 1991: On this date in history an X9.4 solar flare ["13th-largest solar flare" recorded since 1976] blasted from the Sun.

[Based on: http://spaceweather.com/solarflares/topflares.html] - [T.D. 12/12/06]

1991 - Significant Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) - March 24th, 1991: "[....] On March 24, 1991 a significant CME traveling at 5 times the speed of the solar wind struck the magnetosphere. The data from space probe Ulysses suggested the boundary was within 4 RE of the Earth's center, and that the impact also created a second shock wave inside the cavity, spreading throughout the magnetosphere.
   "The research spacecraft CRRES, operated by the US Air Force was at that instant deep inside the radiation belt, at a distance of 2.55 RE. The first thing CRRES saw was a torrent of highly energetic protons and electrons. The protons had energies above 20 Mev, twenty million electron volts, some 20,000 times the energy of the average proton in the solar wind. The passage of the shock also left Earth with a new long-lived belt of high-energy protons [....].
[Based on: article @: http://presys.com/~ekklesia/cme.htm]

1991 - "Space Storm" - March 1991: "[....] Great magnetic storms are awesome disturbances in the near-Earth space environment that occur relatively rarely. The last five occurred in February 1986, March 1989, March 1991, November 1991 and May 1992.  [....]"

[Based on: http://www.windows.ucar.edu/spaceweather/blackout.html]

1991 - Trivia / Rioactive Waste, Columbia River, U.S.A. - March 28th, 1991: "[....] According to the EPA (The New York Times, March 28, 1991), the engineers who built the nuclear weapons in the 1950's dumped over 127 million gallons of highly radioactive waste containing Iodine-129, into the ground just a few miles from the Columbia River, the 4th largest river system in the U.S., which flows into the Pacific Ocean. [....]"

[Based on: http://www.rense.com/general39/another.htm]

1991 - Katie Couric / The "Today" Show - Entertainment highlights during the week of March 30th-April 5th, 1991: Katie Couric started her first day on the job as co-host on NBC's "Today" show. [Based on: A.P. article (THAT WAS THE WEEK THAT WAS), p. E2, S.L.P.D., 04/01/08]

1991 - Record Close? / D.J.I.A. - April 17th, 1991: "An 8-month recession shows signs of having ended  in Mar. The Dow Jones Industrial Average closed above 3000 for the first time, Apr. 17." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 555]

1991 - Cyclone / Bangladesh - "Cyclone date(s): April 30th, 1991. Number of recorded deaths: 139,000." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 206]

1991 - X12 Solar Flare - June 1st, 1991: "On this date in history an X12 solar flare ["9th-largest solar flare" recorded since 1976] blasted from the Sun."

[Based on: http://spaceweather.com/solarflares/topflares.html] - [T.D. 12/12/06]

1991 - X12 Solar Flare - June 4th, 1991: "On this date in history an X12 solar flare ["9th-largest solar flare" recorded since 1976] blasted from the Sun."

[Based on: http://spaceweather.com/solarflares/topflares.html] - [T.D. 12/12/06]

1991 - X12 Solar Flare - June 6th, 1991: "On this date in history an X12 solar flare ["9th-largest solar flare" recorded since 1976] blasted from the Sun."

[Based on: http://spaceweather.com/solarflares/topflares.html] - [T.D. 12/12/06]

1991 - X10 Solar Flare - June 9th, 1991: On this date in history an X10 solar flare ["11th-largest solar flare" recorded since 1976] blasted from the Sun.

[Based on: http://spaceweather.com/solarflares/topflares.html] - [T.D. 12/12/06]

1991 - X12 Solar Flare - June 11th, 1991: "On this date in history an X12 solar flare ["9th-largest solar flare" recorded since 1976] blasted from the Sun."

[Based on: http://spaceweather.com/solarflares/topflares.html] - [T.D. 12/12/06]

1991 - X12 Solar Flare - June 15th, 1991: "On this date in history an X12 solar flare ["9th-largest solar flare" recorded since 1976] blasted from the Sun."

[Based on: http://spaceweather.com/solarflares/topflares.html] - [T.D. 12/12/06]

1991 - Volcanic Eruption / Mt. Pinatubo, Luzon, Philippines - "Eruption date(s): June 15th, 1991. Number of recorded deaths: 800." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 491]

1991 - Independence / Slovenia - June 25th, 1991: "Slovenia [Independence: 06/25/1991] and Macedonia [Independence: 09/18/1991] broke away from Yugoslavia. Milosevic sent tanks into Slovenia. He withdrew them after the European Union mediated a truce." [Based on: Reuters, World Almanac and KRT - St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p. A13, 06/26/05] - [Brackets data added by E.M.]

*Links: http://www.worldstatesmen.org/Yugoslavia.html
              http://www.un.org/icty/indictment/english/mil-2ai011029e.htm

1991 - Independence / Croatia - June 25th, 1991: "In Croatia, Milosevic backed Serbs in a fight against Croats who wanted independence. 10,000 people were killed. A U.N. patrolled cease-fire ended the war. Croatia gained its independence." [Based on: Reuters, World Almanac and KRT - St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p. A13, 06/26/05] - [Brackets data added by E.M.]

*Links: http://www.worldstatesmen.org/Yugoslavia.html
              http://www.un.org/icty/indictment/english/mil-2ai011029e.htm

1991 - Dissolution / Warsaw Pact - July 1st, 1991: "With European communism in tatters, the Warsaw pact dissolves."  [Sources: NATO, The Associated Press, the World Book, the Encyclopedia Britannica]

1991 - Signed / START I Treaty - July 31st, 1991: "President George H.W. Bush and Soviet leader Gorbachev sign the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START 1), calling for the removal of about half their strategic nuclear warheads." [Based on: N.G.M., August 2005, p. 112]

1991 - Gorbachev Disposition - "In August 1991 the Soviet president, Mikhail Gorbachev, was toppled by a chaotic communist palace coup. He was restored only by the grace of Yeltsin, who had clambered on to an armoured personnel carrier outside the Russian parliament building to yell his defiance at the plotters. By the end of the year, the Communist Party was suppressed, Gorbachev was in political oblivion, and the USSR was replaced by the Commonwealth of Independent States."

1991 - Independence / Macedonia - September 18th, 1991: "Slovenia [Independence: 06/25/1991] and Macedonia [Independence: 09/18/1991] broke away from Yugoslavia. Milosevic sent tanks into Slovenia. He withdrew them after the European Union mediated a truce." [Based on: Reuters, World Almanac and KRT - St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p. A13, 06/26/05] - [Brackets data added by E.M.]

*Links: http://www.worldstatesmen.org/Yugoslavia.html
              http://www.un.org/icty/indictment/english/mil-2ai011029e.htm

1991 - "Smells Like Teen Spirit" / Nirvana - September 29th, 1991: "Nirvana produced an MTV video for the grunge song "Smells Like Teen Spirit"

1991 - 1st Casino / St. Louis Area - "Argosy Gaming opens the first casino in the St. Louis area. The Alton Belle offers gambling cruises on the Mississippi River from its dock in Alton [Il.]." [St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p. C1, 12/31/04]

1991 - Ordered Closed / U.S. House Bank - October 3rd, 1991: "U.S. House bank ordered closed Oct. 3 after revelations that house members had written 8,331 bad checks." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 555]

1991 - Supreme Court Justice / Clarence Thomas - October 15th, 1991: "The Senate approved, Oct. 15, nomination of Clarence Thomas to the Supreme Court, despite allegations of sexual harassment against him by Anita Hill, a former aide. He became the 2nd African-American to serve on the Court, replacing retiring Justice Thurgood Marshall, the 1st black." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 555]

1991 - Earthquake / N. India - "October 19th, 1991: Earthquake location: N. India. Earthquake magnitude: 7.0. Number of recorded fatalities: 2,000."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 208]

1991 - Independence? / Kosovo - October 19th, 1991: "Kosovo declares its independence from Yugoslavia  (Republic of Kosovo [Albanian: Kosovoa), not recognized."

1991 - Access / Dead Sea Scrolls - October 22nd, 1991: "Israeli department of Antiquities announces that it will grant access to official photos of the scrolls to scholars who agree not to publish their findings." [Link: 1]

1991 - Tropical Storm / Philippines - "November 5th, 1991: Number of recorded fatalities: 7,000+."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 206]

1991 - Publication / Dead Sea Scrolls - November 20th, 1991: "Shanks publishes Eisenman's photos in A Facsimile Edition of the Dead Sea Scrolls, co-edited by James M. Robinson." [Link 1]

1991 - Fatality / Freddie Mercury - November 24th, 1991: "Freddie Mercury, lead singer of Queen, died of Aids."

1991 - Public Access / Dead Sea Scrolls - November 25th, 1991: "At annual meeting of the Society of Biblical Literature in Kansas City Mo., scroll project director, E. Tov, announces lifting of all publication restrictions, allowing any scholar to examine the official scroll photos & publish whatever was discovered. - SBL passes resolution affirming the right of all scholars to have access to facsimile reproductions of all ancient manuscripts without any publication restrictions."

1991 - "Space Storm" - November 1991: "[....] Great magnetic storms are awesome disturbances in the near-Earth space environment that occur relatively rarely. The last five occurred in February 1986, March 1989, March 1991, November 1991 and May 1992.  [....]"

[Based on: http://www.windows.ucar.edu/spaceweather/blackout.html]

1991 - "Commonwealth of Independant States" - "On December 21 representatives of 11 former Soviet Republics met in Alma Ata and signed the founding 'Declaration of the Commonwealth of Independant States' - a loose confederation of the former Republics. Four days later, Gorbachev announced his resignation and the Soviet Union ceased to exist."

1991 - Dissolution / Soviet Union - December 25th, 1991: "The Soviet Union ceases to exist." [Sources: NATO, The Associated Press, the World Book, the Encyclopedia Britannica]

1991 - Trivia / Muslim Republics - "In December 1991, the USSR collapsed. This changed all kinds of alignments on a world scale. Thousands of war-hardened Islamist fighters were spreading out from Afghanistan throughout the Muslim world. Some 4,000 of them settled in the Saudi cities of Mecca and Medina alone. Chossudovsky writes: 'The CIA continued to support the Islamic 'jihad' out of Pakistan. New undercover initiatives were set in motion in Central Asia, the Caucasus and the Balkans. Pakistan's military and intelligence apparatus essentially 'served as a catalyst for the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the emergence of six new Muslim republics in Central Asia.' At the same time, these Islamist veterans of the Afghan war also came into intense conflict with pro-U.S. governments - and with larger U.S. interests - over the Persian Gulf war. A key turning point was when the U.S. brought 540,000 troops into the Persian Gulf in 1991 to attack Iraq's armed forces." [Link: 1]

1991 - Publication / Dead Sea Scrolls - "In December 1991, a two-volume edition of scroll photographs was published. This facsimile edition was issued by the Biblical Archaeology Society, an American group headed by Hershel Shanks."

1991 - Trivia / Mad Cow Disease - December 1991: "The USDA bans at-risk by-products of ruminant origin from countries known to have BSE." [Based on: St. Petersburg Times, 03/12/01]  

1991 - Weapons Programs? / Iraq - "The United nations ordered Iraq to stop its biological, chemical, and nuclear weapons programs. When the United Nations sent in a special commission to inspect the progress of the order, Iraq caused continuous interruptions and obstacles."

*Trivia: "Contradicting the main argument for a war that has cost more than 1,000 American lives, the top U.S. arms inspector [Charles Duelfer] said Wednesday [10/06/04] he found no evidence that Iraq produced weapons of mass destruction after 1991. [....] Contrary to prewar statements by President George W. Bush [2003], Saddam did not have chemical and biological stockpiles when the war began and his nuclear capabilities were deteriorating, not advancing, Duelfar said." [Based on: Ken Guggenheim, A.P., 10/07/04]

1991 - Rebel War / Sierra Leone - "Survivors this week [July 2004] and last have started telling their accounts of one of Africa's most heartless wars: a 1991-2002 campaign by rebels who killed, raped, kidnapped and hacked to pieces hundreds of thousands of civilians in hopes of terrorizing Sierra Leone into ceding control of its government and diamond fields." [A.P., 07/22/04]

1991 - Independence / Chechnya - "In 1991, Chechen President Dzhokhar Dudayev declared region's independence." [A.P.]

1991 - Military Dictatorship / Haiti - "During Haiti's military dictatorship from 1991 to 1994, more than 65,000 Haitians were intercepted at sea by the Coast Guard, and most were sent back home, including many who were initially taken to the U.S. naval base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba." [A.P., 02/20/04]

*Trivia: "Louis-Jodel Chamblain was a co-leader of the paramilitary Front for the Advancement and Progress of the Haitian People, a group that was blamed for the killings of about 3,000 people from 1991-1994 during the regime that followed Aristide's first ouster in 1991." [News Services, 08/17/04] 

*Trivia: "When U.S. troops came to the country [Haiti] in 1994 to restore Aristide, Chamblain fled to the neighboring Dominican Republic. In 1995 he was convicted in abstentia and given two life sentences. He returned to help lead the rebellion this year [2004] that ousted Aristide for a second time and sent him into exile." [News Services, 08/17/04]

1991 - Fatality / Rajiv Gandhi, India - "Jawaharlal Nehru, the first prime minister, headed India from 1947 until his death in 1964. He was followed later by his daughter, Indira Gandhi, whose often iron-fisted rule defined two decades of Indian life. Indira was murdered by her own bodyguards in 1984, and her son, Rajiv Gandhi, an airline pilot, reluctantly stepped up. Riding a wave of sympathy, he easily won the next election. But he lost the prime minister's post in 1989 and was assassinated two years later while campaigning." [A.P., 05/14/04]

1991 - Anthrax Testing / U.S.A. - "The Army is planning [2004] to expand the nation's leading biological and chemical defense testing site in Utah's remote western desert to make it a training ground for counterterrorism operations. [....] In 1991, Dugway began anthrax testing, eventually testing several deadly germs to find a way to detect biological agents in times of war. Dugway now stores the pathogens in a secure laboratory." [News Services, 10/17/04]

1991 - The New World Order - "[....] But when the Wise Use allies hooked up with Pat Robertson's Christian Coalition, they hit a home run. Robertson's special contribution to right-wing theology was to substitute environmentalists for communists as the new threat to democracy and Christianity. In his 1991 best-seller, The New World Order, he vilifies the federal government as an alien nation waging war on the family and disarming America through gun control laws. Environmentialists are the evil priests of a new paganism that will become the official state religion of the New World Order. [....]" [Robert F. Kennedt Jr., Crimes Against Nature, p. 28]  

1991 - Cost of Mailing a Letter? / U.S.A. - "Cost of stamp for mailing a letter in U.S.A.: 29 cents." [Based on: S.L.P.D. article (Cost of mailing a letter will jump to 39 cents next week [January 2006]), p. C1, S.L.P.D., 01/03/06]

1991 - Notable Albums of 1991 - "Metallica" (Metallica); "Nevermind" (Nirvana); "Ten" (Pearl Jam); "Blood Sugar Sex Magik" (Red Hot Chilli Peppers); "Achtung Baby" (U2)

1991 - Volcano Trivia / 1991 - "Number of volcanic eruptions [and, or] notable volcanic events this year: at least 1. Number of recorded deaths: 800." [E.M.]

1991 - Cyclone Trivia / 1991 - "Number of notable cyclones this year: at least 1. Number of cyclone deaths: 139,000." [E.M.]

1991 - Tropical Storm Trivia / 1991 - "Number of notable tropical storms this year: at least 1. Number of deaths: 7,000+." [E.M.]

1991 - Earthquake Trivia / 1991 - "Number of notable earthquakes this year: at least 2. Number of earthquake deaths: 3,200." [E.M.]

1991 - "Natural Disaster" Deaths / 1991 - "Estimated number of people who died from natural disasters this year: at least 150,000." [E.M.]

1992

1992 - Katun 19:13 AHAU - 1992-2012: "END OF 10-KATUN, LUNAR-GALACTIC EXHALATION CYCLE - COMMENCEMENT OF SOLAR INHALATION CYCLE / Katun 19:13 AHAU. Galactic Activation Planetary Ruler: Solar Pluto - Stage 12. LAMAT Cycle. Harmonic Index: 1864800. A.D. 1992-2012. Morphogenetic Pattern Completes Self-Transformation. [....]" [Based on: The Mayan Factor, by Jose Arguelles (Copyright 1987), p. 145]

1992 - Mayan Calendar / Final Phase - "The Mayas believed, as did the Assyrians and other ancient peoples, that time was a way of measuring the soul of the Universe. The universe breathed in and breathed out. Life was created, destroyed, created anew. One cycle of 'inhalation and exhalation' was called a 'Great Cycle.' The last Mayan 'Great Cycle,' 4 Ahau 8 Camku, began on August 13th, 3113 B.C. 4 Ahau Cambku is currently in a final phase called 'Katun 19, 13 Ahau,' which begun in 1992 and ends, with a prophecy of world destruction, on December 23, 2012."

1992 - Commonwealth of Independent States - January 1st, 1992: "Yeltsin invited the fifteen former Soviet republics to join Russia in creating a Commonwealth of Independent States [CIS] modeled after the America's 'states' system. Each republic would be completely independent, but would merge in economical and social matters. Eleven of them agreed as of January 1, 1992."

1992 - Bankruptcy / R.H. Macy & Co. - January 27th, 1992: "Retail giant R.H. Macy & Co. filed for bankruptcy, Jan. 27." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 555]

1992 - Bankruptcy / Trans World Airlines - January 31st, 1992: "Trans World Airlines, Jan. 31, became the latest major U.S. carrier to file for bankruptcy." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 555]

1992 - Independence / Bosnia - February 29th, 1992: "A conflict among Croats, Muslims and Milosevic-backed Bosnian Serbs broke out. 200,000 people [1992-1995] were killed. A peace agreement was signed, halting the ethnic strife. Bosnia gained its independence." [Based on: Reuters, World Almanac and KRT - St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p. A13, 06/26/05]

*Links: http://www.worldstatesmen.org/Yugoslavia.html
              http://www.un.org/icty/indictment/english/mil-2ai011029e.htm

*Trivia: "The tidal wave of post-communist change in Europe had smashed the artificial federation of Yugoslavia into its constituent parts. But the boundaries of the new nations were as capricious as the nationalities they contained. Each of the new republics contained an explosive mix of rival ethnic groups; none more so than Bosnia. The horrible civil war which exploded there in the spring of 1992 reflected the Serb irredentist ambition of Yugoslav president Slobodan Milosevic, and the hopelessly irreconcilable ambitions of three mingled communities: Serbs, Croats, and Muslims. As Nato fumbled and dithered on the sidelines, the Bosnian conflict degenerated into savagery, symbolised by the mindless destruction of the Stari Most bridge in Mostar, and a grim new shorthand phrase in the lexicon of barbarism: ethnic cleansing."

*Trivia: "U.N and local forensic experts have exumed 16,500 bodies from more than 300 mass graves found since the end [1995] of the Bosnian war, in which about 250,000 people were killed and 1.8 million driven from their homes. More than 20,000 people remain missing since the war." [Based on: A.P. article, 08/10/04]

*Trivia: "[....] The 1948 U.N. document establishing genocide as a crime - the United States did not ratify it until 1988 - defines it as policies and certain acts of violence 'committed with the intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group....' [....] The Commission of Experts report found that the number of Muslims in the Prijedor district - who were all but indistinguishable from their non-Muslim neighbors and represented about half the total population - fell from 49,454 in 1991 to 6,124 in 1993. The Bosnian Serb forces that seized power in Prijedor in 1992 pursued policies of forced expulsions of Muslims (called 'ethnic cleansing'); their imprisonment of Muslims in camps where they were beaten, raped, tortured and starved; and the outright murder of educated and influential Muslim individuals and groups of men women and children. [....]" [Based on: Other Views page article (A brotherhood of suffering / Holocaust Museum gives voice to Muslim victims of genocide) by Eric Mink, S.L.P.D., 01/09/08]

*Trivia: "Thirteen years after Bosnia's 1992-95 war ended [2008], mines are still claiming scores of victims. [NP] The problem is not that officials don't know where most of the explosives are buried. It's that they just can't seem to scrape together enough cash to get them out of the ground. [NP] Under an international treaty, Bosnia was supposed to be minefree by March 2009. [NP] Instead, the Balkan country quietly has obtained another decade to clear 220,000 remaining mines and other unexploded ordnance that pose a hidden menace to children, farmers, hunters, hikers and woodsmen. [NP] Authorities in Europe's most mine-infested nation acknowledged that more than 600 square miles of territory - an area larger than Los Angeles - is still riddled. [NP] Take all the former front lines where most of the mines lurk, lay them end to end, and you'd have a belt stretching 8,700 miles. The danger zone would reach more than a third of the way around Earth, or cover at least two Great Walls of China. [NP] Since the war ended, mines have claimed 1,665 victims, including 487 fatalities. So far this year [2008], 19 people were killed and 18 others maimed. [....] But an AP review of documents, and interviews with senior officials coordinating the effort, found that Bosnia is raising only about a third of the $50 million a year that Prime Minister Nikola Spiric says his impoverished nation needs to rid itself of mines by 2019, the new deadline. [....] It costs $2.50 to scan a square yard of suspicious territory - more than the going price for some land. That sounds cheap until you consider the vast areas of Bosnia that must be poked and prodded to ensure they're safe. [NP] All told, locating and removing a single mine costs $10,000." [Based on: A.P. article (Deadline to be missed - by decade / War-torn country got an extension to remove the hazards, but money to do the work is lagging.) by William J. Kole, p. A17, S.L.P.D., 12/22/08]

*Trivia: "[....] The prosecutors say seized notebooks and audio cassettes support their contention of a Serb-Croat conspiracy following the disintegration of Yugoslavia to drive out Muslims from parts of Bosnia and carve up the state into larger Croatian and Serbian nations." [Based on: News Services article (Diary discloses Serb-Croat conspiracy, prosecutors claim), p. A19, S.L.P.D., 07/10/10]

*Trivia: "Secret notes shake up war crimes trials / Paper trail shows top-level coordination of Bosnian Serb army and Serbia, a connection both parties always denied." [Based on: Title for NewYork Times article by Marlise Simons, p. A18, S.L.P.D., 07/11/10]

1992 - Examples of Genocide / Bosnia - 1992-1995 "200,000 Bosnians killed." [Based on: Reuters, World Almanac and KRT - St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p. A12, 06/26/05]

1992 - Earthquake / E. Turkey - "March 13 & 15, 1992: Earthquake location: E. Turkey. Earthquake magnitude: 6.2 & 6.0. Number of recorded fatalities: 4,000."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 208]

1992 - Race Riots / Los Angeles - April, 1992: "There was an explosion of race rioting in Los Angeles, in the wake of the acquittal of four white policeman, videotaped as they beat the hell out of a black man, Rodney King. In two days of savage violence 58 people died."

1992 - Fatality / Isaac Asimov - April 6th, 1992: "Reportedly died this date in history: Author, Isaac Asimov [b.1920]. Asimov wrote more than 500 books during his time."

1992 - Ratification / 27th U.S. Amendment - May 7th, 1992: "27th U.S. Constitutional amendment ['Congressional pay increases'] ratified." [Link: 1]

1992 - Fatality / Sam Kinison - March, 1989: Entertainment highlights during the week of April 8th-14th: Comedian Sam Kinison was killed when a pickup truck hit his car on a California highway. The 17-year-old driver was arrested." [Based on: A.P. article (That Was The Week That Was), S.L.P.D., p. D3, 04/09/07]

1992 - "Space Storm" - May 1992: "[....] Great magnetic storms are awesome disturbances in the near-Earth space environment that occur relatively rarely. The last five occurred in February 1986, March 1989, March 1991, November 1991 and May 1992.  [....]"

[Based on: http://www.windows.ucar.edu/spaceweather/blackout.html]

1992 - Married / Paul Simon & Edie Brickell - Entertainment highlights during the week of May 28-June 3, 1992: "Singer Paul Simon married singer Edie Brickell." [Based on: A.P. article, p. A5, S.L.P.D., 05/29/06]

1992 - Earthquake / S. California - "June 28th, 1992: Earthquake location: S. California. Earthquake magnitude: 7.5 & 6.6. Number of recorded fatalities: 1."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 208]

1992 - Birth / Selena Gomez - July 22nd, 1992: "Selena Marie Gomez (born July 22, 1992)[1] is an American actress, singer, and entrepreneur, best known for portraying Alex Russo in the Emmy Award-winning Disney Channel television series Wizards of Waverly Place. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Selena_Gomez]

1992 - Summer Olympic Games / Barcelona, Spain - July 25th, 1992: "In 1992, the Summer Olympic Games were held in Barcelona, Spain. In 1992, the Winter Olympic Games were held in Albertville, France."  

1992 - Married / Sting - August 1992: "Entertainment highlights during the week of August 14th-20th, 1985: "Sting married longtime girlfriend Trudie Styler in a civil ceremony in London." [Based on: A.P., 08/15/05]

1992 - Land Swap / VST & U.S. Gov't - August 24th, 1992: "The Church of Spiritual Technology (CST), which had been set up by a former Assistant to the Commissioner if IRS, Meade Emory, to control all of L. Ron Hubbard's works, makes a land swap with the U.S. government, giving the federal government one of the vaults it has constructed—the Trementina Base in New Mexico, and all the developments on it—in exchange for a like-sized but much cheaper piece of public and undeveloped land nearby. There is no accounting for the contents of the vault traded to the U.S. government. [NOTE: See Trementina Base for full coverage.]"

[Based on: ttp://www.sc-i-r-s-ology.pair.com/rvtimeline/index.html] - [T.D. 09/13/08]  

1992 - Hurricane Andrew / Florida - August 24th, 1992: "Hurricane Andrew was the most destructive United States hurricane of record. It blasted its way across south Florida on August 24, 1992. NOAA's National Hurricane Center had a peak gust of 164 mph—measured 130 feet above the ground—while a 177 mph gust was measured at a private home. Andrew caused 23 deaths in the United States and three more in the Bahamas. The hurricane caused $26.5 billion in damage in the United States, of which $1 billion occurred in Louisiana and the rest in south Florida. The vast majority of the damage in Florida was due to the winds."  

*Trivia: "Hurricane date(s): August 24th-26th, 1992. Hurricane location: Southern Florida & Louisianna. Number of recorded deaths: 58." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 206]

1992 - Surrender / Randy Weaver, Idaho - August 31st, 1992: "White supremacist and fugative Randall Weaver surrendered Aug. 31 after an 11-day FBI seige at his Ruby Ridge, ID, cabin, during which his wife and son and a deputy sheriff were killed in exchanges of gunfire." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 555]

1992 - Earthquake / SW Nicaragua - "September 1st, 1992: Earthquake location: SW Nicaragua. Earthquake magnitude: 7.0. Number of recorded fatalities: 116."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 208]

1992 - Underground Nuclear Test / U.S.A. - September 23rd, 1992: "The U.S. conducts its last underground nuclear test." [Based on: N.G.M., August 2005, p. 113]

1992 - Launch / Mars Observer - September 25th, 1992: "Mars Observer launched." [Link: 1]

1992 - Earthquake / Cairo, Egypt - "October 12th, 1992: Earthquake location: Cairo, Egypt. Earthquake magnitude: 5.9. Number of recorded fatalities: 450."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 208]

1992 - Publication / Dead Sea Scrolls - November, 1992: "Eisenman & Wise publish The Dead Sea Scrolls Uncovered containing transcriptions & translations of 50 scrolls."

1992 - X9 Solar Flare - November 2nd, 1992: On this date in history an X9 solar flare ["15th-largest solar flare" recorded since 1976] blasted from the Sun.

[Based on: http://spaceweather.com/solarflares/topflares.html] - [T.D. 12/12/06]

1992 - Elected President / Bill Clinton, U.S.A. - November 3rd, 1992: "Bill Clinton (D) was elected 42nd president, Nov. 3, defeating Pres. Bush (R) and independent Ross Perot." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 555]

1992 - Fatal Assassination Plot / Israel - November  5th, 1992: "The revelation that Israel plotted to kill Saddam Hussein at the funeral of a beloved uncle resolved an enduring mystery and infuriated current military chiefs who worry loose talk is harming Israel's security. Operation Bramble Bush, the plot to assassinate Saddam with a missle attack, was shelved in 1992 after five elite commandos were killed training for the mission. [....] On Nov. 5, 1992, the commandos staged a dress rehearsal in the Negrev Desert. 'It was basically a show for the generals,' Zeevi said. [....] As part of the exercise, commandos were to fire a dummy missle at soldiers playing the roles of Saddam and his bodyguards. A live missle was used by mistake, and five soldiers were killed. Six were wounded." [Karen Laub, A.P., 12/17/03]

1992 - Great Fire / Windsor Castle - November 20th, 1992: "In Britain, the Queen was stunned by a great fire at Windsor Castle."

1992 - Birth / Miley Cyrus - November 23rd, 1992: "Miley Ray Cyrus (born Destiny Hope Cyrus; November 23, 1992) is an American actress and singer-songwriter. She achieved wide fame for her role as Miley Stewart/Hannah Montana on the Disney Channel sitcom Hannah Montana. [...] Cyrus was born on November 23, 1992, in Nashville, Tennessee, to Letitia Jean 'Tish'[5] (née Finley) and country singer Billy Ray Cyrus.[6][7] [....]" 

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miley_Cyrus]

1992 - Mosque Destruction / India - December 6, 1992: "In India, there was a mass outbreak of religious hysteria and mob killing, following the destruction of an ancient, flyblown mosque in the holy town of Ayodhya. Muslims, who had long since stopped worshipping there, were incensed by the destruction of what they called the Babri Masjid, or the mosque of the Moghul emperor, Babar. Hindu zealots called the place the Ram Janambhoomi, the birthplace of Ram."

1992 - Earthquake / Indonesia - "December 12th, 1992: Earthquake location: Flores Island, Indonesia. Earthquake magnitude: 7.5. Number of recorded fatalities: 2,500."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 208]

1992 - Signed / NAFTA  Agreement - December 17th, 1992: "Presidents of U.S., Canada, and Mexico Dec. 17 signed North American Free Trade Agreement." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 555]

1992 - Status / U.S. Debt - "The United States borrowed up to $4 trillion from various private banks in 1992. At the same time the deficit was $285 billion. In 1991 another 2 million people were registered as poor in the United States. The national debt was slightly less than $1 trillion in 1980; in 1995 it was $5 trillion. The 32.9 million Americans who in the year 2002 lived in poverty were 1.3 million more than those of 2000 (31.6 million)." [Juri Lina, The Barnes Review, September/October 2004, p. 11]

1992 - Osama Bin Laden / Sudan - "In 1992, Osama bin Laden fled Saudi Arabia for Sudan where he formed an alliance with Dr. Hassan Al Turabi, Chairman of the Sudan National Council. He was stripped of Saudi citizenship in 1994." [Link: 1]

1992 - Foreign Relations / U.S. & Iraq - "Democratic sources say Clinton heeded personal appeals from the elder Bush and other top Republicans to close the books on the so-called 'Iraqgate' investigation – as well as probes into secret Reagan-Bush dealings with Iran – soon after the Democrat defeated Bush in the 1992 election. Some Democrats say Clinton agreed to shelve the investigations out of concern for national security and the country’s unity. Others suggest that Clinton was tricked by the wily elder Bush with promises that a pullback on the Iran-Iraq investigations might win Clinton some bipartisanship with the Republicans in Congress, a tantalizing prospect that turned out to be a mirage. Whatever the reasons, Clinton’s Justice Department did bail out the Reagan-Bush team in the mid-1990s when more disclosures about the secret dealings with Iraq flooded to the surface. Perhaps the most important disclosure was an affidavit by former Reagan administration official Howard Teicher that was filed in connection with a criminal trial in Miami in 1995. The Teicher affidavit was the first sworn public account by a Reagan insider of the covert U.S.-Iraq relationship." [Source Document 1]

1992 - Photovoltaic Modules - "The biggest array of thin film photovoltaic modules ever assembled starts operation in Davis, California. Built by Advanced Photovoltaic Systems, the 9600 modules convert sunlight into electricity delivering up to 479 kilowatts, enough for 124 homes."

1992 - Ocean Warming - "WASHINGTON - Two sections of Antartica's Larsen ice shelf have collapsed over the past decade and another portion could be headed for the same fate as warming ocean waters undermine the ice, researchers say. [....] Large sections of the shelf collapsed and broke into icebergs in 1995 and 2002, the major section could be weak enough to fail within a century, a research team led by Shepard reports today [10/31/2003] in the journal science. [....] From 1992 to 2001, the surface level of the 12,000-square-mile region of the shelf lowered between 3 inches and 6.6 inches per year, they found, with the decline more pronounced at the northern end of the shelf. It was in the northern part of the shelf that the earlier collapses occured." [The Associated Press]

1992 - Notable Albums of 1992- "Chronic" (Dr. Dre): "Automatic for the People" (R.E.M.)

1992 - Hurricane Trivia / 1992 - "Number of notable hurricanes this year: at least 1. Number of hurricane deaths: at least 58." [E.M.]

1992 - Earthquake Trivia / 1992 - "Number of notable earthquakes this year: at least 5. Number of earthquake deaths: 7,067." [E.M.]

1992 - "Natural Disaster" Deaths / 1992 - "Estimated number of people who died from natural disasters this year: at least 7,125." [E.M.]

1993

1993 - Configuration - "Uranus-Neptune [Capricorn] conjunction. Uranus-Neptune energies work surreptitiously. They influence awareness and the inner movies playing within the world psyche. In the Uranus-Neptune cycle, up to 2165, we are challenged to build a genuine, globally-consensual, planetary world-view, embracing our differences and variety."

1993 - Trivia / Mad Cow Disease - December 1993: "The U.S. mad cow surveillance program is expanded to include examination of brain tissue from 'downer' cows. [....] In January 1993: the mad cow epidemic in U.K. peaks with 1,000 new cases reported per week." [Based on: St. Petersburg Times, 03/12/01]  

1993 - Palestinian Disposition / West Bank - "By 1993 more than 115,000 Palestinians were commuting to jobs in Israel and earning higher wages than they would have in their traditional occupations as farmers, traders, or artisans. However, around the same time, the Israeli government, responding to Palestinian attacks on Israelis, began placing severe restrictions on these workers' mobility, to the detriment of the Palestinian economy.
   "Israel, in turn, was becomming increasingly reliant on the West Bank for water. A third of its entire supply was being drawn from aquifers under the highlands of the territory. Since 1967 all water resources in the territory have been put under Israeli State control. Palestinians who need to drill a well, or repair an old one, need a permit. Such permits, which require approvals from a variety of Israeli committees and departments for a single well, are rarely granted.
   "Today, Israelis consume five times as much water per head as Palestinians, many of whom must rely entirely on water trucked in from distant wells during the dry summer months. According to B'Tselem, inhabitants of the settlements, where swimming pools are plentiful and crop irrigation common, use even more water.
   "The 1993 Oslo Accords sparked the first moves by Israel to alleviate, at least partially, the effects of the occupation. Uri Savir, the chief Israeli negotiator, later wrote that it was during the peace talks leading to the Oslo Accords that he first learned that 'a West Bank Palestinian could not build, work, study, purchase land, grow produce, start a business, take a walk at night, enter Israel, go abroad, or visit his family in Gaza or Jordan without a permit from us.'
   "As part of the Accords Israel agreed to withdraw its forces from the West bank and Gaza, save those needed to guard settlements, over the course of five years, at the end of which the two sides would negotiate a final settlement leading to an independent Palestinian state." [National Geographic Magazine / October 2002 / pages 108-109]

1993 - U.S. President William J. Clinton - January 20th, 1993: "The 42nd American President, William J. Clinton [Democrat], begins his term."

*Trivia: "President Bill Clinton proposes universal coverage [1993-1994] through publicly administered, publicly and privately financed regional buying alliances. The proposal never reaches a congressional vote." [Source: Institute of Medicine, 10/04/04]

1993 - Assassinations / CIA - January 25th, 1993: "Mir Aimal Kasi killed CIA employees Frank Darling and Lansing Bennett outside CIA headquarters in Fairfax, Virginia. Kasi fled to and was apprehended by FBI agents in Pakistan. He thereafter confessed to the agents that he was the gunman and was tried for capital murder and sentenced to death."

1993 - Trivia / Darleen Druyun - "Darleen Druyun appointed deputy assistant Air Force secretary for acquisitions."

*Trivia: "Darleen Druyun's acid tongue and hardball negotiating style were famous among Pentagon contractors when she was a top Air Force acquisition official. But it was family loyalty that helped send her to prison [2004] and set off the biggest Pentagon procurement scandal since the 1980s. [....] [The Wall Street Journal, 12/12/04]

1993 - WTC Bombing / U.S.A - February 26th, 1993: "On 26th February 1993, at approximately 12.18 p.m., an improvised explosive device exploded on the second level of the World Trade Center parking basement. The resulting blast produced a crater, approximately 150 feet in diameter and five floors deep, in the parking basement. The structure consisted mainly of steel-reinforced concrete, twelve to fourteen inches thick. The epicenter of the blast was approximately eight feet from the south wall of Trade Tower Number One, near the support column K31/8. The device had been placed in the rear cargo portion of a one-ton Ford F350 Econoline van, owned by the Ryder Rental Agency, Jersey City, New Jersey. Approximately 6,800 tons of material were displaced by the blast. The main explosive charge consisted primarily of approximately 1,200 to 1,500 pounds of a home-made fertilizer-based explosive, urea nitrate. The fusing system consisted of two 20-minute lengths of a non-electric burning type fuse such as green hobby fuse. The hobby fuse terminated in the lead azide, as the initiator. Also incorporated in the device and placed under the main explosive charge were three large metal cylinders [tare weight 126 pounds] of compressed hydrogen gas." [Link: 1]

1993 - Mount Carmel Seige / U.S.A. - February 28th, 1993: "The U.S. government begins a 51-day seige of the Mount Carmel compound in Waco Texas."

1993 - Storm of the Century / United States - March 11th, 1993: "A storm that was called the 'Storm of the Century' battered the eastern US from March 12-15,1993 with tornadoes, high winds, record low pressure and very heavy snows. $3-6 billion in damages and 270 deaths were attributed to the storm over land with 48 more missing at sea. Every airport on the east coast was closed at one time or another for the first time ever in a single storm. 2-3 inches per hour snowfall rates were common and the snow caused hundreds of roofs to collapse. Homes also fell into the sea or received damage by wind or waves on the west coast of Florida, along the outer banks of North Carolina, and on Long Island. Fallen tree limbs and power lines left 3 million people along the storm's path in the dark. Fifteen tornadoes in Florida killed 44 while 6 inches of snow fell on the Florida Panhandle. Mount LeConte in Tennessee received 56 inches of snow. 43 inches fell at Syracuse, NY, 27 in Albany, NY, 20 inches at Chattanooga, TN, 16 in Roanoke, VA. Winds over 100 were reported on the Dry Tortugas (west of Key West, FL), in North Carolina on Flattop Mountain while winds over hurricane force were reported from Louisiana and Florida to New York and New England."  

*Trivia: "Storm date(s): March 13th-14th, 1993. Storm Location: Eastern U.S.A. Number of recorded deaths: 200." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 206]

1993 - U.S. Attorney General / Janet Reno - March 12th, 1993: "Janet Reno became the first woman U.S. attorney general Mar. 12." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 555]

1993 - Fatality / Brandon Lee - March 27th-April 2nd, 1993: "Entertainment highlights during the week of March 27th-April 2nd: Brandon Lee, son of martial arts actor Bruce Lee, died after a freak accident on the set of the movie 'The Crow.' Lee was shot with a prop gun that was supposed to fire blanks. He was 28." [Based on: A.P., 03/28/05]

1993 - Status / Dead Sea Scrolls - April 1993: "Project Judaica Foundation opens Scrolls from the Dead Sea Exhibit at Library of Congress."

1993 - NATO Forces / Bosnia - April 12th 1993: "NATO warplanes begin enforcing a 'no-fly zone' over Bosnia - the alliance's first venture outside its membership area." [Sources: NATO, The Associated Press, the World Book, the Encyclopedia Britannica]

1993 - Waco Fire / Waco, Texas - April 19th, 1993: "In Waco, Texas, an ill-judged siege of the Branch Dravidian cult headquarters ended in a huge blaze, and multiple deaths."

1993 - Dan Rather and Connie Chung / CBS Evening News - Entertainment highlights during the week of May 28-June 3, 1993: "Dan Rather and Connie Chung began as co-workers on 'The CBS Evening News.' " [Based on: A.P. article, p. A5, S.L.P.D., 05/29/06]

1993 - Conjunction / Sirius & Sun - June 1993: "The effect of Sirian energy and influences generated approximately 13 years ago, the last cycle when Sirius A and B were closest, in 1993 / 1994, have created renewed interest in this most influential heavenly body. The history books and religions of the world have had much to say about the God / Dog star. This article reflects on our ancestor’s beliefs and inspired insights into a great mystery ~ the mystery of the Dog Star and its influences on our little corner of the universe. [....] In the temple of Isis-Hathor at Dedendrah, Egypt, appears the inscription, 'Her majesty Isis shines into the temple on New Year's Day, and she mingles her light with that of her father on the horizon.' The Arabic word Al Shi'ra resembles the Greek, Roman, and Egyptian names suggesting a common origin in Sanskrit, in which the name Surya, the Sun God, simply means the 'shining one.' [....] The dog Sirius is one of the watchmen of the Heavens, fixed in one place at the bridge of the Milky Way, keeping guard over the abyss into incarnation. The Dog Star is a symbol of power, will, and steadfastness of purpose, and exemplifies the One who has succeeded in bridging the lower and higher consciousness. [NP] Located just below the Dog Star there exists a constellation called Argo, the Ship. Astrologically that area in the sky has been known as the river of stars which is a gateway to the ocean of higher consciousness. [....]"

[Based on: http://www.souledout.org/cosmology/sirius/siriusgodstar.html] - [T.D. - 12/28/07]

*Trivia: "[....] Every 49.9 years, the two stars in the system, Sirius A and B, come as close together as their orbits allow, creating huge magnetic storms between them. [....] What does this mean to life on Earth? The last time it occurred, in 1944, humanity was locked in the greatest conflict ever seen in history, World War II. It happened again, almost 50 years later, in June, 1993. [....] A new picture of the universe is emerging, one of a vast cosmic interdependence and connectedness. From first cosmos to last electron, the whole universe is a complex of coils within coils, spirals within spirals, magnetic fields within magnetic fields. The stars are interconnected to each other, exchanging particles and gases constantly, all flowing down the magnetic field lines or arteries of the galactic body. Scientists now feel it’s very likely the galaxy's coiled field lines diverge into intergalactic space where they may ultimately be connected to other galaxies. Are these tendrils of energy the nervous system of the galaxy, relaying information from star to star, galaxy to galaxy, on and on? One can only wonder." - Denise St. Denis

[Based on: http://www.souledout.org/cosmology/cossynthreflects/sirius.html] - [T.D. - 12/28/07]

1993 - Monsoon / Bangladesh - "Monsoon date(s): June 1993. Number of recorded deaths: 2,000." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 206]

1993 - Birth / Ariana Grande - June 26th, 1993: "Ariana Grande-Butera[2] (born June 26, 1993),[3] known professionally as Ariana Grande (/ˌɑrˈɑːnə ˈɡrɑːnd/), is an American singer and actress. [...] Grande-Butera was born in Boca Raton, Florida, to Joan Grande, chief executive officer of telephone and alarm system company Hose-McCann Communications,[8][9] and Edward Butera, who owns a graphic design firm in Boca Raton.[3][10] Her name was originally inspired by Princess Oriana from Felix the Cat (1959).[11] Grande is of Italian descent, and has stated that she is "half Sicilian and half Abruzzese".[12]. [... .]" [Based on: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ariana_Grande]

1993 - Flooding / Missouri - July-August, 1993: "In the summer of 1993, rivers ran rampant through the St. Louis region. The Missouri and Mississippi swallowed homes, consumed fields and factories, and ravaged towns. The flood covered tens of thousands of acres in the St. Louis area, stretching the rivers across their ancient flood plains." [St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 7/27/2003, p. A10]

*Trivia: "Flood date(s): July-August, 1993. Flood Location: Midwest U.S.A. Number of recorded deaths: 48." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207]

*Trivia: "[....] In June of 1993, as our sun covered Sirius from the Earth's view, the largest flood of the past century occurred. The rivers of the Mississippi, our Nile River, overflowed its banks. This flood continued until the middle of August. When Sirius came out from behind the sun, the flood waters receded, news reports disappeared and the immediate life-threatening crisis subsided. Could this not have been a reflection of the great rivers of energies streaming out from Sirius?"

[Based on: http://www.souledout.org/cosmology/sirius/siriusgodstar.html] - [T.D. - 12/23/07]

1993 - Earthquake / Hokkaido, Japan - "July 12th, 1993?: Earthquake location: off Hokkaido, Japan. Earthquake magnitude: 7.7. Number of recorded fatalities: 200+."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 208]

1993 - Apparent Suicide? / Vincent Foster - July 20th, 1993: "Vincent Foster, deputy White House counsel, found shot to death July 20 in a N Virginia park, an apparent suicide." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 555]

1993 - Measure to Cut Federal Deficit? / U.S.A. - August 10th, 1993: "Pres. Clinton, Aug. 10, signed a measure designed to cut federal budget deficits $496 bil over 5 years, through spending cuts and new taxes." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 555]

1993 - U.S. Supreme Court Justice / Ruth Bader Ginsburg - August 10th, 1993: "Judge Ruth Bader Ginsburg was sworn in, Aug. 10, as 107th justice of the Supreme Court." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 555]

1993 - Contact Lost? / Mars Observer - August 22nd, 1993: "Contact lost with Mars Observer." [Link: 1]

1993 - "World Parliament of Religions" / Chicago - August 28th-September 5th, 1993: "[....] Over six thousand people attended the World Parliament of Religions from August 28–September 5, 1993, representing some 200 religious groups worldwide. [....]"

[Based on: http://monasticdialog.com/a.php?id=359] - [T.D. - 09/18/09]

1993 - CBS Debut / "Late Show with David Letterman" - Entertainment highlights during the week of August 27th-September 2nd, 1990: "Late Show with David Letterman" made its debut on CBS, after moving his show from NBC. [Based on: A.P. article, p. C2, S.L.P.D., 08/28/06]

1993 - Fox Debut / "The X-Files" - Entertainment highlights during the week of Sept. 10-16, 1993: "The X-Files" made its debut on Fox. [Based on: A.P. article, p. B4, S.L.P.D., 09/11/06]

1993 - Dreamlover / Mariah Carey - September 11th, 1993: "Mariah Carey started a eight week run at No.1 on the US singles chart with Dreamlover. Also on the same day her fourth album Music Box went to No.1 in the UK." [Link: 1]

1993 -  Oslo Accords - September 13th: 1993: "The Oslo Agreement 'Declaration of Principles: the Arrangements of the Interim Autonomy' was signed between the PLO and Israel. On 28th September 1995, the Israeli-Palestinian Agreement on the interim period in Gaza and the West Bank was signed [Oslo 2 or the Taba Agreement], then the Wye River Memorandum in October 1998 and the Sharm Al Sheikh agreement in 1999. The agreements and memorandums signed by the Israeli side and the Palestinian side disregarded the international laws that consider Israel as an occupying state of the Palestinians. The most prominent of those laws is Lahai 1907 and Geneva's fourth convention of 1949 concerning the protection of civilians during war, which stipulate that the protection of people under occupation cannot be subjected to any compromise by any interim agreement. The Israeli condition under the title of 'security' has led to the sacrificing the rights of Palestinians. The United States of America, the sponsor of the peace process, has joined in the violation of human rights through its direct involvement in the committees [such as forbidding instigation and fighting 'terrorism' and the Wye River memorandum], as well as through its continuous financial support of Israel, despite its record of human rights violations, and its increased pressure towards arresting those who oppose the peace process, whether Israelis or Palestinians."

1993 - Earthquake / S. India - "September 30th, 1993: Earthquake location: Maharashtra, S. India. Earthquake magnitude: 6.3. Number of recorded fatalities: 9,748."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 208]

1993 - Civil War / Burundi - October 1993: "Civil war erupted in Burundi in October 1993 after Tutsi soldiers assassinated the country's first democratically elected leader, a member of the Hutu majority. More than 250,000 people, most of them civilians, have been killed in the conflict between the Tutsi-dominated army and Hutu rebel factions."  [News Services, 05/22/04]

1993 - Bush Campaign Contributors - "Between 1993 and 1998 Alcoa, Exxon, Shell, Amoco, Enron, Dow Chemical, and others poured $1.5 million into the Bush campaign coffers.
   "After privately conferring with these corporate backers, Bush pushed through two landmark laws, the 1995 Texas Audit Privilege and Immunity Law, and the 1999 Voluntary Emissions Reduction Permit Program. Rather like the fox guarding the henhouse, the laws allow companies to monitor their own pollution, report their violations to the government, and promise to clean up. There would be no fines, no public disclosure, no government follow-up. Imagine a world where criminals could stay out of jail simply by confessing their crime to a state agency and promising to do better in the future. That's the law Bush came up with to cope with some of the most polluted air on earth." [Robert F. Kennedy Jr., Crimes Against Nature, p. 17]

1993 - Trivia / Biological Warfare Defense - "NATO creates working groups on biological warfare defense."

1993 - "Black Hawks Down" / Somalia - October 3-4th, 1993: "Eighteen US soldiers are attacked and killed in Mogadishu, Somalia in a spontaneous gun battle [later the subject of the movie 'Black Hawk Down'). A 1998 US indictment charges bin Laden and his followers with training the attackers." [PBS Frontline, 10/3/02] [Link Source: 1]

1993 - Ali Mohamed / Arrest & Release - "Canadian police arrest Ali Mohamed, a high ranking al-Qaeda figure. However, they release him when the FBI says he is a US agent. [Globe and Mail, 11/22/01] Mohamed, a former US Army sergeant, then will continue to work for al-Qaeda for a number of years. He trains bin Laden's personal bodyguards and trains a terrorist cell in Kenya that later blows up the US embassy there. Meanwhile, at least between 1993 and 1997 he tells secrets to the FBI about al-Qaeda's operations. He is arrested in late 1998 and subsequently convicted of his role in the 1998 US embassy bombing in Kenya. [CNN, 10/30/98, Independent, 11/1/98] Says a former Egyptian intelligence officer: 'For five years he was moving back and forth between the US and Afghanistan. It's impossible the CIA thought he was going there as a tourist. If the CIA hadn't caught on to him, it should be dissolved and its budget used for something worthwhile.' [Wall Street Journal, 11/26/01] Was Mohamed really playing the FBI and CIA for fools, or was he a double agent inside al-Qaeda? If the latter, why couldn't the US kill bin Laden in the 1990's if the head of his personal security was secretly a US agent?" [Link: 1]

1993 - Financial Status / U.S. Oil Refineries - "From 1993 to 2003, the market share of the five-biggest U.S. refineries grew to 52 percent from 35 percent, according to Public Citizen. For the top ten refiners, market share rose to 79 percent from 56 percent. Meanwhile, the Consumer Federation of America says 77 percent of the market on the East Coast and 67 percent on the West Coast were controlled by the top four refiners as of 2000. [....] Between 1997 and 2002, the number of U.S. refineries dropped to 153 from 282. Refining capacity in that period rose 2.4 percent to 16.8 million barrels a day, according to the Energy Department. However, domestic demand for gasoline surged 27 percent in that period." [by Jim Efstathiou Jr., Bloomberg News, May 2004]

1993 - Nuclear Data / Pakistan to N. Korea? - 1993: "Book ['Goodbye Shahzadi', by ShyamBjatia - 2008] claims Bhutto gave nuclear data to N. Korea [in 1993]" [Based on: Title for News Services article, p A12, S.L.P.D., 06/01/08]

1993 - Gambling Boat / Casino Queen, East St. Louis - "The Casino Queen opens in 1993 in East St. Louis." [St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p. C1, 12/31/04]

1993 - A History of God - "In 1993, Karen Armstrong authored A History of God, The 4,000-Year Quest of Judaism, Christianity and Islam."

1993 - The Only Planet of Choice - "The Only Planet of Choice, by Phyllis V. Schlemmer, aka Phyllis Virtue-Carmel. First edition published in 1993. Second edition 1994. Revised 1996."

   [....] The Council of Nine only transmit through Phyllis Schlemmer, and this is worth repeating, at a time when channelling is becomming increasingly popular. [....]

[Prelude, p. 2, The Only Planet of Choice, Revised edition 1996]

1993 - The Dream Weaver Chronicles - "Copyright 1993?, by James Paul Davis."

1993 - The Making of a Spiritual Movement - "Published in 1993: The Making of a Spiritual Movement: The Untold Story of Paul Twitchell and Eckankar (Del Mar Press, 1993), by David C. Lane."

*Trivia: "Throughout David's book, he looks at Paul Twitchell and ECKANKAR critically from the position of academia, especially in this chapter. He also approaches the subject, as we have seen, from the standpoint of Radhasoami and Sant Mat, as well as from the bias of some Christian fundamentalists. Earlier in the book, David also acted as critical investigative reporter, approaching Paul's life from that perspective. In later chapters we will even find David takes up the role of analytical and social psychologist and approaches Paul's teaching from that particular angle." [Based on: Doug Marman, Dialogue in the Age of Criticism, Chap. 6]  

1993 - HAARP Station / Gakona, Alaska - "[....] Work on the HAARP Station began in 1993. The current working IRI was completed in 2007, and its prime contractor was BAE Advanced Technologies.[1]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_Frequency_Active_Auroral_Research_Program]

1993 - Flood Trivia / 1993 - "Number of notable floods this year: at least 1. Number of flood deaths: 48." [E.M.]

1993 - Storm Trivia / 1993 - "Number of notable storms this year: at least 1. Number of deaths: 270." [E.M.]

1993 - Monsoon Trivia / 1993 - "Number of notable monsoons this year: at least 1. Number of deaths: 2,000." [E.M.]

1993 - Earthquake Trivia / 1993 - "Number of notable earthquakes this year: at least 2. Number of earthquake deaths: 9,948." [E.M.]

1993 - "Natural Disaster" Deaths / 1993 - "Estimated number of people who died from natural disasters this year: at least 12,266." [E.M.]

1994

1994 - Triva / Solar Cycle 23 - "[....] For more than a year [since 2006], the sun has been experiencing a lull in activity, marking the end of Solar Cycle 23, which peaked with many furious storms in 2000 - 2003.  [....]"

[Based on: SCIENCE@NASA article (Is a New Solar Cycle Beginning?), 12/14/07]

*Link: http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2007/14dec_excitement.htm - [T.D. - 12/15/07]

1994 - NATO "Partnership for Peace" - January 10th - 11th, 1994: "NATO begins 'the Partnership for peace,' an outreach program to formerly communist nations in Eastern Europe. The next year, Russia signs up." [Sources: NATO, The Associated Press, the World Book, the Encyclopedia Britannica]

1994 - Earthquake / Northridge, California - "January 17th, 1994: Earthquake location: Northridge, California. Earthquake magnitude: 6.8. Number of recorded fatalities: 61."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 208]

1994 - Winter Olympic Games / Lillehammer, Norway - "In 1994, the Winter Olympic Games were held in Lillehammer, Norway."

1994 - Resumed Trade / U.S. & Vietnam - February 3rd, 1994: "Pres. Clinton Feb. 3 lifted 19-year ban on U.S. trade with Vietnam." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 555]

1994 - Increase / U.S. Interest Rates - February 4th, 1994: "In 1994, the Fed began a series of seven increases that would double an important rate to 6 percent. The Fed had kept its target for the federal funds rate - the interest that banks charge eachother - at a then-low 3 percent. The first increase came Feb. 4, 1994, and led to a huge sell-off on Wall Street. Before the Fed was done raising rates, the financial market fallout helped sink Orange County, the Mexican peso and a venerable Wall Street firm, Kidder Peabody & Co. [....] Greenspan and other Fed officials have acknowledged that their actions in 1994 were too aggressive. 'In 1994, they kept raising and raising rates, and the bond and mortgage markets pretty much melted,' said Sung Won Sohn, cheif economist at Wells fargo in Minneapolis." [A.P., 05/03/04]

1994 - Strombolian Activity / Pacaya Volcano, Guatemala - February 5th, 1994: "Pacaya continues to erupt on a regular basis. Between late afternoon on 5 February and sunrise on 6 February, Stephen O'Meara photographed and videotaped various stages of moderate eruptive activity from a vantage point about 4 km SSW of the summit (about half-way between the villages of Los Pocitos and El Caracol). Strombolian activity had increased markedly since he visited the volcano in November 1993.  [....]"

*Trivia: "Pacaya is a complex volcano constructed on the S rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlan Caldera. In 1565, the first recorded historical eruption from Pacaya caused ashfall for three days in Guatemala City. Following explosions in July and October 1965, Strombolian activity was generally continuous until March 1989 when explosive activity removed ~75 m of the MacKenney cone summit and enlarged the crater. Strombolian activity began again in January 1990 and has continued intermittently since then. This latest episode of activity, although smaller in terms of area impacted by tephra, is similar to the activity during July-August 1991, which again destroyed part of the cone and damaged towns W of the volcano. [....]

[Based on: http://www.volcano.si.edu/volcanoes/region14/guatemal/pacaya/var_02.htm]

1994 - Convicted / Byron De La Beckwith - February 5th, 1994: "Byron De La Beckwith convicted Feb. 5 of the 1963 murder of civil rights leader Medgar Evers." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 555]

1994 - Joint Space Shuttle Mission / U.S.A. & Russia - February 11th, 1994 : "First joint U.S.-Russian space shuttle mission completed, 1994." [Based on: The Old Farmer's Almanac (2006) by Robert B. Thomas, p. 103]

1994 - Earthquake / S. Sumatra - "February 15th, 1994: Earthquake location: S. Sumatra, Indon. Earthquake magnitude: 7.0. Number of recorded fatalities: 215."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 208]

1994 - Birth / Dakota Fanning - February 23rd, 1994: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actress ('The cat in the Hat,' 'I Am Sam'), Dakota Fanning."

1994 - Birth / Justin Bieber - March 1st, 1994: "Justin Drew Bieber ... is a Canadian pop musician, actor, and singer-songwriter. [...] Justin Drew Bieber was born ... in London, Ontario, at St Joseph's Hospital,[14][15] and was raised in Stratford, Ontario. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Justin_Bieber]

1994 - Chinese Pyramids - March, 1994: "In March 1994. Austrian Hartwig Hausdorf made a trip to the area close to the city of Xian, the capital of the Shaanxi province, which is situated in the central part of China. These territories were closed for foreigners. During the tour, the Austrian discovered six legendary pyramids. Hartwig Hausdorf organized another tour to China in October 1994, this time with a video camera. Hausdorf managed to shoot an 18-minute film. When Hausdorf returned home, he decided to watch the film that he had shot in China. However, the Austrian was extremely suprised to see more pyramids in the background. He counted over 100 pyramids standing in an area of 2,000 square kilometers." [Link: 1]

1994 - Wheeled Suitcase - March 8th, 1994: "Wheeled suitcase with collapssible towing handle patented, 1994." [Based on: The Old Farmer's Almanac (2006) by Robert B. Thomas, p. 105]

1994 - MTV Trivia / "Beavis and Butt-head" - March 24th, 1991: "Beavis and Butt-head"

1994 - Foreign Relations / U.S. & Somalia - March 25th, 1994: "U.S. troops Mar. 25 officially ended peacekeeping and humanitarian aid mission in Somalia begun in 1992." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 555]

1994 - Suicide / Kurt Cobain - Entertainment highlights during the week of April 2nd-8th, 1994: "Kurt Cobain of Nirvana was found dead [04/05/94] in his Seattle home of a self-inflicted gunshot wound. He was 27." [Based on: A.P. article, p. C5, S.L.P.D., 04/02/06]

1994 -  Central African Conflict / Rwanda - April 6th, 1994: "The tiny central African states of Rwanda and Burundi all but dissolved in an evil competition of bloodlust between the majority Hutu people and their traditional masters, the Tutsi."

*Trivia: "Government troops, Hutu militia and ordinary villagers spurred on by hate messages broadcast over the radio went from village to village, butchering men, women and children." [Based on: A.P., 07/05/04]

*Trivia: "The killing began hours after a plane carrying President Juvenal Habyarimana, a member of the Hutu majority, was shot down on April 6th, 1994, by still unidentified assailants. [....] The killing ended in July 1994 after Tutsi-led rebels, under current President Paul Kagame, seized Kigali." [Based on: A.P., 04/07/04]

*Trivia: "[....] The killings started hours after the president's plane was mysteriously shot down over Kigali on April 6th, 1994. Hutu militiamen set up roadblocks across Kigali and on April 7 began killing Tutsis and moderate Hutus." [Based on: News services, 04/08/05]

*Trivia: "U.N. officials said Thursday [03/11/04] they had discovered a black box [Hey! It only took ten years!] sent from Rwanda after a 1994 plane crash that unleashed a genocide in the African nation [Based on: News Services, S.L.P.D., March 2004]."

1994 - Examples of Genocide / Rwanda - 1994 "800,000 Ethnic Tutsis killed." [Based on: Reuters, World Almanac and KRT - St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p. A12, 06/26/05]

1994 - President Nelson Mandela - May, 1994: "Nelson Mandela inaugurated as President of the new South Africa."

1994 - Founded / Palestinian Authority - May 4th, 1994: "The Palestinian Authority was founded by the Gaza-Jericho Agreement [Cairo Agreement], which was signed on 4th May 1994."

1994 - Engineless Gambling Boats / Missouri - "The President casino on the Admiral opens in downtown St. Louis, and the Station Casino St. Charles opens in the western suburbs. Under a special exemption in Missouri law, the engineless President is not required to cruise. The Missouri Gaming Commission, citing safety considerations, quickly allows other riverboats to remain docked." [St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p. C1, 12/31/04]

1994 - Marriage / Michael Jackson & Lisa Marie Presley - May 26th, 1994: "Lisa Marie Presley and Michael Jackson were married on May 26, 1994, in the Dominican Republic. She filed for divorce in January 1995." [Based on: A.P. picture artice, S.L.P.D., p. C2, 05/23/05]

1994 - Earthquake / Cauca, SW Columbia - "June 6th, 1994: Earthquake location: Cauca, SW Columbia. Earthquake magnitude: 6.8. Number of recorded fatalities: 1,000."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 208]

1994 - Flooding / Georgia & Alabama - "Flood date(s): July 1994, Number of recorded deaths: 32." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207]

1994 - Independent Counsel Kenneth Star - August 5th, 1994: "Kenneth Star named Aug. 5 as independent counsel to probe Whitewater affair; congressional committees, late July, began Whitewater hearings." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 555]

1994 - Earthquake / N. Algeria - "August 19th, 1994: Earthquake location: N. Algeria. Earthquake magnitude: 6.0. Number of recorded fatalities: 164."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 208]

1994 - Trivia / MKULTRA - September 28th, 1994: "The U.S. General Accounting Office issued a report on September 28, 1994, which stated that between 1940 and 1974, DOD and other national security agencies studied hundreds of thousands of human subjects in tests and experiments involving hazardous substances.

The quote from the study:

... Working with the CIA, the Department of Defense gave hallucinogenic drugs to thousands of "volunteer" soldiers in the 1950's and 1960's. In addition to LSD, the Army also tested quinuclidinyl benzilate, a hallucinogen code-named BZ. (Note 37) Many of these tests were conducted under the so-called MKULTRA program, established to counter perceived Soviet and Chinese advances in brainwashing techniques. Between 1953 and 1964, the program consisted of 149 projects involving drug testing and other studies on unwitting human subjects... [8]

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Project_MKULTRA#Origins]

1994 - Ashfalls and Lava Flows / Pacaya Volcano, Guatemala - October 12th, 1994: "Activity increased at 0400 on 12 October with vigorous Strombolian explosions. Approximately 5 cm of ash was deposited in El Patrocinio, ~4 km W (figure 12). Ash drifted as far as Santa Lucia Cotzumalguapa, ~45 km WSW on the Pacific lowlands. Although apparently declining on 14 October, Strombolian activity was continuing, an ash plume to 300 m above the vent persisted, and tremor was still being detected by the seismometer at Pacaya. As of 14 October, five lava flows active on MacKenney cone had reached the base of the edifice, two on the N, two on the W, and one on the S flank. Flow velocities were reported to be 10 m/hour. Heavy rains and cloud cover since the start of the increased activity have prevented detailed observations. The Comite Nacional de Emergencias (CONE) evacuated 142 people from the towns of El Patrocinio, El Caracol (3 km SW), and other nearby areas, to San Vincente de Pacaya (5 km NW).

[Based on: http://www.volcano.si.edu/volcanoes/region14/guatemal/pacaya/var_02.htm]

1994 - CALEA - October 25th, 1994: "The Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (CALEA) is a United States wiretapping law passed in 1994, during the presidency of Bill Clinton (Pub. L. No. 103-414, 108 Stat. 4279, codified at 47 USC 1001-1010). [...] CALEA was passed into law on October 25, 1994 and came into force on January 1, 1995. [... .]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communications_Assistance_for_Law_Enforcement_Act]

1994 - Storm Gordon / Caribbean & Florida - "Storm date(s): November 8th-18th, 1994. Number of recorded deaths: 830." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 206]

1994 - Volcanic Activity / Merapi Volcano, Indonesia - November 22nd, 1994: "Indonesia contains more active volcanoes than any other country on Earth. Indonesia contains more than 130 active volcanoes. Merapi is the most active of these volcanoes. In the past it has erupted 12 times, killing many people. The volcano is considered to be sacred. Each year a priest journeys to the top to make an offering."

 [Based on:  http://library.thinkquest.org/16132/html/volcanoinfo/recentdisasters/merapi.html  ]

1994 - Hijacking / Air France - December 1994: "Algerian terrorists hijacked an Air France airliner and threatened to fly it into the Eiffel Tower. The terrorists were killed when French commandos stormed the plane." [S.L.P.D. 9/19/2002]

1994 - Russian Invasion / Chechnya - December 11th, 1994: "In the Caucasus, a Russian army battered its way into the Chechnya capital, Grozny, but was humiliatingly chased out again, with heavy losses, the following year."

*Trivia: "Russian troops invaded Chechnya to oust President Dzhokhar Dudayev, setting off a 20-month war that killed up to 30,000 people, including Dudayev. Afterward, Chechnya was defacto independent and plunged into lawlessness." [Based on A.P., 09/02/04]

1994 - DU in the Balkans - "U.S. Air Force A-10 Thunderbolt II aircraft fired approximately 10,000 30mm DU rounds [3.3 tons of DU] at 12 sites in Bosnia-Herzegovina in 1994-1995." [Link: 1]

1994 - U.S. Troops / Haiti - "When U.S. troops came to the country [Haiti] in 1994 to restore Aristide, Chamblain [Louis-Jodel Chamblain] fled to the neighboring Dominican Republic. In 1995 he was convicted in abstentia and given two life sentences. He returned to help lead the rebellion this year [2004] that ousted Aristide for a second time and sent him into exile." [News Services, 08/17/04]

1994 - Braveheart Production - "The making of the movie Braveheart occured in 1994?"

1994 - Maulana Masood Azhar - "Before his arrest in 1994, Maulana Masood Azhar belonged to the HUM. After his release in 1999, he has formed an organisation of his own called Jaish-e-Mohammed, which has since then been having a number of violent clashes with the HUM in Pakistani territory. The reasons for the clash are not known since both belonged to bin Laden's International Islamic Front For Jehad Against the US and Israel."

1994 - Birth / White Buffalo [Miracle] - "Reportedly born on this date in history: a white buffalo named Miracle. Accoring to its owner, Dave Heider, Miracle died of natural causes on September 19th, 2004, at age 10."

1994 - Radioactive Buildup / Rocky Flats, Colo. - "Demolition began Thursday [07/15/04] on what has been called 'the most dangerous building in America,' where workers at the Rocky Flats nuclear plant once handled highly radioactive plutonium used in triggers for nuclear weapons. Leaks, spills and a 1957 fire plagued the building, and part of it was closed 30 years ago because radiation levels were off the charts. The building was called the workhorse of the weapons factory, 16 miles northwest of Denver. The Department of Energy called the building its 'greatest vulnerability' in 1994 because of the buildup of contamination over five decades." [News Services, 07/16/04]

1994 - Trivia: Governor George W. Bush / Texas - "Texas has long been one of the most polluted states in the country, but rather than remedy the situation, George W. Bush set out to destroy virtually all attempts to clean up the state's tainted air, water, and land. During his six-year reign as governor, from 1994-2000, Texas dropped to number 49 in spending on the environment. [....] Soon after becoming governor, Bush declared tort reform an 'emergency issue' and appointed judges who made it all but impossible for Texans to bring class action lawsuits against polluters." [Robert F. Kennedy Jr., Crimes Against Nature, pp. 12-13]

1994 - The Orion Mystery - "In 1994, Robert Bauval and Adrian Gilbert debut The Orion Mystery."

1994 - Notable Albums of 1994 - "Hell Freezes Over" (The Eagles); "Dookie" (Green Day)

1994 - Flood Trivia / 1994 - "Number of notable floods this year: at least 2. Number of flood deaths: 32." [E.M.]

1994 - Volcano Trivia / 1994 - "Number of volcanic eruptions [and, or] notable volcanic events this year: at least 3. Number of recorded deaths: 0." [E.M.]

1994 - Storm Trivia / 1994 - "Number of notable storms this year: at least 1. Number of deaths: 830." [E.M.]

1994 - Earthquake Trivia / 1994 - "Number of notable earthquakes this year: at least 4. Number of earthquake deaths: 1,440." [E.M.]

1994 - "Natural Disaster" Deaths / 1994 - "Estimated number of people who died from natural disasters this year: at least 2,002." [E.M.]

1995

1995 - CALEA - January 1st, 1995: "The Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (CALEA) is a United States wiretapping law passed in 1994, during the presidency of Bill Clinton (Pub. L. No. 103-414, 108 Stat. 4279, codified at 47 USC 1001-1010). [...] CALEA was passed into law on October 25, 1994 and came into force on January 1, 1995. [... .]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communications_Assistance_for_Law_Enforcement_Act]

1995 - Terrorist Report - January 1995: "Police in the Philippines raided an apartment in Manila and found materials that suggested a plot to crash a hijacked plane into the CIA headquarters outside Washington. One plotter was Ramzi Yousef, who was later captured and convicted in the 1993 bombing of the World Trade Center. Another was Khalid Shaikh Mohammed, who U.S. officials now believe masterminded the September 11th attacks." [S.L.P.D. 9/19/2002]

1995 - Fatality / Andrija Puharich - "[....] Puharich took a fatal fall down a flight of stairs in January 1995. Researcher Terry Milner peeled away the cover stories and found that the true Puharich bore little resemblance to the hallucinatory shaman touted by his devotees. [....]" [Based on: Alex Constantine, Virtual Government, pp. 11-12]

*Trivia: "In his books, Puharich echoed the schizy Blavatsky efflux of his fellow mind control operators. Uri Geller ('tested' and approved by Targ and Puthoff at SRI) had profound mental abilities 'beamed to him,' Puharich claimed, from 'a distant galaxy.' The source of the radio signal that allowed Geller to bend silverware was an 'extraterrestrial race' known as 'the Hoovians,' under the command of a powerful alien council he called 'The Nine.' Most impressive was Geller's ability to 'teleport' himself across great distances in the blink of an eye and 'demateralize' small objects. Puharich put together a cult of 'Gellerings' called the 'Space Kids,' twenty adolecents from seven countries supposedly graced with the same abilities as Uri Geller. They claimed to be of 'alien' origin. A 14-year-old participant reports his suspicions were aroused when he was asked to take part in a 'remote viewing' exercise - to spy on the Kremlin, among other sensitive political targets." [Based on: Alex Constantine, Virtual Government, p. 13]

1995 - Launched / History Channel - January 1st, 1995: "[....] Launched on January 1, 1995, the channel is owned by A&E joint venture (Hearst, Disney, NBC) and Sky News Corp.[1] and operates, in various forms, in the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Portugal, Spain, Italy and Latin America. The network is also currently available in South Asia under a deal between STAR TV and AETN International. [....]" 

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_Channel] - [T.D. - 02/21/08]

1995 - Volcanic Activity / Mt. St. Helens - January 1st-September 30th, 1995: "The number of small magnitude earthquakes has gradually increased. At one point in time the volcano was only responsible for less than 10 events per month. It has now increased to more than 100 events per month. However, the volcano has been quiet during this period. No emission of gas or ash has occurred from the lava dome."

 [Based on:  http://library.thinkquest.org/16132/html/volcanoinfo/recentdisasters/msh.html  ]

1995 - Earthquake / Kobe, Japan - January 16th, 1995: "Japan is one of the world's most earthquake-prone countries. It sits atop four tectonic plates, slabs that move across the earth's surface. Tokyo is especially vulnerable. A quake and subsequent fire in 1923 killed more than 140,000 people in the capital area, and experts believe that Tokyo is overdue for another major jolt. In January 1995, a magnitude 7.2 temblor in Kobe killed more than 6,000 people. [....]" [A.P., 09/26/03]

*Trivia: "Earthquake date(s): January 16th, 1995: Earthquake location: Kobe, Japan. Earthquake magnitude: 6.9. Number of recorded fatalities: 5,502."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 208]

1995 - Pluto / Sagittarius - January 18th, 1995: Pluto at 0 degrees Scorpio; April 21st, R.; November 11th, D. ...

*Link: http://www.astro.com/swisseph/ae/1900/ae_1995.pdf

1995 - Time Gate? - January 27th, 1995: "Eight years ago [01-27-1995?], American and British scientists who conducted investigations in Antarctica made a sensational discovery. US physicist Mariann McLein told the researchers noticed some spinning gray fog in the sky over the pole on January 27 which they believed to be just ordinary sandstorm. However, the gray fog did not change the form and did not move in the course of time. The researchers decided to investigate the phenomenon and launched a weather balloon with equipment capable to register the wind speed, the temperature and the air moisture. But the weather balloon soared upwards and immediately disappeared.
   "In a little while, the researchers brought the weather balloon back to the ground with the help of a rope attached to it before. They were extremely surprised to see that a chronometer set in the weather balloon displayed the date of January 27, 1965, the same day 30 years ago. The experiment was repeated several times after the researchers found out the equipment was in good repair. But each time the watch was back it displayed the past time. The phenomenon was called 'the time gate' and was reported to the White House" [Olga Zharina, 03/01/2004, Pravada]  

1995 - Flooding / NW Europe - "Flood date(s): January 30th-February 9th, 1995, Number of recorded deaths: 40." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207]

1995 - UN Withdrawl / Somalia - February 28th, 1995: "The last UN peacekeeping troops withdrew from Somalia Feb. 28-Mar. 3, with the aid of U.S. Marines." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 555]

1995 - Age of Knowledge? - March 21st, 1995: "In 1475, the Supreme Maya Council revealed the long-held vision of an ancient Solar Grandmother named X'Nuuk'K'in - that a sacred calendar cycle of twice the Kal'Tun [260 years] must go by before the Solar Culture would flourish again. On March 21, 1995, this 520-year period was completed and the Age of Knowledge [Itza Age)] began; a time when ancient and hidden knowledge is to be reawakened; a time when the condor of the south is to meet the eagle of the north and there will be a return of the Light of health, purity, wisdom, and healing on Earth. Via the magnetic grid of energy that envelops planet Earth and the many sensitive spots on the Earth often referred to as Sacred Sites, the elders said that the solar ceremonies in Chichen Itza in March, 1995, anchored the intent to activate humanity in the Light."

1995 - Fatality / Selena - March 27th-April 2nd, 1995: "Entertainment highlights during the week of March 27th-April 2nd: Selena was shot to death in Corpus Christi, Texas, by the founder of her fan club." [Based on: A.P., 03/28/05]

1995 - UN Forces / Haiti - March 31st, 1995: "In Haiti, peacekeeping responsibilities were transferred from U.S. to UN forces Mar. 31, with the U.S. providing 2,400 soldiers." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 555]

1995 - Volcanic Activity / Fogo Volcano, Cape Verde - April 2nd, 1995: "The island of Fogo is one large volcanic cone. It has a 8 km wide caldera that opens out to the east. The best farmland on the island is on the flat ground of the caldera, so poor farmers are forced to live in the are even though someday an eruption may chase them out. On April 2, 1995 red lava and ash was falling from the volcano. People who lived nearby evacuated the area of the eruption. As many as 5000 people moved out of the caldera. [....] On April 23 a new vent formed and erupted lava that flowed 2,300 ft. to the west in only a few hours. The next day, Strombolian activity decreased. From late April to May 2, lava continued to flow from the crater but at a much reduced rate."

 [Based on:  http://library.thinkquest.org/16132/html/volcanoinfo/recentdisasters/fogo.html  ]

1995 - Bombing / Murrah Federal Building - April 19, 1995: "A bomb rips through the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building at 9:02 a.m. McVeigh is arrested 90 minutes later on a firearms charge after a routine traffic stop near Billings, Oklahoma. At least 168 people died as a result."

1995 - Extended Indefinitely / Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty - May 11th, 1995: "To control the spread of nuclear weapons, signatories agree to extend the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) indefinitely." [Based on: N.G.M., August 2005, p. 113]

*Trivia: "Estimated Number of Warheads as of 2004: Russia - 16,000; U.S.A - 10,350; China - 400; France - 350; United Kingdom - 200; Israel - 200; Pakistan - 24-48; India - 30-35; North Korea - 6-8? The last four countries on this list [Israel, Pakistan, India & North Korea] are not signatories to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty." [Information based on: N.G.M., August 2005, pp. 104-105]

1995 - Seismic Events / Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua - May 24th 1995: "Since Wednesday, 24 of May, 1995, seismic tremors lasting between 30 minutes and several hours were observed at seismic station CNGN located about 500 m east of the crater. The dominant frequencies of the tremors were between 1 and 3 Hz. Additionally occured small seismic events, not strong enough to be recorded at neighbouring stations, at distances of about 15-20 km. This activity was going on until Sunday, 28 of May, without remarkable emanation of gases."

[Based on: http://www.geo.mtu.edu/volcanoes/central_america/nicaragua/cerro_negro/updates/cerro_negro.000.html]

1995 - Earthquake / Sakhalin Island, Russia - "May 27th, 1995: Earthquake location: Sakhalin Island, Russia. Earthquake magnitude: 7.5. Number of recorded fatalities: 1,989."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 208]

1995 - Volcanic Eruption / Pacaya Volcano, Guatemala - June 1st, 1995: "Pacaya erupted between 0630 and 0700 on 1 June, sending up a 6-km-high plume. Hot ash burned vegetation and damaged radio-antenna equipment near the summit. A thin layer of ash extended a few kilometers from the vent, with ashfall reported 2.5 km N in San Francisco de Sales and 3.5 km W in El Patrocinio (figure 15). A plume visible at 0715 on GOES-8 satellite images was moving SE at ~19 km/hr, prompting a NOAA Volcano Hazard Alert at 1000. Analysis based on comparison of wind shear data and observed translation of the plume suggested that the plume rose to ~9 km altitude. Eddie Sanchez noted that venting ash destroyed the 1984 spatter cone (Bulletin v. 10, no. 3), called 'El Hornito,' located roughly midway between the N caldera rim (Cerro Chino) and the previously active MacKenney cone (figure 16). In place of El Hornito was a small crater venting lava, a substantial amount of which flowed S. [....] Otoniel Matias reported that on 10 June a small newly constructed spatter cone had collapsed. A news report described two strong explosions in the early afternoon and a thick column of smoke. Matias said that on 14 June more lava erupted, but compared to earlier phases there was less airborne ash and venting gases, and the plume reached only 150-200 m above the crater floor. In accord with this observation, SAB failed to image a plume at 0845 on 14 June; they estimate that a plume must have a height of >3,000 m for them to detect it. Matias went on to say that the 14 June eruption continued vigorously for two hours without pause. Lava continued to escape as of 16 June, and one or more lava flows had moved S for a distance of ~600 m. [....]

[Based on: http://www.volcano.si.edu/volcanoes/region14/guatemal/pacaya/var_02.htm]

1995 - Space Shuttle Atlantis / Space Station Mir - June 29th, 1995: "The U.S. space shuttle Atlantis made the first in a series of dockings with Russian space station Mir, June 19-July 4." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 555]

1995 - Flooding / NE China - "Flood date(s): July 1995, Number of recorded deaths: 1,200." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207]

1995 - Diplomatic Relations / U.S. & Vietnam - July 11th, 1995: "The U.S. announced on July 11 that it was reestablishing diplomatic relations with Vietnam." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 556]

1995 - Last Concert with Jerry Garcia / "The Grateful Dead" - Entertainment highlights during the week of July 9th-15th, 1995: "The Grateful Dead gave its last concert with Jerry Garcia, at Chicago's Soldier Field." [Based on: A.P. article, p. C2, S.L.P.D., 07/10/06]

1995 - Srebrenica Massacre - July 12-18, 1995: "In mass-executions or ambushes, Serb army and militias kill up to 8,000 Srebrenica men and boys." [Link: 1]

*Trivia: "In July, 1995, in the silver-mining town of Srebrenica in eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnian Serb forces under the command of Serbian Gen. Ratko Mladic and Bosnian Serb Col. Radislav Krstic tracked down every Muslim man and boy over age 16, gunned them down and buried them in mass graves. Many of the women left behind were raped and beaten. Ironically, Srebrenica was one of five 'safe havens' designed by the U.N. Security Council. When Krstic's troops moved in, the U.N. peacekeeping force in the region, a battalion of Dutch troops, asked for reinforcements. None came. The outmanned Dutch troops stood by and watched as at least 7,000 men and boys were murdered. The actual number may be much higher. Bosnian Serbs dug up many of the bodies and scattered them, hoping to destroy the evidence. They weren't entirely successful. At the end of the war, Krstic was sentenced to 46 years in prison by the International War Crimes Tribunal. Mladic is under indictment by the same tribunal but remains in hiding. [....] The North American Council of Bosniaks is trying to get Congress to pass a 'sense of the Congress' resolution that honors the victims and survivors and puts the United States on record as officially condemning what happened at Srebenica as genocide. [....] The Bosniak council hopes that the resolution will pass before July 11, the tenth anniversary of the beginning of the massacre. [....] 'The only issue is lack of education,' said Tarik Bilalbegovic, a board member of the North American Council of Bosniaks in Washington. 'With everything focused on Afghanistan, Iraq and the Middle East, Srebrenica is not a hot topic everyone would recognize. But people who forget what has happened to them are likely to have it happen again.' " [Based on: Editorial Section, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p. B6, 05/31/05]

*Trivia: "[....] The genocide helped prompt a flood of refugees that in time would make St. Louis home to one of the largest Bosnian communities outside Europe. One local social service agency estimates that between 35,000 and 40,000 Bosnians now live in the St. Louis area. Among the Bosnians here are about 4,000 to 5,000 survivors of Srebrenica (sreh-breh-NEET-sah), the largest such concentration anywhere outside Bosnia. [....]" [Based on: article by Phillip O'Connor, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p. A1, 06/26/05]

*Trivia: "St. Louis is one of about 25 cities picked by the U.S. State Department as resettlement sites for Bosnian refugees. The State department looked for cities with affordable housing, employment opportunities and that were not already overburdened with large numbers of foreign-born residents. Here are some of the larger cities chosen: Colchester, Vt., Utica, N.Y., Erie, Pa., New York City, Chicago, Bowling Green, Ky., Jacksonville, Fla., Waterloo, Iowa, St. Louis, Houston, Phoenix." [Based on: article by Phillip O'Connor, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p. A13, 06/26/05]

*Trivia: "The Bosnian Serb president spoke out Tuesday [06/22/04] on a government report blaming its security forces for the Srebrenica Massacre, calling the mass killing 'a dark page in Serb history.' Dragan Cavic commented nearly two weeks after a government commission for the first time blamed Bosnian Serbs in the massacre of up to 8,000 Muslim men and boys in 1995." [News Services, 06/22/04]

*Trivia: "U.N and local forensic experts have exumed 16,500 bodies from more than 300 mass graves found since the end [1995] of the Bosnian war, in which about 250,000 people were killed and 1.8 million driven from their homes. More than 20,000 people remain missing since the war." [A.P., 08/10/04]

*Trivia: "The Bosnian Serb government issued an apology Wednesday [11/10/04] for the 1995 massacre of 7,800 Muslim civilians in Srebrenica." [A.P., 11/11/04]

1995 - 1st NATO Combat Engagement - August 1st, 1995: "NATO engages in combat for the first time as its warplanes target Bosnian Serbs shelling Sarajevo." [Sources: NATO, The Associated Press, the World Book, the Encyclopedia Britannica]

1995 - Died / Jerry Garcia - August 9th, 1995: "Died [heart attack] this date in history, Grateful Dead guitarist and singer, Jerry Garcia. He was 53."

1995 - Flooding / SW Morocco - "Flood date(s): August 19th, 1995, Number of recorded deaths: 136." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207]

1995 - Promotion / Darleen Druyun - "Darleen Druyun promoted to principal deputy assistant secretary." [Based on: St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p. G2, 12/12/04]

1995 - Boeing Contract / Darleen Druyun - "Darleen Druyun awards $480 million NATO contract for AWACS plans to Boeing." [Based on: St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p. G2, 12/12/04]

1995 - Hurricane Opal / S Mexico, Florida & Alabama  - "Hurricane date(s): October 2nd-4th, 1995. Number of recorded deaths: 59." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 206]

1995 - Not Guilty / O.J. Simpson - "Former football star O.J. Simpson found not guilty Oct. 3 of the June 1994 murders of his former wife, Nicole Brown Simpson, and her frend Ronald Goldman." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 556]

1995 - Volcanic Activity / Kyushu, Japan - October 12th, 1995: "Hosho is a volcanic dome. The only eruption of this stratovolcano was in 1675, in which little records of the eruption were kept. On October 12, 1995, Hosho erupted small volumes of ash and steam."

 [Based on:  http://library.thinkquest.org/16132/html/volcanoinfo/recentdisasters/hosho.html  ]

1995 - Typhoon Angela / Philippines - "Typhoon date(s): November 2nd-3rd, 1995. Number of recorded deaths: 600." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 206]

1995 - Assassination / Yitzhak Rabin - November 4, 1995: "The world was stunned when Yitzhak Rabin, the Israeli Prime Minister and leading architect of the Middle East peace process, was assassinated in the heart of Tel Aviv."

*Trivia: "In 1995, Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin was assassinated by an ultra-nationalist Jew opposed to Rabin's policy favoring territorial concessions to the Palestinians in exchange for peace." [News Services, 09/13/04]

*Trivia: "Israel's president warned Monday [07/04/05] that Jewish extremists opposed to this summer's pullout [August 2005] from Gaza and part of the West Bank could assassinate Prime Minister Ariel Sharon. [....] An extremist Israeli opponent of concessions to the Palestinians assassinated Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin in 1995, and Katsav [Israeli President Moshe Katsav] told Army Radio  [July 2005] it could happen again. [....] Rabin's killer, Yigal Amir, cited rabbinical rulings as his justification for the shooting. [....]" [Based on: A.P., 07/05/05]

1995 - Volcanic Activity / Mt. Etna, Italy - November 9th, 1995: "In Mid July, 1997, strombolian activity was evident in three vents on Etna. On November 9, 1995, a similar episode lasted one hour, producing abundant ash and lapilli that fell on a wide area of the southeast part of the volcano, which is known as Catania. Catania has a population of one million people and it is about 20 miles southeast of the summit of Etna. From July 19th to the 20th lava overflowed from the South East Crater at Etna This was the first time lava has flowed from the crater since 1990. On July 23, 1997 lava overflowed from the northeast crater. This flow traveled a distance of more than 0.6 miles to the east. This flow ceased on July 29, but other flows continued."

 [Based on:  http://library.thinkquest.org/16132/html/volcanoinfo/recentdisasters/etna.html  ]

1995 - Pluto in Sagittarius - November 11th, 1995: "Estimated date when Pluto entered [0 degrees] Sagittarius."

1995 - Volcanic Eruption / Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua - November 19th 1995: "[....] The eruption start was detected by the seismic service of INETER from data of CNGN seismic station (distance 500 m to the crater) at 11:45 AM 19/11/95. It began with 30 minutes of mildly increasing seismic activity, a pause and then continually increasing strength. This coincides with the reports of local residents who noticed the first explosions at this hour. [....]. During the evening of 22/11 the new cone overgrew the side of the 1992 crater to the north and material began spilling down the north slope towards Cerro La Mula. From 19:00 to 23:00 a tongue of lava had appeared over the edge of the old crater, following from the path of the small lava seen at 07:00 22/11. The front moved at less than 1 m per hour, but spilled rocks of the front which constantly fell down to the base of the main cone. "

http://www.geo.mtu.edu/volcanoes/central_america/nicaragua/cerro_negro/updates/cerro_negro.000.html

1995 - Trivia / Dayton Accord - November 21st, 1995: "After talks outside Dayton, OH, warring parties in Bosnia and Herzegovina reached agreement Nov. 21 to end their conflict; treaty was signed Dec. 14, after which first of 20,000 U.S. peacekeeping troops arrived in Bosnia." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 556]

1995 - Major Earthquake / Israel - November 22nd, 1995: "The 1995 Egypt earthquake was a 7.1 magnitude earthquake that occurred on November 22, 1995 at 04:15 local time, in the eastern part of Egypt. At least 8 people were killed and 30 were injured in the epicentral region. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1995_Egypt_earthquake]

*Links: http://www.elevator-world.com/magazine/archive01/9604-001.htm

1995 - Dayton Accord / Bosnia - November 25th, 1995: "US envoy Richard Holbrooke achieved a fragile and horribly belated peace settlement in Bosnia, with the Dayton Accord of November 1995."

1995 - Trivia / U.S. Speed Limit - November 28th, 1995: "The federal 55-mile-per-hour speed limit was repealed by a measure signed Nov. 28." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 556]

1995 - Volcanic Activity / Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua - November 30th, 1995: "Cerro Negro is one of the most recent basaltic cinder cones to form within the western hemisphere. The last eruption of Cerro Negro was in November of 1995. At this time, the cinder cone was 750 ft. tall. A large percentage of eruptions at Cerro Negro emit pyroclastic material and lava flows. The Cerro Negro volcano spread a large area of farming land with ash. Ash was thrown 1,300 ft. above the crater. This forced the evacuation of 1,400 people from the area. A cloud rose a few miles above the crater. This has brought about ash and rain on towns closeby. This forced more people to be evacuated from the area.."

 [Based on:  http://library.thinkquest.org/16132/html/volcanoinfo/recentdisasters/cerro_negro.html  ]

1995 - NATO Deployment / Bosnia - December 1995: "NATO soldiers form the core of a peacekeeping force in Bosnia, and France says it plans to  rejoin NATO's military structure." [Sources: NATO, The Associated Press, the World Book, the Encyclopedia Britannica]

*Trivia: "U.N and local forensic experts have exumed 16,500 bodies from more than 300 mass graves found since the end [1995] of the Bosnian war, in which about 250,000 people were killed and 1.8 million driven from their homes. More than 20,000 people remain missing since the war." [A.P., 08/10/04]

1995 - Cost of Mailing a Letter? / U.S.A. - "Cost of stamp for mailing a letter in U.S.A.: 32 cents." [Based on: S.L.P.D. article (Cost of mailing a letter will jump to 39 cents next week [January 2006]), p. C1, S.L.P.D., 01/03/06]

1995 - Flooding / KwaZulu Natal, South America - "Flood date(s): December 25th, 1995, Number of recorded deaths: 166." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207]

1995 - Birth / Tanzim - "In 1995, armed grassroots militia were born in refugee camps. Tanzim is connected to Fatah."

1995 - Montserrat's Volcano / Caribbean - "Montserrat's volcano came to life in 1995, eventually causing more than half the Caribbean island's population to leave. An eruption in 1997 killed 19 people and buried the capital, Plymouth." [Based on: News Services]

1995 - CEO Dick Cheney / Halliburton Co. - "Cheney was Halliburton's chief executive officer from 1995 to 2000. He resigned to be President George W. Bush's running mate." [A.P., 08/04/04]

1995 - Abstentia Conviction / Louis-Jodel Chamblain - "When U.S. troops came to the country [Haiti] in 1994 to restore Aristide, Chamblain fled to the neighboring Dominican Republic. In 1995 he was convicted in abstentia and given two life sentences. He returned to help lead the rebellion this year [2004] that ousted Aristide for a second time and sent him into exile." [News Services, 08/17/04]

1995 - Begins to Rise / Dow Jones Industrial Average - "[....] On Jan. 14, 2000 ... the Dow Jones industrial average closed at 11,722.98, a record that stands to this day [January 2005]. [....] From the end of 1995 through early 2000, the Dow soared 132 percent, propelled by the enthusiasm over technology and the Internet .[....] Shortly after March 2000, the decline began, exacerbated over the next few years by a litany of bad news - a disputed election, bankruptcies, shenanigans at WorldCom and Enron, 9/11, the recession, war and Afghanistan. Oct. 9, 2002, would be the final day of reckoning on Wall Street, with the Dow, Nasdaq and S&P 500. The final tally: The Dow had fallen 37.8 percent from its high, the S&P 500 lost 49.5 percent, and the tech-heavy, start-up friendly Nasdaq tumbled 77.9 percent. [....]" [Based on: A.P.,01/13/05]

1995 - Texas Audit Privilege and Immunity Law - "Between 1993 and 1998 Alcoa, Exxon, Shell, Amoco, Enron, Dow Chemical, and others poured $1.5 million into the Bush campaign coffers.
   "After privately conferring with these corporate backers, Bush pushed through two landmark laws, the 1995 Texas Audit Privilege and Immunity Law, and the 1999 Voluntary Emissions Reduction Permit Program. Rather like the fox guarding the henhouse, the laws allow companies to monitor their own pollution, report their violations to the government, and promise to clean up. There would be no fines, no public disclosure, no government follow-up. Imagine a world where criminals could stay out of jail simply by confessing their crime to a state agency and promising to do better in the future. That's the law Bush came up with to cope with some of the most polluted air on earth." [Robert F. Kennedy Jr., Crimes Against Nature, p. 17]

1995 - Private Real Property Rights Preservation Act - "In 1995 he [Gov. George W. Bush] pushed through the Private Real Property Rights Preservation Act, a radical 'takings' bill that would make taxpayers pay polluters' cost of complying with pollution laws. [....] This perverse doctrine reverses a millennium of western property law that holds that owners can use their property as they please, but never in a way that diminishes their neighbors' property or the public trust properties like air and water." [Based on: Robert F. Kennedy Jr., Crimes Against Nature, pp. 13-14]

1995 - Notable Albums of 1995 - "Jagged Little Pill" (Alanis Morissette); "Pieces of You" (Jewel)

1995 - Flood Trivia / 1995 - "Number of notable floods this year: at least 4. Number of flood deaths: 1,542." [E.M.]

1995 - Volcano Trivia / 1995 - "Number of volcanic eruptions [and, or] notable volcanic events this year: at least 11. Number of recorded deaths: 0." [E.M.]

1995 - Typhoon Trivia / 1995 - "Number of notable typhoons this year: at least 1. Number of typhoon deaths: 600." [E.M.]

1995 - Hurricane Trivia / 1995 - "Number of notable hurricanes this year: at least 1. Number of hurricane deaths: 59." [E.M.]

1995 - Earthquake Trivia / 1995 - "Number of notable earthquakes this year: at least 3. Number of earthquake deaths: 7,499." [E.M.]

1995 - "Natural Disaster" Deaths / 1995 - "Estimated number of people who died from natural disasters this year: at least 9,700." [E.M.]

1996

1996 - Trivia / Mike Scheuer, CIA - January, 1996: "Scheuer's CIA assignments included running the bin Laden unit from January 1996 to June 1999." [News Services, 11/12/04]

1996 - Genetically Modified Crops - "[....] In 1996, the first year genetically modified crops were commercially available, about 4.3 million acres were under biotechnology cultivation. [....]." [Based on: Paul Elias, A.P., 01/13/05]

1996 - Volcanic Eruption? / Karymsky Lake, Russia - January 1st, 1996: "On January 1, 1996, an eruption took place at the north end of Karymsky Lake about 3 miles away from Karymsky volcano. During the initial stage of the eruption the ash plume reached 23,000 ft. above sea level. On January 3 activity had created a new crater. A thick black ash plume has been observed erupting explosively from the new crater. The plume has reached up to altitudes of 18,000 ft. above sea level. Karymsky has erupted over 20 times in the past 200 years. Periods of seismic unrest have occurred several times in the past 12 months and the volcano emits a continuous steam plume. The volcano is capable of explosive eruptions which can send ash to over 33,000 ft. above sea level. The volcano is located in a remote part of the Kamchatka Peninsula. No towns or villages are threatened by the volcano."

[Based on: http://library.thinkquest.org/16132/html/volcanoinfo/recentdisasters/karymsky.html  ]

1996 - Blizzard / NE U.S.A. - "Blizzard date(s): January 7th-8th, 1996. Number of recorded deaths: 100." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 206]

1996 - Senate Approved / START II - January 26th, 1996: "Senate Jan. 26, approved, 87-4, the Second Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START II)." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 556]

1996 - Earthquake / SW China - "February 3rd, 1996: Earthquake location: SW China. Earthquake magnitude: 7.0. Number of recorded fatalities: 200+."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 208]

1996 - Flooding / Biak Island, Indonesia - "Flood date(s): February 17th, 1996, Number of recorded deaths: 105." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207]

1996 - Trivia / Mad Cow Disease - March 1996: "National livestock organizations and professional animal health organizations in the U.S. announce a voluntary program to discontinue use of ruminant-derived protein in ruminant feed. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and USDA announce their intentions to determine if additional regulations are necessary to prevent the introduction or amplification of the BSE agent in the United States." [Based on: St. Petersburg Times, 03/12/01]  

*Trivia: "[....] The idea that bits of protein could cause disease was controversial until about a decade ago. Since the recognition in 1996 that humans had become infected from eating tainted meat, researchers have made major strides understanding these puzzling illnesses. [....] But the Swiss research, published this month [January 2005] in the journal Science, showed that prions follow immune cells in the body. When mice were given chronic diseases, then injected with prions, the prions made their way to various organs. Animals with obvious signs of infection aren't allowed into the food supply. However, sloppy inspections or less obvious infections could let such beef go undetected. Animals are thought to become infected by eating feed with contaminated animal proteins. Since 1997, it has been illegal in both Canada and the United States to feed animal proteins derived from cattle to beef cattle. But it remains legal to feed such proteins to chickens and pigs, then use those animals - or, in the case of poultry, their droppings - in cattle feed. That's a bad idea, because prions remain infectious even in the bodies of animals that can't get mad cow disease. The U.S. Department of Agriculture relies on the 1997 feed ban to prevent new mad cow infections. But one of the infected cows discovered this month [January 2005] was born after 1997, raising questions about the ban's inadequacy. Cattle are natural herbivores. It's time to ban all animal proteins from cattle feed. [....] There's an awful lot we still don't know about mad cow disease. But what we do know is enough to suggest our food safety system is inadequate to protect consumers." [Based on: Editorial Section, p. B6, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 01/25/05]

*Trivia: "Mad cow disease has long been thought to occur in just the brains and nervous systems of infected animals. But scientists are reporting today [01/21/05] that the proteins thought to cause the disease can travel to other organs as well. The research is based on experiments with mice, but if the finding is born out in other species, it may suggest that no part of an infected animal is safe to eat. The disease leads to a fatal brain infection in humans. [....]" [New York Times article  - posted in the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p. A12, 01/21/05, beside an article about Alzheimer's disease.]

1996 - Volcanic Activity / Aleutian Islands, Alaska - March 10th, 1996: "Akutan is stratovolcano found on the Akutan Island. The Akutan Island is located in the eastern Aleutian Islands of Alaska. On Sunday, March 10, 1996 a sharp increase in the number and frequency of earthquakes was reported. The largest had a magnitude of around 5.1. Activity declined the following evening, as the number and frequency of the earthquakes dropped dramatically. Earthquake activity arose again on March 13. Earthquakes were produced every minute and lasted 18 hours. On March 20th, the Level of Concern Color Code for Akutan was lowered to YELLOW. This was done due to decreasing activity over the past week. The more intense periods of earthquake activity were brought about by the intrusion of magma beneath the volcano. The YELLOW Level of Concern Color Code indicates that the concern of immediate eruption has decreased. It also shows that it is very likely that the volcano will return to quiet over a period of weeks. On Friday, March 22, geologists reported that earthquake activity still remained above the suspected level. The volcano is still considered to be in a restless state. No eruption has occurred within weeks. Akutan remains one of the most active volcanoes in Alaska. It erupted at least 27 times since 1790. The most recent eruption was in 1992."

 [Based on:  http://library.thinkquest.org/16132/html/volcanoinfo/recentdisasters/akutan.html  ]

1996 - Died / George Burns - Entertainment highlights during the week of March 9th-15th, 1996: Comedian George Burns died at the age of 100. [Based on: A.P. article (THAT WAS THE WEEK THAT WAS), p. E2, S.L.P.D., 03/11/08]

1996 - Trivia / Mad Cow Disease - March 20th, 1996: "The British government confirms the suspicions of many scientists by announcing a link between BSE and cases of a disease called CJD (vCJD), or variant Cruetzfeldt-Jacob disease." [Based on: St. Petersburg Times, 03/12/01]  

1996 - Convicted / James & Susan McDougal - May 28th, 1996: "James and Susan McDougal were convicted May 28 of fraud and conspiracy. Arkansas Gov. Jim Guy Tucker was convicted of similar charges by the same jury." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 556]

1996 - Flooding / Afghanistan - "Flood date(s): April 1996, Number of recorded deaths: 100+." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207]

1996 - Trivia / State Farm Insurance Co. - April 1996: "An auto dealer tells the Indiana attorney general's office he's found wrecked vehicles that are being sold without salvage titles, in violation of state law." [Based on: St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p. A4, 01/24/05]

1996 - Discovery / Biblical Remains? - April 2nd, 1996: "Corresponding with the Full Moon on October 21st, 2002, a Biblical burial box dating from 63 A.D. containing [in Aramaic] the words 'James, son of Joseph, brother of Jesus', appeared in the late afternoon headlines [CST] of CNN News. The box was reportedly discovered in Jerusalem around 1980 and was mentioned by the Associated Press on April 2nd, 1996."  [Links: 1, 2

*Trivia: "An ivory pomegranate long touted by scholars as the only relic from Solomon's Temple is a forgery, the Israeli Museum said Friday [12/24/04], as investigators said they had broken up several fake antiquity rings in a wide-ranging investigation. Indictments in that investigation are to be handed down next week [January 2004], the officials said. Among those to be indicted is Israeli collector Oded Golan, the Justice Ministry confirmed. Golan, who denied wrongdoing, owns the two most spectacular artifacts declared fakes last year [2003]: a burial chest purported to be that of James, the brother of Jesus, and a stone tablet with inscriptions on how to maintain the Jewish Temple. The pomegranate was examined by the museum independently of the investigation by the Israeli authorities, said the director of the Israel Museum, James Snyder. A team of experts reported the thumb-sized pomegranate dates to the Bronze period, or about 3,400 years ago, meaning it is considerably older than the first Jewish Temple, and the inscription was added recently, the museum said in a statement." [News Services, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p. A10, 12/25/04]

*Trivia: "Four Israeli antiquities collectors and dealers were indicted Wedneday [12/29/04] in Jerusalem on charges they ran a sophisticated forgery ring that spanned the globe and produced a treasure-trove of fake Bible-era artifacts - some of which were hailed as major archaeological finds. [....] Investigators warned that collectors and museums around the world could be in the possession of fakes, and scholars urged museums to re-examine items of suspicious origin. The forgery ring has been operating for more than 20 years, said Shuka Dorfman, head of the Israel Antiquities Authority." [News Services, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p. A12, 12/30/04]

1996 - Saturn in Aries - April 8th, 1996: "On this date in history, the planet Saturn entered the sign of Aries." [E.M.]

1996 - Flooding / S China - "Flood date(s): June-July 1996, Number of recorded deaths: 950+." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207]

1996 - Bombing / Dhahran, Saudia Arabia - June 25th, 1996: "A bomb exploded at a military complex near Dhahran, Saudia Arabia, June 25, killing 19 American servicemen." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 556]

1996 - MSNBC - July 15th, 1996: "MSNBC was launched on July 15, 1996. The first show, which was anchored by Jodi Applegate, broadcast a lineup of news, interviews, and opinions.[19] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MSNBC]

1996 - Activation? / Stone Mountain Crystals - July 19th-August 4th, 1996: "The crystals from Atlantis contain the contingency plan for Earth's restoration and Ascension after the Fall. In 1996, the Lightworkers had finally magnetized the Light and Love of God into the physical plane of Earth effectively enough to allow for the initial activation of these crystals. This activation was accomplished through the collective cup of Humanity's consciousness as an estimated 4,000,000,000 people focused their attention on Atlanta, Georgia, during the 17 days [July 19th - August 4th] of the Olympic Games." [Article by, Patricia Diane Cota-Robles, Pathfinder, May/June 2004, Vol. 14 No. 3]

1996 - Summer Olympic Games / Atlanta, Georgia - July-August 1996: "In 1996, the Summer Olympic Games were held in  Atlanta, Georgia. In 1996, a woman was killed and 111 people injured after a bomb exploded during a concert in Atlanta's Centennial Olympic Park."  

*Trivia: "Eric Rudolph has agreed to plead guilty of carrying out the deadly bombing at the 1996 Atlanta Olympics and setting off three other blasts in a deal that allows the anti-government extremist to escape the death penalty, Justice Department officials said Friday [04/08/05]. [....]" [Based on: A.P., 04/10/05]

1996 - Flooding / Pyrenees Mts. / Spain - "Flood date(s): August 7th, 1996, Number of recorded deaths: 71." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207]

1996 - Blizzard  / Himalayas, N India - "Blizzard date(s): August 22nd, 1996. Number of recorded deaths: 239." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 206]

1996 - Welfare Reform Bill / U.S.A. - August 22nd, 1996: "Major welfare reform bill was signed into law Aug. 22." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 556]

1996 - Hurricane Fran / Caribbean, NC, VA, WV - "Hurricane date(s): August 29th-September 6th, 1996. Number of recorded deaths: 30." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 206]

1996 - Revelation / Prisoner Abuse, Texas - September 1996: "WASHINGTON - Prisoners stripped naked, beaten about the head, set upon by dogs and kicked by verbally abusive guards. [....] The incident took place in Texas nearly a decade ago, in 1996, when Bush was that state's governor. The prisoners abused were Missourians, inmates temporarily transferred to county jail facilities in Texas run by private contractors because of overcrowded prisons back home. [....] In the 32-minute videotape from Texas, recorded in September 1996, black-uniformed guards storm a group of card-playing inmates. The inmates are strip-searched and forced to crawl naked down a hall. Several are jolted with an electric prod; at least three are bitten by snarling dogs. [....] A class-action suit on behalf of the inmates was settled in 1999, with Brazoria County and the private contractor (Capital Correctional Resources Inc.) agreeing to pay $2.2 million. [....] The Rev. Larry Rice, director of the New Life Evangelistic Center [St. Louis, Mo.], traveled to Texas after release of the videotapes and met with Bush's aides on behalf of the Missouri inmates. He said Friday [05/14/04] he saw 'tremendous parallels' between then and events at Abu Ghraib." [by Jon Sawyer, Post-Dispatch Washington Bureau Chief, May 2004]

1996 - Typhoon Sally / S China - "Typhoon date(s): September 9th, 1996. Number of recorded deaths: 114." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 206]

1996 - Hurricane Hortense / Caribbean - "Hurricane date(s): September 9th-10th, 1996. Number of recorded deaths: 24." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 206]

1996 - Volcanic Eruption / Pavlof Volcano, Alaska - September 16th, 1996: "[....] Pavlof's last eruption was in September. The eruption began on September 16, 1996. Satellite images showed a hot spot near the cone while earthquakes showed a low level eruption. On the 24th, earthquake activity began to increase. This also showed that stronger eruptions were taking place. Eruptions sent plumes as high as 4,000 ft. above the summit of the volcano. Satellite images showed thin ash plumes extending as far as 30 miles from the volcano. On October 18, earthquake activity at Pavlof showed a large increase in strength of the eruptions. Scientists estimated that an eruption plume existed which was more than 25,000 ft. above sea level. By morning the next day earthquake activity had returned to the previous level. On the morning of November 4, 1996, eruptive activity at Pavlof once again increased dramatically. Ash plumes reached heights of 25,000 ft. On December 27, 1996 Seismic activity showed strong eruptive activity. It was at this time that the seismic activity was at the highest level. In the afternoon, many bursts of ash and steam rose several hundred ft. above the volcano."

 [Based on:  http://library.thinkquest.org/16132/html/volcanoinfo/recentdisasters/pavlof.html  ]

1996 - Taliban Enter Kabul - September 27th,  1996: "An editorial in the Kathmandu Post [September 20] said, 'When the Taliban...entered Kabul on 27 September 1996, the US state welcomed the development with the hope that the new rulers might bring stability to the region despite the fact that they are notoriously illiberal in social terms. The US media offered a muted and cliched sense of horror at the social decay of the Taliban, but without any sense of the US hand in the manufacture of such theocratic fascists for its own hegemonic ends. In 30 years, Afghanistan has been reduced to a 'concession' in which corporations and states vie for control over commodities and markets without concern for the dignity and destiny of the people of the region. Oil, guns, landmines and heroin are the coordinates for policy-makers, not the shadowy bodies that hang from the scaffolds like paper-flags of a nation without sovereignty." [Link: 1]

1996 - Fox News Channel - October 7th, 1996: "[....] The channel was created by Australian-American media mogul Rupert Murdoch, who hired former NBC executive Roger Ailes as the founding CEO.[1] The channel was launched on October 7, 1996[2] to 17 million cable subscribers. The channel grew in the late 1990s and 2000s to become the dominant cable news network in the United States.[3] In 2010 the network took the top 10 spots in the age 25–54 demographic and the top 12 spots among total viewers.[4] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fox_News_Channel]

1996 - Volcanic Activity / Pacaya Volcano, Guatemala - October 10th, 1996: "Pacaya erupted more forcefully than usual beginning late on 10 October. Based on an INSIVUMEH report, between about 2300 on 10 October and 0200 on 11 October Pacaya produced a moderate Strombolian eruption with sustained fountaining of incandescent materials up to 500 m high. [....]

[Based on: http://www.volcano.si.edu/volcanoes/region14/guatemal/pacaya/var_02.htm]

1996 - Price Fixing / Archer Daniels Midland Co. - October 14th, 1996: "Archer Daniels Midland Co. announced, Oct. 14, it had agreed to pay a fine of $100 mil for price fixing." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 556]

1996 - Volcanic Activity / Pavlof Volcano, Alaska - October 18th, 1996: "[....] On October 18, earthquake activity at Pavlof showed a large increase in strength of the eruptions. Scientists estimated that an eruption plume existed which was more than 25,000 ft. above sea level. By morning the next day earthquake activity had returned to the previous level. On the morning of November 4, 1996, eruptive activity at Pavlof once again increased dramatically. Ash plumes reached heights of 25,000 ft. On December 27, 1996 Seismic activity showed strong eruptive activity. It was at this time that the seismic activity was at the highest level. In the afternoon, many bursts of ash and steam rose several hundred ft. above the volcano."

 [Based on:  http://library.thinkquest.org/16132/html/volcanoinfo/recentdisasters/pavlof.html  ]

1996 - Volcanic Eruption / Pavlof Volcano, Alaska - November 4th, 1996: "[....] On the morning of November 4, 1996, eruptive activity at Pavlof once again increased dramatically. Ash plumes reached heights of 25,000 ft. On December 27, 1996 Seismic activity showed strong eruptive activity. It was at this time that the seismic activity was at the highest level. In the afternoon, many bursts of ash and steam rose several hundred ft. above the volcano."

 [Based on:  http://library.thinkquest.org/16132/html/volcanoinfo/recentdisasters/pavlof.html  ]

1996 - 2nd Term / President Bill Clinton - November 5th, 1996: "Pres. Clinton was reelected to 2nd term Nov. 5." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 556]

1996 - Cyclones / Andhra Pradesh, India - "Cyclone date(s): November 6th, 1996. Number of recorded deaths: 1,000+." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 206]

1996 - Launch / Mars Global Surveyor - November 7th, 1996: "Mars Global Surveyor Launched." [Link: 1]

1996 - Ice Storms / Texas to Missouri - "Storm date(s): November 24th-25th, 1996. Number of recorded deaths: 26." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 206]

1996 - Launch / Mars Pathfinder - December 4th, 1996: "Mars Pathfinder launched." [Link: 1]

1996 - Flooding / NW U.S.A. - "Flood date(s): December 1996-January 1997, Number of recorded deaths: 29." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207]

1996 - Trivia / Homo Erectus, Indonesia - "In December 1996, skulls found on the Indonesian island of Java suggested that homo erectus [thought to have disappeared about 200,000 years ago] was still in existence 40,000 years ago."

1996 - Tropical Storm / E Malaysia - "December 25th, 1996: Number of recorded fatalities: 100+."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 206]

1996 - Volcanic Activity / Pavlof Volcano, Alaska - December 27th, 1996: "[....] On the morning of November 4, 1996, eruptive activity at Pavlof once again increased dramatically. Ash plumes reached heights of 25,000 ft. On December 27, 1996 Seismic activity showed strong eruptive activity. It was at this time that the seismic activity was at the highest level. In the afternoon, many bursts of ash and steam rose several hundred ft. above the volcano."

 [Based on:  http://library.thinkquest.org/16132/html/volcanoinfo/recentdisasters/pavlof.html  ]

1996 -  "A Clean Break" - 1996: "An Israeli think tank, the Institute for Advanced Strategic and Political Studies, publishes a paper entitled 'A Clean Break: A New Strategy for Securing the Realm.' The paper isn't much different from other Israeli right-wing papers at the time, except the authors: the lead writer is Richard Perle, now chairman of the Defense Policy Board in the US, and very influential with President Bush. Several of the other authors also now hold key positions in Washington. The paper advises the new, right-wing Israeli leader Binyamin Netanyahu to make a complete break with the past by adopting a strategy 'based on an entirely new intellectual foundation, one that restores strategic initiative and provides the nation the room to engage every possible energy on rebuilding Zionism.' [....] The first step would be the removal of Saddam Hussein in Iraq. The war with Iraq would destabilize the entire Middle East, allowing governments in Syria, Iran, Lebanon and other countries to be replaced. 'Israel will not only contain its foes; it will transcend them', the paper concludes." [Guardian, 9/3/02]

1996 - Founded / Sratfor - "Strategic Forecasting, Inc., more commonly known as Stratfor, is a global intelligence company founded in 1996 in Austin, Texas by George Friedman who is the founder, chief intelligence officer, and CEO of the company. Fred Burton is Stratfor's Vice President for Counterterrorism and Corporate Security. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stratfor]

1996 - U.S. Telecommunications Act - "The Telecommunications Act of 1996." [Link: 1]

1996 - Arrested / Azzam Azzam - "Azzam [Azzam Azzam], 42, a textile engineer and member of Israel's minority Druse sect, was arrested in Egypt in 1996 on charges that he sent information about Egyptian industrial cities to the Mossad, Israel's intelligence agency. The Egyptian authorities accused Azzam of transmitting the information through invisible ink on women's underwear. In a contentious trial, Azzam was sentenced to 15 years in prison in August 1997. An Egyptian accomplice was sentenced to 25 years. Azzam's imprisonment angered Israeli leaders, who have steadfastly maintained that he is not an Israeli agent. [....]" [Knight Ridder Newspapers, 12/06/04]

1996 - Trivia / U.S. Health Insurance - "Health Insurance Portability  and Accountability Act gives certain workers the right to buy coverage that includes pre-existing conditions after they have exhausted their COBRA eligibility." [Source: Institute of Medicine, 10/04/04]

1996 - Communications Decency Act? / U.S.A. - "Congress' first big effort to restrict pornography in cyberspace was the Communications Decency Act of 1996, which the Supreme Court declared unconstitutional that following year." [New York Times, 06/30/04]

1996 - Osama Bin Laden / Afghanistan - "In 1996 Osama bin Laden moved back to Afghanistan. And in 1998, he reportedly participated in the creation of an 'Islamic front for Jihad' to wage war against the U.S. The U.S. authorities claim that his role is [as it was in his days in the Afghan war] one of funneling money.
   "Many of the old networks funded and trained by the CIA now reassembled themselves for a jihad against the U.S. and the Arab governments working with the U.S. The arms supplied by the CIA, the training camps, the religious schools, and the trained fighters all became the infrastructure of this force.
   "The demands of this movement include the end of Western military presence and cultural influence in Muslim countries - the dismantling of U.S. bases in the Gulf, an end to Western support for Israel, and the replacement of pro-Western Arab states with strict Muslim theocracies based on the Sharia [law drawn from the Koran's rules]." [Link: 1]

1996 - Revelation / Gay Rep., Jim Kolbe - "In 1996, Arizona Republican Representative, Jim Kolbe, announced he was gay."

1996 - Papal Commentary / Theory of Evolution - "In 1996, Pope John Paul II claimed that the theory of evolution was 'more than a hypothesis'. He made his statement at a conference of the Papal Academy of Sciences, and it set the religious world thinking."

*Trivia: "A federal judge has ordered a suburban Atlanta school system [January 2005] to remove stickers from its high school biology textbooks that call evolution 'a theory, not a fact,' saying the disclaimers are an unconstitutional endorsement of religion. [....] The stickers were added after more than 2,000 parents complained that the textbooks presented evolution as fact, without mentioning rival ideas about the beginnings of life, such as the biblical story of creation. [....]" [A.P., 01/14/2005]

1996 - Trivia / Valley of the Golden Mummies, Egypt - "Excavators discovered 20 gilded mummies in the Bahariya oasis in western Egypt, the government's council of antiquities said Tuesday [12/07/04]. The find brings the total number of guilded mummies recovered in the 2,000-year-old cemetary [2004] to 234. The site - known as the Valley of the Golden Mummies - was discovered in 1996. Fifty bronze coins were found with the mummies. Survivors were believed to leave the money for the deceased to pay for the trip to the afterlife." [News Services, 12/08/04]

1996 - "Irrational Exuberance?" / Wall Street Investors - "[....] During the high-flying stock market days of the 1990s, the Fed chief in December 1996 famously questioned whether Wall Street investors were engaging in 'irrational exuberance.' Despite the warning, stocks continued to soar. In 2000, the stock market bubble began to rupture and wiped out trillions of dollars in paper wealth." [Based on: A.P. article by Jeannine Aversa, p. B3, S.L.P.D., 08/27/05]

1996 - Keeper of Genesis - "A bestseller by Robert Bauval and Graham Hancock."

1996 - From Atlantis to the Sphinx - "A bestseller by Colin Wilson."

1996 - Bloodline of the Holy Grail - "First published in Great Britain in 1996: Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, by Laurence Gardner. First published in the United States in 2002."

1996 - Revised Edition / The Only Planet of Choice - "The Only Planet of Choice, by Phyllis V. Schlemmer, aka Phyllis Virtue-Carmel. First edition published in 1993. Second edition 1994. Revised 1996."

   [....] The Council of Nine only transmit through Phyllis Schlemmer, and this is worth repeating, at a time when channelling is becomming increasingly popular. [....]

[Prelude, p. 2, The Only Planet of Choice, Revised edition 1996]

1996 - Notable Albums of 1996 - "Falling Into You" (Celine Dion); "Crash" (The Dave Matthews Band); "Yourself or Someone Like Me" (matchbox twenty); "All Eyez on Me" (Tupac)

1996 - Flood Trivia / 1996 - "Number of notable floods this year: at least 5. Number of flood deaths: 1,255." [E.M.]

1996 - Volcano Trivia / 1996 - "Number of volcanic eruptions [and, or] notable volcanic events this year: at least 7. Number of recorded deaths: 0." [E.M.]

1996 - Blizzard Trivia / 1996 - "Number of notable blizzards this year: at least 2. Number of blizzard deaths: 339." [E.M.]

1996 - Ice Storm Trivia / 1996 - "Number of notable ice storms this year: at least 1. Number of deaths: 26." [E.M.]

1996 - Cyclone Trivia / 1996 - "Number of notable cyclones this year: at least 1. Number of cyclone deaths: 1,000+." [E.M.]

1996 - Typhoon Trivia / 1996 - "Number of notable typhoons this year: at least 1. Number of typhoon deaths: 114." [E.M.]

1996 - Hurricane Trivia / 1996 - "Number of notable hurricanes this year: at least 2. Number of hurricane deaths: 54." [E.M.]

1996 - Earthquake Trivia / 1996 - "Number of notable earthquakes this year: at least 1. Number of earthquake deaths: 200." [E.M.]

1996 - Tropical Storm Trivia / 1996 - "Number of notable tropical storms this year: at least 1. Number of deaths: 100+." [E.M.]

1996 - "Natural Disaster" Deaths / 1996 - "Estimated number of people who died from natural disasters this year: at least 3,088." [E.M.]

1997

1997 - U.S. Secretary of State / Madeleine Albright - January 23rd, 1997: "Madeleine Albright was sworn in as secretary of state Jan. 23, becomming the first woman to head State Dept." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 556]

1997 - Major Earthquake / W. Pakistan - "February 27th, 1997: Earthquake location: W. Pakistan. Earthquake magnitude: 7.3. Number of recorded fatalities: 100+."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 208]

1997 - Stong Earthquake / NW Iran - "February 28th, 1997: Earthquake location: NW Iran. Earthquake magnitude: 6.1. Number of recorded fatalities: 1,000+."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 208]

1997 - Flooding / Ohio R. Valley - "Flood date(s): March 1997, Number of recorded deaths: 35." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207]

1997 - Riverboat Casinos / Missouri - March, 1997: "Harrah's Entertainment and Players International open twin riverboat casinos in Maryland Heights [Mo.]. The casinos float on barges in a basin connected to the Missouri River by small manmade channel." [St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p. C1, 12/31/04]

*Trivia: "The Missouri Supreme Court rules [November 1997] that casinos can only offer gambling 'upon the Mississippi River and the Missouri River.' The decision means the casinos in moats might not be reauthorized when their initial two-year licenses expire." [St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p. C1, 12/31/04]

*Trivia: "Missouri voters approve a constitutional amendement [November 1998] that permits riverboat casinos in inland basins, provided they are within 1,000 feet of the main channel." [St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p. C1, 12/31/04]

*Trivia: "The Missouri Gaming Commission [September 2004] picks Pinnacle Entertainment to develop casinos on Laclede's Landing in downtown St. Louis and at Lemay in south St. Louis County. Both would float in manmade pools of water. The downtown casino would be near the top of the Landing, across from the Edward Jones Dome, as far from the Missippi River as legally permitted." [St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p. C1, 12/31/04]

1997 - Guilty for Spying / Harold Nicholson - March 3rd, 1997: "Harold Nicholson, a former CIA official, pleaded guilty, Mar. 3, to spying for Russia." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 556]

1997 - The Phoenix Lights - March 13th, 1997: "The Phoenix Lights (sometimes referred to as the, "Lights over Phoenix") were a series of widely sighted unidentified flying objects observed in the skies over the U.S. states of, Arizona, Nevada and the Mexican state of Sonora on March 13, 1997. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phoenix_Lights]

*Links: http://www.voiceamerica.com/episode/19851/the-phoenix-lights-with-producer-lynne-d-kitei-md

1997 - Knighted / Paul McCartney - "Entertainment highlights during the week of March 5-11: Queen Elizabeth II knighted Paul McCartney in a ceremony at Buckingham Palace in London. McCartney was honored for his services to music." [Based on: A.P.]

1997 - Mass Suicide? / "Heaven's Gate" - March 26th, 1997: "39 members of the Heaven's gate religious cult found dead in a house in Rancho Santa Fe, CA, Mar. 26, in an apparent mass suicide." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 556]

1997 - Tartan Day / U.S.A. "The first Tartan Day in the United States was observed at the national level on April 6, 1997. Previously, there had been observances by individual states, counties and other regional entities, but the year 1997 was the first time the observance swept across the nation."  

1997 - Sentenced / James McDougal - April 14th, 1997: "James McDougal, former partner in Whitewater, sentenced Apr. 14 to 3 years in prison for seeking to profit from fraudulent loans. He died in prison, Mar. 8, 1998." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 556]

1997 - Ashes in Orbit / Gene Roddenberry - Entertainment highlights during the week of April 16th-22nd, 1997: "The ashes of 'Star trek' creator Gene Roddenberry were shot into orbit." [Based on: A.P.]

1997 - Trivia / Eco Terrorism? - April 28th, 1997: "[....] Others are engaging even in an eco- type of terrorism whereby they can alter the climate, set off earthquakes, volcanoes remotely through the use of electromagnetic waves. [....]" [Based on: DoD News Briefing: Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen - April 28, 1997 8:45 AM EDT]

*Link: http://www.defense.gov/transcripts/transcript.aspx?transcriptid=674 - [T.D. - 02/13/10]

1997 - Major Earthquake / N. Iran - "May 10th, 1997: Earthquake location: N. Iran. Earthquake magnitude: 7.5. Number of recorded fatalities: 1,560."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 208]

1997 - Cyclone / Bangladesh - "Cyclone date(s): May 19th, 1997. Number of recorded deaths: 108." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 206]

1997 - The Grand Chessboard  - "Former National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski publishes a book in which he portrays the Eurasian landmass as the key to world power, and Central Asia with its vast oil reserves as the key to domination of Eurasia. He states that for the US to maintain its global primacy, it must prevent any possible adversary from controlling that region. Almost prophetically, he notes that because of popular resistance to US military expansionism, his ambitious strategy could not be implemented 'except in the circumstance of a truly massive and widely perceived direct external threat.' " [Link: 1  2]

1997 - Files Destroyed / Iran Coup - "The CIA destroyed files on 1953 Iran coup d'état." [Based on: The New York Times, 05/29/1997]

1997 - Project for the New American Century - "Sunday [8/10/03] The Washington Post published the results of a lengthy investigation into the Bush administration's claims about an Iraqi nuclear weapons program. The story also described the creation within the White House last August [2002] of a special group charged with winning support from Congress, from the United Nations if necessary and from the American people for a war against Iraq. [....]
   "September 11th left me emotionally battered, struggling and scared, and it was precisely that fear that George W. Bush, Dick Cheney, Donald Rumsfeld and Condoleezza Rice tapped into - in me and everyone else - with their calculated, misleading conjurings of mushroom clouds, poisons and diseases.
   "Only later did I realize that the real campaign for this war began in the spring of 1997, with the creation of the Project for the New American Century, a group of conservative acedemics, ideologues and once-and-future government functionaries. Cheney, Rumsfeld, Paul Wolfowitz, Jeb Bush and many senior officials in the current administration signed its founding statement of principles.
   "On January 26, 1998, the Project issued a public letter to then-President Bill Clinton. It called for regime change in Iraq, by force if necessary.
   "Not quite four years later, the attacks of September 11th supplied an aching touchstone through which the Project, whose backers had returned to positions of power throughout government, could build support for its new-world-order objectives. Facts can be debated and the meaning of intelligence estimates can be argued, but the emotional, psycological and political power of September 11th is enduring and unassailable." [Source: Eric Mink, August 13th, 2003]

*Link: http://www.spokesmanreview.com/breaking/story.asp?ID=675

1997 - Trivia / Mad Cow Disease - June 1997: "The FDA bans the use of at-risk mammalian protein in animal feed." [Based on: St. Petersburg Times, 03/12/01]  

1997 - Convicted / Timothy McVeigh - June 2nd, 1997: "After 23 1/2 hours of deliberations over four days, the jury convicts McVeigh on all 11 counts."

1997 - Condemned / Timothy McVeigh - June 3rd, 1997: "Jury condemned Timothy McVeigh to die by injection."

1997 - Volcanic Activity / Pavlof Volcano, Alaska - "On June 3, 1997 an increase in earthquakes at Pavlof was evident. A steam plume rose 3,000 ft. above Pavlof. Pavlof's last eruption was in September. The eruption began on September 16, 1996. Satellite images showed a hot spot near the cone while earthquakes showed a low level eruption. On the 24th, earthquake activity began to increase. This also showed that stronger eruptions were taking place. Eruptions sent plumes as high as 4,000 ft. above the summit of the volcano. Satellite images showed thin ash plumes extending as far as 30 miles from the volcano. On October 18, earthquake activity at Pavlof showed a large increase in strength of the eruptions. Scientists estimated that an eruption plume existed which was more than 25,000 ft. above sea level. By morning the next day earthquake activity had returned to the previous level. On the morning of November 4, 1996, eruptive activity at Pavlof once again increased dramatically. Ash plumes reached heights of 25,000 ft. On December 27, 1996 Seismic activity showed strong eruptive activity. It was at this time that the seismic activity was at the highest level. In the afternoon, many bursts of ash and steam rose several hundred ft. above the volcano."

 [Based on:  http://library.thinkquest.org/16132/html/volcanoinfo/recentdisasters/pavlof.html  ]

1997 - Flooding / Poland, Czech Republic - "Flood date(s): July 1997, Number of recorded deaths: 98." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207]

1997 - Volcanic Activity / Popocatepetl Volcano, Mexico - [....] On June 19, 1997 Popocatepetl threw ash and steam over one mile high. The activity lasted for three minutes. Popocatapetl threw ash 7.5 miles into the air on June 30 during its largest eruption since 1925. Lava was also thrown 1500 feet into the air. This event led to the first ash fall in Mexico city in 70 years. Mexico city is located 45 miles from the volcano. On August 26, 1997 Popocatapetl erupted ash to about 2500 ft. into the air. They were not considered dangerous eruptions."

 [Based on:  http://library.thinkquest.org/16132/html/volcanoinfo/recentdisasters/mar5popo.html  ]

1997 - Chinese Hong Kong - July 1st [12:01 a.m.], 1997: "The Chinese flag is raised in Hong Kong."

1997 - Landing / Mars Pathfinder - July 4th, 1997: "Mars Pathfinder successfully landed [near Ares Vallis] on the planet Mars." [Links: 1, 2]

1997 - Neanderthal Gene Research - "In July 1997, a breakthrough in genetic analysis proved beyond doubt that modern homo sapiens-sapiens have not the slightest trace of ancestry from the neanderthalers." [Based on: Laurence Gardner, Genesis Of The Holy Grail, p. 68]

1997 - Volcanic Eruption / Caribbean - "Montserrat's volcano came to life in 1995, eventually causing more than half the Caribbean island's population to leave. An eruption in 1997 killed 19 people and buried the capital, Plymouth." [News Services]

1997 - Volcanic Activity / Mt. Etna, Italy - July 19th, 1997: "In Mid July, 1997, strombolian activity was evident in three vents on Etna. On November 9, 1995, a similar episode lasted one hour, producing abundant ash and lapilli that fell on a wide area of the southeast part of the volcano, which is known as Catania. Catania has a population of one million people and it is about 20 miles southeast of the summit of Etna. From July 19th to the 20th lava overflowed from the South East Crater at Etna This was the first time lava has flowed from the crater since 1990. On July 23, 1997 lava overflowed from the northeast crater. This flow traveled a distance of more than 0.6 miles to the east. This flow ceased on July 29, but other flows continued."

 [Based on:  http://library.thinkquest.org/16132/html/volcanoinfo/recentdisasters/etna.html  ]

1997 - Sentenced / Azzam Azzam - August ,1997: "In a contentious trial, Azzam [Azzam Azzam] was sentenced to 15 years in prison in August 1997. An Egyptian accomplice was sentenced to 25 years. Azzam's imprisonment angered Israeli leaders, who have steadfastly maintained that he is not an Israeli agent. [....]" [Knight Ridder Newspapers, 12/06/04]

1997 - Volcanic Eruption / Karymsky Volcano, Russia - August 2nd, 1997: "On January 1, 1996, an eruption took place at the north end of Karymsky Lake about 3 miles away from Karymsky volcano. During the initial stage of the eruption the ash plume reached 23,000 ft. above sea level. On January 3 activity had created a new crater. A thick black ash plume has been observed erupting explosively from the new crater. The plume has reached up to altitudes of 18,000 ft. above sea level. Karymsky has erupted over 20 times in the past 200 years. Periods of seismic unrest have occurred several times in the past 12 months and the volcano emits a continuous steam plume. The volcano is capable of explosive eruptions which can send ash to over 33,000 ft. above sea level. The volcano is located in a remote part of the Kamchatka Peninsula. No towns or villages are threatened by the volcano [An eruption occurred on August 2nd, 1997. - see button link]. "

[Based on: http://library.thinkquest.org/16132/html/volcanoinfo/recentdisasters/karymsky.html  ]

1997 - Taxpayer Relief Act / U.S.A. - August 5th, 1997: "Singed into law (by Bill Clinton) this date in history: The Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997."

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bill_Clinton#Legislation_and_programs]

*Trivia:

JACK BEATTY, ATLANTIC MONTHLY: Compared to their peers thirty years ago, America's 80 million white-collar employees are working longer hours, for the same pay and fewer benefits, at jobs that are markedly less secure, and for corporations that regard firing whole ranks of employees as a way to post paper gains and so win Wall Street's favor. The long arm of the job has reached into employees' homes, their nights, their weekends, and their vacations, as technology designed to make work less onerous has made it more pervasive. America's insecure white-collar workers are victims not of poverty ~ but of progress. They are, Jill Andresky Fraser writes in 'White-Collar Sweatshop: The Deterioration of Work and Its Rewards in Corporate America,' "suffering the unwanted ... consequences of the nation's recent economic boom." . . . According to Juliet Schor's The Overworked American, "If present trends continue, by the end of the century Americans will be spending as much time on their jobs as they did back in the nineteen twenties" - before the eight-hour day became standard. A software-industry professional explains the Darwinian dynamic behind the twelve-hour day: "The long hours aren't because we want to outshine everybody; we want to keep up with everybody." A recent Lexus ad boasts, "Sure We Take Vacations. They're Called Lunch Breaks." But even lunch is becoming a luxury: 39 percent of workers surveyed by the American Restaurant Association say they are too busy to take a lunch break. . . . Overwork and job spill would perhaps be bearable if one were being well paid for it. But white-collar men earned an average of $19.24 an hour in 1997, just six cents more than their fathers made in 1973 . . . Benefits? From medical care to pension coverage to vacation time to Christmas bonuses, "perks" have steadily declined since 1980.MORE

[Based on article @ http://prorev.com/clinton.htm] - [10/28/06]

1997 - "South Park" / Comedy Central - Entertainment highlights during the week of August 13th-19th, 1997: "South Park" made its debut on Commedy Central. [Based on: A.P. article, p. C2, S.L.P.D., 08/14/06]

1997 - Formal Sentence / Timothy McVeigh - August 14, 1997: "Before being formally sentenced to death, McVeigh tells the judge the government 'teaches the people by its example.' "

1997 - Typhoon / Taiwan - "Typhoon date(s): August 18th, 1997. Number of recorded deaths: 24." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 206]

1997 - Trivia / Tavistok Institute - August 18th, 1997:

The author, a former intelligence agent of British MI6, rips the lid off the conspiratorial group which knows NO national boundaries, is ABOVE the law of ALL countries and controls every aspect of politics, commerce, religion, industry, banking, insurance, mining, and even the drug trade. Learn how this small elite group who are answerable to NO ONE, except its members, have pulled the strings on ALL major world events and why, until now, few people have even been aware of its existence, let alone power, in manipulating the affairs of the entire WORLD. All of these members are revealed, including all of the corporations, government agencies and various movements which "they" have developed and control to further their own aims for WORLD DOMINATION.

[....]

Today the Tavistock Institute operates a $6 Billion a year network of Foundations in the U.S., all of it funded by U.S. taxpayers' money. Ten major institutions are under its direct control, with 400 subsidiaries, and 3000 other study groups and think tanks which originate many types of programs to increase the control of the World Order over the American people. The Stanford Research Institute, adjoining the Hoover Institution, is a $150 million a year operation with 3300 employees. It carries on program surveillance for Bechtel, Kaiser, and 400 other companies, and extensive intelligence operations for the CIA. It is the largest institution on the West Coast promoting mind control and the behavioral sciences.

[....]

[Based on: barefootsworld.net article (- TAVISTOCK - THE BEST KEPT SECRET IN AMERICA / CONSPIRATORS' HIERARCHY: THE STORY OF THE COMMITTEE OF 300) by Dr. John Coleman, 08/18/97] - [T.D. 12/02/06] - [see link]

*Link: http://www.barefootsworld.net/tavistok.html 

1997 - "Patent / Creativity Machine [Skynet?]" - August 19th, 1997: "A St. Louis physicist [Stephen Thaler] created a computer program called the Creativity Machine that simulates what goes on in the human brain. It has invented new products, composed music, coined new words and frightened some who fear such self-aware machines could take over the world. [....] Thaler, too, is engineering independent robots. A glossy, black, plastic cockroach named H3 could be the prototype for swarms of bunker-busting robots that could seek out, explore and use collective intelligence to defeat an enemy target. The U.S. Air Force has contracted Thaler to create such robots. [....] Thaler's first contact with the Air Force used a Creativity Machine to help design warheads that reconfigure the pattern of schrapnel scattering. That's important to limit collateral damage and to save money by tailoring bombs to destroy a target in one hit. [....] Spy agencies want to use Thaler's technology to map the Internet and detect unusual behavior. [....] Sci-fi fans see similarity between Thaler's thinking machines and Skynet. There's even an eerie coincidence between the fictional satellite's Judgement Day - August 29th, 1997 - and the date the patent for Creativity Machine became final - August 19th, 1997." [Based on article by Tina Hesman, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 01/25/04]  

1997 - Spinoff / Monsanto - Solutia - August 20th, 1997: "Monsanto Company spins off its chemical business into new company Solutia Inc."

1997 - Volcanic Activity / Popocatepetl Volcano, Mexico - [....] On August 26, 1997 Popocatapetl erupted ash to about 2500 ft. into the air. [....]."  

 [Based on:  http://library.thinkquest.org/16132/html/volcanoinfo/recentdisasters/mar5popo.html  ]

1997 - Fatality / Princess Diana - August 31st, 1997: "The British public was shocked by the death of Princess Diana, in a Paris car crash."

*Trivia: "An official British inquiry into the 1997 death of Diana, Princess of Wales, in a high-speed car crash has found no evidence of foul play, a newspaper [The Daily Mail] reported Monday [03/06/06] [....]" [Based on: News Services article (Inquiry finds no foul play in Diana's death), p. A8, S.L.P.D., 03/07/06]

1997 - Pioneer 11 Flyby / Saturn - September 1st, 1997: "Saturn is the sixth planet from the sun, between bigger Jupiter and smaller Uranus. It was previously visited in flybys by NASA's Pioneer 11 on Sept. 1, 1997, Voyager 1 on Nov. 12, 1980, and Voyager 2 on Aug. 25, 1981. But none of those visitors entered orbit around Saturn.
   "The 3.3 billion, U.S.-European spacecraft [Cassini], which also carries a probe to explore the moon Titan, was launched in October 1997. It is named for an early-day astronomer. NASA built the plutonium-powered spacecraft [Cassini]; the European Space Agency contributed the Huygens (pronounced HOY-genz) probe." [A.P., 06/12/04]

1997 - State Funeral / Mother Teresa - September 11th, 1997: "Mother Teresa received the first state funeral accorded a private citizen of India since the death of Mohandas K. Gandhi in 1948. It was attended by foreign heads of state and other dignitaries, including U.S. first lady Hillary Rodham Clinton." [Link: 1]

1997 - Orbit Entry / Mars Global Surveyor - September 11th, 1997: "Mars Global Surveyor arrives at Mars." [Links:  1, 2] 

1997 - Volcano Deaths / Honshu, Japan - September 15th, 1997: "Adatara is a stratovolcano made up of three cones. These cones are basaltic to andesitic in composition. The summit of Adatara is a lava dome. Adatara has had two historical eruptions. The last eruption of Adatara was in 1990. Four mountain hikers were killed due to falling into a large summit crater on Adatara [09/15/97?]. The cause of death was the inhalation of H2S gas in the bottom of the crater. Warnings were given to the public for people to stay away from the volcano, as activity in the area has become more frequent over the past few years. This increased activity has led to mud spouting from ponds on the crater floor and an increase in fumarolic activities."

[Based on: http://library.thinkquest.org/16132/html/volcanoinfo/recentdisasters/adatara.html  ]

1997 - Volcanic Activity? / Ruapehu, New Zealand - October 1997: Ruapehu is a stratovolcano in New Zealand. It has erupted 50 times since 1861. An acidic crater lake is present at the top of the volcano Most eruptions from the volcano are phreatic. Phreatic eruptions involve steam explosions caused by the contact of lava and water."

[Based on: http://library.thinkquest.org/16132/html/volcanoinfo/recentdisasters/ruapehu.html  ]

1997 - Launch / Cassini Spacecraft [to Saturn] - October, 1997: "The 3.3 billion, U.S.-European spacecraft [Cassini], which also carries a probe to explore the moon Titan, was launched in October 1997. It is named for an early-day astronomer. NASA built the plutonium-powered spacecraft; the European Space Agency contributed the Huygens (pronounced HOY-genz) probe." [A.P., 06/12/04]

1997 - Hurricane Pauline / SW Mexico - "Hurricane date(s): October 8th-10th, 1997. Number of recorded deaths: 230." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 206]

1997 - Volcanic Activity / Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii - October 21st, 1997: "On October 21, 1997 lava began flowing from the vent inside the Kilauea Volcano. Lava then overflowed repeatedly until the evening of October 19. The vent was continually erupting. Throughout September, lava erupted from vents and flowed through lava tubes to the sea. Lava destroyed the 700-year-old Wahaula Heiau temple, which is considered to be the most sacred of Hawaiian temples. In 1990 lava came near the temple but was diverted around it. Since January, 1983, Kilauea has produced more than 1 billion yards of lava. This has produced 60 acres of land for the island. On August 4, 1997 lava at Kilauea was no longer flowing into the ocean.

[Based on: http://library.thinkquest.org/16132/html/volcanoinfo/recentdisasters/kilauea.html  ]

1997 - Point Decline / Dow Jones - October 27th, 1997: "On Oct. 27, the Dow Jones fell 554.26 points, largest 1-day point decline yet." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 556]

1997 - Point Advance / Dow Jones - October 28th, 1997: "On Oct. 28, the Dow rebounded, surging 337.17 points, largest-yet single-day point advance." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 556]

1997 - Flooding / Spanish-Portuguese Border - "Flood date(s): November 1997, Number of recorded deaths: 31+." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207]

1997 - Flooding / Bardera, Somalia - "Flood date(s): November 1997, Number of recorded deaths: 1,300+." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207]

1997 - X9.4 Solar Flare - November 6th, 1997: On this date in history an X9.4 solar flare ["13th-largest solar flare" recorded since 1976] blasted from the Sun.

[Based on: http://spaceweather.com/solarflares/topflares.html] - [T.D. 12/12/06]

1997 - Convictions / 1993 WTC Bombings - November 12th, 1997: "Islamic militants Ramzi Ahmed Yousef and Eyad Ismoil Yousef convicted, Nov. 12, in the 1993 bombing of the World Trade Center in New York City." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 556]

1997 - Launched / Spaceweather.com - November 27th, 1997: "Spaceweather.com was launched 10 years ago [11/27/97] today [11/27/07. Back in 1997, the site had no archive so the first episodes are lost. The webmaster says they are better forgotten. Subsequent improvements are largely due to you, the reader, who contributes daily photos, alerts, anecdotes - in short, the vital essence of Spaceweather. Thanks and many happy returns! - Dr. Tony Phillips"

[Based on: http://spaceweather.com/archive.php?month=11&day=27&year=2007&view=view]

1997 - Volcanic Eruption / Kamchatka, Russia - December 5th, 1997: "Recently on Dec. 5, 1997 an enormous eruption at the site of the Bezymianny volcano began. The ash cloud was 150 miles in length. On May 3, 1997 activity was once again evident at the volcano. On the morning of May 8, ash was seen to rise to a huge height of 13,000 ft. Within a few hours the strength of the eruption had increased dramatically. The ash plume reached a height of 45,000 ft. The eruption plume stretched 260 miles."

[Based on: http://library.thinkquest.org/16132/html/volcanoinfo/recentdisasters/bezymianny.html  ]

1997 - Noticeable Activity / Popocatepetl Volcano, Mexico - December 6th, 1997: "Popocatepetl is a stratovolcano in the central volcanic belt of Mexico. On Dec. 6, 1997 Popocatepetl showed noticeable activity. It erupted large clouds of ash and volcanic rocks. The ash rose over 1/2 a mile into the air. Ash fell on towns over 60 miles away. [....] On June 19, 1997 Popocatepetl threw ash and steam over one mile high. The activity lasted for three minutes. Popocatapetl threw ash 7.5 miles into the air on June 30 during its largest eruption since 1925. Lava was also thrown 1500 feet into the air. This event led to the first ash fall in Mexico city in 70 years. Mexico city is located 45 miles from the volcano. On August 26, 1997 Popocatapetl erupted ash to about 2500 ft. into the air. They were not considered dangerous eruptions."  [Based on: ]

1997 - Died / Chris Farley - December 18th, 1997: "Died this date in history [drug overdose]: actor, Chris Farley. He was 33."

1997 - Convicted / Terry Nichols - December 23rd, 1997: "Terry Nichols convicted Dec. 23 on charges related to the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 556]

1997 - Terrorist Reports - "The FBI and CIA received reports that a terrorist group had bought a remote-controlled plane that could be used to crash into a building." [S.L.P.D., 9/19/02]

1997 - Trivia / U.S. Health Insurance - "State Children's Health Insurance Program extends public insurance eligibility to children in families earning 100 percent to 200 percent of the federal poverty level and allows coverage for low-income parents." [Source: Institute of Medicine, 10/04/04]

1997 - Status / U.S. Oil Refineries - "Between 1997 and 2002, the number of U.S. refineries dropped to 153 from 282. Refining capacity in that period rose 2.4 percent to 16.8 million barrels a day, according to the Energy Department. However, domestic demand for gasoline surged 27 percent in that period." [by Jim Efstathiou Jr., Bloomberg News, May 2004]

1997 -  Chemical Weapons Convention - "In 1997, the chemical weapons convention came into force, a powerful system to prevent development, stockpiling or production of chemical weapons, backed by a 500-strong inspection agency based in the Hague."

1997 - Approved to Treat Alzheimer's / Aricept - 1997: "[....] The drug [Aricept] was approved in 1997 and is the most commonly prescribed drug used to treat Alzheimer's. [....]" [Based on: A.P. article (11 died while taking Alzheimer's drug), p. A26, S.L.P.D., 03/18/06]

1997 - Status / National Debt, Sweden - "The Swedish national debt was 1.4 trillion crowns in the fall of 1997, which makes Sweden more debt-ridden than either Brazil or Argentina. Interest on the national debt was 111 billion kronor yearly, which is about 40 billion more than the cost of old-age benefits. Every Swede owed various banks 158,558 crowns each in 1997. Half of Swedish national income goes to pay interest. Twenty-five percent of the export income went to support of the national debt in 1990. The head of the central bank, Bengt Dennis, said: 'In the circles where I move, it is expected that Sweden keeps a high interest rate.'
   "In the beginning of the 1990s the bankers Salomon Brothers, which had provided the Swedish government with huge loans, demanded that the Swedish crown be devalued. The government complied." [Juri Lina, The Barnes Review, September/October 2004, p. 14]

1997 - Kyoto Protocol - "Global warming is believed to be intensified by human activities, in particular emissions of heat-trapping greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels. The European Union has been a leader in pushing for implementation of the Kyoto Protocol, a U.N. pact drawn up in 1997 to combat climate change by reducing carbon-dioxide emissions worldwide in 2010 to 8 percent below 1990 levels. So far, 123 countries, including all 25 EU members, have ratified the pact, but it isn't in effect because it hasn't reached the required level of nations accounting for 55 percent of the industrialized world's emissions. The United States, the world's biggest emitter of greenhouse gases, has refused to ratify, arguing the agreement would hurt its economy, and Russia also hasn't signed. The report Wednesday [08/18/04] urges that the Kyoto Protocol be adopted, saying climate changes 'will considerably affect our societies and environments for decades and centuries to come.' It said the decade of the 1990s was the warmest decade on record, and the three hottest years recorded - 1998, 2002 and 2003 - occured in the last six years, with the average global temperature now rising at almost 0.36 degrees per decade." [By Jan M. Olsen, A.P., 08/19/04]

1997 - Aluminum Smelter / Alcoa Inc. - "One company, Alcoa, Inc. North America's largest aluminum smelter, was responsible for more than 100,000 tons of toxic emissions at one of its plants in 1997. Neighboring Milam County residents maintain that the air around Alcoa's smelter is so acidic that it eats the galvanized coating off barbed-wire fences." [Robert F. Kennedy Jr., Crimes Against Nature, pp. 16-17]

1997 - TXI Corporation / Midlothian, Texas - "According to a 1997 report in the Dallas Observer, 'scientists don't  even have names for some of the substances coming out of TXI's stacks." [Robert F. Kennedy Jr., Crimes Against Nature, p. 16]

1997 - The Day After Roswell - "Backed by documents newly declassified through the Freedom of Information Act, Colonel Corso [Retired], former head of the Foreign Technology Desk at the U.S. Army's Research and Development department, reveals for the first time his personal stewardship of alien artifacts from the 1947 Roswell crash, and discloses the government's astonishing role in the Roswell incident." [Link: 1]

*Trivia: On The History Channel, a program entitled: UFO Files: The Day After Roswell, aired on November 10th, 2005. The program mentioned that Mr. Corso died in 1998." [E.M.]

1997 - Notable Albums of 1997 - "Life After Death" (Notorius B.I.G.); "Come On Over" (Shania Twain)

1997 - Flood Trivia / 1997 - "Number of notable floods this year: at least 4. Number of flood deaths: 1,464." [E.M.]

1997 - Volcano Trivia / 1997 - "Number of volcanic eruptions [and, or] notable volcanic events this year: at least 11. Number of recorded deaths: at least 23." [E.M.]

1997 - Cyclone Trivia / 1997 - "Number of notable cyclones this year: at least 1. Number of cyclone deaths: 108." [E.M.]

1997 - Typhoon Trivia / 1997 - "Number of notable typhoons this year: at least 1. Number of typhoon deaths: 24." [E.M.]

1997 - Hurricane Trivia / 1997 - "Number of notable hurricanes this year: at least 1. Number of hurricane deaths: 230." [E.M.]

1997 - Earthquake Trivia / 1997 - "Number of notable earthquakes this year: at least 3. Number of earthquake deaths: 2,660." [E.M.]

1997 - "Natural Disaster" Deaths / 1997 - "Estimated number of people who died from natural disasters this year: at least 4,505." [E.M.]

1998

1998 - New Galactic Cycle? - "Reportedly, In 1998 the Winter Solstice Sun began to cross over the Galactic Equator. Over the span of the 20 year transitional period as the Solstice Sun crosses the Galactic Equator and moves into a new hemisphere, we will indeed witness the falling away of the old structures and the birthing of the new. For those who have eyes to see we are actually witnessing the birth of a planetary civilization. And the very logistics involved in this process will determine that the old values of the Nation States which was primarily based on competition and exploitation will have to eventually give way to a collaborative effort, where cooperation will be the dominate social value. This will arise not out of some new political, social or economic theory but the very desire of the human species to continue to survive and be successful." [Link: 1]

1998 - Flooding / Kenya - "Flood date(s): January 1998, Number of recorded deaths: 86." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207]

1998 - Discovery / Cosmological Constant? - January 9th, 1998: "On this date [January 9th] in 1998, two teams of scientists announced the discovery that galaxies are accelerating, flying apart at ever faster speeds. This discovery implied the existence of a mysterious, self-repelling property of space called the cosmological constant, first proposed by Albert Einstein." [Based on: Leo Laporte's 2005 Technology Almanac, p. 11]

1998 - Bill Clinton & Monica Lewinski - January 21st, 1998: "It was reported Jan. 21 that Whitewater independent counsel Kenneth Starr had evidence of a sexual relationship between Pres. Clinton and onetime Whitehouse intern Monica Lewinsky. Clinton denied it." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 556]

1998 - Guilty Plea / Theodore  Kaczynski - January 22nd, 1998: "Theodore Kaczynski, the 'Unibomber,' arrested in Montana in 1993, pleaded guilty Jan. 22 in California and new Jersey bombings that killed 3 people and injured 2." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 556]

1998 - Proposed Regime Change? / Iraq - January 26th, 1998: "Sunday [8/10/03] The Washington Post published the results of a lengthy investigation into the Bush administration's claims about an Iraqi nuclear weapons program. The story also described the creation within the White House last August [2002] of a special group charged with winning support from Congress, from the United Nations if necessary and from the American people for a war against Iraq. [....]
   "September 11th left me emotionally battered, struggling and scared, and it was precisely that fear that George W. Bush, Dick Cheney, Donald Rumsfeld and Condoleezza Rice tapped into - in me and everyone else - with their calculated, misleading conjurings of mushroom clouds, poisons and diseases.
   "Only later did I realize that the real campaign for this war began in the spring of 1997, with the creation of the Project for the New American Century, a group of conservative acedemics, ideologues and once-and-future government functionaries. Cheney, Rumsfeld, Paul Wolfowitz, Jeb Bush and many senior officials in the current administration signed its founding statement of principles.
   "On January 26, 1998, the Project issued a public letter to then-President Bill Clinton. It called for regime change in Iraq, by force if necessary.
   "Not quite four years later, the attacks of September 11th supplied an aching touchstone through which the Project, whose backers had returned to positions of power throughout government, could build support for its new-world-order objectives. Facts can be debated and the meaning of intelligence estimates can be argued, but the emotional, psycological and political power of September 11th is enduring and unassailable." [Based on: article by Eric Mink, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 08/13/03]

1998 - Winter Olympic Games / Nagano, Japan - "In 1998, the Winter Olympic Games were held in Nagano, Japan."

1998 - Flooding / California to Tijuana, Mexico - "Flood date(s): February 1998, Number of recorded deaths: 30+." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207]

1998 - Earthquake / NE Afghanistan - "February 4th & 8th, 1998: Earthquake location: Takhar province, NE Afghanistan. Earthquake magnitude: 6.1. Number of recorded fatalities: 2,323."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 208]

1998 - Blizzard / Kentucky & West Virginia - "Blizzard date(s): February 4th-6th, 1998. Number of recorded deaths: 10+." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 206]

1998 - Milosevic Crackdown / Kosovo Albanians - February 28th, 1998: "Milosevic's troops cracked down on Kosovo Albanians in Kosovo. More than 800,000 fled. NATO airstrikes forced milosevic to hand the province over to U.N. peacekeepers." [Based on: Reuters, World Almanac and KRT - St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p. A13, 06/26/05]

*Links: http://www.eurofreehost.com/ko/Kosovo_conflict_3.html

1998 - Flooding / SW Pakistan - "Flood date(s): March 1998, Number of recorded deaths: 300+." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207]

1998 - Fatality / James McDougal - March 8th, 1998: "James McDougal, former partner in Whitewater, sentenced Apr. 14 [1997] to 3 years in prison for seeking to profit from fraudulent loans. He died in prison, Mar. 8, 1998." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 556]

1998 - School Shooting / Jonesboro, Arkansas - March 24th, 1998: "2 youths aged 11 and 13 were arrested, Mar. 24, in the killing of 4 schoolgirls and a teacher outside a Jonesboro, AR, school; later committed to a juvenile detention center." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 556]

1998 - Trivia / Mad Cow Disease - April 1998: "The USDA enters into an agreement with Harvard University's School of Public Health to analyze and evaluate the USDA's mad cow prevention measures." [Based on: St. Petersburg Times, 03/12/01]  

1998 - Died / Linda McCartney - April 17th, 1998: "Reportedly died this date in history: Linda McCartney."

1998 - Established / European Central Bank - "On May 1, 1998, exactly 222 years after the founding of the order of the Illuminati (222 being a third of 666, which in turn is a third of 1998), the European Central Bank was established, actually a cartel of private banks. All of the people shall be in debt through taxation. The Masonic bankers are thus trying to realize the Knights Templars' ancient idea of creating a European super state by means of the banking system." [Based on: article by Juri Lina, The Barnes Review, September/October 2004, p. 14]

1998 - Underground Nuclear Tests / India - May 11 & 13th, 1998: "India conducts underground nuclear tests; its citizens celebrate in the streets." [Based on: N.G.M., August 2005, p. 113]

1998 - Died / Frank Sinatra - May 14th, 1998: "Frank Sinatra died of a heart attack in Los Angeles. He was 82."

1998 - Earthquake / Central Bolivia - "May 22nd, 1998: Earthquake location: Central Bolivia. Earthquake magnitude: 6.5. Number of recorded fatalities: 105."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 208]

1998 - Nuclear Test? / Israel - May 28th, 1998: "In June 1998, a member of the Knesset accused the Israeli government of conducting an underground test near Eilat on May 28, 1998. Egyptian nuclear experts had made similar charges. The government denied the claims.
   "Mordechai Vanunu provided the best look at the Israeli nuclear arsenal in 1985, complete with photographs. A technician from Dimona who lost his job, Vanunu secretly took photographs, migrated to Australia and published some of his material in The London Sunday Times. He was subsequently kidnapped by Israeli agents and imprisoned. His data showed a sophisticated nuclear program, with over 200 bombs, with boosted devices, neutron bombs, F-16 deliverable warheads, and Jericho warheads. He revealed for the first time the underground plutonium separation facility where Israel was producing 40 kilograms annually, several times more than previous estimates. Photographs showed sophisticated designs which scientific experts say enabled the Israelis to build bombs with as little as 4 kilograms of plutonium. In the words of one American source, 'The Israelis can do anything we or the Soviets can do.' " [Based on: article by John Tiffany, A.F.P., March 2004]

1998 - Nuclear Tests / Pakistan - May 28 & 30th, 1998: "Pakistan conducts nuclear tests in response to India's." [Based on: N.G.M., August 2005, p. 113]

1998 - Earthquake / NE Afghanistan - "May 30th, 1998: Earthquake location: Takhar province, NE Afghanistan. Earthquake magnitude: 6.9. Number of recorded fatalities: 4,700+."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 208]

1998 - Sentenced / Terry Nichols - June 4th, 1998: "Calling him 'an enemy of the Constitution,' a federal judge sentences Terry L. Nichols to life in prison. The sentencing closes the judicial books on a searing chapter in American history that underscored the nation's vulnerability to domestic terror."

1998 - Cyclone / Gujarat, India - "Cyclone date(s): June 9th, 1998. Number of recorded deaths: 1,320." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 206]

1998 - Earthquake / Adana, Turkey - "June 27th, 1998: Earthquake location: Adana, Turkey. Earthquake magnitude: 6.3. Number of recorded fatalities: 144."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 208]

1998 - Flooding / China - "Flood date(s): July-August 1998, Number of recorded deaths: 4,150." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207]

1998 - Flooding / Bangladesh - "Flood date(s): July-September 1998, Number of recorded deaths: 1,441." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207]

1998 - Trivia / State Farm Insurance Co. - July 1998: "After a two-year investigation, Indiana gets a permanent injunction against State Farm Insurance Cos., which acknowledges having sold 1,400 wrecked vehicles in the state with improperly obtained state titles. The company agrees to buy back the vehicles or pay damages to the owners." [Based on: St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p. A4, 01/24/05]

1998 - Never Asked to Lie? / Monica Lewinsky - August 6th, 1998: "Monica Lewinsky, Aug. 6, testified to having had a sexual relationship with Pres. Clinton, but said she was never asked to lie."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 556]

1998 - Flooding / Papua New Guinea - "Flood date(s): July 17th, 1998, Number of recorded deaths: 3,000." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207]

1998 - Terrorist Report - August 1998: "U.S. intelligence learned that a group of unidentified Arabs planned to fly an explosives-laden plane from a foriegn country into the World Trade Center. The information was passed to the FBI and Federal Aviation Administration." [S.L.P.D., 9/19/02]

1998 - Kidnapping Decree / Yemen  - August 1998: "According to the U.S. State Department, Yemen is one of the 10 countries in the world where Americans are most at risk of being kidnapped. In 1998, Yemeni tribesmen kidnapped and released more than 60 foreign nationals for ransom or other reasons. The Yemeni Government issued a decree in August 1998 making kidnapping punishable with death. It also prescribed severe penalties for the possession of unlicensed weapons. In the past, Yemeni tribesmen had also blown up U.S.-owned oil pipelines and anti-Government opposition groups had bombed Government targets."

1998 - Monsoon / Bangladesh - "Monsoon date(s): August 1998. Number of recorded deaths: 326." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 206]

1998 - Terrorist Bombs / Nairobi & Kenya - August 7th, 1998: "Terrorist bombs in U.S. embassies in Nairobi Kenya, and Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania, killed at least 257, Aug. 7." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 556] 

1998 - Inappropriate Relationship? / Bill Clinton - August 17th, 1998: "In grand jury testimony and an address to the nation Aug. 17, Clinton acknowledged an inappropriate relationship with Monica Lewinsky." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 556] 

1998 - U.S. Cruise Missles / Afghanistan - August 20, 1998: "President Bill Clinton sent 75 cruise missiles pounding into rural Afghanistan - supposedly targeting Osama Bin Laden. The raid killed children gathered in a village school and left a local mosque in ruins. And after that, bin Laden's portrait appeared on even more walls, especially among Muslim youth who are bitterly disenchanted with a world dominated, perverted and robbed by the U.S." [Link: 1]

*Trivia: "The U.S. launched retaliatory strikes, Aug. 20, against alleged terrorist-related targets in Afghanistan and Sudan." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 556] 

1998 - Terrorist Report - September 1998: "U.S. intelligence learned that Osama bin Laden's next operation could involve flying an aircraft loaded with explosives into a U.S. airport and detonating it." [S.L.P.D. 9/19/02]

1998 - Terrorist Reports - Fall 1998: "U.S. intelligence received reports of a bin Laden plot involving aircraft in the New York and Washington areas." [S.L.P.D. 9/19/02]

1998 - Grounds for Impeachment? / U.S.A. - September 9th, 1998: "On Sept. 9, independent counsel Kenneth Starr sent the House what he called 'credible information that may constitute grounds' for impeachment." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 556] 

1998 - Origins of Life in the Universe - "On 12 September 1998, the leading British scientific magazine New Scientist published the ground-breaking research of a NASA team led by Lou Allamandola into the origins - and requirements - of life in the universe. [....] This team had succeeded in creating some of the complex molecules necessary by recreating in the labatory conditions similar to those found inside clouds of gas in interstellar space." [Based on: The Stargate Conspiracy, p. 10]

1998 - Hurricane Georges / Caribbean, FL Keys, U.S. Gulf Coast - "Hurricane date(s): September 21st-23rd, 1998. Number of recorded deaths: 600+." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 206]

1998 - Budget Surplus / U.S.A. - September 30th, 1998: "On Sept. 30, Pres. Clinton announced a budget surplus of $70 billion for fiscal year 1998, the first since 1969." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 556] 

1998 - Trivia / U.S. Impeachment Investigation - October 5th, 1998: "The House Judiciary Committee, Oct. 5, voted 21-16 along party lines to recommend that the Clinton impeachment investigation proceed. The House concurred Oct. 8, voting 258-176; 31 Democrats voted yes." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 556] 

1998 - Hurricane Mitch / Honduras, Nicaragua, Guatemala, El Salvador - "Hurricane date(s): October 27th-29th, 1998. Number of recorded deaths: 10,866+." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 206]

1998 - Riverboat Casinos / Missouri - November, 1998: "Missouri voters approve a constitutional amendement that permits riverboat casinos in inland basins, provided they are within 1,000 feet of the main channel." [St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p. C1, 12/31/04]

1998 - Paula Jones Settlement / Bill Clinton - November 13th, 1998: "Pres. Clinton, Nov. 13th, settled a suit by agreeing to pay $850,000 dollars to Paula Corbin Jones. She alleged that he had made an unwanted sexual advance to her in 1991." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 556]  

1998 - Tobacco Settlements / U.S.A. - November 23rd, 1998: "The country's 4 largest tobacco companies, in a settlement, Nov. 23, with 46 states, the District of Columbia, and 4 territories, agreed to pay $206 bil over 25 years to cover public health costs related to smoking." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 556]  

*Trivia: "Four tobacco companies agreed in 1998 to pay $206 billion over 25 years to end state lawsuits over the cost of treating smoking-related illnesses. Four states settled separately for another 40 billion." [A.P]

*Trivia: "An appeals court dealt a major blow Friday [02/04/05] to the government's attempt to hold the tobacco industry accountable for decades of alleged deceit about the dangers of smoking, ruling that the Justice Department can't seek $280 billion in penalties. [....] Even if the decision stands, U.S. District judge Gladys Kessler could impose restrictions on the tobacco companies, such as limiting marketing or requiring the industry to fund public health campaigns or smoking cessation programs. [....] In dissent, Judge David Tatel said his colleagues ignored Supreme Court precedent, misread the law and contradicted the decision of another appeals court, the 2nd U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in New York. [....]" [Based on: A.P., 02/05/05]

1998 - President Emile Lahoud / Lebanon - November 24th, 1998: "Parliament elects pro-Syrian army commander, Gen. Emile Lahoud, as president." [Based on A.P., 02/15/05]

1998 - Secret U.S. Intelligence Report / Purported Hijack Plot - December 4th, 1998: "WASHINGTON - A secret intelligence report prepared for President Bill Clinton in December 1998 reported on a suspected plot by Osama bin Laden to hijack a U.S. airliner in an effort to force the United States to release imprisoned conspirators in the 1993 World Trade Center attacks. The one-page declassified version of the President's Daily Brief dated Dec. 4, 1998, contains chilling information the CIA had gleaned from several sources indicating that al-Qaida was working with U.S.-based operatives of the Egyptian group Gama at al-Islamiyya in the purported hijack plot. The briefing shows that the intelligence community and the White House were aware of al-Qaida's interest in hijacking U.S. airliners long before the attacks on Sept. 11, 2001. The day the briefing was prepared, then-CIA director George Tenet said in a memo that 'we are at war,' and that no resources should be spared to defeat the terrorists. A report by the presidential commission investigating the Sept. 11 attacks will include the newly declassified document and a previously declassified presidential briefing from Aug. 6, 2001, when it is released this week [July 2004]. It will also contain details of what the commission's executive director, Philip Zelikow, described Saturday [07/17/04] as an 'energetic response' to the hijack threat information by the Clinton administration, including its efforts to determine if the reports were true. The Aug. 6, 2001, brief prepared for President George W. Bush mentioned 1998 intelligence concerning a plot by bin-Laden 'to hijack a U.S. aircraft to gain the release of 'Blind Sheik' Omar Abdel Rahman and other U.S.-held extremists.' The 2001 brief said intelligence officials 'have not been able to corroborate' the plot reports from 1998. The 1998 brief is titled: 'Bin Laden preparing to hijack U.S. aircraft and other attacks.' It was declassified, with some parts covered up, by the White House last Monday [July 2004] at the request of the Sept. 11 commission. The text of the 1998 brief was read to a reporter by an administration official. [....] A White House official said Saturday [07/17/04] that the Bush national security team was not apprised by the Clinton administration about the intelligence report on a suspected hijack plot to free Rahman." [Based on: article by Susan Schmidt, The Washington Post, 07/18/04] [Bold-faced type highlights added - E.M.] 

1998 - Launch / Mars Climate Orbiter - December 11th, 1998: "Mars Climate Orbiter launch." [Link: 1]

1998 - Articles of Impeachment? / U.S.A. - December 19th, 1998: "The U.S. House, Dec. 19, approved 2 articles of impeachment charging Pres. Clinton with grand jury perjury (228-206) and obstruction of justice (221-212) in a cover-up of his sexual relationship with Monica Lewinsky; 2 other impeachment articles failed." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 556]  

1998 - Aden-Abyan Kidnappings - December 28, 1998: "Following a call issued by Osama bin Laden, whose family had migrated to Saudi Arabia from Yemen, for attacks on US and British targets following the US-UK aerial strikes on Iraq, a till then little known Islamic organisation called the Aden-Abyan Islamic Army had supported his anti-U.S. threats and kidnapped 16 Western tourists, including two Americans. The group called for the establishment of an Islamic state in Yemen and 'an end to the aggression against Iraq and the withdrawal of the U.S. and British forces from the Gulf region.' "

1998 - FDA Approval / CELEBREX - December 31st, 1998: "Approved by the FDA on this date in history: CELEBREX (celecoxibl)." [Based on: Article, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p. A6, 12/23/04]

1998 - Civil War / Congo - "Congo plunged into civil war in 1998, a year after Mr. Kabila's father, Laurent Kabila, overthrew dictator Mobutu Sese Seko. [....] Neighboring countries, including Rwanda and Uganda, entered Congo's civil war. [....] The fighting is less about ideology than exploiting Congo's resources, both for personal gain and to purchase the illegal arms that have kept this conflict alive." [Based on: Article, St. Louis Post-Dispatch]

*Trivia: "The Mushangi area is nested high in eastern Congo's mountains, far from the capital, Kinshasa, on the border with Rwanda. The hills are barren, stripped of their lush vegetation both by erosion and by a seemingly never-ending conflict. While the rest of Congo prepares for the second round of presidential elections scheduled for Oct. 29 [2006], the people of Mushangi worry about one thing: survival. [NP] For the last 10 years, Mushangi has been at the cross roads of a conflict that has paralyzed Congo, one of the world's richest countries in natural resources. The hills of Mushangi are abundant with strategic minerals such as coltan, cassiterite and wolframite that are essential to cellphones and other electronics. But its people, like their countrymen, live in abject poverty and fear. [NP] The conflict started in 1998 and engaged soldiers from half a dozen countries. It has claimed more than 4 million lives already, and peace is far from assured. Even after the withdrawal of foreign armies from Congo and the formation of a power-sharing transitional government, the death toll continued rising because of the emergence and proliferation of armed Congolese militias. [NP] The flow of small arms has emboldened militias to challenge central government authority and carve spheres of influence in mineral-rich areas, such as Mushangi. The illegal exploitation and trade of natural resources generates large sums of revenue, which in turn allow militias to acquire greater firepower. Thus, the struggle for control of natural resources and mineral wealth is at the core of the conflict. [NP] Rwanda and Uganda, the two neighboring countries that would most benefit from peace in Congo, nevertheless fuel the conflict through their logistical support for the militias. It takes the form of arms transfers, financial assistance, military advice and training and safe harbor for those who flee the Congolese national government. [NP] The Congo conflict is occurring far from our American shores, and it rarely comes up on local evening news, but it touches nearly every American through our mobile phones, laptop computers and video games. Congo holds 80 percent of the world's reserves of coltan, a heat-resistant mineral ore that is all but essential to the operation of such devices. [NP] Coltan is a contraction of columbiumtantalite. Without it, wireless communication as we know it would not exist. Refined coltan yields tantalum, which is used primarily for the production of capacitors, electronic components that control the flow of current in miniature circuit boards. [NP] Although neither Uganda nor Rwanda has significant deposits of gold, diamonds or coltan, both countries somehow have managed to become important exporters of these minerals. A 2003 U.N. panel of experts on the illegal exploitation of natural resources accused both Rwanda and Uganda of prolonging Congo's civil war so that they could illegally siphon off Congo's mineral wealth - with the help of Western corporations. [NP] The United States should fully support the recommendations of the U.N. panel and help prosecute those individuals and corporations mentioned in the report. To date [2006], U.S. inaction on the matter has benefited only the perpetrators and, by extension, has helped fuel the conflict. The message to corrupt Congolese government officials: The United States will tolerate business as usual in the extraction of valuable minerals. [NP] In contrast, the United Kingdom has used diplomatic channels to promote the Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative, which advocates a transparent global bidding system that would benefit the Congolese people as well as interested corporations. Britain's actions have been well received among anti-corruption activists in Africa. [NP] Congo needs these resources to rebuild its economy. The people of Mushangi need peace to rebuild their lives." [Based on: Other Views page article (Millions have died for our cell phones) by Mvemba Phezo Dizolele, p. B9, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 10/05/06]

1998 - Trivia / Economic Status, Argentina - "Argentina went bankrupt in the spring of 2002, having a national debt of $132 billion. Two Jewish banks (Banco de Patricios and Banco de Mayo) collapsed in 1998 due to the owners' criminal activities. This was a final blow to the national economy." [Juri Lina, The Barnes Review, September/October 2004, p. 14]

1998 - Price-Fixing Conspiracy / Bayer Corp. - "Bayer Corp., the U.S. subsidiary of Bayer AG of Germany, will plead guilty and pay a $33 million criminal fine for its involvement in a conspiracy to fix chemical prices, the Justice Department said. Court papers filed Thursday [09/30/04] at U.S. District Court in San Francisco show that Bayer admitted conspiring from 1998 to 2002 with unnamed entities and individuals to suppress market competition by fixing the prices of polyester polyols, a chemical used to strengthen numerous consumer products, including grocery bags. Over the summer [2004], Bayer AG pleaded guilty and said it would pay a $66 million fine in a case involving a rubber chemical price-fixing conspiracy." [- From wire reports, 09/30/04]

1998 - Accounting Practice Change / Halliburton Co. - "Halliburton Co. will pay $7.5 million [2004?] to settle a Securities and Exchange Commission investigation that found the oil services conglomerate failed to disclose a change in it's accounting proceedures in 1998, when it was run by Vice President Dick Cheney. [....] The commission said Halliburton failed to disclose the new practice for six reporting periods." [A.P., 08/04/04]

1998 - Anthrax Vaccination Program / U.S. Military - "The United States began an anthrax vaccination program to immunize all military personal."

1998 - Trivia / Junked Computers, U.S.A. - "The National Safety Council (NSC) estimates that 315 million computers will be junked in 2004, up from 20 million in 1998. In 1998 (the last year this was monitored), only 11 percent of the PCs that were thrown out were recycled. Unfortunately, old PCs tossed into landfills contain dangerous chemicals and metals that can leak toxins into the environment - a good reason to recycle your machine when you buy a new one." [Based on: Leo Laporte's 2005 Technology Almanac, p. 3]

1998 - Gods of Eden - "A bestseller by Andrew Collins."

1998 - The Sirius Mystery - "One of the most influential books ever written about the mysteries of Egypt is Robert Temple's The Sirius Mystery, originally published in 1976, and with an extensively revised edition in 1998." [Based on: The Stargate Conspiracy, p. 26]

1998 - A Cosmic Sea of Words - "Copyright 1998: A Cosmic Sea of Words, The ECKANKAR Lexicon, by Harold Klemp."

*Trivia: "A Cosmic Sea of Words was compiled by Anthony Moore, and edited by Joan Klemp and Mary Carroll Moore. The first ECKANKAR Dictionary, called simply: ECKANKAR Dictionary, by Paul Twitchell, was copyrighted in 1973 [two years after his death, in 1971]. The spiritual leader [Living ECK Master] of ECKANKAR in 1973 was Darwin Gross." [E.M.]

1998 - "Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone" - 1998: "309 pages, 50,000 initial print run, 26 million in print." [Based on: article in S.L.P.D., p. A10, 07/13/05]

1998 - Notable Albums of 1998 - "Devil Without a Cause" (Kid Rock); "Wide Open Spaces" (Dixie Chicks); "Miseducation of Lauryn Hill" (Lauryn Hill)

1998 - Flood Trivia / 1998 - "Number of notable floods this year: at least 5. Number of flood deaths: 9,007." [E.M.]

1998 - Cyclone Trivia / 1998 - "Number of notable cyclones this year: at least 1. Number of cyclone deaths: 1,320." [E.M.]

1998 - Blizzard Trivia / 1998 - "Number of notable blizzards this year: at least 1. Number of blizzard deaths: 10." [E.M.]

1998 - Monsoon Trivia / 1998 - "Number of notable monsoons this year: at least 1. Number of deaths: 326." [E.M.]

1998 - Hurricane Trivia / 1998- "Number of notable hurricanes this year: at least 2. Number of hurricane deaths: 11,466+." [E.M.]

1998 - Earthquake Trivia / 1998 - "Number of notable earthquakes this year: at least 4. Number of earthquake deaths: 7,272." [E.M.]

1998 - "Natural Disaster" Deaths / 1998 - "Estimated number of people who died from natural disasters this year: at least 29,401." [E.M.]

1999

1999 - Astronomic Configuration - "January 1999: Pluto [9 Sagittarius], Neptune [1-2 Aquarius], Uranus [10-12 Aquarius], Saturn [26-27 Aries], Jupiter [21-27 Pisces]."

1999 - Launch / Mars Polar Lander - January 3rd, 1999: "Mars Polar Lander launch." [Link: 1]

1999 - Impeachment Trial / Pres. Clinton - January 7th, 1999: "Pres. Clinton's impeachment trial - the 2nd such trial in U.S. history - began in the GOP-controlled Senate Jan. 7. He was aquitted, Feb. 12. The perjury article failed, with 45 votes; the obstruction of justice article drew a 50-50 vote, with a two-thirds vote needed for conviction." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 556]  

1999 - Earthquake / Armenia, Columbia - "January 25th, 1999: Earthquake location: Armenia, Columbia. Earthquake magnitude: 6.0. Number of recorded fatalities: 1,185+."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 208]

1999 - Flooding / Botswana - "Flood date(s): February 6th-11th(?), 1999, Number of recorded deaths: 70+." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207 / possible typo, check date]

1999 - Acquittal / President Clinton - February 12th, 1999: "Pres. Clinton's impeachment trial - the 2nd such trial in U.S. history - began in the GOP-controlled Senate Jan. 7. He was aquitted, Feb. 12. The perjury article failed, with 45 votes; the obstruction of justice article drew a 50-50 vote, with a two-thirds vote needed for conviction." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 556] 

1999 - Terrorist Report - March 1999: "U.S. intelligence received reports of an al-Qaida member, an American citizen, who was planning to fly an explosives-laden hang glider into the Egyptian presidential palace." [S.L.P.D., 9/19/02]

1999 - U.S. Military Transformation? - March 3rd, 1999: "Andrew Krepinevich, Executive Director of the Center for Strategic and Budgetary assessments, before the Senate Armed Services Subcommittee on Emerging Threats and Capabilities: 'There appears to be general agreement concerning the need to transform the US military into a significantly different kind of force from that which emerged victorious from the Cold and Gulf Wars. Yet this verbal support has not been translated into a defense program supporting transformation ... the 'critical mass' needed to effect it has not yet been achieved. One may conclude that, in the absence of a strong external shock to the United States - a latter-day 'Pearl Harbor' of sorts - surmounting the barriers to transformation will likely prove a long, arduous process.' " [CSBA, 3/5/99]

1999 - Died / Sidney Gottlieb - March 10th, 1999:

Sidney Gottlieb (August 3, 1918 – March 7, 1999) was an American chemist probably best-known for his involvement with the Central Intelligence Agency mind control program (MKULTRA).

Sidney was born in the Bronx under the name Joseph Schneider. He received a Ph.D. in chemistry from the California Institute of Technology. Despite the fact that he was a stutterer since childhood, Sidney got a master's degree in speech therapy. He also had a club foot, but this did not stop him from practicing folk dancing, a lifelong passion.

In 1951, Sidney Gottlieb joined the Central Intelligence Agency. As a poison expert, he headed the chemical division of the Technical Services Staff (TSS). Sidney became known as the "Black Sorcerer" and the "Dirty Trickster". He supervised preparations of lethal poisons and experiments in mind control.

[....]

In 1972 while still the head of the Technical Services Staff, shortly before retirement, Sidney Gottlieb allegedly destroyed most of the CIA files pertaining to him.

Sidney Gottlieb's passing on March 10, 1999 came at a convenient time for the CIA, as several new trials involving victims of its experiments were commencing.

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sidney_Gottlieb]

1999 - NATO Expansion - March 12th, 1999: "NATO expands further eastward, taking in the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland." [Sources: NATO, The Associated Press, the World Book, the Encyclopedia Britannica]

1999 - NATO Air Attacks / Serbia - March 24th - June 10th, 1999: "NATO carries out large-scale air attacks against Serbia in reaction to Serbian oppression of the ethnic Albanians in Kosovo." [Sources: NATO, The Associated Press, the World Book, the Encyclopedia Britannica]

1999 - Depleted Uranium [Radioactive Waste] in the Balkans - "U.S. Air Force A-10 Thunderbolt II aircraft fired approximately 10,000 30mm DU rounds [3.3 tons of DU] at 12 sites in Bosnia-Herzegovina in 1994-1995. In 1999, they fired nearly 31,000 DU rounds [10.2 tons of DU] at 85 sites in Kosovo." [Link: 1]

1999 - Convicted / Dr. Jack Kevorkian - March 26th, 1999: "Dr. Jack Kevorkian, who claimed he had helped 130 people kill themselves, convicted of 2nd-degree murder Mar. 26 in one death; sentenced to 10-25 years in prison." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 557]  

1999 - School Shooting / Littleton, Colorado - April 20th, 1999: "Eric Harris, 18, and Dylan Klebold, 17, killed 12 fellow students and a teacher Apr. 20 at Columbine High School in Littleton, CO, then shot themselves fatally." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 557]  Link: http://judicial-inc.biz/columbine_killers.htm

*Trivia: "At 6:15 a.m., on Tuesday, April 20th, 1999, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold arrived at the local bowling alley for their early morning class. The class was Bowling, and they never missed it. Dylan wore a shirt with the label "Serial Killer" in the front, but the shirt had been seen before and nobody thought anything of it. Neither of them gave any indication of what they were planning to do that day. They acted as they would've acted on any regular day at school, except that after class ended, they left the bowling alley, and did not return to Columbine as they were supposed to until 11:10 a.m. [....]"

[Based on: http://judicial-inc.biz/Columbine_Thiebault.htm#Columbine%20timeline]

1999 - Movie Release / Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace - May 1999: "Released this date in history: Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace. Movie Gross: 926 million." [Based on: S.L.P.D., p. E1, 05/18/05]

1999 - Weapons of Mass Destruction? / Israel - "On May 14, 1999, the influential Jewish weekly, Forward, published an article expressing outrage that 'President Clinton is raising for the first time public concerns about Israel’s nuclear program.'
   "The article pointed out that some 35 members of the U.S. Congress had written a letter to Clinton expressing concerns about imprisoned Israeli nuclear engineer Mordechai Vanunu, who was the first to publicly expose Israel’s nuclear bomb production program.
   "Responding in a letter dated April 22, 1999 to then-Rep. Lynn Rivers (D-Mich.), President Clinton did more than just express his own concerns about Vanunu’s plight. Clinton also said: 'I . . . share your concerns about the Israeli nuclear program. We have repeatedly urged Israel and other non-parties to the Non-Proliferation Treaty to adhere to the treaty and accept comprehensive International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards.'
   "Forward reported that 'Jewish leaders reacted with shock at news that Mr. Clinton had weighed in on Mr. Vanunu and Israel’s nuclear program,' and cited the reaction of Anti-Defamation League director Abe Foxman, who attacked Clinton, saying: 'I can’t believe the president would send such a letter. These are very sensitive issues. It is so judgmental.'
   "Foxman’s disgust with Clinton was not unique. Malcolm Hoenlein, executive vice president of the Conference of Presidents of Major American Jewish Organizations, declared: 'The president’s reference to Israel’s nuclear program is surprising and disturbing. As far as we know it’s unprecedented.' " [Michael Collins Piper, A.F.P., March 2004]

1999 - FDA Approval / VIOXX - May 29th, 1999: "Approved by the FDA on this date in history: VIOXX (rofecoxibl)." [Based on: St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p. A6, 12/23/04]

1999 - Trivia / Mike Scheuer, CIA - "Scheuer's CIA assignments included running the bin Laden unit from January 1996 to June 1999." [News Services, 11/12/04]

1999 - Terrorism Report / Yemen - June 1st, 1999: " 'The Times' of London reported on June 1,1999, that the American military chiefs feared that the terrorist violence in Yemen might jeopardise their secret deal with the Yemeni authorities to establish an important naval base at Aden. It said that the Pentagon planned to use the former British colony to bunker 600,000 barrels of marine diesel and aviation fuel which would be used to service its naval operations in the Gulf against President Saddam Hussein of Iraq and that the first US warship docked in Aden under the deal in May, 1999. The paper quoted a senior US official as saying: 'This eruption of Islamic terrorism in Yemen could not have come at a worse time, when we are considering hundreds of American military personnel walking around Aden on shore leave.' "

1999 - End / Kosovo Conflict - June 10th, 1999: "The Kosovo Conflict ends."

1999 - Fatality / John F. Kennedy Jr. - July 16th, 1999: "John F. Kennedy Jr., son of the former president, died in a plane crash July 16 along with his wife, Carolyn Bessette Kennedy, and his sister-in-law, Lauren Bessette." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 557]  

1999 - Flooding / S Korea, Philippines, Vietnam, Thailand - "Flood date(s): August 1st-4th, 1999, Number of recorded deaths: 188." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207]

1999 - Earthquake / Western Turkey - "August 17th, 1999: Earthquake location: Western Turkey. Earthquake magnitude: 7.4. Number of recorded fatalities: 17,200+."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 208]

1999 - Flooding / NE Mexico - "Flood date(s): September-October, 1999, Number of recorded deaths: 350+." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207]

1999 - Hurricane Floyd / Baha., E Seaboard, U.S.A.  - "Hurricane date(s): September 4th-17th, 1999. Number of recorded deaths: 69+." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 206]

1999 - Earthquake / Athens, Greece - "September 7th, 1999: Earthquake location: Athens, Greece. Earthquake magnitude: 5.9. Number of recorded fatalities: 143."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 208]

1999 - Earthquake / Taichung, Taiwan - "September 21st, 1999: Earthquake location: Taichung, Taiwan. Earthquake magnitude: 7.6. Number of recorded fatalities: 2,474."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 208]

1999 - Fatality? / Mars Climate Orbiter - September 23rd, 1998: "Mars Climate Orbiter believed lost." [Link: 1]

1999 - Flooding / Central Vietnam - "Flood date(s): October-December, 1999, Number of recorded deaths: 700+." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207]

1999 - Science Lecture / Daniel Sewell Ward, Ph.D. - October 1999: "Eminent modern scientists have not only confirmed the existence of parallel dimensions, teleportation, and the like, but have also expressed their particular concern that the public are kept in the dark about such matters. To demonstrate the dilema that faces us in this regard, the following extracts are given from a lecture presentation by nuclear physicist Daniel Sewell Ward, Ph.D. to the International Association of New Science Forum in Fort Collins, Colorado, October 1999:

A plethora of evidence suggests that a profoundly important and basic science capable of explaining a vast array of otherwise anomalous observations exists ... Of particular importance are the subjects of sacred science (including mathematics, physics, and health/longevity) and the degrees to which such subjects have been withheld from seekers and investigators.

A widely acknowledged truism is that 'knowledge is power.' Significantly, secret knowledge or teachings held by a limited elite constitute the potential for even greater power. It is apparently for this reason that the world history of the last several thousand years has had embedded in its scope the underlying theme of the struggle for control and power based on esoteric knowledge, understanding and wisdom.

From the mystery schools of ancient Egypt and Greece, to the Jerusalem treasures uncovered by the Knights Templars ... to the modern day guarded secrets of the Trilateral Commission and various other secretive organizations, the greatest heritage of the human race has been carefully and studiously withheld from the mainstream of society. Understandings and techniques which afforded the potential for enormous enlightenment and evolution of the individual have been historically held for the exclusive use of those in power ... The fact that there have been many forces (particularly religions) which have made every effort to attack truth as a means of preserving their own view of the universe is perhaps the primary case in point. Curiously, the quest for the outright destruction (as in the case of the burning of the Library of Alexandria) or the placing of severe limitations on the dissemination of knowledge is also based on control and power issues. Within the confines of this world-class power struggle, much esoteric wisdom and knowledge has been kept from public view both as a means of protecting the underlying truths as well as using them (or eliminating them) in order to profit thereby.

Suddenly (in historical terms) Pandora's box has been overturned and individuals outside the elite groups ... have begun to glimpse, study, and understand the heretofore secrets of esoteric knowledge. And with the dissemination of such understanding into the mainstream, the control of one human over another is being lessened ... For the individual seeker of truth and enlightenment, suddenly the history of conspiracy to deny the existence of such wisdom becomes less important than the understandings of how one applies these fundamental teachings.

[....] Truth has a way of inevitably rising to the surface [....]

In the final analysis, there do appear to be many questions begging for answers, and that eager and enthusiastic attempts will be rewarded ... In this view, it's no longer a question of whether or not someone is worthy of knowing the secrets, but rather an encouragement to go out and discover the wonders of the universe for one's self. In effect, there's still room at the top of the learning curve for anyone interested in pursuing the matter.

                                                [Based on: Laurence Gardner, Lost Secrets of the Sacred Ark, pp. 179-183]"

1999 - Trivia / State Farm Insurance Co. - October 1999: "A court in Marion, Ill., imposes a record $1.2 billion judgement against State Farm for ordering collision damage to be repaired with generic parts that consumer groups say may be unsafe. An appeal is still [2005] before the state Supreme Court." [Based on: St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p. A4, 01/24/05]

1999 - Unratified / Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, U.S.A. - October 13th, 1999: "The U.S. Senate fails to ratify the Comprehensive Test ban Treaty." [Based on: N.G.M., August 2005, p. 113]

1999 - Cyclones / E India - "Cyclone date(s): October 29th, 1999. Number of recorded deaths: 9,392." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 206]

1999 - Bloodless Coup / Pakistan - "[....] Musharraf [Pervez Musharraf] has become a key ally of the United States in the fight against terrorism since he seized power in a bloodless coup in October 1999." [Based on: News Services, 03/26/05]

1999 - Fatality / EgyptAir Flight, Atlantic Ocean - October 31st, 1999: "[....] On Oct. 31, 1999, the pilot of an EgyptAir flight from New York to Cairo apparently directed the plane into the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Nantucket, a crash that killed 217 people. [....]" [Based on: A.P. article, p. A7, S.L.P.D., 08/18/05]

1999 - Revelation / Nations Biggest Environmental Disaster?, U.S.A. - November 9th, 1999: "[....] W.R. Grace & Co. and seven of its current or former top officials have been indicted [February 2005] on charges that they knowingly put their workers and the public in danger through exposure to vermiculite ore contaminated with asbestos from the company's mine in Libby, Mont. They are also accused of conspiring to hide the danger from the public and the government. Hundreds of miners, their family members and townsfolk have died and thousands have been sickened from exposure to ore containg asbestos, not only in the tiny Montana town but also elsewhere in the country. The health effects also threaten workers, their families and residents where the ore was shipped, including plants in St. Louis, and people living in millions of homes where it was used as insulation. 'A human and environmental tradgedy occurred in Libby,' said Montana U.S. Attorney William Mercer, in announcing the charges Monday [02/07/05]. They include criminal conspiracy, conspiracy to defraud the government, wire fraud, obstruction of justice and knowing endangerment. Grace said it hadn't seen the indictment but categorically denies any criminal wrongdoing.' [....] Federal environmental officials began examining the hazards in Libby after Nov. 19, 1999, when the Seattle Post-Intelligencer began publishing a series of stories about what the government has called 'the nation's biggest environmental disaster.' [....]" [Based on article by Andrew Schneider, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 02/08/05]

1999 - Earthquake / Duzce, Turkey - "November 12th, 1999: Earthquake location: Duzce, Turkey. Earthquake magnitude: 7.2. Number of recorded fatalities: 675."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 208]

1999 - Trivia / Eschelon Program - November 14th, 1999:

On the Yorkshire moors in northern England, dozens of enormous white globes sit like a moon base, each one hiding a dish-shaped antenna aimed at a satellite. Acres of buildings house advanced computers and receiving equipment, while tall fences and roving guards keep the curious at a distance. Known as Menwith Hill station, it is one of the most secret pieces of real estate on Earth. It is also becoming one of the most controversial.

For decades, Menwith Hill has been the key link in a worldwide eavesdropping network operated by America's super-secret National Security Agency (NSA), the agency responsible, among other things, for electronic surveillance and code breaking. It is the NSA's largest listening post anywhere in the world. During the Cold War, the station played a major role in the West's ability to monitor the diplomatic, military and commercial communication behind the Iron Curtain. But rather than shrinking in the decade since the fall of the Berlin Wall, Menwith Hill has grown.

[....]

Headquartered at Fort Meade, halfway between Washington and Baltimore, the NSA is by far America's largest spy agency. It has about 38,000 military and civilian employees around the world; the CIA, roughly 17,000. The agency's mandate is to monitor communications and break codes overseas; it also has a limited domestic role, with targets such as foreign embassies. It can monitor American citizens suspected of espionage with a warrant from a special court. It is potentially the most intrusive spy agency. Where scores of books have been written about the CIA, the only book exclusively on the NSA is the one I wrote in 1982.

Echelon, which links the NSA to its counterparts in the U.K., Canada, Australia and New Zealand, amounts to a global listening network. With it, those agencies are able to sift through great quantities of communications intercepted by satellites and ground stations around the world, using computers that search for specific names, words or phrases.

Whether the NSA will go too far with Echelon is not an idle question. In the mid-1970s, the Senate and House Select Committees on Intelligence were created in part as a result of NSA violations. For decades, the NSA had secretly and illegally gained access to millions of private telegrams and telephone calls in the United States. The agency acted as though the laws that applied to the rest of government did not apply to it.

Based on the findings of a commission appointed by President Ford, the Justice Department launched an unusually secret criminal investigation of the agency, known only to a handful of people. Senior NSA officials were read Miranda warnings and interrogated. It was the first time the Justice Department had ever treated an entire federal agency as a suspect in a criminal investigation. Eventually, despite finding numerous grounds on which to go forward with prosecution, Justice attorneys recommended against it. "There is the specter," said their report, which the government still considers classified, "in the event of prosecution, that there is likely to be much 'buck-passing' from subordinate to superior, agency to agency, agency to board or committee, board or committee to the President, and from the living to the dead."

As a result of the investigations, Congress in 1978 passed the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA), which stated in black and white what the NSA could and could not do. To overcome the NSA's insistence that its activities were too secret to be discussed before judges, Congress created a special federal court, the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court, to hear requests for warrants for national security eavesdropping. In case the court ever turned down an NSA request, the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Appeals Court was created. It has never heard a case.

In the more than two decades since the FISA was passed, the law has remained largely static, while cell phones, e-mail, faxes and the Internet have come to dominate how we communicate. The point hasn't been lost on the NSA. Last month, Air Force Lt. Gen. Michael Hayden, director of the NSA, gave a speech inside the agency. I was one of the few outsiders invited to attend. Hayden warned of the "new challenges" in "information technology" that the agency now faces. "The scale of change is alarmingly rapid," he said, noting that "the world now contains 40 million cell phones, 14 million fax machines, 180 million computers, and the Internet doubles every 90 days."

[....]

James Bamford, author of "The Puzzle Palace: A Report on America's Most Secret Agency" (Viking Penguin), is working on a new book about the NSA.

© Copyright 1999 The Washington Post Company

[Based on: Article (Loud and Clear / The most secret of secret agencies operates under outdated laws), By James Bamford, Sunday, November 14, 1999; Page B01] - [see link]

http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/WPcap/1999-11/14/019r-111499-idx.html

*Related Links:
http://propagandamatrix.com/articles/september2006/060906spyon.htm

1999 - Flooding / Venezuela - "Flood date(s): December 1999, Number of recorded deaths: 9,000+." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207]

1999 - Fatality? / Mars Polar Lander - December 3rd, 1999: "Mars Polar Lander [& Deep Space 2] believed lost." [Link: 1]

1999 - Gales / France, Switzerland, Germany - "Gale date(s): December 26th, 1999, Number of recorded deaths: 120." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 206]

1999 - CHCPA - "The Proprietary Association of America was formed in 1881 as the Association of Manufacturers and Dealers in Proprietary Articles. The Proprietary Association subsequently changed its name to the Nonprescription Drug Manufacturers Association in 1990, and then in 1999 to the Consumer Health Care Products Association in 1999." [Link: 1]

1999 - Russian Invasion / Chechnya - "Russian troops reinvaded Chechnya after raids by Chechen rebels into a neighboring region and bombings in Russian cities. Russian leaders blamed bombings on Chechnya." [Based on A.P., 09/02/01]

1999 - Release / Maulana Masood Azhar - "Before his arrest in 1994, Maulana Masood Azhar belonged to the HUM. After his release in 1999, he has formed an organization of his own called Jaish-e-Mohammed, which has since then been having a number of violent clashes with the HUM in Pakistani territory. The reasons for the clash are not known since both belonged to bin Laden's International Islamic Front For Jehad Against the US and Israel."

1999 - Plot to Attack U.S. Millennium Celebrations? - "President Bill Clinton's national security advisor, Sandy Berger, is the focus of a criminal investigation [July 2004] after removing highly classified terrorism documents and handwritten notes from a secure reading room during preparations for the Sept. 11 commission hearings, The Associated Press has learned. [....] 'In the course of reviewing over several days thousands of pages of documents on behalf of the Clinton administration in connection with requests by the Sept. 11 commission, I inadvertently took a few documents from the Archives,' Berger said. 'When I was informed by the Archives that there were documents missing, I immediately returned everything I had except for a few documents that I apparently had accidently discarded,' he said." [Based on: A.P., 07/20/04]

*Trivia: "The documents involved have been a key point of contention between the Clinton and Bush administrations on the question of who responded more forcefully to the threat of al-Qaida terrorism. Written by former National Security Advisor aide Richard Clarke, they discuss the 1999 plot to attack U.S. millennium celebrations and offer more than two dozen recommendations for improving the response to Osama bin Laden's al-Qaida network." [A.P., 07/22/04]

1999 - Record Close / D.J.I.A. - "The Dow Jones Industrial Average closed the year at a record level of 11,497.12 - 25.2 percent above the 1998 close." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 557]  

1999 - Oil Consumption / Worldwide - "Oil consumption grew 14 percent during the 1990s, and this burned fuel accounts for some 40 percent of the 24 billion tons of carbon dioxide added to the atmosphere annually." [Source: National Geographic Magazine, Sept. 2002]

1999 - Cost of Mailing a Letter? / U.S.A. - "Cost of stamp for mailing a letter in U.S.A.: 33 cents." [Based on: S.L.P.D. article (Cost of mailing a letter will jump to 39 cents next week [January 2006]), p. C1, S.L.P.D., 01/03/06]

1999 - 1990s / Hottest Decade On Record - "Rising sea levels, disappearing glaciers in the Alps and more deadly heat waves are coming for Europeans because of global warming, Europe's environmental agency warned Wednesday [08/18/04]. The European Environment Agency said much more needs to be done - and fast. Climate change 'will considerably affect our societies and environments for decades and centuries to come,' its 107-page report says. [....] It said the decade of the 1990s was the warmest decade on record, and the three hottest years recorded - 1998, 2002 and 2003 - occured in the last six years, with the average global temperature now rising at almost 0.36 degrees per decade." [By Jan M. Olsen, A.P., 08/19/04]

1999 -  "Grandfathered" Facilities / Texas - "When the Texas Clean Air Act of 1971 became law, more than 1,000 industrial facilities were 'grandfathered,' or exempted from the new pollution regulations. The idea was that these grandfathered plants would either modernize or become obsolete and close down. [....] Fully one-third of the state's air pollution - 903,800 tons a year by the end of the 1990's - was issuing from these grandfathered smokestacks. These plants emit as much nitrogen oxide as 18 million cars." [Robert F. Kennedy Jr., Crimes Against Nature, pp. 15-16]

1999 - Status / Nuclear Weapons, World-Wide - "In the decade since the Berlin Wall was torn down, newspaper readers and television viewers were given little indication that some 31,000 nuclear weapons remained in the world, or that 6,000 of them were targeted at the United States. A whole generation came of age lacking even rudimentary information regarding nuclear arms and nuclear peril. On the tenth anniversary of the end of the wall, few commentators taking stock of the decade bothered to mention the persistence of nuclear danger." [Based on: Harper’s Magazine, January 2000, pages 41-56] [Link: 1]

*Trivia: - "By the century’s end, the web of arms-control agreements that had been painstakingly woven during the last half century of the Cold War was tearing apart. The United States Senate voted down the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty—an act that cut away the foundation of several decades of effort by the United States to halt the spread of nuclear weapons. The Senate also persuaded the Clinton Administration to develop a national missile defense, which would violate the Antiballistic Missile Treaty of 1972, thereby threatening to turn Russia’s stalling on the START negotiations into outright opposition. The combined resolve of the five senior nuclear powers [the United States, Russia, England, France, and China] to keep their arsenals and of other countries to obtain them likewise threatened the breakdown of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, under which 180 countries have agreed to forgo nuclear weapons in exchange for promises by the nuclear powers to abolish theirs." [Based on: Harper’s Magazine, January 2000, pages 41-56] [Link: 1]

1999 - Status / Environmental Quality, Texas - "According to the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, fully one-quarter of Texas's streams and rivers are so polluted that they do not meet standards set for recreational use. Half of the state's 20 million people reside in areas where the smog pollution surpasses federal limits. In 1999, Houston overtook Los Angeles as America's smoggiest city. Texas also ranked first in toxic releases to the environment, first in toxic air emissions from industrial facilities, first in toxic chemical incidents, and first in cancer-causing pollution. Also in 1999, 15 of the nation's 30 highest smog readings were all taken in Texas. Every major urban area - Houston, Dallas, San Antonio, Austin, El Paso, and Longview - either failed to meet  the EPA's minium air quality standards, or was on the verge of failing." [Robert F. Kennedy Jr., Crimes Against Nature, p. 12]

1999 - Voluntary Emissions Reduction Permit Program - "Between 1993 and 1998 Alcoa, Exxon, Shell, Amoco, Enron, Dow Chemical, and others poured $1.5 million into the Bush campaign coffers.
   "After privately conferring with these corporate backers, Bush pushed through two landmark laws, the 1995 Texas Audit Privilege and Immunity Law, and the 1999 Voluntary Emissions Reduction Permit Program. Rather like the fox guarding the henhouse, the laws allow companies to monitor their own pollution, report their violations to the government, and promise to clean up. There would be no fines, no public disclosure, no government follow-up. Imagine a world where criminals could stay out of jail simply by confessing their crime to a state agency and promising to do better in the future. That's the law Bush came up with to cope with some of the most polluted air on earth." [Robert F. Kennedy Jr., Crimes Against Nature, p. 17]

1999 - Critical Report / Trans Fat, U.S.A. - "[....] An artificial fat once embraced as a cheap and seemingly healthy alternative to saturated fats like butter or tropical oils, partially hydrogenbated oil has been the food industry's favorite cooking medium for decades. It makes french fries crisp and sweets creamy, and keeps packaged pastries fresh for months. But scientists contend that trans fat, a component of the oil, is more dangerous than the fat it replaced. Studies show trans fat has the same heart-clogging properties as saturated fat, but unklike saturated fat, it reduces the good cholesterol that can clear arteries. [....] At least 30,000 and as many as 100,000 cardiac deaths a year in the United States could be prevented if people replaced trans fat with healthier nonhydrogenated polyunsaturated or monounsaturated oils, according to a 1999 joint report by researchers at the Harvard School of Public Health and the Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston. The $500 billion food processing industry has long defended trans fat, starting in the 1970s when scientists first raised concerns. But with the new labeling requirement looming and lawmakers searching for ways to hold food companies responsible for their customer' health, getting rid of it has become an obsession. [....]" [Based on: New York Times, 02/13/05]

1999 - The Stargate Conspiracy - "Copyright 1999: The Stargate Conspiracy, Lynn Picknett & Clive Prince."

1999 - Genesis Of the Grail Kings - "First published in Great Britain in 1999: Genesis Of the Grail Kings, by Laurence Gardner. First published in the United States in 2000."

1999 - "Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets" - 1999: "341 pages, 250,000 first printing, 24 million in print." [Based on: article in S.L.P.D., p. A10, 07/13/05]

1999 - "Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban" - 1999: "435 pages, 500,000 first printing, 19 million in print." [Based on: article in S.L.P.D., p. A10, 07/13/05]

1999 - Notable Albums of 1999 - "Human Clay" (Creed); "Breathe" (Faith Hill); "Californication" (Red Hot Chilli Peppers); "Supernatural" (Santana)

1999 - Flood Trivia / 1999 - "Number of notable floods this year: at least 5. Number of flood deaths: 10,308." [E.M.]

1999 - Cyclone Trivia / 1999 - "Number of notable cyclones this year: at least 1. Number of cyclone deaths: 9,392." [E.M.]

1999 - Hurricane Trivia / 1999 - "Number of notable hurricanes this year: at least 1. Number of hurricane deaths: 69." [E.M.]

1999 - Earthquake Trivia / 1999 - "Number of notable earthquakes this year: at least 6. Number of earthquake deaths: 21,677." [E.M.]

1999 - "Natural Disaster" Deaths / 1999 - "Estimated number of people who died from natural disasters this year: at least 41,466." [E.M.]

1990s - "Natural Disaster" Deaths / 1990-2000 - "Estimated number of people who died from natural disasters this decade[1990-2000]: at least 301,860." [E.M.]

2000-2001 A.D.

Page last updated 07/09/15