Historical Timeline

Calendar Months

   

19th Century A.D.

In some places multiple entries occur for a particular year, but not necessarily in chronological order [by month]. - E.M.

1800 - Map of Europe - "Map of Europe, 1800 A.D."

1800 - Late-Modern English Period -  "The time period for Late-Modern English generally ranges from 1800 to the Present."

1800 - Jacquard Loom - "Frenchmen, J.M. Jacquard invents the Jacquard Loom."

1800 - Infrared Waves - "Infrared waves discovered by William Herschel." [Based on: Ultimate Visual Dictionary of Science, Timeline of Discoveries, p. 15, Barnes & Noble Books - 2005]

1800s - Second Great Awakening / U.S.A. - "The Second Great Awakening was a religious revival movement during the early 19th century in the United States, which expressed Arminian theology by which every person could be saved through revivals. It enrolled millions of new members, and led to the formation of new denominations. Many converts believed that the Awakening heralded a new millennial age. The Second Great Awakening stimulated the establishment of many reform movements designed to remedy the evils of society before the Second Coming of Jesus Christ.[1] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Great_Awakening]

1801 - U.S. President Thomas Jefferson - March 4th, 1801: "The 3rd American President, Thomas Jefferson [Republican], begins his term."

1801 - Russian Czar Alexander I - "On March 11th, 1801, Czar Paul was strangled for refusing to sign a document of abdication. He was succeeded by his son who became Czar Alexander I [1801-1825]. Alexander quickly returned Russia to its place before his father was Czar. He was the first Czar to understand that his power rested solely on his support in the military. Alex I introduced modest changes during his reign. The most impressive was his appointment of cabinet offices. At first there were eight: war, navy, foreign affairs, justice, interior, finance, commerce, and education. Alex I appointed one man to head each of these cabinets, answerable to him. He also enacted a new school system and built more universities. The basic form of Russian government and later Soviet government were designed by Alex I. Alex did much for domestic Russia, but he ignored the world around him."

1802 - Birth / Phineas P. Quimby - February 16th, 1802: "[....] Phineas Parkhurst Quimby [d. Jan 16th, 1866], who was known as 'Park,' was born on February 16, 1802, in Lebanon, New Hampshire. He was apprenticed as a clockmaker and had little traditional education. Several important elements of his life led to the development of his ideas of mental healing. [....]" [Based on: http://phineasquimby.wwwhubs.com/]

1802 - Status / Native American Peoples - "Congress appropriates funds to civilize and educate Indian people."

1802 - Prohibition / Native American Peoples - "Federal law prohibits the sale of liquor to Indian people."

1802 - U.S. Separation of Church and State - "Thomas Jefferson wrote a letter to the Danbury Baptist Association in 1802 to answer a letter from them, asking why he would not proclaim national days of fasting and thanksiving, as had been done by Washington and Adams before him. The letter contains the phrase 'wall of separation between church and state,' which lead to the short-hand for the Establishment Clause that we use today: 'Separation of church and state.' " [Link: 1]

1803 - Ohio - March 1st, 1803: "The 17th American state."

1803 - Louisiana Purchase - "April 30th, 1803: "Robert Livingston and James Monroe conclude a treaty in Paris in which the United States purchases the 827,000-square-mile Louisiana territory from France for $15 million. The  Louisiana Purchase extended America from the Mississippi to the crest of the Rockies and prepared it for further expansion to the Pacific." [Link: 1]

1803 - War / Britian & France - May 18th, 1803: "Great Britain declares war on France."

1803 - Union / Britain & Ireland -  "Act of Union unites Britain and Ireland."

1803 - Atomic Theory of Matter - "Atomic theory of matter proposed by John Dalton." [Based on: Ultimate Visual Dictionary of Science, Timeline of Discoveries, p. 15, Barnes & Noble Books - 2005]

1803 - Birth / Ralph Waldo Emerson - May 25th, 1803: "American essayist and philosopher Ralph Waldo Emerson is born."

1803 - Announcement / Louisana Purchase - July 4th, 1803: "The United States' purchase of the 820,000-square mile Louisiana territory from France for $15 million is announced."

1803 - Passed / 12th U.S. Amendment - December 9th, 1803: "12th U.S. Constitutional Amendment ['Choosing the President, Vice President'] passed." [Link: 1]

1803 - Finalized / Louisiana Purchase - December 20th, 1803: "Louisiana Purchase finalized, 1803." [Based on: The Old Farmer's Almanac (2006) by Robert B. Thomas, p. 99]

1803 - Transfer / Louisiana Territory - December 30th, 1803: "Louisiana is officially transferred to the United States from France. The United States takes formal possession December 30th at a ceremony in New Orleans."

*Trivia: "The Louisiana Territory Act [1804] affirms the intent of the United States to move eastern Indians west of the Mississippi."

1804 - Independence / Haiti  - January 1st, 1804: "Haiti gains its independence from France, becoming the world's first black republic."

1804 - Status / Russian Jews - "In Russia, Jews were constantly persecuted and were only allowed to live in Poland, Lithuania, Belarus, Latvia and the Ukraine."

1804 - Emancipation / New Jersey - February 15th, 1804: "New Jersey abolishes slavery, the last northern state to do so."

1804 - Lewis & Clark Expedition - May 14th, 1804: "Lewis & Clark begin to explore the American Northwest." [Link: 1]

1804 - Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte - May 18th, 1804: "Napoleon Bonaparte is declared emperor by the French Senate."

1804 - Ratification / 12th U.S. Amendment - June 15th, 1804: "12th U.S. Constitutional Amendment ['Choosing the President, Vice President'] ratified." [Link: 1]

1804 - Birth / Nathaniel Hawthorne - July 4th, 1804: "American author Nathaniel Hawthorne is born."

1804 - Duel / Aaron Burr & Alexander Hamilton - July 11th, 1804: "Vice President Aaron Burr shoots Alexander Hamilton in a pistol duel at Weehawken, N.J. Hamilton dies the next day."

1804 - Emperor of France / Napoleon Bonaparte - December 2nd, 1804: "The Pope crowns Napoleon emperor of France."

1804 - War / Spain & England - December 12th, 1804: "Spain declares war on England."

1805 - Organized / Michigan Territory - January 11th, 1805: "The Michigan Territory is organized."

1805 - Total Lunar Eclipse - "January 15th"

1805 - Birth / Hans Christian Andersen - April 2nd, 1805: "Danish author Hans Christian Andersen is born."

1805 - Premier / Beethoven's 3rd Symphony - April 7th, 1805: "Beethoven's 3rd Symphony ['Eroica'] premieres."

1805 - Status / Virginia Slaves - May 1st, 1805: "Virginia passes a law requiring all freed slaves to leave the state."

1805 - Anti-French Alliance - August 9th, 1805: "Austria joins Britain, Russia, and Sweden in an alliance against France."

1805 - Birth / Joseph Smith - December 23rd, 1805: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Mormon founder, Joseph Smith."

1806 - Native American Delegation / Washington - January 4th, 1806: "In Washington, Jefferson welcomes a delegation of Missouri, Oto, Arikara, and Yankton Sioux chiefs who had met Lewis and Clark more than a year earlier."

1806 - Fatality / Holy Roman Empire - August 6th, 1806: "The Holy Roman Empire ceases to exist as Emperor Francis I abdicates."

1807 - Slavery Abolished / Britain - March 25th, 1807: "[....] Britain abolished slavery on March 25, 1807." [....]" [Based on: News Services article (Church of England apologizes [2006-2007] over slavery), p. A10, S.L.P.D., 02/09/06]

1809 - "New Age" - 1809: The term New Age was used as early as 1809 by William Blake who described a belief in a spiritual and artistic "New Age" in his preface to Milton: a Poem. [....]

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Age]

1809 - U.S. President James Madison - March 4th, 1809: "The 4th American President, James Madison [Republican], begins his term."

1810 - Poverty Level Wages - "According to the Swedish historian Herman Lindqvist, the Freemasons decided in the 1810s that wages should be fixed at the poverty level. Such an attitude shows an enormous contempt for ordinary people. Between the years 1860 and 1910 almost a million Swedes left for America in connection with several years of famine, poverty and difficulties in providing for themselves." [Based on: article by Juri Lina, The Barnes Review, September/October 2004, p. 13]

1810 - English Country Banking - "By 1810 the total number of licensed and unlicensed banks is probably over 800. In most cases their founders have strong ties with particular industries or trades and the banks meet the need of small workshops, mines etc. for working capital. Without these banks the Industrial Revolution would have been strangled in its infancy."

1810 - Anti-Title Amendment / United States - May 1st, 1810: "Unratified anti-title amendment."

1810 - Independence / Mexico - September 16th, 1810: "Mexican independence declared."

1810 - Tin Can - "Peter Durand invents the tin can."

1810 - Improved Printing Press - "German, Frederick Koenig invents an improved printing press."

1811 - Earthquake / U.S.A. - December 16th, 1811: "Earthquake location: New Madrid, Missouri. Earthquake magnitude: 8.1. Number of recorded fatalities: 0."  

1812 - Earthquake / U.S.A. - January 23rd, 1812: "Earthquake location: New Madrid, Missouri. Earthquake magnitude: 7.8. Number of recorded fatalities: 0."  

*Trivia: "[....] Susan Hough, a U.S. Geological Survey scientist in Pasadena, Calif., and five other researchers suggest in the publication 'Seismological Research Letters,' that the Jan. 23, 1812, earthquake may have occurred in White County, Ill. The site is along the Wabash Valley Fault, 130 miles from the New Madrid Seismic Zone. [....] A series of four earthquakes in 1811 and 1812 were among the most violent earthquakes to ever hit the United States." [Based on: A.P. article (Scientists rethink New Madrid Fault), p. A11, 06/09/10]

1812 - Earthquake / U.S.A. - February 7th, 1812: "Earthquake location: New Madrid, Missouri. Earthquake magnitude: 8. Number of recorded fatalities: 0."  

1812 - Louisiana - April 30th, 1812: "The 18th American state."

1812 - War of 1812 - June 18th, 1812: "Both Britain and France were interfering with American trade and were taking American ships. The United States believed that Britain was still not treating it as an independent country, and was actually providing Native Americans with guns to attack American settlers. The United States also wanted to take Canada from Britain, and Florida from Spain. These ongoing disputes led to the War of 1812."

1812 - Napoleonic Wars - "Napolean invades Russia. Because of the cold and snow, Napolean could not maintain his supply lines and was forced to retreat back to France in 1813. Napolean lost over a million men. Napolean, finally defeated, was forced to make peace with what would become known as the Quadruple Alliance: Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Britain."

1814 - Steam Locomotive - "George Stephenson designed the first steam locomotive."

1814 - End / War of 1812 - December 24th, 1814: "The War of 1812 ends [Treaty of Ghent]. The British agreed to recognize the United States country boundaries. In addition, the United States had established itself as a powerful military force."

1815 - Volcanic Eruption / Mt. Tambora, Sumbawa, Indonesia - "Volcanic eruption date(s): April 10th-12th, 1815. Number of recorded deaths: 92,000." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 491]

*Trivia: Reportedly, ash from this eruption may have caused the colder temperatures and famine 1916-1917 that killed an estimated 71,000 people. - E.M.

*Links: http://www.thestate.com/2011/09/19/1977245/farmers-flee-as-worlds-deadliest.html#RSS=untracked

1815 - Battle of Waterloo - June 18th, 1815: "Battle of Waterloo ends the napoleonic Wars."

1815 - Holy Alliance - "A pact forming the Holly Alliance was signed in September 1815 by the Russian Czar Alexander, the Emperor Francis von Habsburg, and the king of Prussia."

1815 - Status / English National Debt - "In 1815 it [English National Debt] was 885 million pounds and in 1945 it had grown to 22.5 billion pounds. By 1995 the national debt had risen to more than 300 billion pounds, equal to 45 percent of GNP."
  "Not even the Macmillan Committee, which was appointed in 1929, managed to find out who governed the Bank of England. Only one name has leaked out—that of Rothschild. All great wars have been started and financed by the economic conglomerate emanating from one single banking family—the Rothschilds.
   "In the Netherlands, secret societies had been able to found a central bank as early as 1609. About 40 of the world's most important central banks were established in a similar way as that of the Bank of England. In that way the Masonic bankers ruled the long-term development in the world with loan interest as a method, the central banks as middlemen, the politicians as dummies and the people as ignorant wage slaves. The Freemason-controlled banks thus can govern political life by acting without being seen. The English people strengthened the power of these invisible Freemasons through paying taxes during three centuries. Central banks were supposed to keep the economy stable." [By Juri Lina, The Barnes Review, September/October 2004, p. 9]

1815 - Anti-Semitism / Germany - "In 1815, Jews lost their rights in Germany, leading to the rise of anti-Semitism that lasts to this day."

1816 - Conjunction / Uranus-Neptune - "[1816-1821] Uranus conjunct Neptune [Sagittarius/Capricorn], squared by Pluto [Pisces/Aries]: end of Napoleonic Wars and a redesign of Europe, Industrial Revolution in England, global colonialism, start of the railways. Uranus-Neptune energies work surreptitiously. They influence awareness and the inner movies playing within the world psyche."

1816 - Indiana - December 11th, 1816: "The 19th American state."

1816 - Data Disclosure Trivia / U.S. Federal Civilian Employees - "Without explanation, the administration has witheld the names and work sites of about 900,000 of its civilian workers, says a lawsuit filed Tuesday [12/06/05]. [....] The federal government began publicly identifying its employees, their job category, salary and workplace in 1816. The first entry in the 1816 register was James Madison. He was identified as president of the United States in Washington at a salary of $25,000 - and born in Virginia. The last complete data set provided by the Office of Personnel Management covered 2003. Since then, all records of civilian employees of the Defense Department have been witheld, the suit says. [....]" [Based on: A.P. article (U.S. has stopped disclosing data on many federal workers), p. A2, S.L.P.D., 12/07/05]

1816 - Colder Temperatures & Famine - 1816: Reportedly, ash from the eruption of Mt. Tambora [1815] may have caused the colder temperatures and famine 1916-1917 that killed an estimated 71,000 people. - E.M.

1817 - U.S. President James Monroe - March 4th, 1817: "The 5th American President, James Monroe [Republican], begins his term."

1817 - 1st Sword-Swallower Performance / U.S.A. - November 25th, 1817: "First sword-swallower performance in U.S., 1817." [Based on: The Old Farmer's Almanac (2006) by Robert B. Thomas, p. 97]

1817 - Mississippi - December 10th, 1817: "The 20th American state."

1817 - Punishment / Seminole Indians - "Andrew Jackson invades [1817-1818] Florida to punish the Seminole Indians."

1817 - Colder Temperatures & Famine - 1817: Reportedly, ash from the eruption of Mt. Tambora [1815] may have caused the colder temperatures and famine 1916-1917 that killed an estimated 71,000 people. - E.M.

1817 - Shaking Palsy - "SHAKING PALSY, BY JAMES PARKINSON, MEMBER OF THE ROYAL COLLEGE OF SURGEONS."

1818 - Birth / Seth Shiv Dayal Singh - "SHIV DAYAL SINGH JI, Soami (1818-1878)—Seth Shiv Dayal Singh Ji of Agra, popularly known as Soami Ji Maharaj who, in the modern age, revived the teachings of ancient Masters including those of the later times like Kabir and Nanak; with emphasis on the Surat Shabd Yoga or Yoga of the Sound Current providing way back to the Kingdom of God from where this creative life-principle descended." [Based on: http://www.ruhanisatsangusa.org/gloss.htm]

1818 - Illinois - December 3rd, 1818: "The 21st American state."

1819 - Indian Civilization Fund Act - "For Reform and teaching 'arts of civilization', funds designated for education reform and employment of [non-indian instructors 'for teaching their children reading, writing and aritimetic' with the provision that such education should be 'with their [Indian] consent.' " [Prucha Documents pg.33]."

1819 - Alabama - December 14th, 1819: "The 22nd American state."

1819 - Soda Fountain - "Samuel Fahnestock patents a 'soda fountain'. "

1819 - Electromagnetism - "Hans Christian Oersted discovers electromagnetism." [Based on: Ultimate Visual Dictionary of Science, Timeline of Discoveries, p. 15, Barnes & Noble Books - 2005]

1820 - Birth / Susan B. Anthony - February 15th, 1820: "Born on this date in history: Susan B. Anthony (Aquarius)."

1820 - Revolts / Italy - "In 1820 Czar Alexander and the Habsburg Emperor acted together as members of the Holy Alliance to prevent revolution in Italy. Although the Russian army stood in readiness it was the Austrians who actually crossed into Italy, put down the revolts in Naples and Piedmont and drove the Carbonari underground."

1820 - Maine - March 15th, 1820: "The 23rd American state."

1820s - Knowledge Of Dinosaurs  - "In fact, everything that we know today about dinosaurs and their environment has been learned since the 1820s." [Laurence Gardner, Genesis Of The Grail Kings, p. 4]

1821 - Indianapolis Indiana - January 6th, 1821: "Indianapolis designated as the name for the capital of Ind., 1821." [Based on: The Old Farmer's Almanac (2006) by Robert B. Thomas, p. 101]

1821 - Missouri - August 10th, 1821: "Soon after the Louisiana Purchase, Congress created the District of Louisiana, which included what is now Missouri and Arkansas. The people were governed by officials of the Indiana Territory. In 1805, however, Congress inaugurated procedures based upon successive stages [grades] of government in the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, whereby the territory might eventually become a state. When this petition was drafted, Missourians were living under the third stage of a territorial government. They elected the members of both houses of a territorial assembly which made the laws, but all executive and judicial territorial officials were appointed by the President, as they had been since 1805. The people also elected a territorial delegate to the U. S. House of Representatives. The delegates could speak but had no vote. Starting in 1817, Missourians sent to Congress petition after petition, similar to this document, asking for statehood. Finally, on August 10, 1821, Missouri was admitted to the Union."

1821 - Birth / Clara Barton - December 25th, 1821: "Born this date in history: Clara Barton [Died: 04/12/1912]."

1821 - Electromagnetic Rotation - "Electromagnetic rotation, discovered by Michael Faraday." [Based on: Ultimate Visual Dictionary of Science, Timeline of Discoveries, p. 15, Barnes & Noble Books - 2005]

1822 - Pluto / Aries - April 17th, 1822: Pluto at 0 degrees Aries ...

*Link: http://www.astro.com/swisseph/ae/1800/ae_1822.pdf

1822 - Earthquake / Asia Minor - September 5th, 1822: "Earthquake location: Asia Minor, Aleppo. Earthquake magnitude: N/A. Number of recorded fatalities: 22,000."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 208]

1823 - Pluto / Aries - March 4th, 1823: Pluto at 0 degrees Aries; December 9th, R.; December 15th, D. ...

*Link: http://www.astro.com/swisseph/ae/1800/ae_1823.pdf

1823 - Earthquake / Hawaii - June 2nd, 1823: "Earthquake location: Kilauea, Hawaii. Earthquake magnitude: 7. Number of recorded fatalities: 0."  

1823 - Raincoat - "Mackintosh [raincoat] invents by Charles Mackintosh of Scotland."

1824 - Cement - "Englishmen, Joseph Aspdin patented Portland cement, the modern building material."

1824 - Balloon - "Professor Michael Faraday invents the first toy balloon."

1825 - Russian Czar Nicholas I - "Alex I died in 1825, and his son Nicholas I became Czar. Nicholas I had a remarkable foresight and soon realized that a major war was brewing in Europe. He felt that he must ally himself with the Ottoman Empire if he was to survive. It is interesting to note that the war he described in his writings was to occur almost 100 years later [World War I]. During Nicholas I reign, the first vestiges of industrialization began to seep their way into Russia. The first St. Petersburg to Moscow railroad opened in 1851."

1825 - U.S. President John Quincy Adams - March 6th, 1825: "The 6th American President, John Quincy Adams [Republican], begins his term."

*Trivia: "In 1824 John Quincy Adams became American president and attempted to revive the national transportation system, but political events conspired against his success. Missouri had applied for statehood in 1820 and soon made it clear that it, and the other southern states who practiced slavery, would not support the idea, or any other policy which might assist the free passage of commercial goods or human beings across the South. In the North the industrialists were also suspicious of anything which promised greater freedom for their workers and, in a strange alliance, they joined forces with the slave-owning Southerners to create the new Democratic Party. They supported their own Presidential candidate, Andrew Jackson, who was an advocate of slavery. In the election of 1824, Adams narrowly missed defeat, becomming President by only a slim majority."

1825 - Birth / Augustus Le Plongeon - May 4th, 1825: "Augustus Le Plongeon (1825–1908) was a photographer, antiquarian and amateur archaeologist. He studied the pre-Columbian ruins of America, particularly those of the Maya civilization on the northern Yucatán Peninsula. While his writings contain many eccentric notions that were discredited by later researchers, Le Plongeon left a lasting legacy in his photographs documenting the ancient ruins. He should also be regarded as one of the earliest proponents of Mayanism. Le Plongeon has been identified as an early practitioner of psychic archaeology and his wife Alice Dixon Le Plongeon had an avid interest in mesmerism, séance, and the occult.[1] Professional archaeologists regard Le Plongeon as an obvious crank.[2][1]. [NP] Le Plongeon wrote a lengthy history of Maya culture, going so far as to propose a theory that Maya had been in touch with the lost continent of Atlantis and were ancestral to Ancient Egypt, a theory which has since been discredited by the scientific community. Le Plongeon, a Freemason, was also convinced that the roots of Freemasonry were to be found in the ancient Maya culture. In general, his theories were considered to be somewhat outlandish by near-contemporaries and later Mayanist scholars such as Désiré Charnay, Teoberto Maler and Alfred Maudslay, and he is regarded today as one of the more eccentric characters to have worked in the field.[3] However, as a pioneer in producing photographic records of Maya sites and inscriptions, Le Plongeon's works and images retain at least a curio value to later researchers and in several cases preserve the appearance of sites and objects that were subsequently damaged. [....] A collection of the works of the Le Plongeons currently resides at the Getty Research Institute in Los Angeles. The archive contains original records covering their travels from the 1860s through the early 1900s, including diaries, unpublished scholarly manuscripts and notes, correspondence, and extensive photographic documentation of ancient architecture and sculpture, city views, and ethnographic studies. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augustus_LePlongeon]

1825 - Defined / Native American Indian Country - "Separate Indian Country west of the Mississippi is first defined."

1827 - Constitution Nullified / Cherokee Indians - "The Cherokees adopt a constitution patterned on that of the United States, but it is nullified by the Georgia legislature.

1827 - Independence / Greece - "Greek Independence declared."

1827 - Matches - "John Walker invents the modern matches."

1828 - Brahmo Sabha - August 20th, 1828: "On 20 August 1828 the first assembly of the Brahmo Sabha (progenitor of the Brahmo Samaj) was held at the North Calcutta house of Feringhee Kamal Bose. This day is celebrated by Brahmos as Bhadrotsab (... Bhadrotshôb 'Bhadro celebration'). '*[This Sabha was convened at Calcutta by religious reformer Raja Rammohun Roy for his family and friends settled there. The Sabha regularly gathered on Saturday between seven o'clock to nine o'clock. These were informal meetings of Bengali Brahmins (the "twice born"), accompanied by Upanishadic recitations in Sanskrit followed by Bengali translations of the Sanskrit recitation and singing of Brahmo hymns composed by Rammohun.']*' These meetings were open to all Brahmins and there was no formal organisation or theology as such.[9][10] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brahmo_Samaj]

1828 - Andrew Jackson - "Andrew Jackson was elected American president."

1828 - Birth / Shri Shyamacharan Lahiri Mahasaya -

Shri Shyamacharan Lahiri Mahasaya (1828-1895) [NP] Known as a Yogavatar ("Incarnation of Yoga"), Lahiri Mahasaya ["Great Soul"] was a supervisor, married with children, working for the construction department of the Railway Company in Varanasi. One day in 1861 his office sent him by "mistake" (in fact a transfer brought about by the mystical power of Babaji himself) to the Ranikhet mountains, where Babaji appeared to him and initiated him into Kriya Yoga, and gave him the mission to spread it to the world. [....] Among Lahiri Mahasaya's many direct disciples are: Shri Balananda Brahamchari, Pandit Panchan Bhattacharya, Swami Pranabananda Giri, Ram Gopal, Brahmachari Keshavananda Avadhut, Shastri Mahasaya, Shri Tinkori Lahiri (his own son), Swami Shriyukteshwar Giri, and Shrimat Bhupendranath Sanyal. [....]

[Based on: http://www.hariharananda.org/english/who_we_are/kriya/kriya_linage.htm]

1828 - Earthquake / Echigo, Japan - December 28th, 1828: "Earthquake location: Echigo, Japan. Earthquake magnitude: N/A. Number of recorded fatalities: 30,000."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 208]

1829 - U.S. President Andrew Jackson - March 4th, 1829: "The 7th American President, Andrew Jackson Democrat], begins his term. Andrew Jackson was the 1st Democratic President of the United States."

1829 - Birth / Rai Saligram Bahadur - March 14th, 1829:

Rai Saligram Bahadur, popularly known as Huzur Maharaj, was born in a kayastha family of Peepal Mandi, Agra, on 14 March 1829. [....]"

[Based on: http://santhakar.tripod.com/saints/bio-15.html]

1829 - Typewriter - "American, W.A. Burt invented a typewriter. William Austin Burt patented a typographer, a predecessor to the typewriter."

1830 - Indian Removal Act - "Andrew Jackson used this act to force the mass relocation of the Creek, Cherokee, Choctoaw, Seminole, and other Indian nations during the 1830s. The intent was to open up the territory east of the Mississippi for settlement by white Americans and their African slaves."

1830 - Physics Trivia - "Several basic concepts underlying modern physics emerged in the next quarter century, from 1830 to 1855. Michael Faraday introduced the notion that forces are conveyed by fields, an idea he used to greatly advance our understanding of electricity and magnetism. During the same period, the conservation of energy was proposed, as was the second law of thermodynamics." [Based on: Lee Smolin, The Trouble with Physics, p. ix (2nd paragraph - Introduction), copyright 2006]

1830 - Sewing Machine - "Frenchmen, B. Thimonnier invents a sewing machine."

1831 - U.S. Copyright Music - February 3rd, 1831: "U.S. copyright law began protecting music, 1831." [Based on: The Old Farmer's Almanac (2006) by Robert B. Thomas, p. 103]

1831 - Born / Helena P. Blavatsky - "Helena Petrovna Blavatsky ... (born as Helena von Hahn ... 12 August [O.S. 31 July] 1831, Yekaterinoslav, Yekaterinoslav, Russian Empire (today Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine) – died 8 May 1891, London, Great Britain) was a founder of Theosophy and the Theosophical Society.[1]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helena_Petrovna_Blavatsky]

1831 - Reaper - "American, Cyrus H. McCormick invents the first commercially successful reaper."

1831 - Electromagnetic Induction - "Electromagnetic induction discovered by Michael Faraday." [Based on: Ultimate Visual Dictionary of Science, Timeline of Discoveries, p. 15, Barnes & Noble Books - 2005]

*Trivia: "Tesla [Nilola Tesla] is preceded in greatness only by Michael Faraday who in 1831 rocked the scientific world with his discovery that magnetism can produce electricity, if it is accompanied by motion. Faraday discovered the principle, but not how to make it power the world; Tesla accomplished this singular feat." [Intro by Timothy Green Beckley, The Lost Journals of Nikola Tesla, p. 3]

1832 - Bureau of Indian Affairs - "Organized as part of the War Department, the Bureau of Indian Affairs was recognized by a law of Congress [Prucha Documents pg 62]."

1832 - Soft Hail? / Sydney, Australia - "It was initially hailed as Sydney's first snowfall in 172 years, but it turned out yesterday's severe weather [07/26/08] was only hail. [NP] Australian locals still managed to go sledding, throw some snowballs and make a snowman (or in this case, hailballs and hailman) today [07/27/08]. [NP] Australia's Bureau of Meteorology says what actually fell was 'soft hail' and that conditions were not quite cold enough to produce snow. [NP] The last time Sydney supposedly had a snowfall was 1836 although some scientists believe officials back then just mistook soft hail for snow. [NP] Whatever it was, residents in the Lindfield neighbourhood on Sydney's north shore enjoyed a bit of winter fun." [Based on: Article (Sydney hail mistaken for snow), Sunday, 27 July 2008 - See link:]

*Link: http://www.rte.ie/news/2008/0727/sydney.html] - [T.D. - 07/29/08 - C.S.T.]

1832 - Birth / Henry S. Olcott - August 2nd, 1932: "Colonel Henry Steel Olcott (August 2, 1832 – February 17, 1907) was an American military officer, journalist, lawyer and the co-founder and first President of the Theosophical Society. [NP] Olcott was the first well-known person of European ancestry to make a formal conversion to Buddhism. His subsequent actions as president of the Theosophical Society helped create a renaissance in the study of Buddhism. Olcott is considered a Buddhist modernist for his efforts in interpreting Buddhism through a Westernized lens. [NP] Olcott was a major revivalist of Buddhism in Sri Lanka and he is still honored in Sri Lanka for these efforts. Olcott has been called by Sri Lankans "one of the heroes in the struggle of our independence and a pioneer of the present religious, national and cultural revival." More ardent admirers have claimed that Olcott was a Bodhisattva.[....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Steel_Olcott]

1832 - Public Streetcar Service / N.Y.C. - November 26th, 1832: "Public streetcar service began in N.Y.C., 1832." [Based on: The Old Farmer's Almanac (2006) by Robert B. Thomas, p. 97]

1833 - Meteor Shower - November 13th, 1833: "Thousands of meteors fell per hour, 1833." [Based on: The Old Farmer's Almanac (2006) by Robert B. Thomas, p. 97]

1834 - U.S. Coinage Act - "US Coinage Act. This makes a slight reduction in the value of silver relative to gold in order to encourage more gold to be brought to the mint. However, it hastens the disappearance of much of the remaining silver in circulation." [Link: 1]

1834 - Native American Quarantine - "The Trade and Intercourse Act redefines the Indian Territory and the Permanent Indian Frontier and gives the army the right to quarantine Indians."

1834 - Corn Planter - "Henry Blair patented a corn planter, he is the second black person to receive a U.S. patent."

1834 - Photographic Film - "George Eastman patented paper-strip photographic film."

1835 - Cracked / Liberty Bell - July 8th, 1835: "The Liberty Bell cracked while tolling the death of Chief Justice John Marshall."

1835 - Perihelion / Halley's Comet - November 16th, 1835 A.D.: "1P/1835 P1, 1835 III (16 November 1835)" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halley%27s_Comet] - [T.D. - 06/12/07] 

*Trivia: "American satirist and writer Mark Twain was born on November 30, 1835; exactly two weeks after the comet's perihelion. In his biography, he said, 'I came in with Halley's comet in 1835. It's coming again next year (1910), and I expect to go out with it. The Almighty has said no doubt, "Now here are these two unaccountable freaks; they came in together, they must go out together." ' Twain died on April 21, 1910, the day following the comet's subsequent perihelion.[10][11] The 1985 fantasy film The Adventures of Mark Twain is inspired by this."

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halley%27s_Comet] - [T.D. - 06/12/07]

1835 - Horseshoe Manufacturing Machine - November 23rd, 1835: "Horseshoe-manufacturing machine patented, 1835." [Based on: The Old Farmer's Almanac (2006) by Robert B. Thomas, p. 97]

1835 - Officially Organized / Texas Rangers - November 24th, 1835: "The Texas Rangers are officially organized."

1835 - Slave Uprisings / United States - "Alarm's of Slave uprising's are heard in Mississippi, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, Alabama, Louisiana, and Texas."

1835 - Birth / Samuel Langhorne Clemens - November 30th, 1835: "Samuel Langhorne Clemens [Mark Twain] is born." [Link: 1]

1835 - Free From National Debt / United States - "Reportedly, 1835 is the only time in U.S. history that the country was free from national debt."

1835 - Wrench - "Solymon Merrick patented the wrench."

1836 - Specie Circular / U.S.A. - "President Jackson issues his Specie Circular. The circular lays down that future purchases of government land must be paid in gold or silver, or their strict equivalent, rather than in local notes or promises to pay. This has the effect of swelling the US government's coffers with specie." [Link: 1]

*Trivia: "The renewed central bank contract was again suspended in 1836 during Andrew Jackson's presidency (1829-1837), despite the fact that he was grand master of Tennessee. The central bank was abolished.
   "Even so European bankers and their American agents managed to exercise an extensive control of the American monetary system. Gustavus Myers admits in his book History of the Great American Fortunes (1910): 'Under the surface the Rothschilds had for a long period of time a direct influence by dictating the American financial laws. The legal records show that they were the ones in control of the old Bank of the United States.' " [Juri Lina, The Barnes Review, p. 10]

1836 - Battle of the Alamo - February 23rd, 1836: "The Battle of the Alamo begins."

1836 - Independence / Texas  - March 2nd, 1836: "American settler's declare Texas independence from Mexico."

1836 - Earthquake / U.S.A. - June 10th, 1836: "Earthquake location: San Francisco Bay, California. Earthquake magnitude: 6.5. Number of recorded fatalities: 0."  

1836 - Arkansas - June 15th, 1836: "The 25th American state."

1836 - Birth / Ramakrishna - 1836: "RAMAKRISHNA (1836-86)—The sage-priest of the goddess-Mother Kali at Dakshineswar, near Calcutta. By his constant devotion, he made the Divine Mother manifest to himself. Next, he plunged into the yoga of meditation in every way conceivable and realised the Absolute Brahma, the attributeless Allah and Christ the Master-yogi, establishing the synthetic value of all religions which is his greatest contribution to the spirit of his age, for he virtually laid the foundation for a living Harmony of Religions and a common Fellowship of Faiths."

[Based on: http://www.ruhanisatsangusa.org/gloss.htm] 

1836 - German Savings Banks - "Number of German savings banks reaches 280. The rate of growth in their numbers increased after the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815." [Link: 1]

1836 - Child Labor Laws / United States - "First Child Labor Laws passed in Massachusets with a mininum working age of 15 years."

1836 - Propellor - "Francis Pettit Smith and John Ericcson co-invented the propellor."

1836 - Colt Revolver - "Samuel Colt patents first revolver."

1836 - Silver-Backed Mirrors / Germany - "First use of silver backing to produce mirror's, Germany."

1837 - Michigan - January 26th, 1837: "The 26th American state."

1837 - U.S. Paper Money - "US States acquire legal power to issue paper money. This reverses attempts to uphold the constitutional denial of the power of the states to emit bills." [Link: 1]

1837 - U.S. / Free Banking - "Free Banking movement triumphs in Massachusetts. The free banking movement claims that citizens have a right to set up banks rather than being dependent on a privilege granted by the state. The State of Massachusetts passes an act in accordance with these principles." [Link: 1]

1837 - U.S. Banking Crisis - "US banking crisis. The uncontrolled, chaotic expansion of banking in the US is slowed, then partly reversed by a financial crisis in which every bank is forced to suspend specie payment of notes. The crisis leads to a depression in the economy which lasts until 1843." [Link: 1]

1837 - U.S. President Martin Van Buren - March 4th, 1837: "The 8th American President, Martin Van Buren [Democrat], begins his term."

1837 - U.S. Depression - March, 1837: "The nations first deep depression begins when Wall Street stock prices plunge."

1837 - College for Women - November, 1837: "Mary Lyon opens the first collage for women [Mount Holyoke] established."

1837 - Kindergarden  / Germany - "First Kindergarten established in Blankenburg, Germany, by Friedrich Froebel."

1837 - Telegraph - "Samual Morse invented the telegraph."

1838 - Earthquake / U.S.A. - June 1838: "Earthquake location: San Francisco Peninsula, California. Earthquake magnitude: 6.8. Number of recorded fatalities: 0."  

1838 - 1st Afghan War Begins - "The 1st Afghan War begins."

1838 - Defeat / Seminole Indians - "Federal troops defeat Seminole Indians at the battle of Lake Okeechobee."

1838 - Queen Victoria / England - June 28th, 1837: "Victoria is crowned Queen of England at Westminster Abby."

1838 - Cherokee Indian Removal - "Federal troops forciably remove Cherokee Indians from Georgia and Tennessee."

1838 - Studying Mesmerism / Phineas P. Quimby - "[....] In 1838, Quimby [Phineas Parkhurst Quimby] began studying Mesmerism after attending a lecture by Doctor Collyer and soon began further experimentation with the help of Lucius Burkmar, who could fall into a trance and diagnose illnesses. Quimby again saw the mental and placebo effect of the mind over the body when medicines prescribed by Burkmar, with no physical value, cured patients of diseases. From the conclusions of these studies, Phineas Quimby developed theories of mentally aided healing and opened an office in Portland, Maine in 1859. Among the students and patients who joined his studies and helped him to commit his teachings to writing were Warren Felt Evans, Annetta Seabury Dresser and Julious Dresser, the founders of New Thought as a named movement, and Mary Baker Eddy, the founder of the Christian Science movement. [....]" [Based on: http://phineasquimby.wwwhubs.com/]

1838 - Morse Code - "Samual Morse invents Morse Code."

1839 - 1st Opium War / China - "1st Opium War begins."

1839 - Guru Jaimal Singh - July 1839: "Baba Jaimal Singh Ji (1839–1903), also known as 'Babaji Maharaj,' was the first Satguru of Radha Soami Satsang Beas (RSSB) until his death in 1903. [1] Baba Sawan Singh succeeded him as the second RSSB Satguru. [NP] Baba Jaimal Singh ji was born in village Lath Ghuman (Ghoman) near Batala, Distt. Gurdaspur, Punjab, India, in July, 1839. His father was Sardar Jodh Singh ji a farmer by trade, and his mother was Sardarni Daya Kaur ji. She was a devotee of Bhagat Namdev, and from the age of four Baba ji started visiting the local shrine dedicated to the memory of this Sant Mat Sant. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jaimal_Singh]

"JAIMAL SINGH (1839—1903 A.D.)—A soldier-saint initiated into the sacred teachings of Surat Shabd Yoga by Soami Ji Maharai of Agra, who deputed Him to carry on His Mission in the Punjab so as to repay, in some measure, the debt the world owed to Guru Nanak who came from the Punjab and whose teachings had imbibed and influenced Soami Jo Maharaj. Baba Jaimal Singh Ji in his turn, left his spiritual mantle on Hazur Baba awan Singh Ji. "

[Based on: http://www.ruhanisatsangusa.org/gloss.htm]

1839 - Slave Revolt / Amistad - August, 1839: "Slaves aboard the Spanish ship Amistad revolt and force the crew to head for Africa." [Link: 1]

1839 - Baseball Rules Written - "Baseball's basic rules of play are written at Cooperstown, New York."

1839 - Vulcanization - "American, Charles Goodyear invents rubber vulcanization."

1839 - Hydrogen Fuel Cell - "Welshmen, Sir William Robert Grove conceives of the first hydrogen fuel cell."

1840 - Birth / Alfred Percy Sinnett - January 18th, 1840: "A.P. Sinnett (18 January 1840 - 26 June 1921) was an author and Theosophist. [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_Percy_Sinnett]

1840 - David Livingston, Africa - "David Livingston begins missionary work to black Africians."

1840 - Published / Federist Papers - "The Federalist Papers are published."

1840 - Independent Treasury / U.S.A. - "U.S. establishes an independent Treasury. Its powers are more firmly established by a later act in 1846. Without a central bank the U.S. Treasury has to carry out its own banking operations, relying as far as possible on specie ['money in coin'] for government payments and receipts." [Link: 1]

1840 - English Sovereignty / New Zealand - "50 Maori chieftains sign treaty with Great Britain giving England sovereignty over New Zealand."

1840 - Westminster Palace / London England - "Construction begins on the New Palace of Westminster in London, and the Big Ben clock tower."

1840 - The American Churches, the Bulwark of American Slavery - "James Gillespie Birney publishes, The American Churches, the Bulwark of American Slavery."

1840 - Blueprint - "Englishmen, John Herschel invents the blueprint."

1840 - Dental Surgery / Maryland - "First college of dental Surgery established at Baltimore, Maryland."

1841 - U.S. President William Harrison - March 4th, 1841: "The 9th American President, William Harrison [Whig], begins his term."

1841 - Fatality / President William Harrison - April 4th, 1841: "President Harrison dies from pneumonia."

1841 - U.S. President John Tyler - April 4th, 1841: "The 10th American President, John Tyler [Whig], begins his term."

1841 - U.S. Second Bank Crash - "The Second Bank of the United States crashes. By this time it is simply a private bank and no longer a national institution. When it ran into difficulties during the 1837 crisis it was still the largest bank in the world, but it finally crashes in 1841." [Link: 1]

1841 - Potawatomi Indian Reservations - "The Potawatomi indians sell their lands to the government and move to reservations in Kansas."

1841 - Christmas Tree / England - "The custom of a Christmas tree is introduced to England by Albert, prince consort of Queen Victoria."

1841 - Biblical Researches In Palestine - "Edward Robinson publishes Biblical Researches In Palestine."

1841 - Stapler - "Samuel Slocum patents the stapler."

1842 - Doomsday Scare / England - March 17th, 1842: "Hundreds take to boats in England, sure that the world will end that day."

1842 - Solar Eclipse - July 28th, 1842: "Solar eclipse observed over U.S."

1842 - End / 1st Opium War, China - August 29th, 1842: "The 1st Opium War in China ends with the signing of the Treaty of Nanking."

1842 - British Hong Kong - August 29th, 1842: "Hong Kong ceded to Britain."

1842 - Ashburton Treaty - "Ashburton Treaty with England to prevent transportation of slaves from Africa."

1842 - End / 1st Afghan War - "The 1st Afghan War ends."

1842 - Death / Tulsi Sahib - "When Tulsi Sahib was born is not indicated in Surat Vilas; however, it is written that he left his body approximately at the age of eighty years in Jayth Sudi-2 in Vikrami Samvat 1899 or 1900. (according to English system in the year 1842 or 1843). This indicates that he was born in 1820 according to the Indian calendar (which is the year 1763 by the English system). His grave is present in Hath Ras where many people visit, and a big fair is held once a year. [....]"

*Link: http://dlane5.tripod.com/tulsi.html

1842 - Grain Elevator - "Joseph Dart built the first grain elevator."

1842 - General Anesthesia - "First use of general anesthetic during an operation by Crawford Long."

1842 - Observation / Sirius  - "Reportedly, Sirius B was not conclusively observed until 1842, and not photographed until 1970."

1843 - Earthquake / U.S.A. - January 5th, 1843: "Earthquake location: Marked Tree, Arkansas. Earthquake magnitude: 6.3. Number of recorded fatalities: 0."  

1843 - Doomsday Scare / New England  - April 3rd, 1843: "In New England, thousands of Millerites again wait on hilltops for the end of the world."

1843 - Oregon Trail Survey - "John C. Fremont completes survey of the 2,000 mile long Oregon Trail. Large scale westward migration begins."

1843 - Physics Trivia / James Joule - "Relationship between heat, power, and work formulated by James Joule." [Based on: Ultimate Visual Dictionary of Science, Timeline of Discoveries, p. 15, Barnes & Noble Books - 2005]

1843 - Discovery / Cuneiform Inscriptions - "During excavations in 1843 and 1845 A.D. large collections of clay tablets  were found carrying cuneiform signs. The decipherment of the language was in essence completed in 1851 and the language was first called Assyrian. Nowadays Assyrian is considered a dialect of Akkadian. Akkadian is the medium of innumerable documents from daily life as well as a vast literature, including the Epic of Gilgamesh." [Link: 1]

1843 - A Christmas Carol - "Charles Dickens publishes A Christmas Carol in England, 6,000 copies sold out the first day."

1844 - Uranus in Aries - February 11th, 1844: "The planet Uranus (Orbital period roughly 84 Earth years.) enters the sign of Aries. *Link: http://www.astro.com/swisseph/ae/1800/ae_1844.pdf

1844 - Telegraph Line - May 24th, 1844: "First experimental telegraph line strung between Washington D.C. and Baltimore, Maryland."

1844 - Irish Potato Famine - August, 1844: "Irish Potatoe Famine begins and accelerates migration to America."

1844 - U.S. Naval Academy - October 10th, 1844: "The U.S. Naval Academy is founded at Annapolis, Maryland."

1844 - Police Department / New York - "First full-time police department in the U.S. formed in New York City."

1844 - Expulsion From France / Carl Marx - "Karl Marx is kicked out of Paris, France for revolutionary activities."

1845 - Florida - March 3rd, 1845: "The 27th American state."

1845 - U.S. President James Polk - March 4th, 1845: "The 11th American President, James Polk [Democrat], begins his term."

1845 - Texas - December 29th, 1845: "The 28th American state."

1846 - Mexican Army / Texas - April 30th, 1846: "The Mexican Army crossed the Rio Grande river and laid seige to Fort Texas."

1846 - War / Mexico & America - May 13th, 1846: "The United States declares war on Mexico."

1846 - Peddar Zaskq / Mexico? - 1846-1848: "The narrative which is laid down in this book, The Drums of ECK, may appear to the reader to be fiction but it is a true story. It is taken from my personal memories of what happened during the stirring times of the American-Mexican War which was fought in the years principally on the soil of old Mexico." [Based on: The Drums of ECK (Copyright 1970), by Paul Twitchell. Fourth Printing 1978, p. 5]

1846 - Iowa - December 28th, 1846: "The 29th American state."

1846 - Smithsonian Institution - "Smithsonian Institution founded by act of Congress."

1846 - Anaesthesia Trivia - "Dr. William Morton, a Massachusetts dentist, is the first to use anaesthesia for tooth extraction."

1846 - Laws of Thermodynamics - "Laws of thermodynamics developed by William Kelvin." [Based on: Ultimate Visual Dictionary of Science, Timeline of Discoveries, p. 15, Barnes & Noble Books - 2005]

1846 - Discovery / Planet Neptune - "The planet Neptune is discovered."

1846 - Published / Scientific American - "Scientific American magazine first published."

1847 - Birth / Thomas Edison - February 11th, 1847: "Thomas A. Edison is born."

1847 - Born / Thomas Troward - 1847:

"Thomas Troward (1847-1916) was an English author whose works influenced the New Thought Movement and mystic Christianity.

Troward was a divisional Judge in British-administered India. His avocation was the study of comparative religion. Influences on his thinking, as well as his later writing, included the teachings of Christ, Islam, Hinduism, and Buddhism.[1]

After his retirement from the judiciary in 1896, Troward set out to apply logic and a judicial weighing of evidence in the study of matters of cause and effect.[1] The philosopher William James characterized Troward’s Edinburgh Lectures on Mental Science as "far and away the ablest statement of philosophy I have met, beautiful in its sustained clearness of thought and style, a really classic statement."[2]

According to Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) archivist Nell Wing, early AA members were strongly encouraged to read Thomas Troward's Edinburgh Lectures on Mental Science.[3] In the opening of the 2006 film The Secret (2006 film), introductory remarks credit Troward's philosophy with inspiring the movie and its production. [4]

*Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Troward

1847 - Neptune @ Pisces - April 26th, 1848: Neptune @ 0 degrees Pisces.

*Link: http://www.astro.com/swisseph/ae/1800/ae_1847.pdf

1847 - Independence / Liberia - June 23rd, 1847: "Liberia becomes the first independent African republic."

1847 - Mormons / Salt Lake Valley - July 24th, 1847: "Mormons enter the Great Salt Lake Valley."

1847 - Birth / Jesse James - September 5th, 1847: "Jesse James is born."

1847 - Birth / Annie Clapham - October 1st, 1847: "Annie Besant (pronounced /?b?s?nt/; née Wood; Clapham, London 1 October 1847 – 20 September 1933 in Adyar, India) was a prominent Theosophist, women's rights activist, writer and orator and supporter of Irish and Indian self rule. [....] Annie became involved with Union organisers including the Bloody Sunday demonstration and the London matchgirls strike of 1888 and a leading speaker for the Fabian Society and the (Marxist) Social Democratic Federation and was elected to the London School Board for Tower Hamlets, topping the poll even though few women were qualified to vote at that time. [NP] In 1890 Annie Besant met Helena Blavatsky and over the next few years her interest in Theosophy grew and her interest in left wing politics waned. She travelled to India and in 1898 helped establish the Central Hindu College in India. [NP] In 1902 she established the International Order of Co-Freemasonry in England and over the next few years established lodges in many parts of the British Empire. [NP] In 1908 Annie Besant became President of the Theosophical Society and began to steer the society away from Buddhism and towards Hinduism. She also became involved in politics in India, joining the Indian National Congress. When war broke out in Europe in 1914 she helped launch the Home Rule League to campaign for democracy in India and dominion status within the Empire which culminated in her election as president of the India National Congress in late 1917. After the war she continued to campaign for Indian independence until her death in 1933. [....] She first met clairvoyant theosophist Charles Webster Leadbeater in London in April 1894. They became close co-workers in the theosophical movement and would remain so for the rest of their lives. Besant became clairvoyant in the following year. In a letter dated 25 August 1895 to Francisca Arundale, Leadbeater narrates how Besant became clairvoyant.[6] Together they would investigate the universe, matter, thought-forms and the history of mankind through clairvoyance, and would go on to co-author several books. [....] As early as 1889, Blavatsky had told a group of Theosophical students that the real purpose of establishing the Society was to prepare humanity for the reception of the World Teacher when he appeared again on earth.[9] This was repeated again more publicly by Besant in 1896, five years after Blavatsky's death.[10][11] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Annie_Besant]

1847 - U.S. Postage Stamp - "First official issue of adhesive backed postage stamp in the U.S."

1847 - British Building Society - "The Woolwich, Britain's first permanent building society, is registered. Previous building societies were temporary associations which terminated when all members had purchased houses. The Woolwich, which was actually founded a few years before its official registration, is the first permanent building society and thereafter permanent societies quickly become the norm." [Link: 1]

1847 - Birth / Jacob Henry Schiff - "Schiff, Jacob Henry, was born In 1847, at Frankfort on-the- Maine, Germany."

1847 - Smallpox Epidemic / Cayuse Indians - "Smallpox epidemic devistates the Cayuse indian tribe."

1848

1848 - Revolutions / Europe - "Revolutions begin in Germany, Austria, France, Italy, and Belgium."

1848 - Published / Communist Manifesto - January, 1848: "The Communist Manifesto is published."

1848 - California Gold Rush  - January 24th, 1848: "Gold is discovered at Sutter's Mill on the American River in northern California. The Gold Rush was one of the most significant events in California history. It brought people from all over the United States and the world in search for gold."

*Trivia: "
The discovery of gold in California leads in the following decade to a massive increase in the production of gold coins by the mint with the result that in practice the US moves away from bimetallism towards a gold standard." [Link: 1]

1848 - End / Mexican-American War - February 2nd, 1848: "Mexican/American War ends [Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo]."

1848 - Neptune @ Pisces - February 18th, 1848: Neptune @ 0 degrees Pisces.

*Link: http://www.astro.com/swisseph/ae/1800/ae_1848.pdf

1848 - Revolution / France - February 22-24th, 1848: "The Revolution of 1848 begins in Paris, France."

1848 - Independence / Hungary - March 15th, 1848: "In Hungary the April Laws are passed declaring Hungary seperate from the Austrian Empire."

1848 - Spiritualism / Upstate New York - March 31st, 1848: "[....] Spiritualism first appeared in the 1840s in the 'Burned-over District' of upstate New York, where earlier religious movements such as Millerism, and Mormonism had emerged during the Second Great Awakening. [NP] This region of New York State was an environment in which many thought direct communication with God or angels was possible, and that God would not behave harshly - for example, that God would not condemn unbaptised infants to an eternity in Hell.[1] [....] Spiritualists often set March 31, 1848, as the beginning of their movement. On that date, Kate and Margaret Fox, of Hydesville, New York, reported that they had made contact with the spirit of a murdered peddler. What made this an extraordinary event was that the spirit communicated through rapping noises, audible to onlookers. The evidence of the senses appealed to practically minded Americans, and the Fox sisters became a sensation.[1][2] [NP] Amy and Isaac Post, Hicksite Quakers from Rochester, New York, had long been acquainted with the Fox family, and took the two girls into their home in the late spring of 1848. Immediately convinced of the genuineness of the sisters' communications, they became early converts and introduced the young mediums to their circle of radical Quaker friends. [NP] It therefore came about that many of the early participants in Spiritualism were radical Quakers and others involved in the reforming movement of the mid-nineteenth century. These reformers were uncomfortable with established churches, because they did little to fight slavery and even less to advance the cause of women's rights.[2] [....] After the 1920s, Spiritualism evolved in three different directions, all of which exist today. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spiritualism_%28religious_movement%29]

1848 - Associated Press / U.S.A. - May 1848: "America's first news agency, Associated Press [AP] established."

1848 - Wisconsin - May 29th, 1848: "The 30th American state."

1848 - Washington Monument - July 4th, 1848: "Cornerstone of the Washington Monument is laid down."

1848 - Women's Rights Convention / U.S.A. - July 19, 1848: "One hundred and fifty years ago, in the small town of Seneca, New York, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, and three other women got together for a different kind of tea party. They sipped tea and talked about how unfair it was that they had to give all of their property and money to their husbands. They shared the belief that women, like men, should be able to own property, vote and get an education. Before they parted that afternoon, the five women decided to have a meeting to discuss rights for women. Held in July of 1848, their meeting was the first women's rights convention in the U.S. At that meeting, men and women signed a document called, Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions. By signing, these people agreed to the goals of what was becoming the women's movement." [Based on: Everyday section article (Tea for a Change), p. E4, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 03/21/06] - [Paragraph indents not transcribed - E.M.]

*Trivia: "During the Neolithic age, the matrilineal clan system and the rule of mother-right were followed almost everywhere. Early writings from Egypt depict the woman in complete control of herself and her home, with property descending from mother to daughter. The most significant revolution in Greece was the transition from matrilineal to patrilineal succession and the resulting destruction of clan loyalties. In many other areas, the matrilineal system survived to a late date. The Venerable Bede mentioned rules of matrilineal succession still existing in parts of the British Isles up to the 9th century.* [....]" * Stone, 15, 37, 52; Boulding, 318.

[Based on: The Women's Encyclopedia of Myths and Secrets, by Barbara  G. Walker (Copyright 1983), Subject (Matrilineal Inheritance) p. 620-624]  

*Trivia: "1893: Colorado is the first state to adopt an amendment granting women the right to vote. 1919: The amendment giving women the right to vote is passed by the House of Representatives and the Senate. It is then sent to the states for ratification. 1920: The 19th Amendment to the Constitution granting women the right to vote is signed into law. 1963: Congress passes the Equal Pay Act, making it illegal for employers to pay a woman less than what a man would receive for the same job. 1981: Sandra Day O'Connor is chosen by the President as the United States Supreme Court's first woman justice." [Based on: Everyday section article (Women's History Timeline), p. E4, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 03/21/06]

1848 - Travels Abroad / Helena P. Blavatsky - 1848-1858: "[....] According to her own story as told to a later biographer, she [Helena P. Blavatsky] spent the years 1848 to 1858 traveling the world. She visited Egypt, France, Canada (Quebec), England, South America, Germany, Mexico, India, Greece and especially Tibet, where she studied for two years with the ascetics, to whom she referred as Brothers. She was initiated for theosophical work while in Tibet.[3] She returned to Russia in 1858 and went first to see her sister Vera, a young widow living in Rugodevo, a village left to her by her husband. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helena_Petrovna_Blavatsky]

1848 - Gas Lights / White House - December 29th, 1848: "Gaslights first used at the White House, 1848." [Based on: The Old Farmer's Almanac (2006) by Robert B. Thomas, p. 99]

1848 - Oregon Territory - "Oregon established as a terrority of the United States."

1848 - Hawaii Territory - "Hawaii annexed by the United States as a terroritory."

1848 - Frozen / Niagra Falls - In 1848, Niagra Falls reportedly stopped flowing due to natural causes [ice]. Another time that the falls stopped flowing was in 1969, due to man-made causes. - E.M.

1848 - Emancipation / Connecticut - "The state of Connecticut abolishes slavery within its borders."

1848 - 1st U.S. Department Store - "First 'department store', Marble Dry Goods Palace, opened in New York City."

1848 - Emancipation / France, Denmark - "Emancipitation of slaves in France and Denmark."

1848 - Excavation / Enuma Elish Tablets - "The first Enuma Elish tablets to be discovered were unearthed, in the 1848-76 excavations of Sir Austen Henry Layard, from the library of King Ashur-banipal at Nineveh. They were subsequently published by George Smith of the British Museum in 1876 under the title The Chaldean Account of Genesis. Other tablets and fragments containing versions of the same epic were found as Ashur, Kish and Uruk, and it was asertained from colophons (publishers' imprints) that an even older text existed in a more ancient language. This conveyed the same story of how a certain deity had created the heavens and the earth, and everything on earth, including humankind." [Laurence Gardner, Genesis of the Grail Kings, p. 41]

1848 - Minimum Wage / U.S. Textile Mills - "Pennsylvania is first state to set a mininum wage for workers in textile mills."

1848 - Dental Chair - "Waldo Hanchett patented the dental chair."

1848 - Oh, Susanna - "Stephen Foster composed the song Oh, Susanna."

1849

1849 - U.S. President Zachary Taylor - March 4th, 1849: "The 12th American President, Zachary Taylor [Whig], begins his term."

1849 - Fire / St. Louis MO - May 17th, 1849: "Fire, ravages the city of Saint Louis, Missouri."

1849 - Emancipation / California - September, 1849: "California prohibits slavery within its borders."

1849 - N.Y Railroads - "Railroads services reach Yonkers and Tarrytown, N.Y."

1849 - Pacific Railroad - "Pacific Railroad is chartered in Missouri."

1849 - U.S. Secret Police - "The Know-Nothings, a secret political party, is formed."

1849 - 1st Baseball Uniforms - "First baseball uniforms introduced by the N.Y. Knickerbocker's."

1849 - Underground Railroad / U.S.A. - "Harriet Tubman escapes to the north and begins work with the underground railroad."

1849 - Beginning / Navajo Indian Hostilities - "Navajo indians begin hostilities which will last 14 years."

1849 - Official U.S. Territories / Minnesota & Oregon - "Minnesota and Oregon become official territories of the U.S."

1849 - Safety Pin - "Walter Hunt invents the safety pin."

1849 - Measured / Speed of Light - "The speed of light is first measured by Armand Fizeau near Paris, France."

1849 - Civil Disobedience - "Henry David Thoreau writes Civil Disobedience."

1850

1850 - Conjunction / Uranus-Pluto - "Uranus-Pluto [Aries] conjunction [1850-1851]. Uranus-Pluto conjunctions and oppositions might bring sudden and radical changes, like a cathartic diarrhoea, yet their full integration takes ages."

1850 - Taiping Rebellion / China - July, 1850: "Taiping Rebellion begins in China and lasts 15 years.[1850-1864]."

1850 - U.S. President Millard Fillmore - July 9th, 1850: "The 13th American President, Millard Fillmore [Whig], begins his term."

1850 - California - September 9th, 1850: "The 31st American state."

1850 - Fugitive Slave Law / U.S.A. - September 18th, 1850: "Congress passed the Fugitive Slave Law."

1850 - Auk Extinction - "The Auk becomes extinct."

1850 - U.S. Capital Dome - "Construction of U.S. Capital 'Dome' begins."

1850 - Ute Indian Treaty? - "The Ute indian tribe makes first treaty with the U.S."

1850 - Pre-Biblical History  - "It was not until the 1850's that documentary evidence of pre-biblical history first came to light, and this was followd twenty years later by some published texts. Not until the late 1920s were the first in-depth translations released into the public domain - translations of scribal record considerably older than the original Old Testament. As the archaeologists progressed their excavations, these ancient clay tablets and engraved cylinders emerged in their tens of thousands from the very Bible lands of Adam, Noah, and Abraham, and they were in large measure contemporary with the Old Testament's patriarchal and dynastic eras. More importantly, and perhaps surprisingly to some, many of their accounts were immediately familar, and it soon became obvious that these were the models for stories written down in retrospect by the Israelite compilers of Genesis." [Laurence Gardner, Genesis Of The Grail Kings, p. 5]

1850 - New Mexico Territory - "New Mexico terrority organized."

1850 - Exported British Capital - "Huge amounts of British capital are invested abroad [1850-1914], especially after 1890, in the United States, parts of the British Empire, and Argentina. The total reaches billions of pounds. Britain's later economic problems may be partly due to the neglect of British industry by the banks during this period." [Link: 1]

1850 - Utah Territory Established - "Utah terrority established."

1850 - Pinkerton's Dectective Agency - "Pinkerton's National Detective Agency established."

1850 - Undersea Cable - "First successful undersea telegraph cable between England and France."

1850 - Big Ben Clock Tower - "The Big Ben clock tower is completed in London, England."

1850 - Camptown Races - "Stephen Foster writes the song, Camptown Races."

1851

1851 - 1st Published Story / Sam Clemens - January 16th, 1851: "Sam Clemens publishes his first story in Hannibal's Western Union newspaper."

1851 - Austrailian Gold Rush  - February, 1851: "Ballarat strike begins Austrailian Gold rush. Along with the discovery in California 3 years earlier this leads to a huge expansion in the world's supplies of gold for money."

1851 - Birth / James Churchward - February 27th, 1851: "James Churchward (February 27, 1851-January 4, 1936) is best known as a British born occult writer. However, he was also a patented inventor, engineer, and expert fisherman. [NP] He was the elder brother of the Masonic author Albert Churchward (1852–1925.) He was a tea planter in Sri Lanka before coming to the US in the 1890s. In James' biography entitled My Friend Churchey and His Sunken Continent, he discussed Mu with Augustus LePlongeon and his wife in the 1890s. He patented NCV Steel, armor plating to protect ships during World War I, and other steel alloys. After a patent-infringement settlement in 1914, James retired to his 7+ acre estate on Lake Wononskopomuc in Lakeville, Connecticut, to answer the questions from his Pacific travels. In 1926, at the age of 75, he published The Lost Continent of Mu: Motherland of Man, which he claimed proved the existence of a lost continent, called Mu, in the Pacific Ocean. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Churchward]

1851 - Birth / William Q. Judge - April 13th, 1851: "William Quan Judge (April 13, 1851 – March 21, 1896) was a mystic, esotericist, and occultist, and one of the founders of the original Theosophical Society. He was born in Dublin, Ireland. When he was 13 years old, his family emigrated to the United States. He became a naturalized citizen of the USA at age 21 and passed the New York state bar exam, specializing in commercial law. [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Quan_Judge]

1851 - Pluto / Taurus - May 21st, 1851: Pluto at 0 degrees Taurus; October 15th, R. ...

*Link: http://www.astro.com/swisseph/ae/1800/ae_1851.pdf

1851 - Solar Eclipse - July 8th, 1851: "Solar eclipse over U.S."

1851 - Singer Sewing Machine - August 21st, 1851: "First continuous-stitch sewing machine manufactured by Isaac M. Singer."

1851 - The New York Times - September 18th, 1851: "First edition of The New York Times is published, for 1 cent a copy."

1851 - 1st Y.M.C.A. - December 29th, 1851: "First Y.M.C.A. in U.S. opened in Boston, Massassachutes."

1851 - Prohibition / United States - "Prohibition of 'intoxicating liquors' begins in Maine."

1851 - Fire / U.S. Library of Congress - "Fire destroys much of the Library of Congress."

1852

1852 - Polygamy / United States - August, 1852: "Brighan Young publicly endorsed the doctrine of Polygamy."

1852 - APhA - "Pharmacy in the United States was organized from the top down, not from the bottom up as one might expect. There were, of course, a few local associations, most of which were represented at the founding of the American Pharmaceutical Association [APhA] in 1852; they included local pharmacy societies in Baltimore, Boston, Cincinnati, Hartford, New York City, Philadelphia, and Richmond. All but two of these associations were designated as 'colleges,' a term based on English custom to place pharmacy societies on the same footing as medical societies. The two 1852 local societies not designated as a college were the Connecticut group described by APhA as an 'imperfect association,' and the Richmond Pharmaceutical Association, whose membership was restricted to 'pharmacy proprietors.' There was an eighth local pharmacy group in 1852 called the German Apothecary Society of New York City; it served as a social club for the German pharmacists who had immigrated to America." [Links: 1, 2]

1852 - French Banks - "The Crédit Mobilier, founded in 1852, is the first effective major French bank to be established specifically for providing funds for industry and infrastructure. It is followed by many other new banks in the next two decades. Despite the failure of the Crédit Mobilier in 1867 these banks channel savings into essential investments in transport, communications, agriculture and industry." [Link: 1]

1852 - New Orleans Trivia - "New Orleans, Louisiana, is the third largest city in the U.S."

1852 - U.S. School System - "Massachusetts becomes first state to pass compulsory school attendance. The First public school opened in Boston; also and a public library was founded."

1852 - 2nd Anglo-Burmese War - "Second Anglo-Burmese War begins."

1852 - Emperor Napoleon III / France - "Louis Napoleon proclaims himself Emperor Napoleon III of France."

1852 - Penal Colony / French Guiana  - "French Guiana made the site of a penal colony."

1852 - Kerosine - "Abraham Gessner patents process for distilling Kerosine from petroleum."

1853

1853 - U.S. President Franklin Pierce - March 4th, 1853: "The 14th American President, Franklin Pierce [Democrat], begins his term."

1853 - Sam Clemens / St. Louis - June, 1853: "Sam Clemens begins his travels going to Saint Louis, Missouri."

1853 - Sam Clemens / New York - August 24th, 1853: "Sam Clemens arrives in New York City after a five day trip from Saint Louis."

1853 - Sam Clemens / Philadelphia - December, 1853: "Sam Clemens publishes his first travel letters while working in Philadelphia."

1853 - U.S. Subsidiary Coinage Act - "The silver content of half-dollars, quarters and dimes is reduced by about 7% making it no longer worthwhile to sell them to silver metal dealers. Therefore the new coins remain in circulation." [Link: 1]

1853 - Hypodermic Syringe - "First hypodermic syringe invents by Dr. Alexander Wood, Scotland."

1854

1854 - Sam Clemens / Washington, D.C. - February, 1854: "Sam Clemens visits Washington, D.C."

1854 - Birth / Charles Webster Leadbeater - February 16th, 1854: "Charles Webster Leadbeater (16 February 1854 – 1 March 1934) was a prominent early member of the Theosophical Society, author on the occult and co-founder with J. I. Wedgwood of the Liberal Catholic Church. Originally a clergyman in the Church of England, his interest in spiritualism led him to give up the Church in favour of the Theosophical Society, where he became a protege of Annie Besant. He quickly rose to the upper echelons of that society, but resigned abruptly in 1906 in the midst of accusations that he had been engaging in mutual masturbation with teenage boys left in his care. With Besant's support he was readmitted a few years later, and although similar rumours were to follow him throughout his career, Leadbeater's talents as a prolific author on occult subjects kept him at the forefront of the Theosophical Movement until his death in 1934. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Webster_Leadbeater]

1854 - Sam Clemens / New York City  - March, 1854: "Sam Clemens returns to New York City."

1854 - Crimean War - March 28th, 1854: "The Crimean War begins with Britain and France aiding the Turks against the Russians."

1854 - Japanese / U.S. Trade - March 31st, 1854: "The Treaty of Kanagawa openes two Japanese ports to the western trade and influences."

1854 - Sam Clemens / Iowa - "Sam Clemens moves to Muscatine, Iowa. Works on Orions newspaper."

1854 - Sam Clemens / St. Louis - "Sam Clemens moves to Saint Louis, Missouri."

1854 - Catholic Dogma / Pope Pius IX - "Pope Pius IX declares dogma of Immaculate Conception, and doctrine of papal infallibility."

1854 - Republican Party / United States - "The Republican Party is formed at Ripon, Wisconsin."

1854 - Fiber Optics - "John Tyndall demonstrated the principles of fiber optics."

1854 - Street Cleaners / Philadelphia - December 15th, 1854: "Philadelphia streets first cleaned by machine, 1854." [Based on: The Old Farmer's Almanac (2006) by Robert B. Thomas, p. 99]

1855

1855 - Russian Czar Alexander II - "Nicholas I died in 1855 after a short illness. His son, Alexander II became Czar [March 2nd]. Alexander II became known as the 'liberator Czar' because in 1861, he ordered all serfs freed. Taking the lead of the American President Lincoln, he believed that a happy working class was the key to prosperity. He was very much against this type of slavery, and even survived attempts on his life after he freed the serfs. Between 1864-1865 many social reforms were instituted by Alex II, mostly geared at the newly freed serfs."

1855 - Suspension Bridge / Niagra Falls N.Y. - March 8th, 1855: "The First train crosses the newly completed suspension bridge at Niagara Falls."

1855 - Birth / Swami Shriyukteshwar Giri -

Swami Shriyukteshwar Giri (1855-1936) [NP] This great Jñanavatar ("Incarnation of Knowledge") was originally a householder named Priyanath Karar. He later renounced the world and became known as Swami Shriyukteshwarji. He was one of the foremost disciples of Lahiri Mahasaya, and was vastly learned in astronomy, astrology and mathematics. [....]

[Based on: http://www.hariharananda.org/english/who_we_are/kriya/kriya_linage.htm] - [T.D. - 01/15/07]

1855 - Sam Clemens / Iowa - June-July, 1855: "Sam Clemens travels to Keokuk, Iowa. Visits Florida and Hannibal, Missouri."

1855 - 3rd Seminole War - "The third Seminole War begins."

1856

1850s - Physics Trivia - "In the quarter century following that [1830-1855], Faraday's pioneering ideas about fields were developed by James Clerk Maxwell into our modern theory of electromagnetism. Maxwell not only unified electricity and magnetism, he explained light as an electromagnetic wave. In 1867, he explained the behavior of gases in terms of the atomic theory. During the same period, Rudolf Clausius introduced the notion of entropy." [Based on: Lee Smolin, The Trouble with Physics, p. ix (3rd paragraph - Introduction), copyright 2006]

*Trivia: "[....] Maxwell realized that there should be electromagnetic waves at all frequencies, not just those of visible light, and this led to the discovery of radio, infrared light, ultraviolet light, and so no. This illustrates another historical lesson: When someone proposes the right new unification, the implications become obvious very quickly. Many of these phenomena were observed in the first years after Maxwell published his theory." [Based on: Lee Smolin, The Trouble with Physics, p. 33 (2nd paragraph), copyright 2006]

1855 - Theory of Evolution / A.F. Wallace - "[....] ... Alfred Russel Wallace is believed to have spent weeks in 1855 writing a seminal paper on the theory of evolution. [....] In 1855, he laid out the Sarawak law - named after the place he wrote the paper, now a state in modern Malaysia - in which he described evolution as a branching tree. His forceful argument in support of evolution came at a time when creationism was the popular school of thought. [....] Wallace died in 1913 at age 90. [....]" [Based on: A.P. article (Stature of darwin contemporary is evolving / A.R. Wallace reached same conclusion about evolution before the famed scientist, some experts say.), p. A3, S.L.P.D., 06/29/09]

1856 - 1st Public Speech / Sam Clemens - January 17th, 1856: - "Sam Clemens delivers his first public speech at a printers banquet in Keokuk."

1856 - End / Crimean War - March 30th, 1856: "The Treaty of Paris ends the Crimean War."

1856 - 1st Mississippi Railroad Bridge - April 21st, 1856: "First railroad bridge across Mississippi River constructed."

1856 - Birth / Nikola Tesla - July 9/10th, 1856: "Nikola Tesla was a Serbian-American inventor, electrical engineer, and scientist. He was born on July 9/10, 1856, in Croatia and died on January 7, 1943 in New York City." [Link: 1]

*Trivia: "The Smithsonian Book of Invention is an extra-large hardcover book almost 7/8 of an inch thick. Many inventors and their inventions are shown and their impact on civilization discussed - including Edison, Marconi, Archie Bunker, and Colonel Sanders. Tesla and his epic-causing discoveries are omitted." [Intro by Timothy Green Beckley, The Lost Journals of Nikola Tesla, p. 7]

*Links: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PICxqdd_zvU

1856 - Astronomic Configuration - July 10th, 1856: "Sun 17 Cancer, Moon 14 Libra, Mercury 28 Gemini, Venus 14 Cancer, Mars 18 Libra, Jupiter 8 Aries, Saturn 5 Cancer, Neptune 23 Taurus, Uranus 20 Pisces R, Pluto 5 Taurus."

1856 - Sam Clemens / Amazon - "Sam Clemens decides to go to the Amazon."

1856 - Sam Clemens / Ohio - October 15th, 1856: "Sam Clemens moves to Cincinnati, Ohio."

1856 - 2nd Opium War / China - "The 2nd Opium War begins in China."

1856 - 1st Passenger Elevator - "First passanger elevator developed by Elisha Otis in NYC."

1857

1857 - Earthquake / U.S.A. - January 9th, 1857: "Earthquake location: Fort Tejon, California. Earthquake magnitude: 7.9. Number of recorded fatalities: 1."  

1857 - Sam Clemens / New Orleans - February 16th, 1857: "Sam Clemens leaves Cincinnati for New Orleans on the steamboat Paul Jones."

1857 - U.S. President James Buchanan - March 4th, 1857: "The 15th American President, James Buchanan [Democrat], begins his term."

1857 - Steemboat Career / Sam Clemens - March 4-11th, 1857: "Sam Clemens begins steamboat career as a cub pilot on the Colonel Crossman."

1857 - Dred Scott Decision - March 6th, 1857: "U.S. Supreme Court decision in Dred Scott v. Sanford voids the Missouri Compromise."

*Trivia: "[....] In the 7-2 decision, rendered on March 6, 1857, Chief Justice Roger B. Taney wrote that blacks were not citizens and had 'no rights which the white man is bound to respect.' The ruling greatly increased political tension over slavery and helped lead to the American Civil War four years later. [....] Dred Scott brought the original lawsuit for freedom in April 1846 to the St. Louis Courthouse. [....]" [Based on: St. Louis Post-Dispatch article, p. B1, 02/26/07] 

1857 - Cub Pilot / Sam Clemens - April-December, 1857: "San Clemens cub pilot on the ...Cresent City, ...Rufus J. Lackland, ...John J. Roe, ...William M. Morrison, ...Pennsylvania, ...D.A. January."

1857 - Indian Rebellion - May 10th, 1857: "[....] The Indian Rebellion of 1857 began as a mutiny of sepoys of the British East India Company's army on 10 May 1857, in the town of Meerut, and soon erupted into other mutinies and civilian rebellions largely in the upper Gangetic plain and central India, with the major hostilities confined to present-day Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, northern Madhya Pradesh, and the Delhi region.[3] The rebellion posed a considerable threat to Company power in that region,[4] and it was contained only with the fall of Gwalior on 20 June 1858.[3] The rebellion is also known as India's First War of Independence, the Great Rebellion, the Indian Mutiny, the Revolt of 1857, the Uprising of 1857, the Sepoy Rebellion, and the Sepoy Mutiny. [....] The rebellion led to the dissolution of the East India Company in 1858, and forced the British to reorganize the army, the financial system, and the administration in India.[8] India was thereafter directly governed by the Crown in the new British Raj.[5] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Rebellion_of_1857]

1857 - World-Wide Banking Crisis - October 1857: "World-wide banking crisis starts in the U.S. In the month of October 1,415 US banks are forced to suspend specie payments. Because of huge European, especially British, investment in the US the effects are felt on the other side of the Atlantic. In Germany many of the new idustrial banks founded in the early 1850s fail. However recovery from the crisis is rapid." [Link: 1]

1857 - Ocean Liner - November 3rd, 1857: "The Great Eastern, proto type of modern ocean liners, is launched."

1857 - Mexican War of the Reform - "The Mexican War of the Reform begins."

1857 - Earthquake / Italy - December 16th, 1857: "Earthquake location: Naples, Italy. Earthquake magnitude: 6.9. Number of recorded fatalities: 11,000."  

1858

1858 -  Cub Pilot Sam Clemens / New Falls River - January, 1858: "Sam Clemens cub pilot aboard New Falls River."

1858 - Cub Pilot Sam Clemens / Pennsylvania - February-June, 1858: "Sam Clemens cub pilot aboard the Pennsylvania."

1858 - Pencil & Eraser Combo - March 30th, 1858: "H. Lipman patented pencil and eraser combo, 1858." [Based on: The Old Farmer's Almanac (2006) by Robert B. Thomas, p. 105]

1858 - Minnesota - May 11th, 1858: "The 32nd American state."

1858 - Cub Pilot Sam Clemens - June 5th, 1858: "Sam Clemens, after a fight with pilot William Brown, leaves the Pennsylvania."

1858 - Cub Pilot Sam Clemens / Alfred T. Lacey - July, 1858: "Sam Clemens cub pilot aboard the Alfred T. Lacey."

1858 - Birth / Sawan Singh - "SAWAN SINGH (1858 [July 20th]—1948 A.D.)—The Great Master who succeeded Baba Jaimal Singh Ji Maharaj at Beas." [Based on: http://www.ruhanisatsangusa.org/gloss.htm]
*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baba_Sawan_Singh

              http://groups.google.com/group/alt.religion.eckankar/browse_thread/thread/0560ea865304b67e#

*Trivia: "[....] In fact, except for Maharaj Charan Singh, the Satguru at Beas from 1951 to 1990, Sawan Singh attracted the largest following of any shabd yoga master in history, initiating more than 125,000 people into the mystic practice. [....]" [Based on: http://vclass.mtsac.edu:930/phil/saint.htm]

1858 - British Raj / India - "British Raj 1858–1947"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_India]

1858 - 1st Transatlantic Cable - August, 1858: "First transatlantic telegraph cable is completed, it lasted just 27 days."

1858 - Cub Pilot Sam Clemens / John H. Dickey - August, 1858: "Sam Clemens cub pilot aboard the John H. Dickey."

1858 - Overland Mail / United States - October 9th, 1858: "Overland Mail stagecoach service between San Francisco and St. Louis begins."

1858 - Cub Pilot Sam Clemens / White Cloud and NewFalls River - October, 1858: "Sam Clemens cub pilot aboard the White Cloud and NewFalls River."

1858 - Birth / Theodore Roosevelt - October 27th, 1858: "Theodore Roosevelt is born."

1858 - Cub Pilot Sam Clemens / White Cloud and NewFalls River - December, 1858: "Sam Clemens cub pilot aboard the White Cloud and NewFalls River."

1858 - 1st Y.W.C.A. - "The first YWCA in America opens in Boston, Massachusetts."

1858 - End / 3rd Seminole War - "The third Seminole War ends."

1858 - French Military Forces / Vietnam - "Sigon is occupied by French military forces beginning their involvement in Vietnam."

1858 - Washing Machine - "Hamilton Smith patented the rotary washing machine."

1858 - Origin of Species - "Charles Darwin publishes Origin of the Species."

1859

1859 - Nevada Ore - January 28th, 1859: "The Comstock Load, [gold and silver ore] discovered in Nevada."

1859 - Oregon - February 14th, 1859: "The 33rd American state."

1859 - Pilot License / Sam Clemens - April 9th, 1859: "Sam Clemens receives his pilots license."

1859 - Excavation / Suez Canal - April 25th, 1859: "Excavation of the Suez Canal begins."

1859 - 1st U.S. Oil Well - August 28th, 1859: "First oil well drilled at Titusville, Pennsylvania, striking oil at a depth of 69.5 feet."

1859 - The Superstorm of 1859 - August 28th, 1859: "[....] The first CME arrived on August 28th and was even by modern accounts a major storm in its own right. Visible in the Northern Hemisphere as far south as Cuba. But the real excitement came with the second CME launched a few days later on September 1. [....]"

[Based on: NASA article (Issue #70: The Great Solar Superstorm of 1859) - see link]

*Link: http://sunearthday.gsfc.nasa.gov/2010/TTT/70.php

1859 - Super Solar Flare - September 2nd, 1859: "In September 1859, the sun unleashed a solar flare so intense that the flash of light rivaled the surface brightness of the sun itself. A ferocious geomagnetic storm ensued in which Northern Lights descended as far south as the Bahamas and Hawaii. Meanwhile, telegraph engineers disconnected their batteries and powered communications by electricity from the auroras! Could it happen again? [....]" [Based on: http://spaceweather.com/] - [T.D. - 05/08/08]

*Links: http://spaceweather.com/archive.php?view=1&day=06&month=01&year=2009

*More Links: http://www.geomag.bgs.ac.uk/carrington.html
                        http://www.physics.otago.ac.nz/space/10Sept08_Accepted_Carrington_MS.pdf

1859 - Astronomic Configuration - September 2nd, 1859: "Sun [8 Virgo], Moon [13 Scorpio], Mercury [1 Virgo], Venus [1 Virgo], Mars [25 Leo], Jupiter [18 Cancer], Saturn [18 Leo], Uranus [7 Gemini], Neptune [26 Pisces R.], Pluto [8 Taurus R.]." [Based on: http://www.astro.com/swisseph/ae/1800/ae_1859.pdf]

1859 - Pilot Sam Clemens - May-October, 1859: "Sam Clemens pilots on the ...Alfred T. Lacey, ...J.C. Swan, ...Edward J. Gay, ...A.B. Chambers."

1859 - Birth / Henri Bergson - October 18th, 1859: "Henri-Louis Bergson (October 18, 1859 – January 4, 1941) was a major French philosopher, influential in the first half of the 20th century. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henri_Bergson]

1859 - A Tale of Two Cities - April 20th, 1859: "Charles Dickens publishes A Tale of Two Cities."

1860

1860 - Famine / Sweden - "Between the years 1860 and 1910 almost a million Swedes left for America in connection with several years of famine, poverty and difficulties in providing for themselves." [Juri Lina, The Barnes Review, September/October 2004, p. 13]

1860 - First Russian Marxist / Nicholas Utin - "In the 1860s and '70s, Jewish activists occupied some of the highest positions in the fledgling Russian revolutionary movement. The 'pioneer of Russian-Jewish revolutionary action' was Nicholas Utin, a baptised Jew who was instrumental in creating a Russian Section in the First International. Known as the first Russian Marxist, Utin was prominent in the struggle of the International's Marxian wing against the anarchistic tactics of Bakunin.
   "Utin was followed by a great number of Jews including Mark Natanson, the founder of the Russian Narodnik movement, Paul Axeirod who together with George Plckahnov and Vera Zasulitch formed the 'Triumvirate' of the founders of the Russian Social-Democratic movement in 1883, Rosalie Bograd who married Plekhanov, Meir Molodetsky, Gregory Goldenberg, Mw Deutch, Vladimir Jochelson, Aaron Sundelievitch, and Hesya Helfmann, who was among those sentenced to death for the assassination of Czar Alexander." [Link: 1]

1860 - Pilot Sam Clemens  / City of Memphis - March-July, 1860: "Sam Clemens pilots on the City of Memphis."

1860 - Pony Express / United States - April 3rd, 1860: "Pony Express begins operations between Saint Joseph, Missouri and sacramento, California."

1860 - Japanese Ambassador / U.S.A. - April 25th, 1860: "The first Japanese ambassador to the U.S. arrives in Washington D.C."

1860 - Pilot Sam Clemens /  Arago- July 28-August 31st, 1860: "Sam Clemens pilots on the Arago."

1860 - Trivia / Annie Oakley - August 13th, 1860:

   Long before television, entertainers traveled from town to town. One of America's favorites was markswoman Annie Oakley [Born: August 13th, 1860. Died: November 3rd, 1926]. In her day, she was as well-known as any of today's rock musicians or movie stars.
   Annie Oakley, whose real name was Phoebe Ann Moses, was the sixth of eight children in a family of Ohio pioneers. She had a hard childhood. After her father died of frostbite after being caught in a snowstorm, Annie learned to hunt to help feed her family. She later became a good enough shot to sell meat to big-city hotels and animal pelts to fur traders.
   In 1875, when she was 15, a marksman named Frank Butler came to town with his traveling show. Butler was offering a prize of $100 to anyone who could out-shoot him. Annie Oakley showed up and won the prize. A year later, the two were married.
   Annie went on the road with her husband's show and soon became internationally famous. Everywhere they went, huge crowds came to see her sharpshooting. They eventually joined Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show, where Annie was one of the star attractions for 17 years.
   How good was she? From 30 paces she could hit the edge of a playing card, a dime tossed in the air, or a cigarette held between her husband's lips. Once, while she was performing in Berlin, Germany, the Prussian Crown Prince insisted on holding the cigarette for that particular trick. (If she had shot him instead of the cigarette, the course of world history would have been changed, for it was the Crown Prince - later known as Kaiser Wilhelm II - who started World War I in 1914).
   Annie and her husband retired in 1901.
   The Irving Berlin musical 'Annie Get Your Gun,' is based on Oakley's life. Oakley never had children, but just before her death she made a generous gift to children. She melted down all the gold medals she had won during her career, sold the gold, and donated the money to a children's home in the South.

[Based on: Article (Annie Oakley Entertainer (1860-1926), p. E2, S.L.P.D., 03/16/06]
*Links:
http://www.traphof.org/inductees/oakley.htm

1860 - Pilot Sam Clemens / Alonzo Child - September 19th, 1860: "Sam Clemens pilots on the Alonzo Child, his last job as steamboat pilot."

1860 - President Abraham Lincoln - November 6th, 1860: Abraham Lincoln elected president with less than 40 per cent of the votes."

1860 - Secession / South Carolina - December 20th, 1860: "South Carolina is the first state to secede from the Union."

1860 - End / 2nd Opium War - "The 2nd opium War ends with the signing of the Peking Convention."

1860 - 1st International Chemical Congress  - "The first international chemical congress convened and established the theory of atomic weights where hydrogen was attributed the lowest value of 1."

1860 - Only Just Beginning? / "Science of Religion" - 1860: " 'The science of religion,' wrote max Muller in 1860, 'is only just beginning.... During the last fifty years the authentic documents of the most important religions in the world have been recovered in a most unexpected and almost miraculous manner. We have now before us the Canonical books of Buddhism; the Zend-Avesta of Zoroaster is no longer a sealed book; and the hyms of the Rig-Veda have revealed a state of religions anterior to the first beginnings of that mythology which in Homer and Hesiod stands before us as a mouldering ruin' " [Based on: H.P. Blavatsky, Isis Unveiled, reprint (1998, Vol. 2) of the 1877 edition, p. 26]

1861

1861 - Offering Satsang / Shiv Dayal Singh - January 1861:

   Soamiji Maharaj Shiv Dayal Singh (1818–1878) (also known as Siva Dayal Sahib), the first Satguru of Radhasoami, was born August 25, 1818, into a khatri family, residing in Panni Gali, Agra, India. On the request of his disciple, Rai Saligram Bahadur, also known as Hazur Maharaj, he began offering satsang on Basant-Panchami day in January 1861. Around 1866, the satsang was named “Radhasoami Satsang." Soamiji Maharaj presided over the satsang meetings for seventeen years at Panni Gali and Soami Bagh in Agra until he died on June 15, 1878. [....]

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shiv_Dayal_Singh]

1861 - Trivia / Kriya Yoga - "Throughout the history of creation, the divine teachings of Kriya Yoga were introduced and lost countless times, in accordance with the different cycles of human consciousness. [NP] The contemporary re-introduction of Kriya Yoga began in 1861 in a remote mountain cave in northern India, and has been since then transmitted through an unbroken lineage of realized masters."

[Based on: http://www.hariharananda.org/english/who_we_are/kriya/kriya_linage.htm] - [T.D. - 01/15/07]
[Other links: http://www.geocities.com/chelab4/]

*Trivia:

According to Yogananda, Kriya Yoga was well-known in ancient India, but was eventually lost, due to "priestly secrecy and man’s indifference." The story of Lahiri Mahasaya receiving initiation into Kriya Yoga by the immortal yogi Mahavatar Babaji in 1861 is recounted in Autobiography of a Yogi.[2] At that meeting, Yogananda wrote that Mahavatar Babaji told Lahiri Mahasaya, "The Kriya Yoga that I am giving to the world through you in this nineteenth century, is a revival of the same science that Krishna gave milleniums ago to Arjuna; and was later known to Patanjali and Christ."  

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kriya_Yoga] - [T.D. - 01/15/07]

1861 - Sam Clemens / Nrew Orleans - January 24-29th, 1861: "Sam Clemens stays in New Orleans aboard the Alonzo Child."

1861 - Kansas - January 29th, 1861: "The 34th American state."

1861 - Southern Secession - January, 1861: "Five more Southern states secede from the Union."

1861 - Secession / Alabama - January 11th, 1861: "Alabama seceded from the Union, 1861." [Based on: The Old Farmer's Almanac (2006) by Robert B. Thomas, p. 101]

1861 - Confederate Constitution / U.S.A - February, 1861: "At a convention in Montgomery, Alabama, the seven seceding states created the Confederate Constitution, a document similar to the United States Constitution, but with greater stress on the autonomy of each state. Jefferson Davis was named provisional president of the Confederacy until elections could be held." [Link: 1]

1861 - Secession / Texas  - February 23rd, 1861: "Texas secedes from the Union."

1861 - Birth / Rudolph Steiner - February 1861: "Rudolf Joseph Lorenz Steiner[1] (25 or 27 February 1861[2] in Donji Kraljevec, then Kingdom of Hungary, Austrian Empire – 30 March 1925 in Dornach, Switzerland) was an Austrian philosopher, social thinker, architect, and esotericist.[3][4] He gained initial recognition as a literary critic and cultural philosopher. At the beginning of the 20th century, he founded a spiritual movement, Anthroposophy, as an esoteric philosophy growing out of European transcendentalism and with links to Theosophy. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rudolf_Steiner]

1861 - Nevada / Dakota Territories - March 2nd, 1861: "Nevada and Dakota become U.S. territories."

1861 - Unratified / U.S. Slavery Amendment - March 3rd, 1861: "Unratified slavery amendment."

1861 - U.S. President Abraham Lincoln - March 4th, 1861: "The 16th American President, Abraham Lincoln [Republican], begins his term. At Lincoln's inauguration the new president said he had no plans to end slavery in those states where it already existed, but he also said he would not accept secession. He hoped to resolve the national crisis without warfare."

1861 - Confederate States of America - March 11th, 1861: "Constitution of the Confederate States of America adopted."

1861 - Birth / Sankar Misra - March 28th, 1861: "Pandit Brahm Sankar Misra known as Maharaj Saheb, the third Guru in the parent line of the succession was born on March 28, 1861, in a respectable Brahmin family of Varanasi.

[Based on: http://www.radhasoami-faith.info/Maharaj_Saheb.shtml]

1861 - Pluto 8 Degrees Taurus - April 12th, 1861: Pluto 8 / 34 degrees Taurus.

*Link: http://www.astro.com/swisseph/ae/1800/ae_1861.pdf

1861 - Beginning / American Civil War - April 12th, 1861: "When President Lincoln planned to send supplies to Fort Sumter, he alerted the state in advance, in an attempt to avoid hostilities. South Carolina, however, feared a trick. On April 10, 1861, Brig. Gen. Beauregard, in command of the provisional Confederate forces at Charleston, South Carolina, demanded the surrender of the Union garrison of Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor. The Garrison commander Anderson refused. On April 12, Confederate batteries opened fire on the fort, which was unable to reply effectively. At 2:30 p.m., April 13, Major Anderson surrendered Fort Sumter, evacuating the garrison on the following day. The bombardment of Fort Sumter was the opening engagement of the American Civil War. Although there were no casualties during the bombardment, one Union artillerist was killed and three wounded [one mortally] when a cannon exploded prematurely when firing a salute during the evacuation. From 1863 to 1865, the Confederates at Fort Sumter withstood a 22 month siege by Union forces. During this time, most of the fort was reduced to brick rubble. Fort Sumter became a national monument in 1948." [Link: 1]

*Trivia: "In American history books there is nothing about the role of the banks in the first and second American wars of independence (that is 1775-83 and 1812-1814). Neither is there anything about the debt-free 'greenbacks' that Abraham Lincoln issued. Their existence is only verified by a few encyclopedias.
   "To finance the American Civil War, which broke out on April 12,1861, President Abraham Lincoln was forced to utilize the right of the Congress to issue its own currency. Between the years 1862 to 1864, 450 million interestfree 'greenbacks' were printed. Lincoln promised at his re-election in 1864 to begin fighting the banks as soon as the war was over. Lord Goschen, the representative of the financial world, wrote in The London Times: 'If this financial policy becomes permanent, the government can without expenses acquire necessary monetary provision. It can pay its debt and repay its loans without debt. It will have enough money to trade (on the open market). It is going to be more healthy than any other (before) in history. If we do not overthrow this government, it will overthrow us.'
   "The North during the Civil War was financed by the Rothschilds through their American agent August Belmont (actually Schoenberg) and the South by the Erlanger brothers who were related to the Rothschild family." [Based on: article by Juri Lina, The Barnes Review, p. 10]

*Links: http://www.guidetoonlineschools.com/library/civil-war-teachers

1861 - Non Military Status / Women Nurses, U.S.A. - 1861-1865: "For the first time, the U.S. recruits about 4,200 women to serve with the army as nurses, without military status." [Based on: St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p. A10, 07/10/05]

1861 - Robert E. Lee / Confederate Army - April 20th, 1861: "Robert E. Lee resigns from the Union Army to join the Confederacy."

1861 - Sam Clemens - April 25th, 1861: "Sam Clemens career as a river pilot ends when the Civil War closes off the Mississippi River."

1861 - Renewed Pilot License / Sam Clemens - May 20th, 1861: "Sam Clemens renews his pilots license."

1861 - Sam Clemens / St. Louis Masonic Lodge - May 21st, 1861: "Sam Clemens joins the Saint Louis, Missouri Masonic Lodge."

1861 - Birth / Babuji Maharaj - June 19th, 1861: "[....] Babuji Maharaj was the last of the Nij Anshas who came in the time of Soamiji Maharaj. His life on earth coincided practically with the growth of Radhasoami Satsang established in 1861, the year of his birth. His association with the Satsang was the longest of all. So with His departure at the ripe age of 88, closed the biggest chapter in the history of Radhasoami Satsang. [....] In the early hours of the 12th day of the bright half of the month of Jeth, in the year 1918 of the Vikram Calendar, (Wednesday, the 19th June 1861), Babuji Maharaj was born as a grandson to the elder sister of Soamiji Maharaj, at Varanasi (Benares). [....] Babuji Maharaj's name was Madhav Prasad Sinha but, out of love and affection he was called "Raja" (King). [....]"

[Based on: http://www.radhasoami-faith.info/Babuji_Maharaj.shtml]

1861 - Organization / Nevada Territory - July 8th, 1861: "Governor James W. Nye begins organizing Nevada Territory."

1861 - Sam Clemens / Nevada - July 26th, 1861: "Sam Clemens and brother Orion, head for Nevada by stagecoach."

1861 - Sam Clemens - August 1861: "Sam Clemens meets Brigham Young president of the Mormon church."

1861 - Marshall Law / Missouri - August 30th, 1861: "President Abraham Lincoln proclaims martial law in Missouri."

1861 - End / Pony Express - October 26th, 1861: "The Pony Express goes out of business after only 18 month of operation."

1861 - Confederate John Tyler - November 7th, 1861: "Former president John Tyler is elected to the Confederate House of Representatives."

1861 - Birth / "Swami Premananda" - December 10th, 1861: "The name 'Swami Premananda' given to Baburam by Swami Vivekananda at the time of accepting the monastic orders, was a true reflection of his basic trait universal love. Born to affluent parents on December 10, 1861, Baburam completed his early schooling in his village of Antpur (Bengal), came to Calcutta for higher education and joined the Metropolitan Institution. There he had the privilege of having Sri 'M' ( Mahendranath Gupta ), the celebrated author of The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna as his Headmaster and Rakhal ( Swami Brahmananda) as his class-mate. It was the latter who was instrumental in taking Baburam to Sri Ramakrishna. Sri Ramakrishna examined Baburam's features in his own, rather queer, way and was satisfied about his high spiritual potentialities. Increased contacts with Sri Ramakrishna intensified Baburam's inherent spiritual thirst which had been manifesting itself even from his childhood. After the passing away of Sri Ramakrishna, Baburam, along with his brother-disciples like Narendranath (Swami Vivekananda) and Rakhal embrace the monastic life, becoming 'Swami Premananda.' He spent most of his life in the monasteries at Baranagore, Alambazar and Belur taking care of worship, internal management and training of the new monastic recruits. [....] The deadly disease of Kala Azar took him on the 30th July 1918. [....]"

[Based on: http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Acropolis/1863/prem.html] - [T.D. - 01/07/07]

1861 - Central Pacific Railroad Co. - "The Central Pacific railroad company is formed."

1862

1862 - 1st Federal Income Tax / United States - January 1st, 1862: "First federal income tax, of 3 per cent, introduced to finance the Civil War."

1862 - Confederate President Jefferson Davis / United States - February 22nd, 1862: "Jefferson Davis inaugurated president of Confederate States of America."

1862 - Sam Clemens / Nevada - February-August, 1862: "Sam Clemens works silver mines at Aurora, Nevada."

1862 - U.S. Naval Battle / Monitor & Merrimac - March 9th, 1862: "In an attempt to reduce the North's great naval advantage, Confederate engineers converted a scuttled Union frigate, the U.S.S. Merrimac, into an iron-sided vessel rechristened the C.S.S. Virginia. On March 9, in the first naval engagement between ironclad ships, the Monitor fought the Virginia to a draw, but not before the Virginia had sunk two wooden Union warships off Norfolk, Virginia."

1862 - Battle of Shiloh, Tennessee - April 6-7th, 1862: "The Battle of Shiloh, Tennessee [3,482 dead, 16,420 wounded]."

1862 - Homestead Act - May 20th, 1862: "President Lincoln signs the Homestead Act. The Homestead Act opened up Indian land in Kansas and Nebraska to homesteaders, who were deeded 160 acre plots after inhabiting them for five years."

1862 - Trivia / U.S. Treason - June 7th, 1862: "William Bruce Mumford is the first U.S. citizen to be hanged for Treason."

1862 - Trivia / Medal of Honor - July 12th, 1862: "The U.S. Congress authorizes the 'Medal of Honor'."

1862 - Gatling Gun - November 4th, 1862: "The Gatling Gun, firing 250 rounds a minute, is patented by Dr. Richard Gatling."

1863

1863 - Emancipation Proclamation / U.S.A. - January 1st, 1863: "In an effort to placate the slave-holding border states, Lincoln resisted the demands of radical Republicans for complete abolition. Yet some Union generals, such as General B. F. Butler, declared slaves escaping to their lines 'contraband of war,' not to be returned to their masters. Other generals decreed that the slaves of men rebelling against the Union were to be considered free. Congress, too, had been moving toward abolition. In 1861, Congress had passed an act stating that all slaves employed against the Union were to be considered free. In 1862, another act stated that all slaves of men who supported the Confederacy were to be considered free. Lincoln, aware of the public's growing support of abolition, issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, declaring that all slaves in areas still in rebellion were, in the eyes of the federal government, free." [Link: 1]

1863 - Birth / "Swami Vivekananda" - January 12th, 1863: "Swami Vivekananda (... Shami Bibekanondo), whose pre-monastic name was Narendranath Dutta (... Nôrendronath Dotto, and who was also known as Swami Vividishananda) and was affectionately known to some as Naren (January 12, 1863 - July 4, 1902) was one of the most famous and influential spiritual leaders of the philosophies of Vedanta and Yoga. He was the chief disciple of Ramakrishna Paramahamsa and was the founder of Ramakrishna Math and Ramakrishna Mission. Many consider him an icon for his fearless courage, his positive exhortations to the youth, his broad outlook on social problems, and countless lectures and discourses on Vedanta philosophy. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swami_Vivekananda] - [T.D. - 01/07/07]

1863 - Sam Clemens / Mark Twain - February 3rd, 1863: "Sam Clemens first use of the pen name Mark Twain."

1863 - Conscription Act  / United States - March, 1863: "Because of recruiting difficulties, an act was passed making all men between the ages of 20 and 45 liable to be called for military service. Service could be avoided by paying a fee or finding a substitute. The act was seen as unfair to the poor, and riots in working-class sections of New York City broke out in protest. A similar conscription act in the South provoked a similar reaction."

1863 - West Virginia - June 20th, 1863: "The 35th American state."

1863 - Battle of Gettysburg / Pennsylvania - July 1-3rd, 1863: "A chance encounter between Union and Confederate forces began the Battle of Gettysburg. In the fighting that followed, Meade had greater numbers and better defensive positions. He won the battle, but failed to follow Lee as he retreated back to Virginia. Militarily, the Battle of Gettysburg was the high-water mark of the Confederacy; it is also significant because it ended Confederate hopes of formal recognition by foreign governments."
   Reportedly: "The Battle of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, resulted in 7,155 dead and 23,365 wounded."

1863 - Draft Riots / New York City - July 11-14th, 1863: "50,000 demonstrate and hundreds killed in New York City's Draft Riots."

1863 - Personal Misfortune / Sam Clemens - July 26th, 1863: "Fire in a Nevada City, Nevada, hotel destroys all of Sam Clemens belongings."

1863 - Battle of Chickamauga / Georgia - September 19-20th, 1863: "The Battle of Chickamauga, Georgia, [4,045 dead, 23,161 wounded]."

1863 - General Ulysses S. Grant / Union Army - October 16th, 1863: "General Ulysses S. Grant takes command of Union's western armies."

1863 - Sam Clemens / A Bloody Massacre - October 28th, 1863: "Sam Clemens publishes A Bloody Massacre Near Carson, as a practical joke."

1863 - Gettysburg Address / Abraham Lincoln - Novenmber 19th, 1863: "President Lincoln dedicated a portion of the Gettysburg battlefield as a national cemetery, and delivered his memorable 'Gettysburg Address.' " [Link: 1]

1863 - Partial Lunar Eclipse - "November 25th"

1863 - Thanksgiving Day / U.S.A. - October, 1863: "President Lincoln proclaims the fourth Thursday in November as Thanksgiving Day."

1863 - French Forces / Mexico City - "In 1863, French forces capture Mexico City and install Austrian Archduke Maximillian as pupet ruler."

1863 - 1st Roller Skate - "First roller skate using four wheels was patented by James Plimpton."

1863 -  1st Ladies Dress Patern - "First ladies dress patern for home use manufactured by Ebenezer Butterick."

1863 - The Man Without A Country - "Edward Everett Hale publishes The Man Without A Country."

1864

1864 - Sam Clemens / Hawaii - March 7th, 1864: "Sam Clemens sails to Hawaii as a Sacremento Union correspondent."

1864 - General Grant / Union Army - March 10th, 1864: "General Grant takes command of all Union troops."

1864 - Emperor Maximilian / Mexico - April 10th, 1864: "France makes Maximilian emperor of Mexico."

1864 - Sam Clemens / Nevada - Sam Clemens - May 21st, 1864: "In Virginia City, Nevada, Sam Clemens challenges James Laird to a duel."

1864 - Sam Clemens / San Francisco - July 19th, 1864: "Sam Clemens returns to San Francisco, California."

1864 - Nevada - October 31st, 1864: "The 36th American state."

1864 - Re-Election / Abraham Lincoln - November 4th, 1864: "Abraham Lincoln re-elected president of the United States."

1864 - March to the Sea / General Sherman  - November 14th, 1864: "General Sherman continued his march through Georgia to the sea. In the course of the march, he cut himself off from his source of supplies, planning for his troops to live off the land. His men cut a path 300 miles in length and 60 miles wide as they passed through Georgia, destroying factories, bridges, railroads, and public buildings."

1864 - Sam Clemens / New York - December 15th, 1864: "Sam Clemens sails for New York."

1864 - Battle of Nashville - December 15-16th, 1864: "The Battle of Nashville, Tennessee, [app. 9,000 dead, wounded or missing]."

1864 - Navajo "Long Walk" - "As white settlers and prospectors pushed westward in the latter half of the 19th century, displacement of Native Americans from their ancestral homelands became commonplace. One of the most tragic episodes of exile was the Long Walk in 1864, when Kit Carson rounded up 8,000 Navajos and forced them to walk more than 300 miles from northeastern Arizona and northwestern New Mexico to Bosque Redondo, a desolate tract on the Pecos River in eastern New Mexico."

1864 - 1st U.S. Accident Insurance - "First accident insurance policy issued to James Bolter of Hartford, Connecticut."

1864 - Pasteurization - "Louis Pasteur discovers a process to preserve beverages, known today as 'pasteurization'."

1864 - Journey To The Center Of The Earth - "Jules Verne publishes Journey To The Center Of The Earth."

1864 - Mark Twain - "Mark Twain publishes Advice for Good Little Girl's, and Advice for Good Little Boy's."

1865

1865 - Passed / 13th U.S. Amendment - January 31st, 1865: "13th U.S. Constitutional amendment ['Slavery Abolished'] passed." [Link: 1]

1865 - President Abraham Lincoln / 2nd Term  - March 4th, 1865: "Abraham Lincoln begins second term as president of U.S."

1865 - Appomattox - April 9th, 1865: "General Lee's troops were soon surrounded, and on April 7, Grant called upon Lee to surrender. On April 9, the two commanders met at Appomattox Courthouse, and agreed on the terms of surrender. Lee's men were sent home on parole - soldiers with their horses, and officers with their side arms. All other equipment was surrendered."

1865 - Fatality / Abraham Lincoln - "On April 14, as President Lincoln was watching a performance of 'Our American Cousin' at Ford's Theater in Washington, D.C., he was shot by John Wilkes Booth, an actor from Maryland obsessed with avenging the Confederate defeat. Lincoln died the next morning. Booth escaped to Virginia. Eleven days later, cornered in a burning barn, Booth was fatally shot by a Union soldier. Nine other people were involved in the assassination; four were hanged, four imprisoned, and one acquitted."

1865 - U.S. President Andrew Johnson - April 15th, 1865: "The 17th American President, Andrew Johnson [Democrat], begins his term."

1865 - 1st Train Robbery - May 5th, 1865: "First train robbery took place in Ohio."

1865 - Confederate Defeat - "May 10th, 1865: "Remaining Confederate troops were defeated between the end of April and the end of May. Jefferson Davis was captured in Georgia on May 10."

1865 - Last Battle / U.S. Civil War - May 13th, 1865: "The engagement at Palmito Ranch, Texas, is the last battle of the Civil War."

1865 - End / U.S. Civil War - May 26th, 1865: "General Kirby Smith surrenders all Confederate troop west of the Mississippi, 26 May."

*Trivia: "The Civil War ended on April 9, 1865, and international Freemasonry got busy to remove President Lincoln." [Based on: article by Juri Lina, The Barnes Review, p. 10]

*Trivia: "The assassination of Lincoln was carried out by John Wilkes Booth (Botha), a Freemason of the 33rd degree, on April 15, 1865 in Washington, D.C., only six days after the end of the Civil War. Izola Forrester, Booth's granddaughter, stated in her book, This One Mad Act (1937), that Booth belonged to the lodge Knights of the Golden Circle and also Giuseppe Mazzini's 'revolutionary' movement Young America. Izola Forrester revealed in detail that the Freemasons were involved in the assassination of the president. Booth was soon eliminated.
   "The above-mentioned Masonic lodge Knights of the Golden Circle was mixed up in the plot. This name had begun to be seen in the press, and so the Freemason leader Albert Pike in 1866 decided to rename it the Ku Klux Klan; 'kyklos' in Greek meaning 'circle.'
   "It was officially founded as a new organization in 1866 in Pulaski, Tennessee. In 1882 it was banned. The present group with the same name was founded in 1915 by William Joseph Simmons and thus has not grown out of the Masonic lodge that existed in the 1860s and 1870s.
   "After the demise of Lincoln, things were 'normalized.' The amount of money in circulation, which in 1866 amounted to $1.9 billion or $50.46 per capita, had by 1876 been reduced to $605 million or $14.60 per person.
   "As a result there were 56,446 bankruptcies in 10 years and a loss of $2 billion. In 1887 the Masonic bankers reduced the money amount further to $6.67 per head. The Irish writer Margrit Kennedy stated in the book Interest and Inflation Free Money that the interest rate always goes up when there is a shortage of money. This in turn leads to bankruptcies and worsens the unemployment rate." [Based on: article by Juri Lina, The Barnes Review, pp. 10-11]

1865 - Earthquake / U.S.A. - October 8th, 1865: "Earthquake location: San Jose, California. Earthquake magnitude: 6.5. Number of recorded fatalities: 0."  

1865 - Ratification / 13th U.S. Amendment - December 6th, 1865: "13th U.S. Constitutional amendment ['Slavery Abolished'] ratified. At the time when slavery was abolished, nearly 539,000 Americans [1/5th of the total U.S. population] were owned by others" [Link: 1]

1865 - King Leopold II / Belgium - December 10th, 1865: "Leopold II becomes king of Belgium."

1865 - Founded / Ku Klux Klan - "The Ku Klux Klan founded in Pulaski, Tennessee by Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest."

1866 - U.S. Southern Reconstruction Era - "Reconstruction Era begins in the South."

1865 - Protestant Native American Missionary Schools - "The United States gives contracts to Protestant missionary societies to operate Indian schools."

1865 - 1st Coffee Percolator - "First coffee percolator patented by James Nason."

1865 - Alice's Adventures In Wonderland - "Lewis Carroll, Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, publishes Alice's Adventures In Wonderland."

1866

1866 - Mark Twain / Sandwich Islands - March 7th, 1866: "Mark Twain sails for the Sandwich Islands as a traveling correspondent aboard the SS Ajax."

1866 - Passed / 14th U.S. Amendment - June 13th, 1866: "14th U.S. Constitutional amendment ['Citizenship Rights'] passed." [Link: 1]

1866 - Mark Twain / San Francisco - August 13th, 1866: "Mark Twain returns to San Francisco from the Sandwich Islands aboard the clipper ship Smyrniote."

1866 - 1st Lecture / Mark Twain - October 2nd, 1866: "Mark Twain delivers his first lecture to a San Francisco audience."

1866 - S.P.C.A. - "First American chapter of the S.P.C.A. established in New York."

1866 - Railroad Enabling Act - "Railroad Enabling Act appropriates Indian lands for railway use."

1866 - Jacob Henry Schiff  / N.Y City - "Schiff, Jacob Henry, was born In 1847, at Frankfort on-the- Maine, Germany. He received his education in the schools of Frankfort. In 1866 he came to America, where he settled in New York City. Here, he joined the staff of a banking house. In 1873, he returned to Europe where he made connections with some of the chief German banking horses. Upon returning to the United States, he entered the banking firm of Kuhn, Loeb and Company, New York of which he later became the head. His firm became the financial reconstructors of the Union Pacific Railroad, and since then is strongly interested in American railroad.
   "Mr. Schiff's principle of community of interests among the chief railway combinations led to the formation of the Northern Securities Company, thus suppressing ruinous competition. The firm of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. floated the large Japanese War Loans of 1904-5, thus making possible the Japanese victory over Russia. Mr. Schiff is director of numerous financial companies, among them the Central Trust company. Western Union Telegraph Company, the Wells Fargo Express Company. He has been severer time vice-president of the New York Chamber of Commerce.
   "Mr. Schiff has always used his wealth and his influence in the best interests of his people. He financed the enemies of autocratic Russia and used his financial influence to keep Russia from the money market of the United States." [Link: 1]

1866 - Yo-yo - November 20th, 1866: "Yo-yo patented, 1866." [Based on: The Old Farmer's Almanac (2006) by Robert B. Thomas, p. 97]

1866 - Tin Can - "J. Osterhoudt patented the tin can with a key opener."

1866 - Root Beer - "The first Root Beer created by Charles Hines."

1866 - Dynamite - "Alfred Nobel process to safely handle nitroglycerin, he called it dynamite."

1866 - Crime and Punishment - "Fedor Dostoevski published Crime and Punishment, in Russia."

1867

1867 - Nebraska - March 1st, 1867: "The 37th American state."

1867 - Alaska Territory - March 30th, 1867: "United States purchase of the Alaska territory [from Russia, for 7.2 million dollars.]"

1867 - 1st Published Book / Mark Twain - May, 1867: "Mark Twain publishes his first book, The Celebrated Jumping Frog Story of Calaveras County And Other Sketches."

1867 - Mark Twain / Mediterranean - June 8th, 1867: "Mark Twain sails aboard the SS Quaker City for a 6 month tour of the Mediterranean."

1867 - Fatality / Emperor Maximilian [Mexico] - June 19th, 1867: "Mexican troops execute emperior Maximilian."

1867- Canadian Confederation - July 1st, 1867: "Canada becomes a Dominion with the British Empire."

1867 - Mark Twain / Bermuda - November 11th, 1867: "Sam Clemens visits the island of Bermuda for the first time."

1867 - Mark Twain / New York - November 19th, 1867: "Mark Twain returns to New York after touring the Mediterranean."

1867 - Diamonds / South Africa - "Diamonds are discovered in South Africa."

1867 - First Paperback Book / Germany - "The first paperback book was sold in Leipzig, Germany."

1868

1868 - Impeachment / President Johnson, U.S.A. - February 24th, 1868: "The House impeaches President Johnson."

1868 - Earthquake / Hawaii - April 3rd, 1868: "Earthquake location: Hilea, SE Hawaii, HI. Earthquake magnitude: 7.9. Number of recorded fatalities: 77."  

1868 - Acquital / President Johnson, U.S.A. - May 16th, 1868: "The Senate acquits President Johnson."

1868 - Cost / American Indian Wars - "The Commissioner of Indian Affairs estimates the Indian Wars in the West are costing the government 1 million dollars per Indian killed."

1868 - Ratification / 14th U.S. Amendment - July 9th, 1868: " 4th U.S. Constitutional amendment ['Citizenship Rights'] ratified. Native American Indians are denied the right to vote as a result of the 14th Amendment." [Link: 1]

1868 - Earthquake / Peru, Ecuador - August 13-14th, 1868: "Earthquake location: Peru, Ecuador. Earthquake magnitude: N/A. Number of recorded fatalities: 40,000."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 208]

1868 - Earthquake / U.S.A. - October 21st, 1868: "Earthquake location: Hayward, California. Earthquake magnitude: 6.8. Number of recorded fatalities: 30."  

1868 - Discovered / Ancient Troy? - "[....] Heinrich Schliemann, an amateur German archaeologist, found the site of ancient Troy in 1868. He led ambitious excavations that proved he was right. [....] [Based on: A.P. article, p. A12, S.L.P.D., 08/18/05]

1868 - Excavation / Cro- Magnon Man - "The first examples of homo sapiens were unearthed at Cro-Magnon in the Dordogne region of France."

1869

1869 - Passed / 15th U.S. Amendment - February 26th, 1869: " 15th U.S. Constitutional amendment ['Race no bar to vote'] passed." [Link: 1]

1869 - U.S. President Ulysses S. Grant - March 4th, 1869: "The 18th American President, Ulysses S. Grant [Republican], begins his term."

1869 - U.S. Railroads - May 10th, 1869: "The Union and Pacific railways meet at Promontary Point, Utah."

1869 - Mark Twain / Innocents Abroad - July, 1869: "Mark Twain publishes Innocents Abroad."

1869 - Mark Twain / Buffalo N.Y. - August, 1869: "Mark Twain starts work as a journalist at the Buffalo Express."

1869 - Mark Twain / A Day at Niagara - August 21st, 1869: "Mark Twain publishes A Day at Niagara."

1869 - Open for Traffic / Suez Canal - November 17th, 1869: "Suez Canal opens to ship traffic."

1869 - Brooklyn Bridge - "Construction of the Brooklyn Bridge begins."

1869 - Beatification / Joan of Arc - "Beatification of Joan of Arc begins."

1869 - Museum of Natural History - "The American Museum of Natural History founded in New York City."

1869 - Bible Criticism / The Religion of Israel - "[....] In 1869 Kuenen's The Religion of Israel established Bible criticism as a valid field of investigation. He was followed by many others in Holland, Germany, and France. In 1889 the book of biblical essays called Lux Mundi gave up all pretense of the scriptures' historicity or divine inspiration, admitting that the Bible is a confused mass of myth, legend, and garbled history, often contradicting provable facts. [....] After David Straus's Leben Jesu disposed of the historicity of the Gospel stories, and Renan's Vie de Jesus showed that the Gospels cannot be taken as literal truth but only as romantic symbolism, the Rev. Maurice Jones exclaimed, 'If the Christ-Myth theory is true, and if Jesus never lived, the whole civilized world has for close upon two thousand years lain under the spell of a lie.' The Archbishop of Canterbury found it impossible to deny the Bible's apparent lies, and began to backtrack with his plaintive question, 'May not the Holy Spirit make use of myth and legend?' [....]" [See: Barbara G. Walker, The Women's Encyclopedia of Myths and Secrets, pp. 98-99]

1869 - Celluoid - "John Wesley Hyatt invents celluoid, to make synthetic billiard balls."

1869 - Periodic Table of Elements - "Dmitri Mendeleyev devises the periodic table, which classifies elements into groups by atomic weight." [Based on: Ultimate Visual Dictionary of Science, Timeline of Discoveries, p. 15, Barnes & Noble Books - 2005]

1869 - Around the World - "Mark Twain publishes Around the World as a series of newspaper articles."

1870

1870 - Trivia / Factory Smoke, U.S.A. - "Until 1870, a factory releasing even small amounts of smoke onto public or private property was operating illegally, and courts had no option but to forbid the activity." [Robert F. Kennedy Jr., Crimes Against Nature, pp. 20-21]

1870 - Construction / Brooklyn Bridge - January 3rd, 1870: "Construction of Brooklyn Bridge, N.Y.C., began, 1870." [Based on: The Old Farmer's Almanac (2006) by Robert B. Thomas, p. 101]

1870 - Marriage / Sam Clemens - February 2nd, 1870: "Sam Clemens and Olivia Langdon are married in Elmira, New York."

1870 - Mr. and Mrs. S.L. Clemens / Buffalo N.Y. - February 3rd, 1870: "Mr. and Mrs. S.L. Clemens take up residence in Buffalo, New York."

1870 - Ratification / 15th U.S. Amendment - February 3rd, 1870: "15th U.S. Constitutional amendment ['Race no bar to vote'] ratifed." [Link: 1]

1870 - Mark Twain  / A Curious Dream - April 30th, 1870: "Mark Twain publishes A Curious Dream."

1870 - Franco-Prussian War - July 19th, 1870: "Franco-Prussian War begins."

1870 - Mark Twain / Political Economy - September, 1870: "Mark Twain publishes Political Economy."

1870 - First National Weather Service / U.S.A. - November 1st, 1870: "First national weather service in U.S. began operation, 1870." [Based on: The Old Farmer's Almanac (2006) by Robert B. Thomas, p. 97]

1870 - Standard Oil - "John D. Rockefeller combines all his business holdings into one company, Standard Oil of Ohio."

1870 - Trivia / Science vs. Religion - 1870: "Let him be ANATHEMA ... who shall say that human Sciences ought to be pursued in such a spirit of freedom that one may be allowed to hold as true their assertions even when opposed to revealed doctrines." - (Ecumenical Council of 1870)

[Based on: Quote, p. 1, Isis Unveiled,  reprint (1998, Vol. 2) of the 1877 edition, by H.P. Blavatsky)

1870 - U.S. Immigration / Alexander Graham Bell - "Alexander Graham Bell immigrates to the United States."

1870 - Christian Control / Native American Indian Agencies - "President Grant gives control of the Indian agencies to twelve different Christian denominations instead of to army officers."

1870 - 20,000 Leagues Under The Sea - "Jules Verne publishes 20,000 Leagues Under The Sea."

1871

1871 - End / Franco-Prussian War - January 28th, 1871: "The Franco-Prussian War ends after a four month seige of Paris, France."

*Trivia: "[....] After the French surrender in January 1871, the Government of National Defence disbanded and national elections (excepting the territories occupied by Prussia) to create a new French government took place. [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_Third_Republic]

*Trivia: "[....] The birth, in 1871, of the French Third Republic had marked a decline of the conservative right's power. Forced onto the defensive, the royalist bourgeoisie perceived a strong Church as an important means of safeguarding France's integrity and its future. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Th%C3%A9r%C3%A8se_de_Lisieux]

1871 - End / Crimean War - January 28th, 1871: "The Crimean War ends."

1871 - Sam Clemens / Buffalo N.Y. - January-March, 1871: "Sam Clemens lives in Buffalo, NY."

1871 - Earthquake / Hawaii - February 20th, 1871: "Earthquake location: Molokai, HI. Earthquake magnitude: 6.8. Number of recorded fatalities: 0."  

1871 - Treaty of Frankfurt - May 10th, 1871: "The Treaty of Frankfurt (French: Le traité de Francfort; German: Friede von Frankfurt) was a peace treaty signed in Frankfurt on 10 May 1871, at the end of the Franco-Prussian War. [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Frankfurt_%281871%29]

1871 - Birth / Walter Russell - May 19th, 1871: "Walter Bowman Russell (May 19, 1871 – May 19, 1963) was an American artist and mystic known[1] for his achievements as a painter, sculptor, author and builder and less well known as a natural philosopher and for his unified theory in physics and cosmogony.[2][3] He posited that the universe was founded on a unifying principle of rhythmic balanced interchange. This physical theory, laid out primarily in his books The Secret of Light (1947) and The Message of the Divine Iliad (1948–49), has not been accepted by mainstream scientists.[4] Russell asserted that this was mainly due to a difference in the assumptions made about the existence of mind and matter; Russell assumes the existence of mind as cause while he believes that scientists in general assume the existence of mind as effect.[5] Russell was also proficient in philosophy, music, ice skating, and was a professor at the institution he founded, the University of Science and Philosophy. He believed mediocrity is self-inflicted and genius is self-bestowed.[6] The content of his public lectures and his writing about living philosophy place him firmly in the New Thought Movement, [7] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter_Russell]

1871 - Trivia / Rome Italy - July 2nd, 1871: "Rome becomes the official capital of a united Italy."

1871 - British Columbia - July 20th, 1871: "British Columbia became the 6th province in the Confederation of Canada."

1871 - Sam Clemens / Connecticut - October 2nd, 1871: "Sam Clemens and family move into the Hooker house in Hartford, Connecticut."

1871 - Great Chicago Fire - October 8th, 1871: "The Great Chicago Fire begins in a barn owned by Patrick and Catherine O'Leary."

1871 - Peace / Maori   - "Maori make lasting peace with Britain after ten years of of revolt."

1871 - Korean Integrity - "Korea repulses military intervention by U.S. forces."

1871 - Barnum Circus - "P.T. Barnum and William Coup open their Brooklyn, NY circus as 'The Greatest Show On Earth'."

1871 - Wild Bill Hickok - "James Butler Hickok [Wild Bill], becomes marshal of Abilene, Kansas, for 9 months."

1871 - Glen Gardner N.J. - "Glen Gardner is located at the extreme western border of Lebanon Township and was formed from Lebanon and Bethlehem Townships in 1919. Known for many years as Eveland's Tavern for John Eveland who kept a tavern here, it later became known as Spruce Run Mills and Sodom. The village and post office were officially changed to Glen Gardner in 1871 in honor of the Gardner Brothers who established a chair and frame factory here."

1871 - Church of Ireland - "The Church of Ireland is established."

1871 - Professional Baseball - "The National Association of Professional Baseball Players is organized."

1871 - Founded / German Reich - "Reported date when the German Reich was founded."

1871 - Buffalo Slaughter / United States - "White hunters begin wholesale killing of buffalo."

1871 - Reservation Restrictions / Native American Indians - "General Sheridan issues orders forbidding Western Indians to leave reservations without the permission of civilian agents."

1871 - Forbidden Treaty Negotiations / Native American Indians - "Congress passes a law forbidding further negotiations of treaties with Indian tribes. Indians are now subject to acts of Congress and executive orders."

1871 - Undersea Cable / U.S & France - "Reuter's Telegrams, new agency, lays undersea cable between France and U.S."

1871 - Descent of Man  - "Ever since Charles Darwin published his Descent of Man in 1871, a dispute has prevailed over whether humankind evolved by a gradual process through millions of years, or whether Adam and Eve were the first mortals, created by God, as told in the Old Testament book of Genesis."

1871 - Passage to India - "Walt Whitman publishes Passage to India."

1871 - Translation / Homer's Odyssey - "William Bryant translates Homer's Odyssey into English."

1871 - Translation / Plato's Dialogues - "Benjamin Jowett translates Plato's Dialogues into English."

1872

1872 - Yellowstone National Park - March 1st, 1872: "Ulysses S.Grant signs The Act of Dedication establishing Yellowstone National Park."

1872 - Earthquake / U.S.A. - March 26th, 1872: "Earthquake location: Owens Valley, California. Earthquake magnitude: 7.6. Number of recorded fatalities: 27."  

1872 - Trivia / "Mother's Day" - "(1) One day each spring in ancient Greece, people held celebrations in honor of Rhea, whom they called Mother of the Gods. (2) During the 1600s, people in England celebrated a day called "Mothering Sunday." On that day servants were released from work to spend the day with their mothers. (3) In the U.S., the idea of Mother's Day was first suggested by Julia Ward Howe in 1872 as a day dedicated to peace. (4) In 1907, Ana Jarvis passed out carnations at her mother's church in Grafton, West Virginia - one for each mother in the congregation. She did this in memory of her own mother. (5) In 1908, St. Andrew's Methodist Church in Grafton, West Virginia held a Sunday service honoring mothers. (6) In 1909, Mother's Day services were held in all 46 states [U.S.A.] plus Canada and Mexico. (7) In 1912, West Virginia became the first state to adopt an official Mother's Day. (8) In 1914, President Woodrow Wilson signed a resolution establishing Mother's Day." [Based on: Everyday section, p. E6, S.L.P.D., 05/09/06]

1872 - Arrest / Susan B. Anthony - November 5th, 1872: "Susan B. Anthony is arrested for registering and casting a ballot in an election."

1872 - Re-Election / Ulysses S. Grant - November 5th, 1872: "Ulysses S. Grant re-elected president [over Horace Greely]."

1872 - 1st Mail-order Catalog - "A.M. Ward issueed the first mail-order catalog."

1870 - First National Weather Service / U.S.A. - November 1st, 1870: "First national weather service in U.S. began operation, 1870." [Based on: The Old Farmer's Almanac (2006) by Robert B. Thomas, p. 97]

1872 - Nomination / Victoria Woodhull - "Victoria Woodhull becomes the first woman to be nominated for president of the United States."

1872 - Jehovah's Witnesses / Pennsylvania - "The Jehovah's Witnesses are formed in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania."

1872 - "Radio" - "Marconi's two-tuned circuit system was the same as that advanced by Heinrich Hertz and was no more a viable system of radio than that advanced by Mahlon Loomis in 1872 ... long before Hertz or Tesla." [Intro by Timothy Green Beckley, The Lost Journals of Nikola Tesla, p. 7]

1872 - Onward! Christian Soldiers - Sir Arthur Sullivan writes the song Onward! Christian Soldiers."

1872 - Dutch Translation / Oera Linda Book - 1872: "The Oera Linda Book is a 19th century Frisian manuscript. It purports to cover historical, mythological, and religious themes of remote antiquity, compiled between 2194 BC and AD 803. [NP] The manuscript's author is not known with certainty, and it is hence unknown whether the intention was to produce a hoax, a parody or simply an exercise in poetic fantasy. [NP] The manuscript first came to public awareness in the 1860s. In 1872, Jan Gerhardus Ottema published a Dutch translation and defended it as "genuine". Over the next few years there was a heated public controversy, but by 1879 it was universally recognized that the text was a recent composition. Nevertheless, a public controversy was revived in the context of 1930s Nazi occultism[citation needed], and the book is still occasionally brought up in esotericism and "Atlantis" literature. [NP] Goffe Jensma published a monograph on the manuscript in 2004, De gemaskerde god, including a new translation and a discussion of the history of its reception. Jensma concludes that it was likely intended as a "hoax to fool some nationalist Frisians and orthodox Christians", as well as an "experiential exemplary exercise" by Dutch theologian and poet François Haverschmidt.[1][2] [....] The earliest portion of the Oera Linda Book, namely Frya’s Tex, was supposedly composed in 2194 BC, whereas the most recent part, the letter of Hidde Oera Linda, dates to AD 1256. Almost half of the entire book comprises The Book of Adela’s Followers, the original text around which the rest grew. It is purported to have been compiled in the 6th century BC from a mixture of contemporary writings and ancient inscriptions. The last two sections of the Oera Linda Book, the writings of Konered and Beden, contain a number of lacunae and the book itself breaks off in mid-sentence. [....] The book articulates the first known example of the concept of root races (though it does not call them that), and probably influenced H.P. Blavatsky to develop her own, much more elaborate ideas on the subject, as outlined in The Secret Doctrine (1888).[citation needed] It also mentions Atland (the name given to Atlantis by the 17th century scholar Olof Rudbeck), which was supposedly submerged in 2193 BC, the same year as 19th century Dutch and Frisian almanacs, following traditional Biblical chronology, gave for Noah's flood.[7] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oera_Linda]

*Links: http://oeralinda.angelfire.com/

1873

1873 - Birth / Therese of Lisieux - January 2nd, 1873: "Thérèse of Lisieux (2 January 1873 – 30 September 1897), or Saint Thérèse of the Child Jesus and the Holy Face, born Marie-Françoise-Thérèse Martin, was a French Carmelite nun. She is also known as 'The Little Flower of Jesus' [NP] She felt an early call to religious life, and overcoming various obstacles, in 1888 at the early age of 15, became a nun and joined two of her older sisters in the cloistered Carmelite community of Lisieux, Normandy. After nine years as a Carmelite religious, having fulfilled various offices such as sacristan and assistant to the novice mistress, and having spent the last eighteen months in Carmel in a night of faith, she died of tuberculosis at the age of 24. The impact of her posthumous publications, including her memoir The Story of a Soul, was great, and she rapidly became one of the most popular saints of the twentieth century. Pope Pius XI made her the "star of his pontificate".[1] She was beatified in 1923, and canonized in 1925. The speed of this process may be seen by comparison with that applied to a great heroine of Thérèse, Joan of Arc, who died in 1431 but was not canonized until 1920. Thérèse was declared co-patron of the missions with Francis Xavier in 1927, and named co-patron of France with Joan of Arc in 1944. On 19 October 1997 Pope John Paul II declared her the thirty-third Doctor of the Church, the youngest person, and only the third woman, to be so honored. Devotion to Thérèse has developed around the world.[2]. [....] Thérèse herself said on her death-bed, 'I only love simplicity. I have a horror of pretence', and she spoke out against some of the Lives of saints written in her day, 'We should not say improbable things, or things we do not know. We must see their real, and not their imagined lives.'[3] The critic Marina Warner observed that the excesses sometimes associated with her cult should not blind one to the heroism of her 'struggle to be good, and the radical affirmation of ordinary lives that her sainthood stands for.'[4] [....] The Basilica of Lisieux is the second greatest place of pilgrimage in France after Lourdes. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Th%C3%A9r%C3%A8se_de_Lisieux]

1873 - Sam Clemens / England - May 17th, 1873: "Sam Clemens and family sail to England."

1873 - Sam Clemens / Scrap Book - June 24th, 1873: "Sam Clemens patents the Mark Twain's Patent Self-Pasting Scrap Book."

1873 - Financial Panic / U.S. Stock Exchange - September 19th, 1873: "Financial panic closes American Stock Exchange for 10 days."

1873 - Earthquake / U.S.A. - November 23rd, 1873: "Earthquake location: California-Oregon Coast. Earthquake magnitude: 7.3. Number of recorded fatalities: 0."  

1873 - Mark Twain / The Gilded Age - December, 1873: "Mark Twain publishes his first novel, The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today."

1873 - Comstock Act - "U.S. Congress passed the Comstock Act banning obscene materials from the mail."

1873 - Hanging / "Captain Jack" - "Modoc indian Chief Kintpuash [aka Captain Jack] is hanged."

1873 - U.S. Treasury Department - "The U.S. Department of the Treasury is created."

1873 - Gold Standard  / United States - "The U.S. goes on the 'gold standard'."

1873 - Salary Increase / U.S. President - "The U.S. Congress doubles the president's salary, to $50,000 annually."

1873 - Helena P. Blavatsky / New York - 1848-1858: "[....] It was in 1873 that she [Helena P. Blavatsky] emigrated to New York City. Impressing people with her professed psychic abilities, she was spurred on to continue her mediumship. Mediumship (among other psychical and spiritual sciences of the time), based upon the belief known as Spiritualism which began at Rochester, NY, was a widely popular and fast-spreading field upon which Blavatsky based her career.[10] [....]"

[....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helena_Petrovna_Blavatsky]

1873 - Kansa Indians / Oklahoma Reservations - "The Kansa Indians are moved on to reservations in what is now Oklahoma."

1873 - George Armstrong Custer / Dakota Territory - "George Armstrong Custer transfered to the Dakota territory to protect railroad surveyors."

1873 - Barbed Wire - "Joseph Glidden invented barbed wire."

1873 - Trivia / Jules Verne - "Jules Verne's 20,000 Leagues Under The Sea & From The Earth To The Moon are translated into English."

1873 - Congressional Record - "The Congressional Record, a verbatim record of the U.S. Congress, begins publication."

1874

1874 - Sam Clemens / England - January, 1874: "Sam Clemens and family return to Hartford from England."

1874 - Fatality / Millard Filmore - March 8th, 1874: "Former U.S. president [1850-53] Willard Filmore died in Buffalo, N.Y."

1874 - British Fiji Islands - October 25th, 1874: "King Thakombau cedes the Fiji islands to Great Britian."

1874 - Birth / Winston Churchhill - November 30th, 1874: "Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill is born."

1874 - Helena P. Blavatsky & Henry Steel Olcott - "[....] In 1874 at the farm of the Eddy Brothers, Helena [Helena P. Blavatsky] met Henry Steel Olcott, a lawyer, agricultural expert, and journalist who covered the Spiritualist phenomenon. Soon they were working together in the 'Lamasery' (alternate spelling: 'Lamastery') where her book Isis Unveiled was written. [....] Blavatsky married her second husband, Michael C. Betanelly on April 3, 1875 in New York City. She separated from Betanelly after a few months, and their divorce was legalized on May 25, 1878. On July 8, 1878, she became a naturalized citizen of the United States, but after leaving for India later that year she never returned to the country.[9] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helena_Petrovna_Blavatsky]

1874 - Gold / Dakota Territory - "Gold is discovered in the Black Hills of the Dakota territory. The miners ignore the treaties that protected Indian lands."

1874 - U.S. Federal Prison / Fort Levenworth Kansas - "A federal prison is established at Fort Levenworth, Kansas."

1874 - Margarine - "Margarine, a butter substitute [originally called Oleomargarine] is introduced into the U.S."

1874 - Translation / Jules Verne - "Jules Verne's Journey To The Center Of The Earth is translated into English."

1875

1875 - Earthquake / Venezuela, Columbia - May 16th, 1875: "Earthquake location: Venezuela, Columbia. Earthquake magnitude: N/A. Number of recorded fatalities: 16,000."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 208]

1875 - Fire / Virginia City, Nevada - "Virginia City, Nevada, with a population of 20,000, is destroyed by fire."

1875 - Founded / "Arya Samaj" - April 10th, 1875: "Arya Samaj (Sanskrit arya samaja ... 'Aryan Society') is a Hindu reform movement founded by Swami Dayananda on 10 April 1875.[1] He was a sannyasi who believed in the infallible authority of the Vedas. Dayananda emphasized the ideals of brahmacharya (chastity). There are 3–4 million followers of Arya Samaj worldwide. [....] Between 1869 and 1873, Swami Dayananda Saraswati, a native of Gujarat, made his first attempt at reform in his native India. This attempt took the form of the establishment of 'Vedic Schools' which put an emphasis on Vedic values, culture and religion to its students. The first was established at Farrukhabad in 1869, with 50 students enrolled in its first year. This initial success led to the founding of four additional schools in rapid succession at Mirzapur (1870), Kasganj (1870), Chhalesar (1870) and Varanasi (1873). [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arya_Samaj]

1875 - Trivia / Arya Samaj & Sikhism - 1875: "[....] In 1875, the Arya Samaj established itself in Punjab, and some of its members began stating publicly that Sikhism is a degraded form of Hinduism[2][3] using what was seen as derogatory language in reference to Sikh Gurus and their writings.[2][3][4] Leaders in the Sikh community, however, showed resolve in maintaining the status of their religion as independent[5] and unique[6], and the statements of the Arya Samaj activists were summarily denounced as acts of aggression with the intent of destroying Sikh religious identity[4]. Moreover Swami Dayanand called Guru Nanak Dev a 'dambi', meaning hypocrite. It was also alleged that the Arya Samaj, which had taken an increasingly active role in certain Sikh Gurdwaras, was introducing practices that were contrary to Sikh principles[7] and behaving in ways which would prove detrimental to the Sikh faith. In response, organizational efforts such as Singh Sabha and Gurdwara Sudhar Movement were launched for countering Arya Samaj influence and peacefully reclaiming control of Sikh Gurdwaras. In spite of these incidences, there have been some positive affiliation like Bhagat Singh, born as a Sikh, a renowned Indian independence revolutionary was deeply influenced from the Arya Samaj philosophies and worked with other legendary Arya Samaj revolutionaries like Ram Prasad Bismil for the independence struggle. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arya_Samaj]

1875 - Foundation / Theosophical Society - "[....] While living in New York City, she [Helena P. Blavatsky] founded the Theosophical Society in September 1875, with Henry Steel Olcott, William Quan Judge and others. Blavatsky wrote that all religions were both true in their inner teachings and problematic or imperfect in their external conventional manifestations.[citation needed] Her writings connecting esoteric spiritual knowledge with new science may be considered to be the first instance of what is now called New Age thinking.[11] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helena_Petrovna_Blavatsky]

1875 - Born / Edward Alexander Crowley - October 12th, 1875: "Aleister Crowley, born Edward Alexander Crowley ..., (12 October 1875 – 1 December 1947), was a British occultist, writer, mountaineer, poet, and yogi.[1] He was an influential member in several occult organizations, including the Golden Dawn, the ..., and Ordo Templi Orientis (O.T.O.),[2] and is best known today for his occult writings, especially The Book of the Law, the central sacred text of Thelema. He gained much notoriety during his lifetime, and was dubbed 'The Wickedest Man In the World.'[3] [NP] Crowley was also a chess player, painter, astrologer, hedonist, bisexual,[2] drug experimenter, and social critic. He had also claimed to be a Freemason,[4] but the regularity of his initiations have been disputed by a member of the Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon.[5] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aleister_Crowley] - [T.D. - 12/13/08]

1875 - 1st Football Game - November 13th, 1875: "The first football game between Harvard and Yale."

1876

1876 - The Adventures of Tom Sawyer - January, 1876: "Mark Twain publishes his first wholey written novel, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer."

1876 - Telephone - March 10th, 1876: "Alexander Graham Bell invents the first practical telephone."

1876 - Bulgarian Atrocities - May 5-8th, 1876: "13,000 unarmed civilians were killed during the Bulgarian atrocities."

1876 - Nez Pierce Victory / Montana - June 17th, 1876: "The Chief Joseph and the Nez Pierce win the battle at Rosebud Creek, Montana."

1876 - Marriage / Annie Oakley - June 22nd, 1876: "Phoebe Ann Moses, Annie Oakley, married Frank E. Butler, at the age of 15."

1876 - Battle of Little Big Horn / Montana - June 25th-26th, 1876: "The Battle of the Little Big Horn, also called Custer's Last Stand, Montana."

1876 - Colorado - August 1st, 1876: "The 38th American state."

1876 - Fatality / Wild Bill Hickok - August 2nd, 1876: "Wild Bill [James Butler] Hickok was killed while playing poker."

1876 - AAMA - "The Association of American Medical Colleges is a non-profit association founded in 1876 to work for reform in medical education. Originally representing only medical schools, the AAMC represents the nation's 125 accredited medical schools, nearly 400 major teaching hospitals, more than 105,000 faculty in 98 academic and scientific societies, and the nation's 66,000 medical students and 97,000 residents. Additionally, the administrative leadership of medical schools and teaching hospitals are served by a variety of professional development groups housed within the AAMC."

1876 - Wyatt Earp / Kansas - "Wyatt Earp becomes chief deputy marshal of Dodge City, Kansas."

1876 - Swan Lake / Tchaikovsky - "Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky composes Swan Lake."

1876 - Published / Enuma Elish Tablets - "The first Enuma Elish tablets to be discovered were unearthed, in the 1848-76 excavations of Sir Austen Henry Layard, from the library of King Ashur-banipal at Nineveh. They were subsequently published by George Smith of the British Museum in 1876 under the title The Chaldean Account of Genesis. Other tablets and fragments containing versions of the same epic were found as Ashur, Kish and Uruk, and it was asertained from colophons (publishers' imprints) that an even older text existed in a more ancient language. This conveyed the same story of how a certain deity had created the heavens and the earth, and everything on earth, including humankind." [Laurence Gardner, Genesis of the Grail Kings, p. 41]

1876 - Thomas A. Edison / Menlow Park, New Jersey - "Thomas A. Edison builds his first laboratory in Menlow Park, N.J."

1877

1877 - U.S. Electoral Commission - January 29th, 1877: "An Electoral Commission is created by Congress to determine who won the presidency."

1877 - Russo-Turkish War - January, 1877: "Russo-Turkish War begins."

1877 - U.S. President Rutherford B. Hayes - March 4th, 1877: "The 19th American President, Rutherford B. Hayes [Republican], begins his term."

1877 - U.S. Railroad & Coal Mine Strikes - July-August, 1877: "Army troops were used to suppress violent railroad and coal mine strikes across the U.S."

1877 - Fatality / Brigham Young - August 29th, 1877: "Brigham Young dies. He was survived by 17 wives and 57 children."

1877 - Trivia / Sam Clemens - November, 1877: "Sam Clemens has a telephone installed in his Hartford home."

1877 - Phonograph - December 6th, 1877: "First phonograph invented by Thomas A. Edison."

1877 - American Cheese - "American Cheese is invented in Wisconsin."

1877 - British South Africa - "In 1877, Great Britain annexed the Boer republic of South Africa."

1877 - Independence / Romania  - "In 1877, Romania declared its independance from Turkey."

1877 - Bell Telephone Company - "The Bell Telephone Company is founded."

1877 - U.S. Socialist Labor Party - "A Socialist Labor party is formed in the United States."

1877 - Sheriff Bat Masterson / Kansas - "In 1877, William Barclay Masterson [Bat Masterson] became sheriff of Ford county, Kansas."

1877 - Canadian Retreat / Cheif Joseph - "In 1877, Chief Joseph lead the Nez Pierce on a 1,000 mile retreat towards Canada."

1877 - Trivia / Theosophical Society & Arya Samaj - 1877: "[....] In 1877, a meeting occurred in America between some leading members of the Theosophical Society, founded in 1875, and Mulji Thakarshi, an individual who was present in the establishment of the Bombay Arya Samaj that same year. During the course of the exchange, it became clear that the two societies held many views in common, and efforts were undertaken to bring their leaders into closer contact. As a result, correspondence began between Henry Steel Olcott, one of the co-founders of the New York Theosophical Society, and Harish Chandra Chintamani, the acting president of the Bombay Arya Samaj. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arya_Samaj]

1877 - Isis Unveiled - "Author, Helena Petrovna Blavatsky [1831-1891], produces Isis Unveiled."

*Trivia: "The Egyptian Isis was also represented as a Virgin-Mother by her devotees, and as holding her infant son, Horus, in her arms." [Based on: H.P. Blavatsky, Isis Unveiled, reprint (1998, Vol. 2) of the 1877 edition,  p. 10]

*Link: http://www.sacred-texts.com/the/iu/index.htm

1877 - An Introduction To The Study Of Indian Languages - "John Westly Powell publishes An Introduction To The Study Of Indian Languages."

1878

1878 - Microphone - January, 1878: "In London, England, Prof. David Hughes invents the microphone."

1878 - Phonograph Patent / Thomas Edison - February 19th, 1878: "Thomas Edison's phonograph patented, 1878." [Based on: The Old Farmer's Almanac (2006) by Robert B. Thomas, p. 103]

1878 - End / Russo-Turkish War - March 3rd, 1878: "Russo-Turkish War ends [Treaty of San Stefano]."

*Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_San_Stefano

1878 - End / Cuban-Spanish War - "March 3rd, 1878: "The Treaty of El Zanjon ends the Ten Years War between Cuba and Spain."

1878 - Trivia / Bosnia-Herzegovina - 1878: "Russia defeated the Turks in 1878. The Serbs gained their independence, but were angered when Kosovo and Macedonia remained under Turk rule. Bosnia-Herzegovina went to the Austro-Hungarians." [Based on: St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p. A12, 06/26/05]

1878 - Assassination Attempt / Kaiser Wilhelm - June 2nd, 1878: "Kaiser Wilhelm I was wounded by an assassin."

1878 - Died / Shiv Dayal Singh - June 15th, 1878: "Reportedly died this date in history: Shiv Dayal Singh [1st Satguru of Radhasoami]." See link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shiv_Dayal_Singh

*Trivia: "[....] On his deathbed, Shiv Dayal Singh once again credited Salig Ram, his chief disciple, as the source for the teachings of Radhasoami, when he said:

"The Faith I had given out, was that of Sat Nam and Anami. Radhasoami Faith has been introduced by Salig Ram. You should let it also continue."

[Based on: http://www.littleknownpubs.com/Dialog_Ch_Five.htm]

1878 - Agra lineage : / Rai Saligram - " 'Hazur' Rai Saligram 1878-1898"

1878 - Ministry / Radhaji Narayan Dei - "Radhaji Narayan Dei / Ministry:1878 to 1894 / Guru: Shiv Dayal Singh / Successors:none (or, at least, no one popularly known). / Center:Panni Gali, Agra / Distinctions:Wife and successor of Shiv Dayal Singh. One of only a few women in the Radhasoami tradition to be accorded an elevated status within the spiritual community. Served as a guru and a guide to women devotees in Agra. Instrumental in helping her husband's ministry. / Sources:Radhasoami Faith: History and Tenets; Biography of Soamiji Maharaj by Chachaji Maharaj [Pratap Singh]; and Holy Epistles (Volumes One and Two)."

1878 - Ministry / Chachaji Partap Singh - "Chachaji Partap Singh / Ministry: 1878 to 1911 [Unclear when he started acting as a guru] / Guru: Shiv Dayal Singh / Successors: Shyam Lal; Sudarshan Singh; and K.A. Bavnani / Center: Soami Bagh, Agra / Distinctions: Youngest brother of Shiv Dayal Singh, the founder of Radhasoami. First President of the Central Administrative Council. / Sources: Bhaktamal of the Radhasoami Faith; History of the Radhasoami Faith & Tenets; and Biography of Soamiji Maharaj."

1878 - Ministry / Gharib Das - "Gharib Das / Ministry:1878 to 1917 / Guru:Shiv Dayal Singh / Successors:Ram Behari Lal / Center:Sarai Rohilla, Delhi / Distinctions:Least known of Shiv Dayal Singh's successors. A physically blind sadhu, who kept on friendly terms with Jaimal Singh. / Sources:Agam Prasad Mathur, Radhasoami Faith; The Way Out Is In by Ram Behari Lal; and Atma Gyan by Ram Behari Lal."

1878 - Ministry / Sanmukh Das - "Sanmukh Das / Ministry: 1878 to date unknown Guru: Shiv Dayal Singh / Successors: none / Center:Soami Bagh, Agra / Distinctions:Sadhu successor of Shiv Dayal Singh; apparently initiated sadhus and other wandering religious mendicants into the path; unclear what relationship he had with his initiates (whether he acted as a representative for Soamiji's teachings or as a full fledged guru in his own right). / Sources:Bhaktamal of the Radhasoami Faith ; Biography of Soamiji Maharaj by Chachaji Maharaj [Pratap Singh]; and Radhasoami Faith: History and Tenets by S.D. Maheshwari."

1878 - Solar Eclipse - "Pike's Peak Eclipse [July 29th]"

1878 - Beginning / 2nd Afghan War - November, 1878: "The 2nd Afghan War begins."

1878 - First Edition / St. Louis Post-Dispatch - December 12th, 1878: "The first edition of the St. Louis Post and Dispatch was published on Dec. 12, 1878. On its editorial page, its founder, a 31-year-old Hungarian immigrant named Joseph Pulitzer, put a stake in the ground:

The POST and DISPATCH will serve no party but the people; will be ... the organ of truth; ... will oppose all frauds and shams wherever and whatever they are; will advocate principles and ideas rather than prejudice and partisanship ...

   Such independence was rare and refreshing in American journalism of the time. Most newspapers were mouthpieces for their owners or political parties. Cut-throat competition led others to mine the depths of sensationalism. [....]. [Based on: St. Louis Post-Dispatch article, p. B8, 06/03/05]

1878 - Trivia / U.S. Indian Police - "Congress provides for Indian Police. In 1883 tribal units are authorized to administer justice in all but major crimes."

1878 - End / Castrated Choir Boys - "Pope Leo XIII ends the practice of castrating young choir boys to maintain their soprano voice."

1878 - Salvation Army / England - "In England, the Christian Mission is reformed and renamed the Salvation Army."

1878 - Ruling Against / U.S. Polygamy - "The U.S. Supreme Court rules against polygamy as a religious right."

1878 - Typewriters - "Remington typewriters are first capable of printing both upper and lower case letters."

1879

1879 - Beginning / Zulu War - January 22nd, 1879: "Zulu War begins, 1200 British troops almost annihilated."

1879 - Birth / Albert Einstein - March 14th, 1879: "Albert Einstein is born (Pisces)."

1879 - Incandescent Lamp - October 21st, 1879: "Thomas Edison invents first practical incandescent lamp using a carbon filament."

1879 - Birth / Davidovich Bronstein [Trotsky] - November 7th, 1879: "Originally named Lev Davidovich Bronstein, Trotsky was born on November 7, 1879, in Kherson Province in Ukraine, the son of Russified Jews. [....]
   "The March Revolution of 1917 caught him by surprise in New York City, where he wrote for a Russian newspaper. Trotsky reached Russia in May, quickly assumed leadership of the independent left Social-Democratic Interdistrict Group, and joined the Petrograd (as St. Petersburg was renamed) Soviet. Within weeks, he had gained enormous popularity as the most eloquent agitator of the Soviet left. In July, after being courted by Lenin, he joined the Bolshevik party and was elected to its Central Committee." [Link: 1]

1879 - Woolworth's - "First 5 and 10 cent store opened in Lancaster, Pennsylvania by Frank Woolworth."

1879 - Helena P. Blavatsky / India - "[....] She [Helena P. Blavatsky] had moved to India, landing at Bombay on February 16, 1879,[13] where she first made the acquaintance of A. P. Sinnett. In his book Occult World he describes how she stayed at his home in Allahabad for six weeks that year, and again the following year.[14][....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helena_Petrovna_Blavatsky]

1879 - Alfred Percy Sinnett / India - "[....] By 1879, Sinnett [Alfred Percy Sinnett - 18 January 1840 - 26 June 1921] had moved to India where he was '... the Editor of The Pioneer, the leading English Daily of India...'[2] He relates in his book, The Occult World that: '...on the first occasion of my making Madame Blavatsky's acquaintance she became a guest at my home at Allahabad and remained there for six weeks...' [3] [NP] In 1880 Helena Blavatsky and Henry Steel Olcott visited the Sinnetts at their summer-home in Simla. The Mahatma letters, which generated the controversy that later helped lead to the split of the Theosophical Society, were mostly written to Sinnett or his wife, Patience. [NP] By 1889, Sinnett was back in England, and asked Charles Webster Leadbeater to come back to England to tutor his son Percy and George Arundale. Leadbeater agreed and brought with him one of his pupils Curuppumullage Jinarajadasa. Using "astral clairvoyance" Leadbeater assisted William Scott-Elliot to write his book The Story of Atlantis, for which Sinnett wrote the preface. [NP] Sinnett was later President of the London Lodge of the Society. [NP] By 1901, Sinnett is listed as an author. His son Percy is also listed as an author and born in India.[4]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_Percy_Sinnett]

1879 - Henry Olcott, Helena Blavatsky visit Swami Dayanand - 1879: "[....] Between 1879 and 1881, the founders of the Theosophical Society, Henry Olcott and Helena Blavatsky, paid Swami Dayanand several visits while touring India. Through the course of their discussions and correspondence, it became clear that the differences between the two societies were not, as previously assumed, limited to relatively minor issues, but extended to what the Swami viewed as central tenets of the Vedic Religion. [NP] The main point of contention was in regards to the nature of God. While the Theosophists asserted that the highest Divinity is an impersonal Principle, Swami Dayanand maintained that the Vedas and their allied literature clearly teach that God is a personal Being – in his words, 'the Personification of Being, Knowledge and Bliss'. Thus, the line dividing the two organizations was clearly identified and neither party saw themselves in need of reconsidering their views. Therefore, on the 28th of March, 1882, Swami Dayanand announced that the Arya Samaj had officially cut off all ties with the Theosophical Society. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arya_Samaj]

1879 - Okinawa Japan - "Japan annexes Okinawa and the Ryukyu Islands."

1879 - Wyatt Earp / Arizona - "Wyatt Earp moves to Toumbstone Arizona and becomes a deputy sheriff, later US Marshal."

1879 - Food & Drugs / U.S.A. - "Chief Chemist Peter Collier, Division of Chemistry, US Department of Agriculture, began investigating food and drug adulteration. The following year he recommended enactment of a national food and drug law. In the next 25 years, more than 100 food and drug bills were introduced in Congress."

1879 - Established / U.S. Geological Society - "The U.S. Geological Society [USGS] is established."

1879 - War / Chile & Bolivia - "War between Chile and Bolivia-Peru alliance begins over nigrate-rich Anacama region."

1879 - Founded / Church of Christian Science - "Church of Christ Scientist [Christian Science] founded by Mary Baker Eddy."

1879 - 1st Road / Khyber Pass - "First road through the Khyber Pass is constructed by the British connecting Afghanistan and India."

1879 - Carlisle Indian School / Pennsylvania  - "Richard Pratt founded the Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania with the intent of assimilating Indians into white culture."

1879 - Settlement Forbidden / Oklahoma Territory - "President Rutherford B. Hayes issues a proclamation forbidding settlement of Oklahoma terroritory."

1879 - Radio Waves - "First demonstration of reception of radio waves by David Edward Hughes."

1879 - Saccharin - "Saccharin, the artificial sweetener, is discovered."

1879 - English Translation / Odessey - "Andrew Lang translates the Odessey to English."

1880

1880 - Physics Trivia - "The period from 1880 to 1905 saw the discoveries of electrons and X rays. The study of heat radiation was developed in several steps, leading to Max Planck's discovery, in 1900, of the right formula to describe the thermal properties of radiation - a formula that would spark the quantum revolution." [Based on: Lee Smolin, The Trouble with Physics, p. ix (4th paragraph - Introduction), copyright 2006]

1880 - Jewish Socialism - "In the following two decades - in the '80s and '90s - the 'explosion of revolutionary emotion among Jewish student youth crystallised into a movement of Jewish socialism, the first of its kind in Jewish history.'4 Patkin traces the origins of 'Jewish Socialism' to the 'two explosive elements - mass misery and intellectual doctrine' which had existed in Jewish life for many previous generations. These explosive elements had often produced mass revolts against the rich and the powerful in communal affairs, one example being the emergence of the Chassidic movement, Jewish socialism reflected the extension of Chassidism as a doctrine 'for the poor' into a 'revolutionary situation of social protest and resentment.' " [Link: 1]

1880 - Archaeology Censorship - "By the 1880s, the governing establishments of Christendom were dreading the very word 'archaeologist'. And so, archaeological digs were brought under strict control, and their funding and undertakings had to be approved by newly designated authorities. One of these, the Egypt Exploration Fund, was established in Britain in 1891, and on the very first page of its Memorandum and Articles of Association it is stated that the Fund's objective is to promote excavation work 'for the purpose of elucidating or illustrating the Old Testament narrative.' In short, this meant that if something was found which could be used to support the scriptural teaching, then we [the public] would be informed. Anything which did not support the Church interpretation of the Bible was not destined to see the light in the public domain." [Link: 1]

1880 - Football Players - "The number of players in American style football is reduced to 11, where it has remained unitl today."

1880 - George Eastman - "George Eastman establishes the First factory for the production of Dry Photographic plates."

1880 - Salvation Army / N.Y. - "The Salvation Army establishes its first branch in New York City."

1880 - End / 2nd Afghan War - "The 2nd Afghan War ends."

1880 - Panama Canal Company  - "Frenchman Ferdinand Marie de Lesseps starts company to build a Panama Canal."

1880 - Gold Discovered / Alaska - "Gold is discovered in Juneau, Alaska."

1880 - Disbanded / Oneida Community - "The Oneida Community disolved / disbanded."

1880 - Settlement Forbidden / Oklahoma Territory - "President Rutherford B. Hayes issues 2nd proclaimation forbidding settlement of Oklahoma Territory."

1880 - Incubator - "First use of an incubator to save prematurely born human babies."

1880 - Toilet Paper - "The British Perforated Paper Company invented a form of toilet paper."

1880 - Seismograph - "Englishmen, John Milne invents the modern seismograph."

1880 - Modern Bicycle - "The modern bicycle, with its two wheels of equal size, chain drive of rear wheel, etc., invented."

1880 - Piezoelectric Effect - "The Piezoelectric Effect is first observed by Pierre and Jacques Curie."

1880 - Infrared Photography - "Infrared Photography techniques and film developed."

1880 - 1812 Overture - "Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky composed the 1812 overture."

1880 - Uncle Remus - "Joel Chandler Harris pubilishes Uncle Remus: His Songs and Sayings."

1880 - English Translation / The Stary Messenger - "Galileo's 1610 book The Stary Messenger is translated to English."

1881

1881 - Archaeological Coverups? / U.S.A. - "Most of us are familiar with the last scene in the popular Indiana Jones archaeological adventure film RAIDERS OF THE LOST ARK in which an important historical artifact, the Ark of the Covenant from the Temple in Jerusalem, is locked in a crate and put in a giant warehouse, never to be seen again, thus ensuring that no history books will have to be rewritten and no history professor will have to revise the lecture that he has been giving for the last forty years. While the film was fiction, the scene in which an important ancient relic is buried in a warehouse is uncomfortably close to reality for many researchers. To those who investigate allegations of archaeological cover-ups, there are disturbing indications that the most important archaeological institute in the United States, the Smithsonian Institute, an independent federal agency, has been actively suppressing some of the most interesting and important archaeological discoveries made in the Americas." [Link: 1]

1881 - U.S. President James A. Garfield - March 4th, 1881: "The 20th American President, James A. Garfield [Republican], begins his term. James A. Garfield was the 2nd American President [Republican] assassinated."

1881 - Assassination / Czar Alexander II - "On March 13, 1881 the Jew Grinevetsky threw the bomb which killed Czar Alexander II." [Link: 1]

1881 - Czar [Tzar] Alexander III / Russia - 1881: "Alex II died in 1881 [was assassinated March 13th] and his second son became Czar Alexander III. The reign of Alexander III is completely marked by revolutionary uprisings. Because his father had freed the slaves, Alex III became the scapegoat for all the economic problems that became a result. Since the serfs were now free, they needed education which Alex III paid for by cutting benefits for other needy parts of society, especially the workers. The workers began to follow the words of a German named Karl Marx, who had written a book called the Communist Manifesto. Marx advocated that the workers should rise up and start a revolution against the owners of business and industry. Russian workers believed this and in small numbers began to revolt against the Czar. Alexander III crushed the rebellion. Many workers were tried and hanged. The Marxists as they became known, began to spread throughout the empire; secretly at first, but later in larger and louder voices."

1881 - Jewish Unpopularity / Russia - "The new Tzar, Alexander III, was so infuriated with the Jews that he issued the following statement which is quoted from the Encyclopedia Britannica, page 76, Vol. 2, 1947 edition:

   For some time the government has given its attention to the Jews and to the* relations the rest of the inhabitants of the empire, with a view of ascertaining the sad condition of the Christian inhabitants brought about by the conduct of the Jews in business matters. During the last 20 years, the Jews have gradually possessed themselves of not only every trade and business in all its branches, but also of a great part of the land by buying or farming it. With few exceptions, they have as a body devoted their attention, not to enriching or benefiting the country, but to defrauding, by their wiles, its inhabitants, and particularly its poor inhabitants! This conduct of theirs has called forth protests on the part of the people, as manifested in acts of violence. The government, while on the one hand doing its best to put down the disturbances and to deliver the Jews from oppression and slaughter, has also on the other hand, thought it a matter of urgency and justice to adopt stringent measures in order to put an end to the oppression practiced by the Jews on the inhabitants, and to free the country from their malpractices, which were, as is known, the cause of the agitation."

(Note: Thus the so-called 'pogroms' by Christians against the Jews were brought on by the Jews themselves!) [Link: 1]

1881 - Assassination Attempt / U.S. President Garfield - July 2nd, 1881: "President Garfield shot by Charles J. Guiteau in Washington, D.C."

1881 - Fatality / Billy The Kid - July 15th, 1881: "William H. Bonney [Billy The Kid], killed."

1881 - Trivia / Jesse James - September 7th, 1881: "Jesse James's commits his last holdup [Chicago - Alton R/R train]."

1881 - Fatality / U.S. President Garfield - September 19th, 1881: "President Garfield dies of wounds. Chester A. Authur becomes president, 19 September."

1881 - U.S. President Chester A. Arthur - September 19th, 1881: "The 21st American President, Chester A. Arthur [Republican], begins his term."

1881 - Mahatma Letters - "[....] The Mahatma Letters began publication in 1881 with information purportedly revealed by 'Koot Hoomi' to Alfred Percy Sinnett, and were also influential on the early development of the tradition [Great White Brotherhood]. Koot Hoomi, through Sinnett, revealed that high ranking members of mystic organizations in India and Tibet were able to maintain regular telepathic contact with one another, and thus were able to communicate to each other, and also to Sinnett, without the need for either written or oral communications, and in a manner similar to the way that spirit mediums claimed to communicate with the dead. The letters published by Sinnett, which proposed the controversial doctrine of reincarnation, were said to have been revealed through this means.[5] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_White_Brotherhood]

1881 - The Prince and the Pauper - December 12th, 1881: "Mark Twain publishes The Prince and the Pauper."

1881 - Trivia / OK Corral - "Wyatt Earp and his brothers shoot it out with the Clanton gang at the OK Corral."

1881 - Surrender / Sitting Bull - "In 1881, Sitting Bull and his band of 187 surrendered to officials at Fort Buford, North Dakota."

1881 - Trivia / Jewish Pogroms - "Pogroms [organized persecution and massacre of Jews by the government] began in 1881, which led to many Jews relocating to western Europe, Latin America, Palestine and the United States."

1881 - Jewish Imigrants / Palestine - "In the late 19th century Jewish imigrants from Europe and Russia began moving to Palestine, buying land and building farming communities. As their numbers grew, some Jews, known as Zionists, dreamed of establishing a modern Jewish state in the land of King David." [N.G.M./October/2002]

1881 - Proprietary Association of America - "The Proprietary Association of America was formed in 1881 as the Association of Manufacturers and Dealers in Proprietary Articles. The Proprietary Association subsequently changed its name to the Nonprescription Drug Manufacturers Association in 1990, and then in 1999 to the Consumer Health Care Products Association in 1999." [Link: 1]

1881 - Player Piano - "Edward Leveaux patents the automatic player piano."

1881 - Metal Detector - "Alexander Graham Bell invents the first crude metal detector."

1882

1882 - Birth / Franklin D. Roosevelt - January 30th, 1882: "Franklin Delano Roosevelt is born at Hyde Park, New York."

1882 - Fatality / Jesse James - April 3rd, 1882: Reportedly: "Jesse James [the outlaw] is killed in St. Joseph, MO."

1882 - Birth / Hazrat Inayat Khan - July 5th, 1882: "Hazrat Inayat Khan (July 5, 1882 – February 5, 1927) was the founder of Universal Sufism and the Sufi Order International. He initially came to the West [1910] as a representative of several traditions of classical Indian music, having received the title Tansen from the Nizam of Hyderabad. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inayat_Khan] -

1882 - First Observance? / Labor Day, U.S.A. - September 5th, 1882: "The first observance of Labor Day is believed to have been a parade of 10,000 workers on Sept. 5, 1882, in New York City. By 1893, more than half the states were observing a 'Labor Day' on one day or another. President Grover Cleveland signed a bill June 28, 1894 - designating the first Monday in September as Labor Day." [Based on: Article (A toast to U.S. workers), p. A3, S.L.P.D., 09/04/06]

*Trivia: "[....] Labor leader Eugene V. Debs assumed leadership of the Pullman strike. [....] Some 12,000 federal troops, about half the entire U.S. Army at the time, were sent to Chicago to assist the strikebreakers. The Pullman company announced on July 18 [1894] that it would reopen and hire only employees who signed 'yellow dog contracts' promising never to join unions. On Aug. 3, [1894] the strike was declared ended. Debs went to prison, and the ARU [American Railway Union] collapsed. [....]" [Based on: Other Views page article (An Illinois railroad fight gave a nation a holiday) by John J. Dunphy, p. B9, S.L.P.D., 09/04/06]

1882 - Venus Transit - December 6th, 1882: "Europe, the Middle East and much of Asia and Africa will offer prime viewing next month [06/08/04] for an astronomical event that has not occurred for 122 years - the transit of the planet Venus across the sun. Weather permitting, for six hours on June 8 [2004] astronomers and the public will be able to see the planet named after the Roman goddess of love and beauty passing directly between Earth and the sun. The event has been billed as a once in a lifetime experience because the last transit was on December 6, 1882 and the next one will not occur until June 6, 2012, but will not be visible in Britain and other parts of Europe." [Reuters, 05/12/04]

*Trivia: "Reportedly, Venus transits also occured in 1769 & 1631." [Etznab Mathers]

1882 - Christmas Tree Lights - December 22nd, 1882: "First string of Christmas tree lights created, 1882." [Based on: The Old Farmer's Almanac (2006) by Robert B. Thomas, p. 99]

1882 - Harry Houdini - "Ehrich Weiss, Harry Houdini begins his performing career as a trapeze artist."

1882 - Standard Oil Trust - "John D. Rockefeller forms the Standard Oil Trust."

1882 - Judaism / Montreal - "The Temple Emanu-El, the first Reform Judaism congregation in Montreal, is established."

1882 - Chinese Exclusion Act / U.S.A.  - "The U.S. Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act halting Chinese immigration for 10 years."

1882 - Fungicide - "The first effective fungicide is developed to protect crops from attack by fungi."

1882 - Electric Generator - "Thomas Alva Edison builds the first large generator to supply New York City with electricity."

*Trivia: "The Direct Current (DC) system Edison used in his much touted Pearl Street generating station was invented by others before his time; he merly copied the work of others to promote his business enterprise ... and the Smithsonian wants you to believe that he was America's 'King of Electricity.' " [Intro by Timothy Green Beckley, The Lost Journals of Nikola Tesla, p. 6]

1882 - Alternating Current - "Much of our modern technology owes its beginnings to Tesla [Nikola Tesla]. In 1882 he made the discovery that changed the world! harnessing the awesome power of Alternating Current (AC)." [Intro by Timothy Green Beckley, The Lost Journals of Nikola Tesla, p. 5]

1882 - Hydroelectric Generator - "Appleton, Wisconsin is the worlds first city to receive power from a hydro-electric generator."

1882 - Civil and Military Gazette - "Rudyard Kipling begins editing and writing for the Civil and Military Gazette in Lahore, India."

1883

1883 - Volcanic Eruption / Augustine Volcano, Alaska - July 6th, 1883: "[....] Considered the most active volcano in the eastern Aleutian arc, Augustine experienced its largest historical eruption in 1883 [July 6th, 1883] when the volcano’s dome collapsed. It erupted again in 1986, producing an avalanche of ash, rock fragments, and gas. Augustine’s oldest dated volcanic rocks are more than 40,000 years old. [....]" [Brackets text added for clarity - E.M..]

[Based on: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards/natural_hazards_v2.php3?img_id=13337]

*Other links: http://www.gi.alaska.edu/ScienceForum/ASF0/008.html

1883 - Birth / Benito Mussolini - July 29th, 1883: "Benito Mussolini is born in Predappio, Italy."

1883 - Explosion / Krakatau Volcano  - August 26-27th, 1883: "The island of Krakatau explodes. The explosion is heard 3,000 miles away."

*Trivia: "From the epicentre in the Sunda Strait, tsunamis 100 feet high roared across Java Sea and the Indian Ocean, carrying steamships miles inland and causing flooding as far away as East Africa and the western coasts of the Americas. Eighteen cubic kilometers of rock and vast quantities of ash and dust were pumped into the upper atmosphere; skies all over the world were noticeably darker for more than two years and sunsets notably redder. Average global temperatures fell measurably during this period because volcanic dust-particles reflect the sun's rays back into space." [Graham Hancock, Fingerprints of the Gods, p. 217]

*Trivia: "Volcanic eruption date(s): August 26th-28th, 1883. Eruption location: Krakatau, Indonesia. Number of recorded deaths: 36,000." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 491]

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Krakatoa

1883 - Completed / Orient Express - October, 1883: "The Orient Express completed its first run between Paris and Constantinople."

1883 - Wild Bill Cody - "William Frederick Cody [Wild Bill] starts his Wild West Show."

1883 - Trivia / U.S. Food & Drugs - "Dr. Harvey W. Wiley became chief chemist of the Bureau of Chemistry. He immediately assigned some members of his staff to study the problems of food and drug adulteration."

1883 - Native American Justice - "Congress provided for Indian Police in 1878. In 1883 tribal units are authorized to administer justice in all but major crimes."

1883 - Russian Social-Democratic Movement - "Utin was followed by a great number of Jews including Mark Natanson, the founder of the Russian Narodnik movement, Paul Axeirod who together with George Plckahnov and Vera Zasulitch formed the 'Triumvirate' of the founders of the Russian Social-Democratic movement in 1883, Rosalie Bograd who married Plekhanov, Meir Molodetsky, Gregory Goldenberg, Mw Deutch, Vladimir Jochelson, Aaron Sundelievitch, and Hesya Helfmann, who was among those sentenced to death for the assassination of Czar Alexander." [Link: 1]

1883 - Earthquake / Italy - "In 1883, an earthquake struck Ischia, Italy killing over 1,500 people."

1883 - Machine Gun - "Hiram S. Maxim patented the first machine gun, capable of firing 600 rounds a minute."

1884

1884 - Pluto / Gemini - April 20th, 1884: Pluto 0 degrees Gemini. ...

*Link: http://www.astro.com/swisseph/ae/1800/ae_1884.pdf

1884 - Congo - April 22nd, 1884: "The United States formally recognizes King Leopold's regime in the Congo."

1884 - 1st U.S. Skyscraper - May 1st, 1884: "Construction begins on the first -Sky-scraper', Chicago's Home Insurance Co. building ."

1884 - Publishing Company / Sam Clemens - May 1884: "Sam Clemens with Charles L. Webster start their own publishing company."

1884 - Completion / Washington Monument - July 4th, 1884: "Construction of the Washington Monument is completed."

1884 - Mark Twain - "In 1884, Mark Twain began writing Huck Finn and Tom Sawyer Among the Indians."

1884 - Cornerstone / Statue of Liberty - October 26th, 1884: "The cornerstone for the Statue of Liberty is laid."

1884 - Adventures of Huckleberry Finn - December 10th, 1884: "Adventures of Huckleberry Finn published."

1884 - Tonkawa Indians / Oklahoma Reservation - "Twenty-nine Tonkawa Indians [all that remained of the tribe] are moved to a reservation in Oklahoma."

1884 - Ringling Brothers Circus - "The first Ringling brothers circus organized at Baraboo, Wisconsin."

1884 - 1st Black Baseball Players - "The first black Major League baseball players [brothers Welday and Moses F. Walker]."

1884 - Webster Publishing Company - "Sam Clemens formed the Charles L. Webster publishing company to print Mark Twain's books."

1884 - Oxford English Dictionary - "The first 10 [of 13] volumes of The Oxford English Dictionary are published."

1884 - Sardar Bahadur Jagat Singh Ji - "Sardar Bahadur Jagat Singh Ji (1884-1951) was one of six people who over a period of about nine years came to be regarded as spiritual successors of Shiv Dayal Singh, the first Satguru of 'Radhasoami Faith,' often referred to as Sant Mat, a movement of Surat Shabd Yoga, which includes esoteric teaching about the Shabd. Reportedly, his tenure ran from 1948 to1951."

*Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radha_Soami_Satsang_Beas]

1884 - Southern Pacific Railroad Company - "The Southern Pacific railroad company is formed."

1884 - U.S. Presidential Nomination / Belva Ann Lockwood - "Mrs. Belva Ann Lockwood is nominated for the presidency of the United States."

1884 - Rabies Vaccinine - "Louis Pasteur developed first vaccine against Rabies."

1884 - 1st Artificial Insemination - "The first artifical insemination of a human is performed, on an unknowing wife."

1884 - Rayon - "Frenchmen, H. de Chardonnet invented rayon."

1884 - Fountain Pen - "The first practical fountain pen is invented by Lewis Waterman in New York City."

1884 - Cash Register - "James Ritty invented the first working, mechanical cash register."

1884 - 1st Electronic Image - "The first device to transmit an image electronicaly through a wire inventd by German, Paul Nipkow."

1884 - Photographic Roll Film - "The first photographic roll film patented by George Eastmen."

1885

1885 - Congo Free State - February 5th, 1885: "Belgium's King Leopold II creates the Congo Free State."

1885 - U.S. President Grover Cleveland - March 4th, 1885: "The 22nd American President, Grover Cleveland [Democrat], begins his term."

1885 - Escape / Geronimo - May 14th, 1885: "Geronimo with 38 warriors and 100 women and children, leaves the San Carlos Reservation."

1885 - Memory Game / Sam Clemens - August 18th, 1885: "Sam Clemens receives patent for his 'Mark Twain's Memory Builder game'."

1885 - Major Crimes Act - "The Major Crimes Act. This act allowed the United States to extend its jurisdiction into Native American territories since the sovereignty of Native American territories was defined by treaty; this act nullified the treaty’s purpose, which had permitted Native Americans to exercise their own jurisdiction within their own territories."

1885 - Extermination / American Buffalo - "The last great herd of buffalo is exterminated."

1885 - Cost of Mailing a Letter? / U.S.A. - "Cost of stamp for mailing a letter in U.S.A.: 2 cents." [Based on: S.L.P.D. article (Cost of mailing a letter will jump to 39 cents next week [January 2006]), p. C1, S.L.P.D., 01/03/06]

1885 - 1st Box Camera - "George Eastman markets the first 'box camera'."

1886

1886 - Trivia / U.S. Copyright Legislation - January 28th, 1886: "Sam Clemens [Mark Twain] addresses the U.S. Senate committee considering copyright legistration."

1886 - Capture & Escape / Geronimo - March, 1886: "Chiricahua Indian chief Geronimo is captured by General Cook. He escaped two days later."

1886 - Type-Setting Machine - July 3rd, 1886: "A Mergenthal Linotype machine begins setting type at the Chicago Tribune."

1886 - Earthquake / U.S.A. - August 31st, 1886: "Earthquake location: Charleston, South Carolina. Earthquake magnitude: 7.3. Number of recorded fatalities: 60."  

1886 - Pacification / Geronimo - September 4th, 1886: "Geronimo agrees to quit the warpath, for the last time."

1886 - Dedication / Statue of Liberty - October 28th, 1886: "The Statue of Liberty is dedicated by President Grover Cleveland."

1886 - American Federation of Labor - December, 1886: "The A.F of L. [American Federation of Labor] formed with 150,000 members."

1886 - Hurricanes / Texas - "Florida is the first state to get pounded by four hurricanes in one season [2004] since Texas in 1886." [A.P., 09/28/04]

1886 - Gold Discovered / South Africa - "Gold is discovered in the southern Transvaal, South Africa."

1886 - Dishwasher - "Josephine Cochrane invents the dishwasher."

1886 - Printing Type - "American foundries agree to set printing type point size at 0.013837 inch. Normal print is 8-12 points."

1886 - 1st Ocean-Going Tanker - "The first ocean-going tanker, the 3,000 ton Gluckauf, is built in Great Britain."

1886 - Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde - "Robert Lewis Stevenson publishes The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde."

1887

1887 - Birth / Nakano Yonosuke - "Ananaikyo - An Omoto-lineage religion founded by Nakano Yonosuke (1887-1974). " *Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shrine_Shinto

1887 - U.S. General Allotment Act - "The General Allotment Act [signed into law February 8th, 1887] Also known as the 'Dawes Act,' this act was designed to break up the collective ownership of Indian lands by requiring Indians to identify themselves by means of a 'blood quantum' code. Under the act, 'full-blood Indians' received the deeds to land parcels over which the U.S. government exercised control for twenty-five years, and 'mixed-blood Indians' received 'patents in fee simple' - basically land rental agreements - and were forced to accept U.S. Citizenship. As a result of the act’s implementation, the United States acquired over 100 million acres of Native American land between 1887 and 1934."

*Trivia: "A federal judge ruled Thursday [08/07/08] that American Indian plantiffs are entitled to $455 million in a long-running trust case, a fraction of the $47 billion they wanted. [NP] The lawsuit - filed on behalf of a half-million American Indians and their heirs - claims they were swindled out of billions of dollars in oil, gas, grazing, timber and other royalties overseen by the Interior Department since 1887." [Based on: News Services article (American Indians to get $455 million in case), p A7, S.L.P.D., 08/08/08]

1887 - Discovered / Amarna Tablets - "The Amarna tablets were reputedly discovered quite by accident by a peasant woman in 1887 digging for fertiliser."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amarna_letters
               http://www.ancientegyptonline.co.uk/amarnaletters.html

1887 - Therese of Lisieux / Rome, Italy - November 20th, 1887: "[....] On November 20, 1887, during a general audience with Leo XIII, Thérèse, in her turn, approached the Pope, knelt, and asked him to allow her to enter Carmel at 15. The Pope said: 'Well, my child, do what the superiors decide.... You will enter if it is God's Will' and he blessed Thérèse. She refused to leave his feet, and the Swiss Guard had to carry her out of the room.[37] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Th%C3%A9r%C3%A8se_de_Lisieux]

1887 - Radar - "German, Heinrich Hertz invented radar."

1887 - A Study In Scarlet - "Arthur Conan Doyle publishes A Study In Scarlet, the first Sherlock Holmes story."

1887 - A Petition to the Queen of England - "Mark Twain publishes A Petition to the Queen of England."

1888

1888 - Trivia / Radio Waves - "Existence of radio waves demonstrated by Heinrich Hertz." [Based on: Ultimate Visual Dictionary of Science, Timeline of Discoveries, p. 15, Barnes & Noble Books - 2005]

1888 - Pneumatic Bicycle Tire - February, 1888: "John Dunlap invents the first pneumatic bicycle tire."

1888 - "Great White Hurricane" / United States - March 11th, 1888: "The 'Great White Hurricane,' as it was called, paralyzed the East Coast from the Chesapeake Bay to Maine. Telegraph and telephone wires snapped, isolating New York, Boston, Philadelphia, and Washington for days. Two hundred ships were grounded, and at least one hundred seamen died. Fire stations were immobilized, and property loss from fire alone was estimated at $25 million. Overall, more than 400 deaths were reported."  

*Trivia: "One-hundred and five years to the day [03/11/1993], another storm, the 'Storm of the Century,' would begin to develop over the eastern United States."  

*Trivia: "1888 was last time [since October 2012] weather closed NYSE for two consecutive days." [Based on: Title for A.P. article, p. A10, S.L.P.D., 11/01/12]

1888 - Therese of Lisieux / Carmelite Postulant - April 9th, 1888: "[....] ... the Bishop of Bayeux authorized the prioress to receive Thérèse, and on 9 April 1888 she became a Carmelite postulant. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Th%C3%A9r%C3%A8se_de_Lisieux]

1888 - Trivia / Sam Clemens - June 27th, 1888: "Sam Clemens receives honorary master of arts degree from Yale University."

1888 - 1st Beauty Contest - September 19th, 1888: "The first beauty contest was held in Spa, Belgium."

1888 - Jack the Ripper / London - "In 1888, 'Jack the Ripper' terrorized the east end of London, England."

1888 - National Geographic Society - "National Geographic Society established."

1888 - 1st Escalator - "The first escalator is installed at Coney Island's IronPier."

1888 - Practical Generator - "Nikola Tesla designs first practical generator for alternating electric current."

*Trivia: "In 1888 Tesla obtained U.S. patents covering an entire system of polyphase AC that remains unchanged in principle today. Tesla then promptly sold all of his patents to George Westinghouse, an acquisition that made the Westinghouse Company the giant it is today." [Intro by Timothy Green Beckley, The Lost Journals of Nikola Tesla, p. 5]

1888 - The Secret Doctrine / Helena P. Blavatsky - 1888: "The Secret Doctrine, the Synthesis of Science, Religion and Philosophy, a book originally published as two volumes in 1888, is Helena P. Blavatsky's magnum opus. The first volume is named Cosmogenesis, the second Anthropogenesis. It was an influential example of the revival of interest in esoteric and occult ideas in the modern age, in particular because of its claim to reconcile ancient eastern wisdom with modern science. [NP] Blavatsky claimed that its contents had been revealed to her by 'mahatmas' who had retained knowledge of mankind's spiritual history, knowledge that it was now possible, in part, to reveal. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Secret_Doctrine]

*Trivia: "Over one hundred years ago, in 1888, H. P. Blavatsky published her Secret Doctrine. Indeed it was an event, for these volumes disclose a description, inner and outer, of the structure and operations of the cosmos and the origin and evolutionary destiny of the kingdoms of nature. Much of its content would have been considered esoteric in former eras, part of the mystery teaching of the ancient schools of both East and West.
   "This wisdom has been known and taught in every age, in myth and legend, symbol and glyph, and comes down to us from out of the darkness of prehistory. Its substance or truth is also embodied in the various branches of learning, ancient and modern -- religion, philosophy, science, literature, and art. Hence HPB, having stated certain principles, was able to illustrate, by referring to the world's literature, that what she was bringing forward has been part of the thought-life of all previous ages. This is no accident: every age has had its wise men, philosophers, artists, poets, who have speculated on cosmic and human life and described it in such a fashion that the universality of the secret doctrine or perennial philosophy may be seen on every hand by those who have the eyes to see it. [....]" [Intro. to The Secret Doctrine, by John P. Van Mater, May 8, 1996, The Theosophical Society, Pasadena, California]

*Link: http://www.sacred-texts.com/the/sd/index.htm

1888 - "Root Races" / Helena P. Blavatsky - "Root Races are stages in human evolution in the esoteric cosmology of theosophist Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, as described in her book The Secret Doctrine (1888). These races were said to have existed on now-lost continents. Blavatsky's model was developed by later theosophists, most notably William Scott-Elliot in The Story of Atlantis (1896) and The Lost Lemuria (1904). Annie Besant further developed the model in Man: Whence, How and Whither (1913). Both Besant and Scott-Elliot relied on information from Charles Webster Leadbeater obtained by 'astral clairvoyance'. Further elaboration was provided by Rudolf Steiner in Atlantis and Lemuria (1913).[1] Rudolf Steiner, and subsequent theosophist authors, have called the time periods associated with these races, Epochs (Steiner felt that the term 'race' was not adequate anymore for modern humanity). [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Root_Race]

1889

1889 - "Tabulator" - January 8th, 1889: "In 1886, Herman Hollerith constructed the first electromechanical adding and sorting machine. This machine, which he dubbed a 'tabulator,' received a patent on January 8th, 1899, and was put to its first commercial use in 1890 for the census bureau. [....] [Leo Laporte's 2005 Technology Almanac, p. 10]

1889 - Therese of the Child Jesus - January 10th, 1889: "[....] Thérèse entered the Carmelite order on 9 April 1888. On 10 January 1889, after a probationary period somewhat longer than the usual, she was given the habit and received the name: Thérèse of the Child Jesus. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Th%C3%A9r%C3%A8se_de_Lisieux]

1889 - Fatality / Crown Prince Rudolf, Austria - January 30th, 1889: "Crown prince Rudolf of Austria dies at Myerling, Austria."

1889 - U.S. President Benjamin Harrison - March 4th, 1889: "The 23rd American President, Benjamin Harrison [Republican], begins his term."

1889 - Birth / Charlie Chaplin - April 16th, 1889: "Charlie Chaplin was born in London, England."

1889 - 1st May Day Celebration / Paris, France - "The first 'May Day' celebration was held in Paris, France."

1889 - Seattle Fire - June 6th, 1889: "Seattle, Washington, fire destroys half of the city, 6 June."

1889 - Spokane Fire - August 4th, 1889: "Thirty-Two city blocks of Spokane, Washington, destroyed by fire."

1889 - North Dakota - November 2nd, 1889: "The 39th American state."

1889 - South Dakota - November 2nd, 1889: "The 40th American state."

1889 - Montana - November 8th, 1889: "The 41st American state."

1889 - Washington - November 11th, 1889: "The 42nd American state."

1889 - Oklahoma Land Run - "In 1889, two million acres of Indian Territory are bought from the Indians and given to white settlers for the Oklahoma Land Run."

1889 - World Record / Nelly Bly - "Nelly Bly [age 22] brakes 80 day around-the-world record of Jules Verne's, Phileas Fogg."

1889 - Bible Criticism / Lux Mundi - "[....] In 1889 the book of biblical essays called Lux Mundi gave up all pretense of the scriptures' historicity or divine inspiration, admitting that the Bible is a confused mass of myth, legend, and garbled history, often contradicting provable facts. [....] After David Straus's Leben Jesu disposed of the historicity of the Gospel stories, and Renan's Vie de Jesus showed that the Gospels cannot be taken as literal truth but only as romantic symbolism, the Rev. Maurice Jones exclaimed, 'If the Christ-Myth theory is true, and if Jesus never lived, the whole civilized world has for close upon two thousand years lain under the spell of a lie.' The Archbishop of Canterbury found it impossible to deny the Bible's apparent lies, and began to backtrack with his plaintive question, 'May not the Holy Spirit make use of myth and legend?' [....]" [See: Barbara G. Walker, The Women's Encyclopedia of Myths and Secrets, pp. 98-99]

1889 - Work Stoppage / Panama Canal - "Work on Panama Canal stops when French company goes bankrupt."

1889 - Matchbook - "Joshua Pusey invented the matchbook."

1889 - Washing Machine - "W.A. Cockran makes the first successful washing machine."

1889 - 1st Modern Brassiere - "Harminie Cadolle patents first modern Brassiere in Paris, France."

1889 - A Connecticut Yankee in King Author's Court - December 12th, 1889: "Mark Twain publishes A Connecticut Yankee in King Author's Court."

Late 1800's - Rapanui Population? - "For such a tiny island, Easter Island, off the coast of Chile, is rife with mysteries. Chief among them has been how a thriving population of as many as 15,000 people all but vanished in just a few generations. By the late 1800s, barely 100 Rapanui were left on Easter Island. [....] The Statues That Walked recounts the surprising conclusions they reached. For starters, Hunt [University of Hawaii anthropology professor Terry Hunt] contends that it was European explorers who unwittingly did in the Rapanui, infecting them with Old World diseases against which they had no immunities. [....]" [Based on: Honolulu Magazine article (Easter Island Controversy / Easter Surprise: A UH professor stirs up controversy with a new book on the Rapanui people of Easter Island.) by Michael Keany]

*Link: http://www.honolulumagazine.com/Honolulu-Magazine/August-2011/Easter-Island-Controversy/

1890-1969 A.D.

Page last updated 08/19/14