Timecapsule Timeline

Calendar Months

Color Code:

   In some places multiple entries occur for a particular year, but not necessarily in chronological order [by month]. Citations for a number of entries this page [and earlier pages] from Asimov's Chronology of the World are, as yet, incomplete. [- E.M.]

1390-1799 A.D.

1390s - Timeline - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1390s

1390 - Freemasonry - 1390: "The origins and early development of Freemasonry are a matter of some debate and conjecture. A poem known as the 'Regius Manuscript' has been dated to approximately 1390 and is the oldest known Masonic text.[3] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Masonic]

*References: http://freemasonry.bcy.ca/texts/regius.html

1390 - Ottomans / Anatolia - "The Ottomans take Philadelphia, the last Byzantine enclave of any significance in Anatolia."

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1390s]

1390 - Jewish Conversions & Expulsions - "[....] In 1390, St. Vincent Ferrer baptized the famous rabbi Selemoh ha-Levi and a massive wave of conversions followed in Spain. In 1388 'an exceptionally large number of Jews came into Italy, announcing that they wished to enter the Church.' Trying to make sense of the wave of conversions that swept through Spain in 1390, Cantor describes medieval Judaism succumbing to its own internal contradictions. Its great weakness was 'its finite, static quality.' The Jews for the most part had rejected reason when they rejected Maimonides; as a result Judaism's 'only innovative wing was in hazardous theosophic irrationalism,' something which 'could not offer a durable response to persecution and discomfort or a comprehensive social theory.' On the other hand, those 'sephardic Jewish intellectuals who, after 1390, for whatever initial motive, proceeded to cross over into Christianity, found in Latin Christian culture a much more complex and vibrant culture that they eagerly embraced. . . . 'Once the sephardic elite abandoned Maimonides and succumbed to the mumbo-jumbo of the Cabala, they descended into the Gnostic dualism which the Church had defeated when it defeated the Albigensians. That meant a descent into astrology, magic and demonology which would reach its culmination when Cabala brought forth the false Messiah Shabbetai Zevi, 300 years later. [....]
   "The wave of conversions which began in 1390 was followed by a wave of expulsions. The Jews were expelled from Cologne in 1424, from Speyer in 1435, and from Mainz in 1438. In 1492, in an act that would have momentous consequences for the revolutionary movement, the Jews were expelled from Spain. By 1520, 80 percent of the 150,000 to 200,000 Jews who lived in Spain in 1390 were still there, but they were now Christians. 'These events,' Glick tells us, referring to the conversions and expulsions, 'dealt a blow to Ashkenazic Jewry, from which . . it never recovered.' By 1450 the medieval phase of Jewish history in Germany and France had effectively ended. The Ashkenazim migrated to Poland, which would become the paradisus Judeorum, until their excesses as tax farmers caused the Chmielnicki pogroms. The Sephardim migrated to the Spanish Netherlands, where they would link up with English Protestants and German Anabaptists to create the Iconoclast rebellion of 1566. [....]"

[Based on: E. Michael Jones, editor of Culture Wars]

1391 - Anti-Jewish riots / Spain - June 6th, 1390: "Anti-Jewish riots erupt in Seville, Spain. Many thousands of Jews are massacred and the violence spreads throughout Spain and Portugal."

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1390s]

1391 - Anti-Jewish riots / Spain - August 5th, 1390: "Anti-Jewish riots spread to Toledo, Spain and Barcelona. Many Jews leave Barcelona after the following massacres, though a large number remain in the city."

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1390s]

1391 - Opposition / Uranus-Neptune - "Uranus-Neptune [Scorpio/Taurus] opposition [1391-1395]."

1391 - Conjunction / Neptune-Pluto - "[1391-1399] Neptune conjunct Pluto [Gemini], opposed by Uranus [Sagittarius]: the birth-point of the European Renaissance and the age of exploration."

1394 - Jewish Expulsions / France - September 17th, 1394: "King Charles VI of France orders the expulsion of all Jews from France."

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1390s]

1394 - Ottomans / Thessaly - 1394: "The Ottomans conquer Thessaly (now eastern Greece)."

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1390s]

1394 - Ottomans / Constantinople - 1394: - "The Ottomans begin an eight-year siege of Constantinople in the Byzantine Empire."

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1390s]

1394 - Opposition / Uranus-Pluto - Uranus-Pluto [Scorpio/Taurus Sagittarius/Gemini] opposition [1394-1396]. Uranus-Pluto conjunctions and oppositions might bring sudden and radical changes, like a cathartic diarrhoea, yet their full integration takes ages."

1396 - Battle of Nicopolis - September 25th, 1396: "Battle of Nicopolis: The Ottomans defeat a joint crusade by Hungary, France, the Holy Roman Empire, England and Wallacia[disambiguation needed], led by King Sigismund of Hungary. This is the last large-scale crusade of the Middle Ages."

Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1390s]

1396 - Venus Transit - November 24th, 1396: "Transit of Venus – the last not to be part of a pair. Possibly observed by Aztec astronomers."

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1390s]

1396 - Ottomans / Bulgaria - "The Ottomans capture the Bulgarian fortress of Vidin and Tsar Ivan Sratsimir, ending the Second Bulgarian Empire. The Bulgarian state is reestablished in 1878 as the Principality of Bulgaria."

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1390s]

1398 - Configuration - "Neptune-Pluto [2-3 Gemini] conjunction [1398-1399]. Neptune-Pluto cycles last about 495 years - half a millennium. They characterise an underlying driving-force behind history, an undertow of reality which marries the inevitable ram-force of Pluto with the imaginal, ideational power of Neptune. This combined force helps us define our underlying historical reality on a collective-unconscious level - this world-view and body of collective experience being a combination of actualities and perceptions." [Link: 1]

1398 - Timur / Delhi, India - December 17th, 1398: "Timur defeats the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, which had been weakened after 4 years of civil war. Following his victory, Timur's Islamic troops sack the city of Delhi and proceed to massacre hundreds of thousands of the state's Hindu inhabitants."

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1390s]

1398 - Crusade / North Africa - 1398: "Martin I of Aragon launches a crusade against the Moors in North Africa." [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1390s]

1398 - Sorcery and Witchcraft Considered Heresy / Paris, France - "In 1398 the Faculty of Theology of the University of Paris determined that sorcery and witchcraft were forms of heresy on the grounds that any form of magic required a pact with the devil, which required acknowledgment of the devil as lord. Sorcery had previously been considered a problem; Bernado Gui's list of the questions to ask a suspected sorcerer are formulated to determine wether in fact the sorcerer is a heretic or just deluded, and they contain no reference to ritual sex, cannibalism or the rest."

1400 -  St. George / England - "In the 14th century St. George became the Catholic patron saint of England by decree of King Edward III Plantagenet."

15th Century A.D.

15th Century - "As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was the century which lasted from 1401 to 1500 Common Era." [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/15th_century]

1400 - Little Ice Age? - "Every 11 years, on average, the sun reverses its overall magnetic polarity: Its north magnetic pole becomes a south pole, and vice versa. So a complete magnetic solar cycle  - returning the sun to its initial orientation - actually lasts an average of 22 years. No one completely understands the entire process, just as no one understands why the Earth's field also reverses itself at seemingly random intervals, most recently about 780,000 years ago. That's unfortunate, because there's evidence that sunspot cycles have direct consequences for human life. Witness the sobering case of the Maunder Minimum, the eerie stretch from 1645 to 1715 in which records show that practically no sunspots appeared on the solar face. It was named after British astronomer E. Walter Maunder, who in the 1890s tried in vain to stir up interest in this aberration. In the 1970s American solar physicist Jack Eddy revisited Maunder's work, noting that the Minimum offered 'a good test case for solar influence on climate. [....]' Eddy's investigation also drew attention to another sunspot dearth from 1460 to 1550. Putting that episode next to the Maunder dates, scientists realized that these extended minimums coincided with the core of a famously frigid period in Europe and elsewhere known as the Little Ice Age (1400-1850), during which the Thames River in London and the lagoon of Venice regularly froze." [N.G.M., July 2004, pp. 21 & 28]

*Trivia: "The forgoing 'Little Ice Age' (1400-1850) runs closely parallel with the Neptune-Pluto Cycle (1398-1891) spanning roughly the same 500-year period." [E.M.]

1400 - Map of Europe - "Map of Europe, 1400 AD."

1400 - English Vowel Shift -  "The great Vowel Shift begins." [Link: 1, 2]

1400 - Birth / Ramananda? - "Ramananda (1400?-1470?), also referred to as Saint Ramanand or Swami Ramanand, was a Vaishnava sant, a Ramayat (devotee of Rama). He is considered to be the founder of the Ramanandi Sampradaya religious system. He lived in the Indian holy city of Varanasi, and was a pioneer of the Bhakti movement, as well as a social reformer in Northern India. He was known for communicating in vernacular Hindi, and accepting disciples of all castes. His most famous disciples were Dhanna Bhagat, Kabirdas, Nabhadas, Pipa, Ravidas, Sain, and Tulsidas.[....] Ramananda is generally considered to have been born around AD 1400, although there is disagreement on the exact date and place of birth, due to the few texts regarding his early life. Birthplaces have been suggested as triveni sangam Allahabad, Prayaga, [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ramananda] - [T.D. - 01/23/10]

*Trivia: Shabad of Ramanand in Guru Granth Sahib

* Where should I go? * My home is filled with bliss. * My consciousness does not go out wandering. * My mind has become crippled. || 1 || Pause || * One day, a desire welled up in my mind. * I ground up sandalwood, along with several fragrant oils. * I went to God’s place, and worshipped Him there. * That God showed me the Guru, within my own mind. || 1 || * Wherever I go, I find water and stones. * You are totally pervading and permeating in all. * I have searched through all the Vedas and the Puraanas. * I would go there, only if the Lord were not here. || 2 || * I am a sacrifice to You, O my True Guru. * You have cut through all my confusion and doubt. * Raamanand’s Lord and Master is the All-pervading Lord God. * The Word of the Guru’s Shabad eradicates the karma of millions of past actions. || 3 || 1 ||

(SGGS, 1195) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ramanandi - [T.D. - 01/23/10]

*Links: http://www.kamat.com/indica/faiths/bhakti/ramanand.htm

1400 - Mongol Invasion / Syria - "Tamerlane invaded Syria in 1400 and there he met the Mamluks of Egypt who, nearly a century and a half earlier, had inflicted the first defeat on the Mongols. This time, though, that did not happen. Tamerlane destroyed them and took Damascus." [Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 196]

1402 - Scottish Defeat / Homildon Hill - September 14th, 1402: "The reign of Henry IV was constantly troubled with revolts and border warfare. The Scots invaded and were defeated at the battle of Homildon Hill in northern England on September 14, 1402, through the use of the English longbow." [Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 188]

1403 - Interest Payments Legalised / Italy - "Despite the traditional Christian prohibition of usury, Italian banks such as the Lombards, who have agents in the main economic centres of Europe, have been making charges for loans. The lawyer and theologian Lorenzo di Antonio Ridolfi wins a case which legalises interest payments by the Florentine government."

1405 - Chinese Naval Expeditions - "In 1405, Cheng Ho set forth with 300 ships and 12,000 men and visited Southeast Asia, Indonesia, and Ceylon." [Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 197]

1407 - Birth / Lorenzo Valla - "Italian humanist scholar Lorenzo Valla [d. 1457], exposer of the medieval forgery of the Donation of Constantine, is born." [Link: 1]

1409 - Bible Translation Ban / England - "Bible translation is forbidden in England."

1409 - Three Popes / Europe - "In 1409, a Council was held at Pisa that was attended by 500 churchmen, together with delegates from the various western European nations. After careful deliberation, they decided to depose both Gregory XII of Rome (1325-1417), who had been Pope since 1406, and Benedict XIII of Avignon, who had long held his post there, and to start afresh with Alexander V (1339-1410) as their own nominee. Since neither of the two older Popes would resign, Europe was now treated to the spectacle of three Popes, all shouting insults at eachother. The next year Alexander V was succeeded by John XXIII (d. 1419), and there were still three Popes." [Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, pp. 192-193]

1410 - Emperor Sigismund / Holy Roman Empire - "In 1410, Sigismund, a half brother of drunken King Wenceslas, became the ruler of the Empire, though Wenceslas lived on until 1419 and insisted on keeping the title. Sigismund labored to put an end to the Great Schism. This he succeeded in doing, thanks to the council of Constance, which he had called into existence against Papal wishes." [Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 194]

1410 - 1st Translation / Ptolemy's Geography - "The first translation of Ptolemy's Geography appears in Toledo, and revives the notion that the earth is round."

1411 - Chinese Naval Expedition / Persian Gulf - "A third voyage, in 1411, took him [admiral Cheng Ho] as far as the Persian Gulf. On his fourth voyage, he returned to the Persian Gulf, then moved on to the Red Sea, visiting Mecca and Egypt. On his last three voyages, he revisited many of these places." [Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 197]

1413 - Mehmed I / Ottoman Empire - "The Ottoman Empire was all but shattered by Tamerlane [the Mongol]. Tamerlane had divided Asia Minor among three of Bayezid's sons, to keep the Turks fighting amongst themselves. One of them, Mehmed (d. 1421), won out over the others, restored the Empire to unity, and by 1413 was reigning as Mehmed I the restorer." [Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 197]

1415 - Portuguese Empire - 1415: "Henry the Navigator leads the conquest of Ceuta from the Moors marking the beginning of the Portuguese Empire."

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/15th_century]

1415 - War / England & France "Henry V [ England] declared war on France in April 1415, and sailed for Normandy on August 10, 1415, with an army of 12,000 men. [....] Henry left for England, and then returned to France in 1417, spending two careful years subduing Normandy; while the French, lost in shock over Agincourt [Battle of Agincourt], did virtually nothing to interfere." [Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 189]

*Trivia: "Philip the Bold [of Burgandy] died in 1404 and was succeeded by his son, John the Fearless (1371-1418), who was a survivor of  the Battle of Nicopolis. He was first cousin to Charles VI [of France], and he found himself opposing Louis, Duke of Orleans (1372-1407), who was a younger brother of Charles VI. John the Fearless arranged to have Louis of Orleans assassinated in 1407 and, after that, the two factions were at war with eachother. Louis's son, Charles of Orleans (1394-1465), led the pro-war, anti-English party, while John of Burgandy led the anti-war, pro-English party. The result was that when Henry V invaded France, he had the help of the Burgundians, so that he was not merely fighting France, but was allied with half of France to fight the other half. [....] The Battle of Agincourt might have changed things. Charles of Orleans was taken prisoner at Agincourt and was kept in England for 25 years. That put him out of action. As for John of Burgandy, the English triumph was so great as to make him nervous, and he might have changed his policy and ended the civil war but, in 1419, he was assassinated at the direction of the Dauphin [of France]. This was foolish, for John was succeeded by his son, Phillip the Good (1396-1467), who, in view of the assassination, could not turn toward the Orleanist faction, but now had no choice but to stick with the English alliance." [Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, pp. 190-191]

1415 - Burned at the Stake / Jan Hus - July 6, 1415: "Sigismund invited Jan Hus to attend the council [Council of Constance, 1414] where he might discuss his views. Hus felt that would be suicidal behavior, so Sigismund gave him a safe conduct. Therefore, Hus attended the Council, was questioned and cross-questioned repeatedly, was placed in prison and, finally, on July 6, 1415, despite his safe conduct, was burned at the stake. It was a mistake. Hus dead, was more powerful than Hus, alive. The Hussites of Bohemia, those that followed his teachings, were outraged and, by 1419, they had risen in rebellion, and there followed the 'Hussite Wars.' " [Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 195]

*Trivia: "Outstanding on the Hussite side was John Zizka (1376-1424), who developed the use of wagons with armored sides, and holes through which small cannon could be aimed. When Zizka found a good position for battle, he placed his wagons in a circle and, when the enemy attacked, he fired his canon. He had invented a kind of primitive system of tanks." [Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 195]

1416 - Trivia / Argonese Empire - "Aragon continued to turn its face eastward, something it had done since the Sicilian Vespers, a century and a half before. Alfonso V the Magnanimous (1396-1458) became King of Aragon in 1416. He already controlled the Balearic Islands, Sardinia, and Sicily. He managed to seize the kingdom of Naples, too, so that under him the Aragonese Empire was at its peak." [Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 193]

1417 - Pope Martin V - "Another Council was held at Constance in southwestern Germany in 1414. After three years of deliberation, all three Popes were deposed and Martin V (1368-1431) became Pope in 1417. [....] Martin V managed to resume control over the Papal States and began the process of fighting against the Counciliar movement - that is, against the notion that Councils were more authoritative than the Pope. He was succeeded by Eugene IV (1383-1447), who became Pope in 1431, and who continued the fight against Councils." [Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 193]

1420 - Treaty / England & France - "In 1420, Henry V forced the helpless French government to sign a treaty in which mad King Charles VI named Henry as his heir, disinheriting his son, the Dauphin Charles (1403-1461) in the process, and implying his illegitimacy. He also gave Henry his daughter, Catherine (1401-1437), as wife. Now it was only a matter of waiting for the mad king to die, and henry would be king of England and France." [Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 189]

1420 - Center for Navigation / Portugal - "Henry [of Portugal] founded a center for navigation at Sagres, at the extreme southwestern tip of Portugal." [Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 192]

1422 - Charles VII & Henry VI / France - "When Charles VI [of France] died in 1422, the Dauphin called himself Charles VII, but he was not crowned in the Cathedral of Rheims. This had been the traditional site of crowning since the time of Clovis, nine centuries before, but it was in English hands. As long as the Dauphin was not crowned in Rheims, he had to remain the Dauphin, and nothing more. The English child-king, Henry VI, was crowned King of France to forestall Charles, but Henry was crowned in Paris and that, too, didn't count." [Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 191]

1424 - English Victory / Normandy, France - August 17th, 1424: "Henry V's younger brother, John, Duke of Bedford (1389-1435), was an uncle of Henry VI and was a skilled soldier. He won another battle at Verneuil in southern Normandy on August 17, 1424, using longbowmen against heavy calvary. Verneuil, however, was fated to be the last great longbow victory the English were to win over the French, who after that, began to learn their lesson." [Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 190]

1424 - King James I / Scotland - "Robert III of Scotland was succeeded in 1406 by his son, James I (1394-1437). He had been captured by the English in that same year, when he was 12 years old, and was kept prisoner by Henry IV. Henry V released him in 1423, and he was finally crowned in 1424. In 1437, however, he was assassinated and succeeded by his 7-year-old son, who reigned as James II (1430-1460). By a strange fatality, there were to be six Jameses who ruled over Scotland, and every one of them became king as a minor. This helped to keep Scotland in constant turmoil." [Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 190]

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_I_of_Scotland

1424 - Mongol Astronomy - "A grandson of Tamerlane, Ulugh Beg (1394-1449), ruled at Samarkand, in what is now Uzbekistan, and which had been Tamerlane's capital. He succeeded to the throne in 1447. His real fame was in astronomy, however. He founded a university in Samarkand in 1420 and built an astronomical observatory in 1424 that was the best in the world at the time. His work, however, was completely unknown in western Europe and did not influence scientific development there [not even Cardinal Nicholas of Cusa?]. He was assassinated by his son in 1449, and Mongol astronomy died with him." [Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 196]

1425 - Emperor John VIII / Byzantium - "The Emperor, John VIII (1390-1448), who had gained the throne in 1425, traveled to Italy and attended the Council of Florence in 1439. Once again, he offered to heal the schism between eastern and western Christianity and to accept Papal primacy. Again, it was no use. The Byzantine people simply wouldn't accept the Pope. They would rather have the Turks. In 1450, the Turks were advancing on Constantinople again, and it didn't look as though a second miracle would take place." [Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 196]

1429 - Joan of Arc / France - "In 1428, the Duke of Bedford had sent an army to lay seige to Orleans at the northernmost point of the Loire River. If that fell, it might have meant that the south of France would surrender, and all the land would be conquered. [....] Then, in 1429, a strange thing happened. A young woman from eastern France appeared before the Dauphin and said that God had sent her to save France. Her name was Jeanne Darc (usually mistranslated as Joan of Arc). The Dauphin, after some consideration, decided he had nothing to lose, so he sent her to Orleans with an armed escort. It turned out that she was just the psychological lift the French needed. The French soldiers, feeling that God might be on their side now, fought with new vigor. The English soldiers, fearful that Joan was some sort of witch, were a little readier to back off than they had been before. Thus, the French attacked and the English retreated from Orleans. That was the turning point of the Hundred Years War. Joan led the Dauphin to Rheims, where he was crowned and became Charles VII officially. Joan was soon captured by the English, however, and, in 1431, was burned as a witch in Rouen, the capital of Normandy, while Charles VII made no attempt to save her." [Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 191]

1431 - Fatality / Joan of Arc -  "On May 30th, 1431, Joan of Arc was burned at the stake. It was the charge of witchcraft that enabled the Inquisition to try and condemn Jean d'Arc in 1431. In 1457, Jean's sentence of heresy was revoked, and she is the only victim of the Inquisition to have been granted this admission. It was done so that, in response to popular French demand, she could be canonised."

1433 - Partial Lunar Eclipse - "July 2nd [Two eclipses in 15 days]"

1435 - Peace / Burgandy & France - "By 1435, Phillip of Burgandy could see that the wind had shifted, and he made his peace with France. After that, England had no chance at all. In 1436, the French had retaken Paris, and after that they began the fight to retake Normandy." [Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 192]

1437 - Emperor Albert II [of Hapsburg] / Holy Roman Empire - "Sigismund died in 1437, leaving only a daughter. That daughter was married to Albert of Hapsburg (1397-1439), the great-great-great-grandson of Rudolph of Hapsburg, who had been Emperor a century and a half earlier. Albert became Emperor Albert II, and was the fourth Hapsburg to serve as Emperor. There was never, after this, an Emperor who was not a Hapsburg." [Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 194]

1438 - House of Hapsburg - 1438: "The House of Habsburg (play /?hæps.b?r?/; German pronunciation: [?ha?ps.b??k]), also Hapsburg,[1] and also known as House of Austria is one of the most important royal houses of Europe and is best known for being an origin of all of the formally elected Holy Roman Emperors between 1438 and 1740, as well as rulers of the Austrian Empire and Spanish Empire and several other countries. [N.P.] The House takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built around 1020–1030 in present day Switzerland by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who chose to name his fortress Habsburg. His grandson, Otto II, was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "von Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Habsburg]

1439 - Status of "Reincarnation" / Council of Florence - "In the Council of Lyons, in 1274, it was stated that; 'after death the soul goes promptly either to heaven or to hell. On the day of judgment, all will stand before the tribunal of Christ with their bodies to render account of what they have done.' The Council of Florence of 1439 uses almost the same wording to describe the swift passage of the soul either to heaven or hell. Implicit in both of these councils is the assumption that the soul does not again venture into physical bodies."  

1440 - Birth / Kabir - "KABIR (1440-1518 A.D.)—A great Indian Saint and contemporary of Guru Nanak. The modern age of Sant Mat wherein the Science of Surat Shabd Yoga is openly taught and first-hand experience given may be said to have begun with Kabir Sahib."

[Based on: http://www.ruhanisatsangusa.org/gloss.htm]

*Links: http://www.kamat.com/indica/faiths/bhakti/kabir.htm

1440 - Holy Roman Emperor / Fredrick III - 1440: "In 1440, Frederick III was chosen by the Electoral College to succeed Albert II as the king. After several Habsburg kings had attempted to gain the imperial throne over the years, success finally arrived on 19 March 1452, when Pope Nicholas V crowned Frederick III as the Holy Roman Emperor in a grand ceremony held in Rome. In Frederick III, the Pope found an important political ally with whose help he was able to counter the conciliar movement.[6] [...] After Frederick III's coronation, the Habsburgs were able to hold the imperial throne almost continuously for centuries, until 1806.[6] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Habsburg]

1441 - Post-Classic Maya - "The Postclassic Maya divided into tribute-collecting states. The overarching mythic concept which connected these states was the Plumed Serpent, Quetzalcoatl. The divine king Plumed Serpent represented a deity figure. However, Quetzalcoatl was also a man who lived amongst the Maya during the end of the tenth century AD. During the Postclassic period, the Mayan culture fused with the Mexicans whose native language was Nahua. The Mayapan dissolved due to internal warfare in 1441 AD. At this point the Mayan Civilization had become quite fragmented, and by the time the Spanish arrived in the sixteenth century AD, the memory of the Classic Maya had all but vanished without a trace. All that remained of the Classic Maya were the silent stone carvings and pyramids.  

1441 - Slave trade / Portugal - 1441: "Portuguese navigators cruise West Africa and reestablish the European slave trade with a shipment of African slaves sent directly from Africa to Portugal."

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/15th_century]

1448 - Cardinal Science - "Nicholas of Cusa (1401-1464) was a German scholar and ecclesiastic with astonishingly modern ideas. He held that the earth turned on its axis and moved around the sun; that space was infinite, and that the stars were other suns with planets circulating them; that plants drew sustenence from the air; that the behavior of the pulse was a valuabvle diagnostic device. Until then, spectacles were used only with convex lenses to correct for far-sightedness. Nicholas of Cusa was the first to make them with concave lenses for near-sighted people. Far from getting into trouble for his unusual views, Nicholas of Cusa was made a cardinal in 1448." [Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 195]

1449 - Birth / Mahapurusha Srimanta Sankardeva - "1449-1568) (Assamese: ... Môhapurux Srimôntô Xônkôrdev), saint-scholar, playwright, social-religious reformer, is a colossal figure in the cultural and religious history of Assam, India. He is credited with providing a thread of unity to Assam straddling two major kingdoms (Ahom and Koch kingdoms), building on past literary activities to provide the bedrock of Assamese culture, and creating a religion that gave shape to a set of new values and social synthesis. The religion he started, Mahapuruxiya Dharma, was part of the Bhakti movement then raging in India, and he inspired bhakti in Assam just as Ramananda, Kabir, Basava and Chaitanya Mahaprabhu inspired it elsewhere. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Srimanta_Sankardeva] - [T.D. - 11/12/09]

1450 - Machu Picchu  - "Machu Picchu constructed." [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/15th_century]

1450 - English Defeat / Normandy, France - April 15th, 1450: "In 1450, the British sent an expeditionary force larger than any they had yet sent to France, and it did them no good. At the Battle of Formigny in Normandy on April 15, 1450, it was the English longbows against the new French artillery - the French won. By the end of the year, the English were cleared out of Normandy and out of all northern France except Calais, and they held on to only small parts of the southwest." [Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 192]

1453 - Partial Lunar Eclipse - "May 22nd"

1453 - Fall of Constantinople - "The seige began on April 6, 1453 and, by May 29, the walls had been battered down. The Turks entered and Constantine XI died, fighting to the last. Just as the end of the West Roman Empire nearly a thousand years earlier is taken as the end of ancient times and the beginning of the Middle Ages, so the end of the last remnant of the East Roman Empire is often taken as the end of the Middle Ages and the beginning of modern times. Mehmed II made Constantinople the capital of the Ottoman Empire (its name eventually coming to be 'Istanbul'), and then proceeded to clean up the Balkans." [Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 198]

*Trivia: "When Constantinople fell in 1453 and Pius II was unable to initiate a further campaign before his death in 1464, the crusading movement came to an end." [The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions, Keith Crim]

1453 - Battle of Castillon - "The Battle of Castillon is the last engagement of the Hundred Years' War and the first battle in European history where cannons were a major factor in deciding the battle."

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/15th_century]

1455 - Configuration - "Uranus-Pluto [Leo] conjunction [1455-1456]."

1455 - Gutenberg Bible - "The Gutenberg Bible is printed."

1456 - Trivia / Dracula - "Vladislav Basarab of Transylvania gains the crown of Wallacia for the first time [until 1462, and again briefly in 1468]. From his father he earned the nickname 'Dracula', son of the Dragon, but he earned for himself the name Vlad the Impaler, for his favourite method of execution. Despite a large amount of slander by his political opponents, many of the tales of his cruelty were true [he is said to have killed over 40,000 people in his reign]. He was also a staunch defender of Christendom from the Turkish threat."

1456 - Perihelion / Halley's Comet - June 9th, 1456 A.D.: "1P/1456 K1 (9 June 1456)"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halley%27s_Comet] - [T.D. - 06/12/07] 

*Trivia: "1456: The comet passed very close to the Earth; its tail extended over 60° of the heavens and took the form of a sabre. According to one story, first appearing in a posthumous biography in 1475 and later embellished and popularized by Pierre-Simon Laplace, Pope Callixtus III excommunicated the 1456 apparition of the comet, believing it to be an ill omen for the Christian defenders of Belgrade, who were at that time being besieged by the armies of the Ottoman Empire. However, no known primary source supports the authenticity of this account. this comet is 5 years old"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halley%27s_Comet] - [T.D. - 06/12/07]

1457 - Trivia / Lorenzo Valla - "The outcome of Lorenzo Valla's investigation into the Donation of Constantine was that he discovered it to be an outright forgery compiled some four centuries after Emperor Constantine's death." [Laurence Gardner, Realm Of The Ring Lords, p. 22]

1460 - Sunspot Dearth - "Eddy's investigation also drew attention to another sunspot dearth from 1460 to 1550. Putting that episode next to the Maunder dates [1645-1715], scientists realized that these extended minimums coincided with the core of a famously frigid period in Europe and elsewhere known as the Little Ice Age (1400-1850), during which the Thames River in London and the lagoon of Venice regularly froze." [N.G.M., July 2004, p. 28]

1460 - Ottoman Turks / Southern Greece - "Southern Greece, including Athens, was gathered up by Mehmed by 1460, and the Empire of Trebizond, the very last diluted remnant of the Roman Empire, was taken in 1461. Mehmed then took various Greek islands that the Venetians had ruled for two and a half centuries, including Euboea." [Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 198]

1461 - Birth / Rebazar Tarzs? - "Rebazar Tarzs was born in the year of 1461, in the mountain village of Sarana in northern Tibet. He developed into mastership under the spiritual guidance of Yaubl Sacabi. It was he who was responsible for Christopher Columbus' inner guidance. He stayed on earth for seventy-five years [until 1536?] teaching ECK, then he retired in the same body to the mountainous vastness of the Himalayas. He has spiritually developed several ECK Masters, and is responsible for the passing of the Rod of ECK power from one master to his successor. He also developed spiritually Peddar Zaskq." [Based on: The Spiritual Notebook, by Paul Twitchell, 10th printing 1983, pp. 193-194

1463 - Corpus Hermeticum - "In 1460 a Greek manuscript consisting of an almost complete copy of the Corpus Hermeticum, the standard text book on Hermiticism, had come into the hands of a monk hired to locate rare manuscripts. The manuscript was translated, and then published in 1463. Its publication marked the great occult revival of the period which was to culminate in  the flowering of the Renaissance."

1464 - End / Crusading Movement - "When Constantinople fell in 1453 and Pius II was unable to initiate a further campaign before his death in 1464, the crusading movement came to an end." [Based on: Keith Crim, The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions]

1469 - Birth / Nanak - November 5th, 1469: "NANAK (1469-1539)—The founder of Sikhism, born in the village of Talwandi, near Lahore in the Pumjab. A scion of a Khatri family, he had close associations with Kabir and like his great contemporary, he preached monotheistic faith, compounded out of Hindu and Muslim elements and as such, was equally acclaimed and admired by both."

[Based on: http://www.ruhanisatsangusa.org/gloss.htm] 

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guru_Nanak_Dev

1469 - Founded / Sikhism - 1469:

Sikhism is the youngest of the World Religions, barely 500 years old. It was founded by Siri Guru Nanak Dev Ji in 1469 who laid the basic principles of Sikhism. It offered the people a simple Sikh religion teaching "Oneness of God", whose name is TRUTH. Nine Gurus followed him who all reinforced and added to what was taught by the first Guru. After which in 1708, the holy book of the Sikhs, The Siri GURU GRANTH SAHIB JI was Proclaimed to be the only Guru by the last Guru, Siri Guru Gobind Singh Ji. This holy book embodies the philosophy and fundamentals of Sikhism. It is the only holy book of a major religion which was written and authenticated by its founders.

[Based on: http://www.sikh.net/SIKHISM/Sikhism.htm]

1473 - Birth / Nicolaus Copernicus - February 19th, 1473: "Nicolaus Copernicus (February 19, 1473 – May 24, 1543) was the first astronomer to formulate a scientifically-based heliocentric cosmology that displaced the Earth from the center of the universe. His epochal book, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres), is often regarded as the starting point of modern astronomy and the defining epiphany that began the Scientific Revolution. [NP] Although Greek, Indian and Muslim savants had published heliocentric hypotheses centuries before Copernicus, his publication of a scientific theory of heliocentrism, demonstrating that the motions of celestial objects can be explained without putting the Earth at rest in the center of the universe, stimulated further scientific investigations and became a landmark in the history of modern science that is known as the Copernican Revolution. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicolaus_Copernicus] - T.D. 11/22/08]

1475 - Age of Knowledge - "In 1475, the Supreme Maya Council revealed the long-held vision of an ancient Solar Grandmother named X'Nuuk'K'in - that a sacred calendar cycle of twice the Kal'Tun [260 years] must go by before the Solar Culture would flourish again."

1478 - Astronomic Configuration - "Uranus-Neptune [Scorpio] conjunction [1478-1479]."

1478 - Spanish Inquisition - "Queen Isabella received permission from Sixtus IV to operate an Inquisition amongst the Jews and Muslims of her kingdom who were suspected as having accepted Christianity at face whilst continuing their old practices in secret. Her husband Ferdinand of Aragon received permission to Inquire in his adjacent realm, and inevitably in 1483 the two were placed under the Consejo de la Suprema y General Inquisicion, under the jurisdiction of the Dominican friar Torquemada.
   "The extreme reputation of the Spanish Inquisition derives from a number of factors. It was the first time since Gregory that an Inquisition occurred without the jurisdiction of the Pope; Sixtus gave his permission, but the entire operation was controlled by the Spanish crown. With the complete support it thus possessed, it was probably the most efficient Inquisition in history. It spread throughout all Spanish provinces and colonies, as Mexico and South America was settled, all the while retaining it's centralised control. In fact, it was the only institution of the Spanish government to be recognised throughout its entire empire."

1479 - Birth / Guru Amar Das - May 5th, 1479:

"Guru Amar Das was born in the village of Basarke on May 5, 1479. He was the eldest son of Tej Bhan a farmer and trader. Guru Amar Das grew up and married Mansa Devi and had two sons Mohri and Mohan and two daughters Dani and Bhani. He was a very religious Vaishanavite Hindu who spent most of his life performing all of the ritual pilgrimages and fasts of a devout Hindu. [NP] It was not until his old age that Amar Das met Guru Angad and converted to the path of Sikhism. He eventually became Guru at the age of 73 succeeding Guru Angad as described previously. [....]"

[Based on: http://santhakar.tripod.com/saints/bio-4.html] - [T.D. - 08/05/08]

1481 - Spanish Inquisition - "Spanish Inquisition begins in practice with the first auto-da-fé."

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/15th_century]

1484 - Hammer of Witches - "The medieval witch hunt, which lasted from the end of the fifteenth century to the beginning of the eighteenth century, claimed nearly a million innocent lives and was instigated by the publication in 1484 of the Malleus Malefiracum [Hammer of Witches]. This evil book was written by two Dominican monks, Heinrich Kramer and James Sprenger, who were members of the Inquisition set up in 1215 to root out and kill heretics."

1486 - Chaitanya - "Chaitanya was born of Vaishnava (devotees of Lord Vishnu) parents, Sachi Mata and Jagannatha Misra in Navadwip, Bengal, India in the year of 1486. His whole life was dedicated to the teachings of Lord Krishna. Even as a young boy in school, he taught that every letter of the alphabet relates directly to Lord Krishna. He would challenge scholars much older then himself to discussion on the Vedas. He would be undefeated, later taking his opponents as his disciples to help him spread the pure cult of Bhakti Yoga. [....]" [Based on: http://www.kamat.com/umbrella/chaitanya.htm]

1486 - Witches Condemned - "Pope Innocent VIII issued a papal bull condemning witches, which plunged Christian Europe into an orgy of bloody persecution which lasted nearly 250 years."

1490 - Pluto/ Scorpio - October 29th, 1490: Pluto at 0 degrees Scorpio. ...

*Link: http://www.astro.com/swisseph/ae/1400/ae_1490.pdf

1491 - Pluto/ Scorpio - May 8th, 1491: Pluto at 0 degrees Scorpio, R.; August 22nd, D. ...

*Link: http://www.astro.com/swisseph/ae/1400/ae_1491.pdf

1492 - Christian Granada - January 2nd, 1492: "The armies of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, the Catholic monarchs whose marriage had recently united the old Iberian kingdoms of Aragon and Castile, conquered the city-state of Granada. With deep emotion, the crowd watched the Christian banner raised ceremonially upon the city walls and, as the news broke, bells pealed triumphantly all over Europe, for Granada was the last Muslim stronghold in Christendom." [Karen Armstrong, The Battle for God, p. 3]

1492 - Edict of Expulsion / Spain - March 31st, 1492: "Ferdinand and Isabella signed the Edict of Expulsion, designed to rid Spain of its Jews, who were given the choice of baptism or deportation. Many Jews were so attached to 'al-Andalus' (as the old Muslim kingdom had been called) that they converted to Christianity and remained in Spain, but about 80,000 Jews crossed the border into Portugal, while 50,000 fled to the new Muslim Ottoman empire, where they were given a warm welcome." [Karen Armstrong, The Battle for God, p. 3]

1492 - Columbus Discovers America - "In August, Christopher Columbus, a protege of Ferdinand and Isabella, sailed from Spain to find a new trade route to India but discovered the Americas instead." [Karen Armstrong, The Battle for God, p. 3-4]

1498 - Vasco da Gama / Calicut, India - "Western influence on India began with the landing at Calicut in 1498 of Vasco da Gama. The Portuguese were followed by the British, the French, the Dutch and the Danes. All of them subjected the country to their respective influences. Gradually, the English acquired supremacy over the country. Thereafter, farsighted as they were, they devoted their energy to strengthening their foothold in India. They reformed the administration, improved communications, introduced an effective system of law and justice, and opened schools, colleges, universities, and offered the gifts of science and technology to India. Indians were dazzeled byWestern civilization. Their confidence in their own culture began to waver. A few were so enchanted that they adopted western ways and wished to rebuild the structure of Indian life on the foundations of an alien culture. Many Indians along with some Englishmen were convinced that English education would dispel India of socio-religious malpractices. [....]"

[Based on: http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Academy/9563/chapter1.html] - [T.D. - 12/15/08]

1499 - Muslim Deportation / Spain - "In 1499, the Muslim inhabitants of Spain were given the option of conversion to Christianity or deportation, after which, for a few centuries, Europe would become Muslim-free." [Karen Armstrong, The Battle for God, p. 3]

16th Century A.D.

1500 - Map of Europe - "Map of Europe, 1500 AD."

16th Century - "As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century lasted from January 1, 1501 to December 31, 1600. It is regarded by historians as the century in which the rise of the West occurred."

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/16th_century]

1500 - Jewish Ghettos - "Spanish and Portuguese Jews immigrate [1500-1600] to Italy, the Turkish Empire [particularly Palestine], North Africa, and the New World. Beginning in the 16th century, most Jews in Europe were forced to live in walled enclosures, where they were locked in at night, and had to wear badges identifying themselves as Jews when they were outside the walls. The Jewish quarter of Venice became known as the Ghetto, and eventually all these communities were called ghettos. During the 16th century, many Jews settled in the Netherlands, where they were able to formally practice their religion again. Members of this group later founded successful Jewish communities in England as well. Jews live peacefully in Poland [1400-1648] where they work primarily as merchants artisans, and innkeepers. There, they are governed by the Jewish Council of Four Lands. The Marranos move to Holland and France, where they are permitted to practice their religion freely [1500-1700]. Jews also begin to return to England."

1500 - Modern English Period  - "The period of Early Modern English [1500-1800 A.D.] begins."

1500s - Trivia / Scientific Revolution - "The Enlightenment was a sprawling intellectual, philosophical, cultural, and social movement that spread through England, France, Germany, and other parts of Europe during the 1700s. Enabled by the Scientific Revolution, which had begun as early as 1500, the Enlightenment represented about as big of a departure as possible from the Middle Ages—the period in European history lasting from roughly the fifth century to the fifteenth. [....]"

[Based on: http://www.sparknotes.com/history/european/enlightenment/context.html] - [T.D. - 11/22/08]

1500s - Written ECKANKAR Instructions / Kabir? - "No written instructions had been put down for the followers of ECKANKAR, nor any part of it, until the sixteenth century when Kabir, the Hindu mystic poet, took it upon himself to unwrap the mysteries of the ancient science of Soul Travel." [Based on: ECKANKAR, Compiled Writings, Vol. 1 (Copyright 1975 by Gail T. Gross), by Paul Twitchell, p. 59 - Compiled from: All About ECK, Copyright 1968?]

1502 - Pluto/ Sagittarius - January 24th, 1502: Pluto at 0 degrees Sagittarius; November 11th. ...

*Link: http://www.astro.com/swisseph/ae/1500/ae_1502.pdf

1504 - Total Lunar Eclipse - "March 1st"

1504 - Birth / Guru Angad - March 31st, 1504:

"The son of a prosperous Hindu trader, Bhai Pheru, Guru Angad was an ardent devotee of the Hindu goddess Durga. Lehna, as he was known before becoming Guru was born on March 31, 1504 in the village of Matte-di-Sari but eventually his family moved to Khadur. He was married to Khivi and had two sons, Datu and Dasu, and one daughter Amro. Lehna would annually lead groups of pilgrims to visit the temple of Durga at Jwalamukhi for preying and dancing. Here the flames emitted by the volcano are worshipped by devout Hindus. One day Lehna heard a Sikh named Bhai Jodha reciting the Japji, the early morning prayer composed by Guru Nanak. Finding out about Guru Nanak from Bhai Joda, Lehna decided to visit the Guru and pay his respects. Upon meeting Guru Nanak at the age of 27, Lehna became a devout disciple of Guru Nanak and renounced his former practices. [....]"

[Based on: http://santhakar.tripod.com/saints/bio-3.html] - [T.D. - 08/05/08]

1506 - St. Peter's Basilica - April 18th, 1506: "[....] Pope Julius II laid the first stone of St. Peter's on April 18th, 1506, erecting the new church over one built in the fourth century by Constantine, the Roman emperor who was a strong supporter of Christianity." [Based on: News Services article (Exibit marks basilica's 500th anniversary), p. A11, S.L.P.D., 04/21/06]

1509 - Kanakadasa - "Saint-Poet Kanakadasa (c 1509-1609 A.D.) belongs to the tradition of Haridasa literary movement which ushered in an era of devotional literature in Karnataka. Scores and scores of Haridasa have composed songs in praise of Krishna (incarnation of Vishnu). 'Haridasa' stands for 'servant of Hari', is another epithet of god Krishna. Right from 14th century to 19th, we find several Haridasas who wrote devotional compositions which could be set to music with simple instruments like Tanpura, and Tala (cymbals). They wrote kirtans, bhajans, prayers, lullabies, festival songs, and house-hold-chore songs. Written in simple and spoken Kannada, they had universal appeal. [....]"

[Based on: http://www.kamat.com/indica/faiths/bhakti/kanakadasa.htm]

1514 - Heliocentrism - "In 1514 Copernicus made available to friends his Commentariolus (Little Commentary), a six page hand-written text describing his ideas about the heliocentric hypothesis. It contained seven basic assumptions. Thereafter he continued gathering data for a more detailed work. [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicolaus_Copernicus] - [T.D. - 11/22/08]

*Trivia: "Early traces of a heliocentric model are found in several anonymous Vedic Sanskrit texts composed in ancient India before the 7th century BCE. Additionally, in the sixth century the Indian astronomer and mathematician Aryabhata anticipated elements of Copernicus's work, although he did not maintain heliocentrism. [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicolaus_Copernicus] - [T.D. - 11/22/08]

*Trivia: "The prevailing theory in Europe as Copernicus was writing was that created by Ptolemy in his Almagest, dating from about A.D. 150. The Ptolemaic system drew on many previous theories that viewed Earth as a stationary center of the universe. Stars were embedded in a large outer sphere which rotated relatively rapidly, while the planets dwelt in smaller spheres between — a separate one for each planet. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicolaus_Copernicus] - [T.D. - 11/22/08]

1515 - Pluto/ Capricorn - December 25th, 1515: Pluto at 0 degrees Capricorn [apparently, Pluto was in Capricorn from about 1515-1532].

[Based on: http://www.astro.com/swisseph/ae/1500/ae_1515.pdf] & [..._1532.pdf]

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1515

1516 - Birth / Mary I - "February 18th, 1516: Queen Mary I "Bloody Mary" (1516 - 1558) born in Greenwich.

[Based on: http://wwp.greenwichpast.com/history/time-line/c16th.htm] - [T.D. - 11/22/08]

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_I_of_England

1516 - Ottoman Palestine - "During Ottoman rule [1516-1917], the inhabitants of Palestine experienced some prosperity and modernization, but they also suffered at the hands of corrupt and negligent local officials."

1516 - Charles V / King of Spain - "Charles V (b. 1500, Ghent, d. 1558, San Jerónimo de Yuste, Spain), Holy Roman emperor (1519-56), king of Spain (as Charles I, 1516-56), and archduke of Austria (as Charles I, 1519-21), who inherited a Spanish and Habsburg empire extending across Europe from Spain and the Netherlands to Austria and the Kingdom of Naples and reaching overseas to Spanish America. He struggled to hold his empire together against the growing forces of Protestantism, increasing Turkish and French pressure, and even hostility from the Pope. At last he yielded, abdicating his claims to the Netherlands and Spain in favour of his son Philip II and the title of emperor to his brother Ferdinand I and retiring to a monastery.  [....]" [Based on: http://www.wga.hu/tours/spain/charles5.html] - [T.D. 11/22/08]

1516 - Alternate Translation / Latin New Testament - "In 1516, Erasmus issued his own Latin translation of the Greek New Testament, thereby exposing the Vulgate as a cleverly mistranslated document, which he called a 'second-hand' account." [Laurence Gardner, Realm Of The Ring Lords, p.22]

1517 - "Protest" / Martin Luther - "In 1517 Martin Luther nailed his 'protest' to the door of the Whittenburg Cathedral, and the Empire of the Church began to crumble." [Links:  1, 2]

1519 - Charles V / Holy Roman Emperor - "Charles V (b. 1500, Ghent, d. 1558, San Jerónimo de Yuste, Spain), Holy Roman emperor (1519-56) [....]" [Based on: http://www.wga.hu/tours/spain/charles5.html] - [T.D. 11/22/08]

1519 - Beginning / "Nine Hells Period," South America - "843 AD marks the beginning of another prophetic cycle called the thirteen heavens and the nine hells. Each of these heaven and hell cycles is a period of fifty-two years, the length of a Calendar Round. Thus, the thirteen heavens lasted from 843 – 1519 AD, ending right before the Spanish invasion. The nine hells lasted from 1519 – 1987 AD."

1519 - Conquistadores / Mexico - February 1519: "Spanish Conquistadores arrive in the Valley of Mexico."

*Trivia: "Despite the many records carved in stone throughout Mayan cities, much of this culture remains a profound mystery. The main reason for this is the Spanish. Not only did they come to the Yucatan some 700 years after the Classic Maya, thus never aware of the previous stage of advanced civilization, but they made it their personal mission to destroy all that remained of the once great culture of the terrestrial Maya. Throughout the period known as the New Empire, the Maya had created many hieroglyphic texts on folding sheets of paper. Of these only four survive. They are known as the Dresden, Madrid, Grolier, and Paris codices. All the rest were burned by Spanish conquistadors and Christian missionaries. In addition to these codices, a few texts that were written after the Spanish conquest have survived. These are the Popul Vu, and the Books of the Chilam Balam."  

1520 - Jewish Christian Converts? / Spain - "[....] By 1520, 80 percent of the 150,000 to 200,000 Jews who lived in Spain in 1390 were still there, but they were now Christians. [....]" [Based on: E. Michael Jones, editor of Culture Wars]

1522 - Trivia / Japji - "[....] Going back even further, I came to the founder of the Sikh religion, Guru Nanak, whom Paul [Paul Twitchell] has written about many times. Guru Nanak's most famous piece is known as the Japji. Written around 1522, it was chosen by Guru Arjan to begin the first edition of the Guru Granth Sahib, the sacred Bible of the Sikhs. The Japji opens with these words from the first stanza:

    Ek onkar satnam karta purakhu

   Obviously, as others have pointed out, it is likely that Paul's name for ECKANKAR came from this poem of Nanak's. A translation of the whole opening stanza goes like this:

     The One Reality, the True Name, the Eternal and Creative Source of all,

     Without fear, without hatred,

     Timeless, unborn and self-existent,

     The Enlightener through grace,

     Present in the beginning before all the ages began,

     He is present even now, O Nanak,

     As He will always be. 

[....]"   [Based on: Dialogue in the Age of Criticism, Chap. 12]  

*Trivia: The Concept of Ek-Onkar by Prof. Harmindar Singh

Guru Nanak's concept and vision of the Supreme Being is embodied in terse terms in the Sikh Fundamental Creed, Mool Mantra, literally meaning the Root Formula. Because of its importance as a basic theological declaration around which revolves the whole Sikh philosophical thought, it is most appropriately placed in the very beginning of the Sikh scripture, the Guru Granth Sahib. It affirms in unequivocal terms Guru Nanak's uncompromising belief in monotheism. In the original the text read as:

"Ek Onkar Satnam Karta Purush Nirbhau Virvair Akal Murat, Ajuni Saibhang Gurprasad(i)"

The English rendering would approximate to:

There is One and only One God who is transcendent as well as immanent. True and Eternal Name. Creator and Person. Without Fear and without Enmity. Timeless Form, Unborn, Self-existent. Realized by Divine Grace.


[Based on: http://www.sikhs.org/art1.htm]

*Trivia: "The Sanskrit word omkara (from which came Punjabi onkar, etc), literally "OM-maker", has two families of meanings:-

Brahma (god) in his role as creator, and thus a word for "creator".

Writers' term for the OM sign.

[Based on: http://encyclopedie-en.snyke.com/articles/_aum.html]

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ek_Onkar

1525 - Bible Translation / English New Testament - "It was left to the priest William Tyndale, who was born about a century after Wycliffe's death, to produce an English-language version [of the Bible] that derived directly from Hebrew and Greek, the original languages (along with a bit of Aramaic) in which the Bible was composed. Because Bible translation was still banned in England, Tyndale found it prudent to work in Germany, where he was active in the first part of the 16th century, at precisely the same time Martin Luther was preparing his German-language translation as part of his reformation. In 1525 Tyndale produced his New Testament. Over the next decade, Tyndale revised his initial English version of the New Testament and published renderings of portions of the Old. Although Tyndale remained on the continent, copies of his translation were smuggled into England almost as soon as they came off the press, to increasing popular acclaim but official condemnation. Like Wycliffe, Tyndale insisted that the message of Scripture should be directly accessible to all." [Leonard J. Greenspoon, Bible Review, December 2003, pp. 16-17]

1526 - Mughal Empire / India - "Mughal Empire 1526–1858"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_India]

1526 - Austrian Catholic Control / Croatia and Slovenia - 1526: "Croatia and Slovenia came under Austrian Catholic control in 1526. Many Croats and Slovenes converted to Catholicism, creating another religious distinction." [Based on: St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p. A12, 06/26/05]

1531- Earthquake / Lisbon, Portugal - January 26th, 1531: "Earthquake location: Lisbon, Portugal. Earthquake magnitude: N/A. Number of recorded fatalities: 30,000."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207]

1531 - Perihelion / Halley's Comet - August 25th, 1531 A.D.: "1P/1531 P1 (26 August 1531)"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halley%27s_Comet] - [T.D. - 06/12/07] 

1532 - Birth / Tulsi Das - "Gosvami Tulsidas or Tulasi Dasa or Tulsidas (1532-1623; Devanagari: ????????), was an Awadhi composer, philosopher, and the author of Ramacharitamanasa, an epic poem devoted to Hindu god Rama. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tulsidas] - [T.D. - 05/31/09]

1533 - Birth / Elizabeth  I - September 7th, 1533: "Queen Elizabeth I (1533 -1603) born in Greenwich."

[Based on: http://wwp.greenwichpast.com/history/time-line/c16th.htm] - [T.D. - 11/22/08]

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth_I_of_England

1533 - Czar Ivan IV / Russia - "The era of modern Russia can be traced to the year 1533 when Ivan IV became the ruler of Russia at age three. Although controlled by his mother for the early years of his life, he eventually became the first person crowned Czar, which means emperor, or king. Only seventeen at the time in 1547, he quickly unified an otherwise rocky country into a very powerful nation. He became known as Ivan the Terrible."

1533 - Anabaptists / Muenster - "[....] Medieval millennialist messianic politics would reach its culmination in Muenster in 1533, when the Anabaptists under Johan Bookelzoon would establish their communist dictatorship there. When the Anabaptists were driven out of Muenster by the Bishop of Cologne and his army, they drifted toward the Spanish Netherlands to places like Antwerp, where they linked up with Puritans from England and Jews from Spain to form the seed from which the modern revolutionary movement would grow following the Iconoclast Rebellion of 1566. [....]" [Based on: E. Michael Jones, editor of Culture Wars]

1534 - Birth / Guru Ram Das - September 24th, 1534: "Guru Ram Das was born on September 24, 1534 to simple God-fearing parents, Hari Das and Anup Devi of Lahore. Known as Jetha meaning the first born, he was a handsome young man. When he grew up he could always be found in the company of religious men. One day Jetha came across a party of Sikhs who were on their way to Goindwal to pay homage to Guru Amar Das. Jetha decided to join them and also travel to Goindwal. Upon their arrival and meeting, Guru Amar Das at once noticed the young Jetha with his pleasant manner and sense of devotion. While his fellow travelers returned to Lahore, Jetha decided to stay and become a disciple of Guru Amar Das. His hard work, and devotion eventually won him the hand of Guru Amar Das's younger daughter, Bibi Bhani. They went on to have three sons, Prithi Chand, Mahadev and Arjan Dev. [....]"

[Based on: http://santhakar.tripod.com/saints/bio-5.html] - [T.D. - 08/05/08]

1535 - Fatality / William Tyndale - "In 1535, before Tyndale could complete his Old Testament, he was imprisoned in Brussels for 16 months, tried by the Cathloic Church and strangled and burned at the stake as a heretic. Tyndale's work, we are glad to say, did not die with him, as other translators borrowed extensively from his text." [Leonard J. Greenspoon, Bible Review, December 2003, p. 17]

1535 - Coverdale Bible - "In 1535 (likely in Cologne), Miles Coverdale produced the first complete English Bible, called the Coverdale Bible, which used Tyndale's translation wherever it was available." [Leonard J. Greenspoon, Bible Review, December 2003, p. 17]

1536 - Union / England & Wales -  "The first Act of Union unites England and Wales."

1536 - Rebazar Tarzs? / Himalayan Mountains - 1536: "Rebazar Tarzs was born in the year of 1461, in the mountain village of Sarana in northern Tibet. He developed into mastership under the spiritual guidance of Yaubl Sacabi. [....] He stayed on earth for seventy-five years [until 1536?] teaching ECK, then he retired in the same body to the mountainous vastness of the Himalayas." [Based on: The Spiritual Notebook, by Paul Twitchell, 10th printing 1983, pp. 193-194]

1537 - Matthew's Bible - "In 1537, Matthew's Bible, a revision of the Tyndale and Coverdale Bibles, appeared in England. The translation was named for one Thomas Matthew, which was actually a pseudonym for John Rogers, a Tyndale disciple who, despite this subterfuge, nevertheless suffered the same harsh fate as his master's: He was burned at the stake two decades later during the reign of the Catholic Queen Mary I." [Leonard J. Greenspoon, Bible Review, December 2003, p. 17]

1538 - Astronomic Configuration - Uranus-Pluto [Leo/Aquarius] opposition [1538-1540]. Uranus-Pluto conjunctions and oppositions might bring sudden and radical changes, like a cathartic diarrhoea, yet their full integration takes ages."

1538 - Ministry / Guru Angad - "Angad, Guru (Ministry 1538-53)—Second in succession to Nanak, original name being Bhai Lehna. Nanak recognised in him his worthy successor, with a claim to his spiritual riches (Lehna), in preference to his own sons. Nanak styled him 'Angad,' i.e., one cast in his own mould and filled by his own light, as a veritable part of his own being."

[Based on: http://www.ruhanisatsangusa.org/gloss.htm]

1538 - End / English Bible Translation Ban - "The publication of the Coverdale Bible in 1535 marked a shift in the political situation in England. The current king, Henry VIII, had already made England independent from the Roman Catholic Church - so that he could divorce Catherine of Aragone and remarry. Henry embraced Protestantism and was made head of the Church of England. His second wife, Anne Boleyn, was a patron of Coverdale, and when Coverdale shipped copies of his Bible to England, he included a dedication to the king. Henry apparently approved. In 1538, King Henry VIII commanded that every English church keep a copy of the Bible in English. The 129-year ban on translation was lifted." [Leonard J. Greenspoon, Bible Review, December 2003, p. 17]

1539 - Died / Guru Nanak - May 7th, 1539 - "Guru Nanak Dev[1] (Punjabi: ... Guru Nanak Dev) (Born in Nankana Sahib, Punjab, (now Pakistan) on 20th October 1469 – 7 May 1539, Kartarpur, Punjab, India), was the founder of Sikhism, and the first of the ten Sikh Gurus. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nanak] - [T.D. 06/19/07]

1540 - Purandaradasa - "Purandaradasa (c. 1540 A.D) was a great literary figure of Bhakti movement, and revered as the father of Karnataka classical music (a.k.a. Carnatic music or South Indian classical music). Purandaradasa was a great poet, social reformer, and a great composer. He preached the virtues of leading a pious life through his songs, knows as padas. His innumerable compositions render themselves beautifully to music, whether they are lullabies, folk-songs (koläta songs), bhajans, or devotional songs. All of Purandaradasa's works are in simple metrical songs, which can be sung on all occasions, and convey devotion in the Bhagavata philosophy. [....]"

[Based on: http://www.kamat.com/indica/faiths/bhakti/purandara.htm]

1540 - Founded / Society of Jesus - 1540: "[....] Founded in 1540, the Society of Jesus is the largest religious order in the Roman Catholic Church, with 20,170 Jesuits around the world as of 2004. [....]" [Based on: A.P. article (Pope Benedict XVI reminds Jesuits [April 2006] of pledge of obedience to papacy), p. A14, S.L.P.D., 04/23/06]

1542 - Roman Inquisition - "In 1542, originally to fight Protestantism and witchcraft, but becoming of sheer circumstance a purely internal feature of the Catholic church."

1543 - On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres - "In 1543 Nicolaus Copernicus published his treatise De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) where a new view of the world, the heliocentric model, is presented. However, the Copernican Revolution took a long time to come into its own."

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copernican_Revolution] - [T.D. - 11/22/08]

1545 - Council of Trent - "Spaniards would become leaders of the Counter-Reformation initiated by the Council of Trent (1545-63), which was a modernizing movement that brought the old Catholicism into line with the streamlined efficiency of of the new Europe. The Church, like the modern state, became a more centralized body. The council reinforced the power of the Pope and the bishops; for the first time a catechism was issued to all the faithful, to insure doctrinal conformity." [Karen Armstrong, The Battle for God, p. 5]

1545 - New Testament - "The New Testament was subjected to any number of edits and amendments, until the version with which we are now familar was approved by the extended Council of Trento, in Northern Italy, as late as 1545-63."

1545 - Interest Charges / England - "Henry VIII legalises interest charges on loans. An upper limit of 10% per annum is set." [Link: 1]

1546 - Latin Vulgate Bible - "The Latin Vulgate  was declared to be the official text of the Roman Catholic Church by the Council of Trent in 1546." [Link: 1]

1547 - Mirabi - 1547: "As the more famous (than Andal or Akkamadadevi) of the female saints of India, Bhakti Mira or Mirabai [1547-1614] can be considered as one of the foremost mystics of the world. Worldly comforts never attracted these mystics. They have left beautiful songs and hymns to posterity which are sung to this day. [....]" [Based on: http://www.kamat.com/indica/faiths/bhakti/mirabai.htm]

1552 - Died / Gura Angad - "Guru Angad left this world on March 28, 1552."

1553 - Guru Amar Das - "Amar Das, Guru (Ministry 1553-74)—Third in succession to Nanak."

[Based on: http://www.ruhanisatsangusa.org/gloss.htm]

1560 - Birth / Thomas Arundell - 1560: "Thomas Arundell, 1st Baron Arundell of Wardour (ca. 1560 – 7 November 1639) was the eldest son of Sir Matthew Arundell of Wardour Castle in Wiltshire (ca. 1532/34–24 December 1598), and Margaret Willoughby, the daughter of Sir Henry Willoughby, of Wollaton, Nottinghamshire. He distinguished himself in battle against the Ottoman Turks in the service of the Emperor Rudolf II, and was created a Count of the Holy Roman Empire. His assumption of the title displeased Queen Elizabeth, who refused to recognize it, and imprisoned him in the Fleet. In 1605 Arundell was created 1st Baron Arundell of Wardour. In the same year he was briefly suspected of complicity in the Gunpowder Plot."

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Arundell,_1st_Baron_Arundell_of_Wardour]

1563 - Birth / Guru Arjan - April 15th, 1563:

"Guru Arjan Dev was the youngest son of Guru Ram Das and Mata Bhani. He was born at Goindwal on April 15, 1563. In 1579 Guru Arjan was eventually married to Ganga Devi daughter of Krishan Chand in 1579. [NP] Eventually Arjan Dev was invested with the Guruship by his father Guru Ram Das in 1581 as narrated previously. Guru Arjan now left Goindwal for Ramdaspur (Amritsar) to complete the work started there by his father and to get away from his jealous older brother Prithi Chand. Guru Arjan Dev completed the two tanks of Santoksar and Amritsar and undertook the expansion of Ramdaspur. [....]"

[Based on: http://santhakar.tripod.com/saints/bio-6.html] - [T.D. - 08/05/08]

1556 - Earthquake / China - January 23rd, 1556: "Earthquake location: Shensi, China. Earthquake magnitude: 8. Number of recorded fatalities: 830,000."  

*Trivia: "Date: January 24th, 1556. Earthquake location: Shaanxi, China. Earthquake magnitude: N/A. Number of recorded fatalities: 830,000."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207]

1557 - Index Librorum Prohibitorum - 1557 "[....] In 1557, when Pope Paul IV created the Index [Index Librorum Prohibitorum], the church was in a defensive mood, said Jonathan Canning, a curator for the exibit [@ Loyola University Museum of Art - 2007]. Martin Luther's criticism of Catholic practices was splitting Western Christendom in two. The church had its hands full answering Protestant arguments and wasn't happy about having to fight a second front with science - which was just then emerging from centuries of stagnation. [NP] Church doctrine had been built in accordance with Aristotle and other ancient Greek philosophers whose findings were under challenge by Nicolaus Copernicus, Galileo and others. Rather than argue with those new theories, the church tried to put them beyond the pale. [NP] Virtually all the giants of early modern science wound up on the Index, as is represented in the Loyola exibit. The show includes several volumes of the works of Copernicus, the Polish astronomer who held that the Earth revolves around the sun. The church taught that the reverse was true, a theory seemingly backed by the biblical account. [....] Catholics were forbidden to even peek into books of philosophers like Rene Descartes and novelists like Emile Zola and Daniel Defoe. Local bishops made their own supplements to the papal Index. [....] The last edition of the Index was published in 1948, and the practice was abolished by Vatican II in the 1960s [1966], Canning noted. [NP] The new exibit, titled 'Science and Faith Between Observance and Censorship,' features 138 books lent by a consortium of libraries in Campania, in southern Italy." [Based on: Chicago Tribune article (Once-banned books on display / Exibit at Catholic university [Loyola University Museum of Art] includes volumes by Copernicus, Descartes.) by Ron Grossman, p A4, S.L.P.D., 05/02/07]

1558 - Queen Elizabeth / Britain - "Queen Mary dies, Elizabeth [25] succeeds."

*Links: http://wwp.greenwichpast.com/history/time-line/c16th.htm

1561 - Birth / Francis Bacon - January 22nd, 1561: "Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban, KC (22 January 1561 – 9 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman and essayist but is best known for leading the scientific revolution with his new 'observation and experimentation' theory which is the way science has been conducted ever since. He was knighted in 1603, created Baron Verulam in 1618, and created Viscount St Alban in 1621; both peerage titles became extinct upon his death. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King%27s_Council]

1561 - UFO Spectacle? / Germany - April 14th, 1561: "[....] Summary: At sunrise on the 14th April 1561, the citizens of Nuremberg beheld 'A very frightful spectacle.' The sky appeared to fill with cylindrical objects from which red, black, orange and blue white disks and globes emerged. Crosses and tubes resembling cannon barrels also appeared whereupon the objects promptly 'began to fight one another.' This event is depicted in a famous 16th century woodcut by Hans Glaser. [....]"

[Based on: http://www.gather.com/viewArticle.action?articleId=281474977715338]

1562 - King James of Scotland - "A member of the royal Stuart family, James served as king of Scotland from 1562 until he died in 1625. With Queen Elizabeth's death in 1603, James ascended to the throne of England as well. A year later, he commissioned a new translation of the Bible." [Leonard J. Greenspoon, Bible Review, December 2003, p. 16]

1563 - Astronomic Configuration - "Uranus-Neptune [Sagittarius/Gemini] opposition [1563-1566], squared by Pluto [Pisces]."

1564 - Birth / Shakespeare  - "Shakespeare is born."

1564 - Birth / Galileo Galilei - February 15th, 1564: "On February 15, 1564, Galileo Galilei was born in Pisa, Italy. If he were alive today he would be 442 years old. Galileo is an important person in the history of space weather. Contrary to popular belief, he didn't discover sunspots, but he was one of the first to observe them using a telescope.  [....]"

[Based on: http://spaceweather.com/] - [02/16/06]

1565 - Astronomic Configuration - "Grand Cross. These are rare, requiring a fortuitous constellation of four planets in four squares [and two oppositions] to each other. It symbolises a crunch period, where times can be hard and ruthless for some and a breakthrough and great achievement for others. Most of the instances [not including those involving the inner planets] involve two of the outermost planets being squared up with Jupiter and Saturn. In 1565-1568 there was a major grand cross, involving Uranus opposing Neptune, squared by Saturn opposing Pluto. In Europe, these were times of religious wars and persecution, overseas expansion and accelerating prosperity and social change. Note also the grand cross of 22-26 CE, the configuration which preceded Jesus' Ministry."

1565 - Volcanic Eruption / Guatemala - "Pacaya is a complex volcano constructed on the S rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlan Caldera. In 1565, the first recorded historical eruption from Pacaya caused ashfall for three days in Guatemala City. Following explosions in July and October 1965, Strombolian activity was generally continuous until March 1989 when explosive activity removed ~75 m of the MacKenney cone summit and enlarged the crater. Strombolian activity began again in January 1990 and has continued intermittently since then. This latest episode of activity, although smaller in terms of area impacted by tephra, is similar to the activity during July-August 1991, which again destroyed part of the cone and damaged towns W of the volcano. [....]

[Based on: http://www.volcano.si.edu/volcanoes/region14/guatemal/pacaya/var_02.htm]

1568 - 1st Native American Missionary School - "Jesuits organized a school in Havana for Indian children brought from Florida, which was the first missionary school for North American Indians." [Link: 1]

1572 - Pope Gregory XIII - "Gregory XIII [1502-1585], who became Pope in 1572, continued the policy of reform and hard-nosed antiheresy. He was the Pope who celebrated the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre jubilantly. He is best known for his reform of the calendar."

1574 - Died / Guru Amar Das - Reportedly died this date in history, Guru Amar Das."

1574 - Guru Ram Das - "RAM DAS, Guru (Ministry 1574-81)—Fourth Guru in the line of succession to Nanak." [Based on: http://www.ruhanisatsangusa.org/gloss.htm]

1577 - Treatise on Naval Defence - "In 1577 Dr John Dee [1527-1608] wrote his Treatise on Naval Defence which provided a blueprint for an imperial fleet which would rule the waves and form the bodyguard of a future British Empire."

1581 - Died / Guru Ram Das - September 1st, 1581: "Guru Ram Das breathed his last on September 1, 1581."

1581 - Ministry / Guru Arjan - "ARJAN or ARJAN DEV, Guru (Ministry 1581-1606)—Fifth in the line of succession to Nanak, compiled the Adi Granth (Guru Granth Sahib), the Bible of the Sikhs containing hymns of praise to God from the writings of all the Saints whether Hindus or Muslims, that he could lay his hands upon, besides his own compositions."

[Based on: http://www.ruhanisatsangusa.org/gloss.htm]

1584 - Czar Boris Godunov / Russia - "After the death of Ivan IV, Boris Godunov ruled [1584-1603] in Russia."

1586 - Volcanic Eruption / Kelut, Java, Indonesia - "Volcanic eruption date(s): 1586. Number of recorded deaths: 10,000." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 491]

1595 - Birth / Guru Hargobind - June 1595:

"Guru Hargobind was born at Wadali village in June 1595 and was the only child of Guru Arjan Dev. He was invested with the Guruship on May 25, 1606 just days before his fathers martyrdom. From a young age he was educated in the sciences, sports and religion as his father had insisted. Baba Buddha was responsible for overseeing the Guru's religious teachings. [NP] During the Guruship ceremony Guru Hargobind respectfully declined to wear the Seli (woolen cord worn on the head) which had been passed down on each successive Guru since Guru Nanak. Instead the Guru asked for a sword. Baba Buddha, never having handled a sword before, placed it on the wrong side of the Guru. Guru Hargobind noticing this, asked for another sword saying "I'll wear two swords, a sword of shakti (power) and a sword of bhakti (meditation)." Henceforth the Guru would always carry two swords to symbolize his dual role of holding secular power (Miri) and spiritual authority (Piri). [....]

[Based on: http://santhakar.tripod.com/saints/bio-7.html] - [T.D. - 08/05/08]

1596 - Birth / Rene Descartes - March 31st, 1596: "René Descartes (March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Cartesius, was a noted French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist. Dubbed the "Founder of Modern Philosophy" and the "Father of Modern Mathematics," he ranks as one of the most important and influential thinkers of modern times. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rene_Descartes]

1597 - Astronomic Configuration - "Uranus-Pluto [Aries] conjunction [1597-1598]. Uranus-Pluto conjunctions and oppositions might bring sudden and radical changes, like a cathartic diarrhoea, yet their full integration takes ages."

*Link: http://www.astro.com/swisseph/ae/1500/ae_1597.pdf

1598 - Tukaram - 1598 "Born in Dehu village eighteen miles away from Pune, Tuka or Tukaram (c. 1598-1649 A.D.) is the most popular saint of Maharashtra. [....]"

[Based on: http://www.kamat.com/indica/faiths/bhakti/tukaram.htm]

Earthquake Trivia / 16th Century - "Number of notable earthquakes this century: at least 2. Number of earthquake deaths this century: 860,000." [E.M.]

17th Century A.D.

1600 - Map of Europe - "Map of Europe 1600 AD."

1600 - London East India Co. - "The London East India Company is founded. Imports from India subsequently cause a drain of precious metals from England to India."

*Trivia: "The East India Company (also known as the East India Trading Company, English East India Company,[1] and, after the Treaty of Union, the British East India Company)[2] was an early English joint-stock company[3] that was formed initially for pursuing trade with the East Indies, but that ended up trading mainly with the Indian subcontinent and China. The Company was granted an English Royal Charter, under the name Governor and Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East Indies, by Elizabeth I on 31 December 1600,[4] making it the oldest among several similarly formed European East India Companies, the largest of which was the Dutch East India Company. After a rival English company challenged its monopoly in the late 17th century, the two companies were merged in 1708 to form the United Company of Merchants of England Trading to the East Indies, commonly styled the Honourable East India Company,[5] and abbreviated, HEIC;[6] the Company was colloquially referred to as John Company,[7] and in India as Company Bahadur (Hindustani baha-dur, 'brave'/'authority').[8] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_East_India_Company]

1600 - Giant Magnet? / Earth's Core - "William Gilbert claims that the core of the Earth is a giant magnet." [Based on: Ultimate Visual Dictionary of Science, Timeline of Discoveries, p. 15, 2005 Barnes & Noble Books]

1602 - Dutch East India Co. - "Dutch East India Company founded. This company provides the financial backing for Dutch competition with England in the Far East for control of the pepper market."

1603 - Pope-Ruled Russia - "From 1603-1613, the Russian Orthodox Church, which had broken from the Roman Catholic Church 1,000 years before, began to search for a successor to Boris Godunov. Since it was believed that the Czar was sent by God to rule, the people had no problems being leaderless for a decade. Although inconsistent in approach, the Russian Pope ruled effectively, sighting 'God' as justification for his power. By 1613, however, Russian peasants and landowners alike wanted a new Czar."

1603 - Fatality / Queen Elizabeth - "With Queen Elizabeth's death in 1603, King James of Scotland ascended to the English throne."

1603 - Knighted / Sir Francis Bacon - "[....] He [Francis Bacon] was knighted in 1603, created Baron Verulam in 1618, and created Viscount St Alban in 1621; both peerage titles became extinct upon his death. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King%27s_Council]

1603 - United Kingdom / England & Scotland -  March, 1603: "Union of the English and Scottish crowns under King James I [VI of Scotland]. The Monarchy is the oldest institution of government in the United Kingdom. Until 1603 the English and Scottish Crowns were separate; after this date a single Monarch reigned in the United Kingdom."

1604 - First English Dictionary -  "Robert Cawdrey publishes the first English dictionary [Table Alphabeticall]."

1604 - Witchcraft Act / England - "England passes a Witchcraft Act." [Link: 1]

1604 - Conception / King James Bible - January, 1604: "In January 1604, the newly crowned King James of England assembled England's leading clerics at his palace, Hampton Court, to denounce corruption in the church. When the discussion turned to recent Bible translations, the king announced that he had never seen a Bible 'well translated in English.' He added: 'I wish some special pains were taken for an uniform translation, which should be done by the best learned men in both Universities, then reviewed by the Bishops, presented to the Privy Council, lastly ratified by the Royal authority, to be read in the whole church, and none other.' Thus was born the book hailed as the greatest work in the English language - the King James Version of the Bible." [Leonard J. Greenspoon, Bible Review, December 2003]

1604 - Adi Granth - September 1st, 1604: "Sri Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi: ... sri- guru- granth sa-hib ji- with honorifics, IPA: ... or Adi Granth, is the religious text of Sikhism. It is the final and eternal guru of the Sikhs.[1] It is a voluminous text of 1430 angs, compiled and composed during the period of Sikh gurus, from 1469 to 1708.[1] It is a collection of hymns (shabda) or baani that describe the qualities of God[2] and why one should meditate on God's name. Guru Gobind Singh (1666–1708), the tenth guru, affirmed the sacred text Adi Granth as his successor, elevating it to Guru Granth Sahib.[3] The text remains the holy scripture of the Sikhs, regarded as the teachings of the Ten Gurus.[4] The role of Adi Granth, as a source or guide of prayer,[5] is pivotal in worship in Sikhism. [NP] The Adi Granth was first compiled by the fifth Sikh guru, Guru Arjan Dev (1563–1606), from hymns of the first five Sikh gurus and other great saints, or bhagats, including those of the Hindu and Muslim faith.[2] After the demise of the tenth Sikh guru many edited copies were prepared for distribution by Baba Deep Singh. [....] The Adi Granth took five years to complete and was installed in Harmandir Sahib 'the Abode of God'), popularly known as the Golden Temple, on September 1, 1604, with Baba Budha Ji as the first Granthi.[11] This original volume is presently in Kartarpur and bears the signature of Guru Arjan.[12] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guru_Granth_Sahib]

*Trivia: "[....] The same spark of the Mahanta jumped out at me when I began reading the Sukhmani, a famous section of the Guru Granth Sahib, the holy book of the Sikhs. This section was written by Guru Arjan, the fifth Sikh guru, who first compiled the Guru Granth Sahib around 1604. Here is a short excerpt:

No praises can describe the one in whom God sends His Name to reside.
Devotees are yearning for Your one glance.
O God, keep me in the society of such lovers.
God's Name is the ambrosia and the Bestower of happiness.
God's Name resides in the hearts of the True saints.
By remembering God, Soul no longer goes through the cycles of birth and rebirth.
By remembering God, the Lords of Death retreat.
The gift of the remembrance of God is obtained in the society of true devotees.
All treasures of wealth are obtained by sincere devotion and love for God.
By remembering God, our thirst is quenched.
By remembering God, the dirt of karma is washed off.
God sits on the tongues of the true saints, but only those whom He showers His grace upon become attached to His remembrance.
By remembering God, one hears the unsurpassed heavenly music.
By remembering God, even the lowly and downtrodden become famous throughout the spiritual worlds of God.
Remember, remember God.
It was for the remembrance of God that He created the whole world.
Where God is remembered, His presence is found.

[....]" [Based on: Dialogue in the Age of Criticism, Chap. 12]  

1605 - Order of the Rosy Cross - "Reportedly, the earliest writings about the Order of the Rosy Cross began to circulate in Europe around the year 1605. They were contained in a manuscript called The Restoration of the Decayed Temple of Pallas and provide the earliest known constituition of the order. A history of the Rosicrucians was written by an unknown author in 1610 but did not appear in print until four years later."

*Trivia: "It has been alleged that the original Order of the Rosy Cross was founded by the Pharoah Thothmes III in the fifteenth century B.C."

*Reference Links: http://www.watch.pair.com/TR-20-christian-rosencreuz.html

1605 - Died / Emperor Akbar - October 17th, 1605: "On October 17, 1605 Akbar died and was succeeded by Jahangir as Emperor. "

1606 - Ministry / Guru Hargobind - May 25th, 1606: "Guru Hargobind was born at Wadali village in June 1595 and was the only child of Guru Arjan Dev. He was invested with the Guruship on May 25, 1606 just days before his fathers martyrdom. [....]"

[Based on: http://santhakar.tripod.com/saints/bio-7.html] - [T.D. - 08/05/08]

1606 - Died / Guru Arjan - May 30th, 1606: "On May 30, 1606 the Guru asked for a bath in the river Ravi by the side of the Mughal fort.  [....]"

[Based on: http://santhakar.tripod.com/saints/bio-6.html] - [T.D. - 08/05/08]

1606 - Virginia Company - "King James of England set up the Virginia Company which was granted Royal authority to begin settlements in the province of Virginia, named after Elizabeth I, who had been popularly called the Virgin Queen. In 1606, two groups of Englishmen, one in London and one in Plymouth, obtained official permission to colonize the eastern coast of North America." [Isaac Asimov]

1607 - Jamestown - "On May 13th, 1607, Jamestown was founded [North America]."

1607 - Perihelion / Halley's Comet - October 27th, 1607 A.D.: "1P/1607 S1 (27 October 1607)"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halley%27s_Comet] - [T.D. - 06/12/07] 

1608 - Quebec - "On July 3rd, 1608, Samuel de Champlain  founded the city of Quebec on the St. Lawerence River."

1609 - Bank of Amsterdam - "The Bank of Amsterdam is founded. This public bank is established to provide a superior and more controlled service than that available from private bankers. Later its example inspires the establishment of the Bank of England." [Link: 1]

*Trivia: "In the Netherlands, secret societies had been able to found a central bank as early as 1609. About 40 of the world's most important central banks were established in a similar way as that of the Bank of England. In that way the Masonic bankers ruled the long-term development in the world with loan interest as a method, the central banks as middlemen, the politicians as dummies and the people as ignorant wage slaves. The Freemason-controlled banks thus can govern political life by acting without being seen. The English people strengthened the power of these invisible Freemasons through paying taxes during three centuries. Central banks were supposed to keep the economy stable." [Based on: article by By Juri Lina, The Barnes Review, September/October 2004, p. 9]

1611 - Published / King James Bible -  "The Authorized, or King James Version, of the Bible is published."

1613 - Czar Michael I / Russia - "In 1613, Mikhail Romanov, nephew of Ivan IV was crowned Michael I by the Russian Pope."

1616 - Birth / Richard Arundell - 1616: "Richard Arundell, 1st Baron Arundell of Trerice (1616 – 7 September 1687) was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1640 and 1664 when he was raised to the peerage. He fought in the Royalist army in the English Civil War."

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Arundell,_1st_Baron_Arundell_of_Trerice]

1617 - Romanov Family / Russia - "In Russia the Romanov family had come to power and were to rule the country for 300 years from the seventeenth century until they were deposed in the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917."

13. Baktun 12. Baktun of the Transformation of Matter. A.D. 1618-2012.

Rise and triumph of  scientific materialism, European world conquest, Industrial revolution, Democratic revolutions of America, Europe; colonialism of Africa, Latin America, Asia; industrialization of Japan; Karl Marx and the rise of communism; communist revolutions of Russia, China; World Wars I and II; atomic bomb and nuclear era; rise of Third World powers, Islam, Mexico, and India; global terrorism and collapse of technological civilization; Earth purification and final era of global regeneration; information age and crystal solar technology; galactic synchronization.

[The Mayan Factor / Path Beyond Technology, by Jose Arguelles, Copyright 1939-, 1987, pp. 115 & 118]

*Trivia "Within this final baktun of the Great Cycle, we find ourselves in the midst of the final katun. Baktun 12 dates back to 1618 AD. This is the time period of Galeleo, Kepler, and Descartes, and indeed the birth of scientific materialism. Four hundred years; it seems about as far back as any one can remember, yet it was only a moment ago. From Newton, to the Industrial Revolution, through colonialism, electricity, World Wars I and II, the nuclear era, the birth of computer technology, and space travel; the wave of this baktun represents the cresting of the entire Great Cycle of history. In this short period of time we witness an awesome compression of exponential acceleration which is reflected through transformations in technology, art, and nature, not to mention the conscious reality experienced by the collective mind of the human race."  

1619 - Tobacco Currency / Virginia - "Tobacco begins to be used as currency in Virginia. Barely a dozen years after its introduction to Virginia tobacco starts being used as currency and this use continues for nearly 200 years."

1619 - American Slavery - "A boatload of blacks was brought to Virginia in 1619, and the institution of black slavery was introduced to North America."

1620 - Mayflower Landing / Plymouth Massachusetts - "According to one report, the Mayflower landing happened on November 11th, 1620. According to another report, the Mayflower passengers disembarked at Plymouth Massachusetts on December 26th, 1620."

1621 - Birth / Guru Tegh Bahadur - April 1st, 1621:

"Guru Tegh Bahadur was the youngest son of Guru Hargobind and Bibi Nanki and was born at Amritsar on April 1, 1621. [....]"

[Based on: http://santhakar.tripod.com/saints/bio-10.html] - [T.D. - 08/05/08]

1621 - Dutch West India Company - "Dutch West India Company founded. This company provides the financial backing for Dutch competition with England for a foothold in the New World."

1624 - Massachusetts Colony - "In 1624, Thomas Morton, an English lawyer, founded his own colony called Merrymount in Massachusetts. Morton was a rebel who forged alliances with the local Indians, sold them muskettes and warned them of the genocidal tendencies of the Puritan colonists. In May 1628 Morton ordered a maypole to be erected in the center of his colony."

1625 - Fatality / King James - "The king of England and Scotland, King James, dies."

1629 - Native American Missions - "Spanish start missions [1629-1633] among the Acoma, Hopi, and Zuni tribes."

1630 - Birth / Guru Har Rai - January 16th, 1630:

"Guru Har Rai was born on January 16, 1630 in Kiratpur to Baba Gurditta the eldest son of Guru Hargobind. [....]".

[Based on: http://santhakar.tripod.com/saints/bio-8.html] - [T.D. - 08/05/08]

1631 - Venus Transit - "The German Johannes Kepler caculated Venus' path, although he died a year before the 1631 transit." [Based on: The Associated Press, 06/09/04]

*Trivia: "Reportedly, Venus transits happen in pairs [twice] about every 200 years."

*Trivia: "A Venus transit occured in 1882 - less than one year before the Krakatau Volcano explosion." [E.M.]

*Trivia: "A Venus transit happened on June 8th, 2004. The second will be expected in the year 2012. That year - December 23rd, 2012 - is believed by various groups and individuals to mark the end of an Era." [E.M.]

1631 - Volcanic Eruption / Mt. Vesuvius, Italy - "Volcanic eruption date(s): December 15th, 1631. Number of recorded deaths: 4,000." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 491]

1632 -  Birth / John Locke - August 29th, 1632: "John Locke [1632-1704] is born." [Link: 1]

1634 - Increase / Ship money Taxes - "Ship money taxes were increased by Charles I. These taxes were introduced to raise money for the build-up of the English navy. They proved to be extremely unpopular."

1637 - Wampum Currency / Massachusetts - "Wampum becomes legal tender in Massachusetts. This is only for sums up to one shilling. Wampum is a type of shell used by the native Americans as currency and adopted by the settlers."

1638 - Science of Mechanics - "Galileo Galilei founds the science of mechanics." [Based on: Ultimate Visual Dictionary of Science, Timeline of Discoveries, p. 15, 2005 Barnes & Noble Books]

1638 - RARE LUNAR ECLIPSE - December 21st, 1638: "The lunar eclipse of Dec. 21st [2010] falls on the same date as the northern winter solstice. Is this rare? It is indeed, according to Geoff Chester of the US Naval Observatory, who inspected a list of eclipses going back 2000 years. 'Since Year 1, I can only find one previous instance of an eclipse matching the same calendar date as the solstice, and that is Dec. 21, 1638,' says Chester. 'Fortunately we won't have to wait 372 years for the next one...that will be on Dec. 21, 2094.' " [Based on: http://spaceweather.com/ - [T.D. 12/19/10]

1642 - Civil War / England - "The English Civil War [1642-1651] begins. The war is fought because parliament disputes the king's right to levy taxes without its consent. The use of goldsmith's safes as secure places for people's jewels, bullion and coins had increased after the seizure of the mint by Charles I in 1640 and increases again with the outbreak of the Civil War. This accelerates the tendency of some goldsmiths to become bankers and development of that aspect of their business continues after the war is over."

*Trivia: "The Prieure de Sion initiated, with the aid of the moneychangers (above all the Portuguese Rabbi Menasseh ben Israel, who lived in the Netherlands, and Antonio Fernandez Moses Carvajal), the insurrection of 1642, led by Oliver Cromwell, which in turn led to the first republic (commonwealth) in England in 1649. In the year 1643 a large group of rich Jews came to England. They met with the Portuguese ambassador in London, Antonio de Souza, a Maranno, where further moves were discussed. All their actions were coordinated by Carvajal.
   "Having deposed and executed Charles I in 1649, naming himself as dictator in 1653, Cromwell became bloodthirsty and hostile to cultural development, letting the moneychangers strengthen their financial power. Under the puritanical rule of the Lord Protector Cromwell, music and other cultural activities were practically banned. Even colorful garments were forbidden.
   "In November of 1688 (under the sign of the scorpion) the Catholic king of England James II (Stuart) was overthrown through a well-organized invasion financed by the moneyed Jews of Amsterdam and led by the Prieure de Sion and the Orange Order. The king was exiled to France and in February of 1689 William of Orange, the prince of Nassau, was put upon the English throne by means of a coup d'etat, which became known as the Glorious Revolution. Even official historians admit that the people did not participate in this coup.
   "England at that time was in poor condition after more than 50 years of war with France and the Netherlands, and the new king, William III (of Orange), asked several powerful bankers for help. They provided the English state with a loan of 1.25 million pounds but only delivered 750,000 pounds. The terms of the loan were as follows: the names of the lenders were not to be revealed, and these were guaranteed the right to found the Bank of England, whose directors were ensured to establish a gold reserve so as to be able to issue loans to a value of 10 pounds for each pound deposited gold in the bank vault. They also were allowed to consolidate the national debt and secure payment for annuity and interest through direct taxation of the people." [Based on: article by Juri Lina, The Barnes Review, September/October 2004, p. 9]

1642 - Birth / Isaac Newton - "Reportedly born in 1642: Scientist, Isaac Newton [1642-1727]."

1643 - Discovered & Measured / Air Pressure - "Air pressure discovered and measured by Evangelista Torricelli." [Based on: Ultimate Visual Dictionary of Science, Timeline of Discoveries, p. 15, 2005 Barnes & Noble Books]
1644 - Astronomic Configuration - "[1644-1649] Uranus conjunct Neptune [Sagittarius], opposed by Pluto [Gemini]."

1644 - Qing Dynasty / China - "The Manchu [Qing] Dynasty [1644-1911] begins."

1644 - Guruship / Har Rai - "At the age of 14 [1644] after having received suitable training Har Rai was invested with the Guruship by his grandfather Guru Hargobind shortly before his death in March 1644. Like Guru Hargobind, Guru Har Rai kept a contingent of 2,200 cavalry as his personal guard. After the many battles of Guru Hargobind, the times of Guru Har Rai were a time of consolidation for the Sikh community without any major battles in the Gurus lifetime."

[Based on: http://santhakar.tripod.com/saints/bio-8.html] - [T.D. - 08/05/08]

1645 - Maunder Minimum - "Witness the sobering case of the Maunder Minimum, the eerie stretch from 1645 to 1715 in which records show that practically no sunspots appeared on the solar face." [N.G.M., July 2004, p. 21]

1645 - Czar Alexis / Russia - After Michael died in 1645, his son Alexis became Czar. Called the 'most gentle Czar' despite his fits of temper, he was a devoted son of the church. He frequently sought the clergy for advice on matters of state, in sharp contrast to his father. Believing the clergy in their call to 'convert' non-believers, Alexis has become known as the Czar to institute full fledged 'serfdom' in Russia."

1645 - Milled Coins / Paris - "The Paris mint is fully mechanised and starts production of milled coins. With the replacement of the ancient technique of hammering coins, minting has become fully mechanised. Improved productivity is not the only advantage. The milled edges prevent clipping and cutting and make counterfeiting more difficult."

1648 - Configuration - Uranus-Pluto [Sagittarius/Gemini] opposition [1648-1649]. Uranus-Pluto conjunctions and oppositions might bring sudden and radical changes, like a cathartic diarrhoea, yet their full integration takes ages."

1648 - Jewish Expulsion / Polish Russia - "The Cossacks destroy 700 Jewish communities [1648-1658] in Polish Russia. Many Jews are expelled from the region."

*Trivia: "[....] Once the Church discovered the Talmud and understood the threat which the Jews posed to the social order, she had to do something, if for no other reason than to head off the mob violence that knowledge of the subversive nature of the Talmud was sure to generate among Christians. The natural reaction to the threat of Jewish subversion is violence, a reaction that can be seen at the time of the first crusade, at the time of the Chmielnicki pogroms in 1648, and at the time when Bolshevism threatened the social order of Europe during the 1920s and 30s. [....]" [Based on: E. Michael Jones, editor of Culture Wars]

1649 - English Commonwealth - "January 30th, 1649: "King Charles I is executed, the House of Lords is abolished, and England is declared a Commonwealth."

1649 - Trivia / Mother Mary Image - "In 1649, the bishops went so far as to issue a decree that all images of Jesus's mother should depict her wearing blue and white only."

1650 - Astronomic Configuration - "Uranus-Neptune [Sagittarius] conjunction. Uranus-Neptune energies work surreptitiously. They influence awareness and the inner movies playing within the world psyche."

1650 - Annales Veteris Testamenti - "In Christian Church theology, Adam is generally dated at 4004 B.C., and this has been the case since AD 1650 when Ireland's Protestant Archbishop, James Ussher of Armagh, published his famous Annales Veteris Testamenti." [Laurence Gardner, Genesis of the Grail Kings, p. 15]

1650 - Trivia / The European Enlightenment - "The Enlightenment was a sprawling intellectual, philosophical, cultural, and social movement that spread through England, France, Germany, and other parts of Europe during the 1700s. Enabled by the Scientific Revolution, which had begun as early as 1500, the Enlightenment represented about as big of a departure as possible from the Middle Ages—the period in European history lasting from roughly the fifth century to the fifteenth. [....]"

[Based on: http://www.sparknotes.com/history/european/enlightenment/context.html] - [T.D. - 11/22/08]

*Links: http://www.sparknotes.com/history/european/enlightenment/summary.html

1652 - Massachusetts Mint - "John Hull's unofficial mint operates in Massachusetts. The mint coins threepences, sixpences and pine-tree shillings all of which contain about three-quarters of the silver in their newly minted English equivalents but about as much as most of the old, worn coins in circulation."

1654 - Christian Dogma / Date of Creation - "Heaven and earth, centre and circumference were made in the same instance of time and clouds full of water and man was created by the Trinity on the 26th of October, 4004 B.C., at 9 0'clock in the morning." [Dr. John Lightfoot, 1654]

*Trivia: "In 1654, more than a century before the Universal History was published, the Vatican Council had decreed that anyone daring to contradict the 4004 BC date [of Creation] was a heretic - an attitude that was not relaxed until Pope Pius XII addressed the 1952 papal Academy of Sciences in Rome. In this address, he announced that theologians must not ignore the discoveries of geological science, and that it was clear that the Earth  had existed for thousands of millions of years."

1656 - Birth / Guru Harkrishan - July 7th, 1656:

Guru Harkrishan was born on July 7, 1656 to Guru Har Rai and Krishan Kaur. Before his death in October 1661 Guru Har Rai had appointed his younger son Harkrishan as the next Guru as opposed to his elder son Ram Rai who was in collusion with the mughals. Guru Harkrishan was only five years old when he received the guruship. [....]"

[Based on: http://santhakar.tripod.com/saints/bio-9.html] - [T.D. - 08/05/08]

1660 - Treatise on the Civil Magistrate / John Locke - "Locke meets Robert Boyle, the chemist, who was to be his friend and correspondent for thirty years. Locke writes his first treatise on the Civil Magistrate."

1660 - King Charles II / England - "Charles II returns to England [from France] and is restored to the throne."

1661 - Guruship / Harkrishan - "Before his death in October 1661 Guru Har Rai had appointed his younger son Harkrishan as the next Guru as opposed to his elder son Ram Rai who was in collusion with the mughals. Guru Harkrishan was only five years old when he received the guruship."

[Based on: http://santhakar.tripod.com/saints/bio-9.html] - [T.D. - 08/05/08]

1661 - Spanish Raid / Pueblo Indians - "Spanish raid the sacred kivas of the Pueblo Indians in an effort to destroy the religion and culture."

1661 - Died / Guru Har Rai - October 6th, 1661: "Since Ram Rai had proved a disappointment to his father, Guru Har Rai appointed his younger son Harkrishan as the next Guru and passed away soon thereafter on October 6, 1661."

[Based on: http://santhakar.tripod.com/saints/bio-8.html] - [T.D. - 08/05/08]

1664 - Died / Guru Harkrishan - "Guru Har Rai in turn chose his youngest son Guru Harkrishan as his successor. When Guru Harkrishan had suddenly fallen ill at Delhi in [March] 1664, before his death [at eight years old], being too weak to move or speak the Guru had said his successor was "Baba Bakala". [Based on: http://santhakar.tripod.com/saints/bio-9.html] - [T.D. - 08/05/08]

1664 - Guruship / Baba Bakala - "On March 30, 1664 Guru Harkrishan decided to announce his successor, the Guru called for five coins and a coconut. He took them and being too weak to move, waved his hand three times in the air and said "Baba Bakala". Guru Harkrishan then suddenly passed away at the tender age of eight years old." [Based on: http://santhakar.tripod.com/saints/bio-9.html] - [T.D. - 08/05/08]

1664 - Guru Teg Bahadur - 1664: "TEG BAHADUR, Guru (Ministry 1664-76)—Son of Gul Hargobind, but ninth in the line of succession to Nanak. Captained the Sikhs during the tumultuous times of Aurangzeb, was beheaded in Delhi where now stands Gurdwara Sisganj in commemoration of his martyrdom."

[Based on: http://www.ruhanisatsangusa.org/gloss.htm] 

1665 - Mathematical Principles / Isaac Newton - "Isaac Newton publishes Mathematical Principles, in which he formulates the laws of motion and gravitation." [Based on: Ultimate Visual Dictionary of Science, Timeline of Discoveries, p. 15, 2005 Barnes & Noble Books]

*Trivia: "Most important, we see that a real revolution often requires that several new proposals for unification come together to support one another. In the Newtonian revolution, there were several proposed unifications that triumphed at once: the unification of the Earth with the planets, the unification of the sun with the stars, the unification of rest and uniform motion, and the unification of the gravitational force on earth with the force by which the sun influences a planet's motions. Singly, none of these ideas could have survived; together; they trounced their rivals. The result was a revolution that transformed every aspect of our understanding of nature." [Based on: Lee Smolin, The Trouble with Physics, p. 31 (1st paragraph), copyright 2006]

*Trivia: "From Newton to Einstein, a single idea dominated: The world is made of nothing but matter. Even electricity and magnetism were aspects of matter - just stresses in the aether. But this beautiful picture was crushed when special relativity triumphed [1905], for if the whole notion of being at rest or in motion is meaningless, the aether must be fiction." [Based on: Lee Smolin, The Trouble with Physics, p. 38 (2nd paragraph), copyright 2006]

1666 - London Fire -  "The Great Fire of London. The end of The Great Plague."

1666 -  Birth / Guru Gobind Singh ji -

'I establish thee as my son, that you spread My Path. Go and instruct men in Righteousness and the Moral Law, and make people desist from evil.'

I stood up, with joined palms, and bowing my head to Lord God, I said: Thy Path I shall spread only if Thou be at my back.

For this was I born into the world, I utter only how and what God uttered to me, for I am the enemy of no one. He who calls me God will surely burn in the fire of hell. For I am only the servant of God: doubt not the veracity of this statement. I am but the slave of the Supreme Being come to witness His Play. I tell the world only what my God said to me, for I will not be silenced through fear of the mere mortals. I utter as is the Instruction of my God, for I consider no one greater than Him. I am pleased not with any religious garb, so I shall sow the seeds of the Unaccountable One. Nay, I worship not stones, nor am I attracted by denomintional coats. I utter only the name of the Infinite and so attain unto the Supreme Being. I wear not matted hair, nor ear-rings, nor have regard for any such ritual, and do only what God bids me do. I repeat only the Name of One God who fulfills us, at all places. No, I utter not another's name, nor establish another God. I dwell upon the Name of the Infinite One and so realise the essence of the Supreme Light. I give thought to none else, nor utter another's name. O God, with Thy one Name I am imbued. I have no other pride. Yea, I utter only Thy Name and eradicate my endless sins. (Guru Gobind Singh, Vachitra Natak)

Guru Gobind Singh ji (1666-1708) was eight years old when he heard that his father, Guru Teg Bahadurji, had been executed at Chandni Chowk. Guru Gobind committed himself to mobilising the masses to rescue themselves from the tyranny of Mugal Emperor Aurangzeb. With this goal in mind, the Guru established a factory in Anandpur to produce swords and arms. At Paunta Sahib, a Gurdwara, the Guru planned his campaign and inspired Sikhs to fight against oppression. Guru Gobind's army grew as Muslim Hindus joined it, along with Sikhs. The Guru created the 'Khalsa' on Vaisakhi day in 1699.

Guru abolished caste and baptised his followers, giving them a philosophy for life; to fight against tyranny and to lead a noble life. Guru himself was initiated into the Khalsa and took the name 'Singh'. Guru Gobind Singh ji led several battles against Aurangzeb's forces and his two younger sons were executed when they refused to be forcibly converted to Islam. His two elder sons became great martyrs fighting alongside Sikhs at Chamakaur.

The Guru devoted himself to literary work. Guru's masterpieces are the Japi Sahib, Akal Ustat and the Sawayyas. Guru Gobind Singh ji passed to the Lords abode in 1708 in Hyderabad State. Having installed Guru Granth Sahib ji (holy scriptures) as the Shabad (the word) Guru, he passed on the decision making and governance of the Sikhs to the Khalsa Nation - the SIKHS.

[Based on: http://santhakar.tripod.com/saints/bio-11.html] - [T.D. - 08/05/08]

1667 - Earthquake / Shemaka, Caucasia - November 1667: Earthquake location: Shemaka, Caucasia. Earthquake magnitude: N/A. Number of recorded fatalities: 80,000."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207]

1668 - Earthquake / Turkey- August 16th, 1668: "Earthquake location: Anatolia, Turkey. Earthquake magnitude: 8. Number of recorded fatalities: 8,000."  

1671 - Essay Concerning Human Understanding - "Locke writes the first draft of the Essay Concerning Human Understanding. From this year until 1675 Locke appears to have been the secretary to the Lords Proprietors of Carolina."

1675 - Beheaded / Guru Tegh Bahadur - November 11th, 1675: "Finally on November 11, 1675 Guru Tegh Bahadur was publicly beheaded with the sword of the executioner as he prayed."

[Based on: http://santhakar.tripod.com/saints/bio-10.html] - [T.D. - 08/05/08]

1675 - Volcanic Eruption / Kyushu, Japan - October 12th, 1995: "Hosho is a volcanic dome. The only eruption of this stratovolcano was in 1675, in which little records of the eruption were kept. On October 12, 1995, Hosho erupted small volumes of ash and steam."

 [Based on:  http://library.thinkquest.org/16132/html/volcanoinfo/recentdisasters/hosho.html  ]

1676 - Czar Fyodor  / Russia - "After Alexis died in 1676, his first son Fyodor became Czar. He ruled ineffectively only until 1682."

1676 - Ministry / Guru Gobind Singh - "GOBIND SINGH, Guru (Ministry 16761708)—A soldier-saint ranking as tenth in succession to Nanak, brought about the transformation of Sikhs (mere disciples) into Singhs (militant lions), a martial race for the defense of the country against injustice and tyranny of the rulers, and gave the new institution the name of Khalsa—the brotherhood of the pure, by a form of baptism, called Khanda-di-Pahul or 'Baptism of the Sword.' "

[Based on: http://www.ruhanisatsangusa.org/gloss.htm]

1680 - Volcanic Eruption? - "At least three Dutch travelers reported that Danan and Perboewatan were seen erupting in May 1680 and February 1681." [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Krakatoa] - [T.D. - 10/11/08]

1682 - Czar Peter / Russia - "Only ten at the time, Alexis' second son Peter was named Czar in 1682. All in all Peter did more to modernize and westernize Russia than any Czar before him. All great Czars were to be judged in comparison to Peter the Great."

1682 - Perihelion / Halley's Comet - September 15th, 1682 A.D.: "1P/1682 Q1 (15 September 1682)"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halley%27s_Comet] - [T.D. - 06/12/07] 

1685 - King James II / England - "Charles II dies; the Catholic Duke of York ascends the throne as James II."

1688 - Birth / Emanuel Swedenborg - January 29th, 1688: "Emanuel Swedenborg (born Emanuel Swedberg; January 29, 1688[1] – March 29, 1772) was a Swedish scientist, philosopher, Christian mystic[2][3] and theologian. Swedenborg had a prolific career as an inventor and scientist. In 1741 at the age of fifty-three he entered into a spiritual phase [2] in which he eventually began to experience dreams and visions beginning on Easter weekend April 6, 1744.[4] This culminated in a spiritual awakening, where he claimed he was appointed by the Lord to write a heavenly doctrine to reform Christianity. He claimed that the Lord had opened his eyes, so that from then on he could freely visit heaven and hell, and talk with angels, demons and other spirits. For the remaining 28 years of his life, he wrote and published 18 theological works, of which the best known was Heaven and Hell (1758),[5] and several unpublished theological works. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emanuel_Swedenborg]

1688 - Published  Extract / Essay Concerning Human Understanding - "The Bibliotheque Universelle publishes a fifty page abstract of Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding."

1688 - William of Orange / England - "William of Orange invades England and accomplishes the 'Glorious Revolution of 1688.' William of Orange and his wife Mary are made jointly sovereign by parliament after James II flees to France. Political and economic power is in the process of shifting from the monarch to the moneyed classes and thus the financial and constitutional revolutions are closely and causally intertwined."

1689 - John Locke / England - February, 1689: "Locke returns to England escorting the princess of Orange, who later became Queen Mary. He meets Sir Isaac Newton and they become friends."

1689 - King William's War - May 12, 1689: "King William's War begins."

1690 - Trivia / Paper Money - "These notes are used to pay soldiers returning from an expedition to Quebec. They can be used to pay taxes and are accepted as legal tender. Other colonies subsequently copy the example of Massachusetts."

1692 - Salem Witch Trials - "Not the largest or most gruesome of the witch trials [Bamberg, Germany, 1623-1633 comes to mind], the events in Salem, Massachusetts are definitely the most famous. A group of young girls began to claim local women were bewitching them. The first arrest was a slave Tituba who provided all the details that could be wished to capture the imagination. Prominent theologians such as Cotton Mather provided legitimisation, and things ran on from there." [Link: 1]

1693 - Earthquake / Catania, Italy - January, 11th, 1693: Earthquake location: Catania, Italy. Earthquake magnitude: N/A. Number of recorded fatalities: 60,000."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207]

1693 - Tontine Act - "This act, based on the ideas of the Italian adviser to the French court, Lorenzo Tonti, marks the beginning of the English national debt. The tontine is a scheme for raising money on a long-term basis by weighting rewards in favour of the longest lasting contributors."

1694 - Bank of England - "The main purpose of the Act founding the Bank is to raise money for the War of the League of Augsburg by taxation and by the novel device of a permanent loan on which interest would be paid but the principal would not be repaid."

*Trivia: "The privately owned Bank of England was established in 1694 with absolute control over the currency (the right to issue bank notes). The lending of money on usury was able to continue at an even larger scale. Thus the English people suffered a huge national debt. Taxes had to be raised and prices doubled. To the Masonic bankers it was necessary to have a monopoly on money issuing. That way they were able to make enormous profits and also control political processes.
   "The Bank of England was allowed to lend money to an amount 10 times the security the lender put up. With 5 percent interest it only took two years for the bank to earn back an amount equal to the original security." [Based on: article by Juri Lina, The Barnes Review, September/October 2004, p. 9]

1695 - The Reasonableness of Christianity -  "The Reasonableness of Christianity was published anonymously."

1696 - Lottery Act  / England - "The English government attempts to raise £1 million by issuing 100,000 shares of £10 at 10% with the possibility of sharing a total of £40,000 to be put up each year as lottery prizes. The target is not reached and the money is used as subscriptions to the capital of the Million Bank which becomes an investment fund for government securities."

1696 - Board of Trade - "A Board of Trade was established and John Locke appointed to it. The Board had a variety of duties including overseeing colonial governments. Though ill of health, Locke remained on the Board until 1700. He was its most influential member."

1697 - End / King William's War - September 30th, 1697: "King William's War ends [Peace of Ryswick]."

1698 - Trivia / English National Debt - "By the year 1698 the national debt [of England] had risen from one and a quarter million pounds to 16 million. In 1815 it was 885 million pounds and in 1945 it had grown to 22.5 billion pounds. By 1995 the national debt had risen to more than 300 billion pounds, equal to 45 percent of GNP."
  "Not even the Macmillan Committee, which was appointed in 1929, managed to find out who governed the Bank of England. Only one name has leaked out—that of Rothschild. All great wars have been started and financed by the economic conglomerate emanating from one single banking family—the Rothschilds.
   "In the Netherlands, secret societies had been able to found a central bank as early as 1609. About 40 of the world's most important central banks were established in a similar way as that of the Bank of England. In that way the Masonic bankers ruled the long-term development in the world with loan interest as a method, the central banks as middlemen, the politicians as dummies and the people as ignorant wage slaves. The Freemason-controlled banks thus can govern political life by acting without being seen. The English people strengthened the power of these invisible Freemasons through paying taxes during three centuries. Central banks were supposed to keep the economy stable." [Based on: article by Juri Lina, The Barnes Review, September/October 2004, p. 9]

1699 - Beginning / Dwapara Yuga? - "Sri Yukteswar’s introduction to The Holy Science includes his explanation of the Yuga Cycle – revolutionary because of his premise that the earth is now in the age of Dwapara Yuga, not the Kali Yuga that most Indian pundits believe to be the current age.[4] His theory is based on the idea that the sun “takes some star for its dual and revolves round it in about 24,000 years of our earth – a celestial phenomenon which causes the backward movement of the equinoctial points around the zodiac.”[1] The common explanation for this celestial phenomenon is precession, the ‘wobbling’ rotating movement of the earth axis. Research into Sri Yukteswar’s explanation is being conducted by the Binary Research Institute. [....] In The Holy Science, Sri Yukteswar concludes that we are currently in the beginning stages of Dwapara Yuga, which began around 1699 A.D. This now puts us in the year 308 Dwapara according to Sri Yukteswar. Thus, we are moving closer to the grand center, and will pass into Treta Yuga around the year 4099 A.D.[1] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Holy_Science] - [T.D. - 10/19/08]

Earthquake Trivia / 17th Century - "Number of notable earthquakes this century: at least 3. Number of earthquake deaths this century: 148,000." [E.M.]

18th Century A.D.

1700 - Map of Europe - "Map of Europe: 1700 AD."

1700 - Map of Colonial America  - "A Map of Colonial America."

1700 - Mythos vs. Logos - "By the 18th Century, the people of Europe and America had achieved such astonishing success in science and technology that they began to think that logos was the only means to truth and began to discount mythos as false and superstitious." [Karen Armstrong, The Battle for God, p.xvii]

1700 - Earthquake, Tsunami? / Pacific Ocean? - January 26th, 1700: "Earthquake location: Cascadia subduction zone from No. CA to Vancouver Is. Earthquake magnitude: 9. Number of recorded fatalities: 0."  

*Trivia: "[....] Scientists say grinding geologic circumstances similar to those in Sumatra [Dec. 2004] also exist just off the Pacific Northwest  coast. They could trigger a tsunami that could hit Northern California, Washington, Oregon and British Columbia in minutes - too fast for the nation's deep-sea tsunami warning system to help. In fact, Atwater [Brian Atwater, of the U.S. Geological Survey] said there was a 9.0 earthquake under the Pacific in 1700 that had devestating consequences. He and other scientists last year [2003] reported finding evidence of severe flooding in the Puget Sound area, including trees that stopped growing after 'taking a bath in rising waters.' The danger rests just 50 miles off the the West Coast in a 680-mile undersea fault known as the Cascadia subduction zone that behaves much like one that ruptured off Sumatra. The 1700 quake occurred along the Cascadia fault. [....]" [A.P., 12/30/04]

1701 - "Acoustics" - "Joseph Sauveur suggests term 'acoustics' for science of sound." [Based on: Ultimate Visual Dictionary of Science, Timeline of Discoveries, p. 15, 2005 Barnes & Noble Books]

1701 - Iroquois Neutrality - "The Iroquois Indians set a policy of neutrality."

1702 - Queen Anne's War - May 4th, 1702: "Queen Anne's War begins."

1704 - The Boston News-Letter - "The first regular colonial newspaper was published."

1705 - Trivia / John Law - "After travelling widely on the Continent, Law returns to his native Scotland and publishes Money and Trade Considered: With a Proposal for Supplying the Nation with Money. He argues that metallic money is unreliable in quality and quantity. Bank notes issued and managed by a public bank would remove the brakes on the economy. He is probably the world's first Keynesian; but compare Sir William Petty, 1682."

1706 - Birth / Benjamin Franklin - January 17th, 1706: "Ben Franklin born, 1706." [Based on: The Old Farmer's Almanac (2006) by Robert B. Thomas, p. 101]

1708 - Died / Guru Gobind Singh ji - "Guru Gobind Singh ji passed to the Lords abode in 1708 in Hyderabad State. Having installed Guru Granth Sahib ji (holy scriptures) as the Shabad (the word) Guru, he passed on the decision making and governance of the Sikhs to the Khalsa Nation - the SIKHS."

[Based on: http://santhakar.tripod.com/saints/bio-11.html] - [T.D. - 08/05/08]

1710 - Saint Germain / England - "Saint Germain was active in Europe from 1710 to 1789, during which time he always had the appearance of a man in his early forties."

1710 - Astronomic Configuration - "Uranus-Pluto [Leo] conjunction. Uranus-Pluto conjunctions and oppositions might bring sudden and radical changes, like a cathartic diarrhoea, yet their full integration takes ages."

1712 - Steam Engine - "Thomas Newcomen invented the atmospheric steam engine."

1712 - Birth / Jean Jacques Rousseau - "June 28th, 1712: "Jean Jacques Rousseau (Geneva, 28 June 1712 – Ermenonville, 2 July 1778) was a major Swiss philosopher, writer, and composer of the Enlightenment, whose political philosophy influenced the French Revolution and the development of liberal, conservative, and socialist theory. With his Confessions, Reveries of a Solitary Walker, and other writings, he invented modern autobiography and encouraged a new focus on the building of subjectivity that bore fruit in the work of thinkers as diverse as Hegel and Freud. His novel Julie, ou la nouvelle Héloïse was one of the best-selling fictional works of the eighteenth century and of great importance to the development of romanticism.[1] He also made important contributions to music as a theorist and a composer, and was reburied alongside other French national heroes in the Panthéon in Paris, sixteen years after his death, in 1794. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rousseau] - [T.D. - 11/22/08]

1713 - End / Queen Anne's War - April 11th, 1713: "Queen Anne's War ends [Peace of Utrecht]."

1713 - Immigration Trivia / United States - "Beginning of Scots-Irish and German immigration to the United States."

1715 - Solar Eclipse - "Edmund Halley's Eclipse [May 3rd]"

1715 - Status / Slave Trade - "The volume of slave trade doubles [1715-1730]."

1715 - North Carolina Money - "All the British colonies in North America tend to suffer from a dearth of the official British coinage. Consequently they use a variety of substitutes including wampum, copied from the native inhabitants, tobacco and other natural commodities, and Spanish and Portuguese coins. The importance of these substitutes varies according to location."

1716 - Sikh Confederacy / India - "Sikh Confederacy 1716–1799"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_India] - [T.D. - 12/15/08]

*Trivia: "The Sikh Empire was a state[1] that existed in parts of present-day India and Pakistan from 1733 to 1849.[2] It consisted of a collection of autonomous Punjabi Sikh Misls, which were governed by Misldars[3], mainly in the Punjab, the Khalsa 's main land of ruling. The Sikh Khalsa Armies were loosely and politically linked but strongly bounded together in the cultural and religious spheres. The records for these were kept at capitals Gujranwala (1799-1802) as well as Lahore and Amritsar (1802-1849). As the Sikh Khalsa Army formally called Dal Khalsa grew to new regions which it administered and new Misldars came to the fore and the number of large misls eventually increased to 12 (~70000 Cavalry). [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sikh_Confederacy] - [T.D. - 07/16/09]

1716 - 1st Public Bank of France - "John Law creates France's first public bank. To economize on the use of precious metals Law establishes a note-issuing bank, Law & Co. or the Banque Generale. In contrast to the state's short-term paper, Law's banknotes appreciate in value."

1718 - French New Orleans - "The French settle New Orleans."

1719 - Mississippi Bubble - "The Mississippi Company had been set up to exploit the wealth of French colonies, especially in Louisiana. In 1719 it is also given a monopoly of trade with the East Indies and China and a speculative boom in the value of its shares ensues. The boom, combined with the over-issue of notes by the Banque Royale, leads to a drain of precious metals from France to London. Law's enemies persuade the Regent to dismiss him from his post as Minister of Finance, the bank stops payment and the boom collapses. The debacle sets back the development of banking in France by about 100 years."

1719 - South Sea Bubble - "Contemporary with the Mississippi Bubble a speculative boom takes place in the shares of the South Sea Company, originally set up to break the Spanish monopoly of trade with Central and South America, after it proposes to take over the National Debt. Numerous other companies are set up to take advantage of the speculative mania. The sudden collapse of the boom leads to changes in company law which affect the future development of banking in both Britain and America."

1721 - Birth / Russian Empire - "November 2, 1721 became the official birthday of the Russian Empire under Peter the Great."

1722 - Discovered / "Easter Island" - 1722: "The name 'Easter Island' was given by the island's first recorded European visitor, the Dutch explorer Jacob Roggeveen, who encountered it on Easter Sunday 1722, while searching for Davis or David's island. Roggeveen named it Paasch-Eyland (18th century Dutch for 'Easter Island').[5] The island's official Spanish name, Isla de Pascua, also means 'Easter Island' [...] Easter Island and surrounding islets such as Motu Nui and Motu Iti form the summit of a large volcanic mountain rising over 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) from the sea bed. [...] Pukao, Moai and Easter Island were formed in the last 750,000 years and are the ridge's youngest islands. The most recent eruption was a little over 100,000 years ago. [NP] In the first half of the 20th century, steam reportedly came out of the Rano Kau crater wall. This was photographed by the island's manager, Mr. Edmunds.[14] According to geologists the last volcanic activity on the island occurred 10,000 years ago. [NP] An alternative explanation for the islands is the activity of the Easter Fracture Zone. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Easter_Island]

*Trivia: "When most people think of the renowned monolithic statues, they think of the heads only. But in October 2011, the Easter Island Statue Project began its Season V expedition, revealing remarkable photos showing that the bodies of the statues go far deeper underground than just about anyone had imagined."

*Link: http://www.hoax-slayer.com/easter-island-statues-bodies.shtml

1724 - Thermometer - "Gabriel Fahrenheit invented the first mercury thermometer."

1725 - Czarina Catherine I / Russia - "Catherine I was Peter's wife and successor upon his death in 1725. Being illiterate and virtually mentally retarded, her brother, Aleksander Menshikov governed Russia during her reign. He was a gentle man who belived highly in education mostly because of the condition of Catherine. It was he who founded the Academy of Sciences. Catherine only served as Czarina from 1725-1727, but in these two short years the Academy was founded and became the greatest of Russian colleges."

1727 - Died / Isaac Newton - March 20th, 1727: "Physicist Sir Isaac Newton died, 1727." [Based on: The Old Farmer's Almanac (2006) by Robert B. Thomas, p. 105]

1727 - Czar Peter II / Russia - "When Catherine I died she had designated her grandson, Pytor to be her successor. Pytor became Peter II in 1727 at age 14, but died one year later from smallpox."

1727 - Tobacco Notes - "Certificates attesting to the quality and quantity of tobacco deposited in public warehouses circulate more conveniently than the actual leaf, already used as money for over a century, and these notes are made legal tender."

1730 - Earthquake / Hokkaido, Japan - December 30th, 1730: Earthquake location: Hokkaido, Japan. Earthquake magnitude: N/A. Number of recorded fatalities: 137,000."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207]

1731 -
Freemason / Benjamin Franklin - "One of the most influential figures in the American Revolution was the writer, philosopher and scientist Benjamin Franklin. He was a Quaker but had become a Freemason in 1731 when he joined the lodge of  St. John in Philadelphia, which was the first recognized Masonic lodge in America."

1732 - Birth / George Washington - February 22nd, 1732: "George Washington born, 1732." [Based on: The Old Farmer's Almanac (2006) by Robert B. Thomas, p. 103]

1732 - Founded / Georgia - "Georgia founded for English paupers and as a buffer against Florida."

1733 - Sikh Empire / India & Pakistan - "The Sikh Empire was a state[1] that existed in parts of present-day India and Pakistan from 1733 to 1849.[2] It consisted of a collection of autonomous Punjabi Sikh Misls, which were governed by Misldars[3], mainly in the Punjab, the Khalsa 's main land of ruling. The Sikh Khalsa Armies were loosely and politically linked but strongly bounded together in the cultural and religious spheres. The records for these were kept at capitals Gujranwala (1799-1802) as well as Lahore and Amritsar (1802-1849). As the Sikh Khalsa Army formally called Dal Khalsa grew to new regions which it administered and new Misldars came to the fore and the number of large misls eventually increased to 12 (~70000 Cavalry). [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sikh_Confederacy] - [T.D. - 07/16/09]

1734 - Birth / Franz Anton Mesmer - "Franz Anton Mesmer (May 23, 1734 – March 5, 1815), sometimes, albeit incorrectly, referred to as Friedrich Anton Mesmer, was a German physician with an interest in Astronomy, who theorised that there was a natural energetic transference that occurred between all animated and inanimate objects that he called magnétisme animal (animal magnetism[1]) and other spiritual forces often grouped together as mesmerism. The evolution of Mesmer's ideas and practices led Scottish surgeon James Braid to develop hypnosis in 1842. Mesmer's name is the root of the English verb 'mesmerise'. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franz_Mesmer]

1735 - Astronomic Configuration - "Uranus-Neptune [Sagittarius/Capricorn Gemini/Cancer] opposition [1735-1738]."

1737 - Earthquake / Calcutta, India - October 11th, 1737: Earthquake location: Calcutta, India. Earthquake magnitude: N/A. Number of recorded fatalities: 300,000."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207]

1738 - Masonry Condemned  - "In 1738 the Roman Catholic Church officially condemned Masonry."

1738 - Birth / William Herschel - November 15th, 1738: "Astronomer Sir William Herschel born, 1738." [Based on: The Old Farmer's Almanac (2006) by Robert B. Thomas, p. 97]

1738 - Birth / Ramanand Swami - 1738: "Ramanand Swami ... was born Shri Rama Sharma to a Brahmin family in Ayodhya in 1738. His parents were Ajay Sharma (father) and Sumati (mother). He was considered to be the incarnation of Uddhavaji, a close friend of Krishna. Ramanand Swami was the founder and head of the Uddhav Sampraday. [1][2] In 1802, Ramanand Swami passed the reins of the Uddhav Sampraday to Swaminarayan and died. [3] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ramanand_Swami]

1741 - Czarina Elizabeth / Russia - "Elizabeth became Czarina in 1741 after a series of infants held the crown in succession. Elizabeth tried to link herself with Peter the Great. She abolished the death penalty for a short time and attempted to continue her father's reforms in government. She was not successful, though, and the financial condition of the country deteriorated. Upon her death she named her nephew Peter as Czar."

1741 - Trivia / Boston Land Bank - "British Parliament decides that the Boston Land Bank is illegal. The Land Bank or Manufactory Scheme is ruled to contravene the Bubble Act of 1720 which is retrospectively extended to cover the colonies."

1744 - King George's War - March 15th, 1744: "King George's War begins."

1745 - Electrical Capacitor - "Reportedly, E.G. von Kleist invented the leyden jar, the first electrical capacitor."

1748 - End / King George's War - October 18th, 1748: "King George's War ends [Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle]."


1750 - U.S. Indian School - "Moor’s Indian Charity School is founded in Connecticut. In 1769 it is moved to New Hampshire and becomes Dartmouth College, which has promoted the enrollment of Indian students to the present."

1750 - Trivia / British Banks - "In the mid-eighteenth century, at the start of the Industrial Revolution, there are barely a dozen banking houses in England and Wales outside the London area."

1750 - Masonic Lodge / Poland - "The first masonic lodge was officially founded in Poland in 1750 and within a few years Masonry had spread rapidly from there to Mother Russia."

1750 - Hasidism / Eastern Europe - "A new sect of Judaism known as Hasidism emerges [1750's] in Eastern Europe. Commerce and industry flourish in Western Europe and some Jews become very prosperous. It thrived despite disapproval from the mainstream rabbinate."

1750 - Colonial Scrip / North America - "Benjamin Franklin wrote of the British colonies in North America in the 1750s: 'Nowhere on Earth does one find a happier and more well-being people.' He explained that this was due to that 'we in the colonies make our own currency,' called 'colonial scrip.' He further explained: 'By issuing our own currency we can control its buying power, and we are not obliged to pay interest to anyone.' " [Based on: article by Juri Lina, The Barnes Review, September/October 2004, p. 9]

1752 - Gregorian Calendar / England - "Replacing the Julian [Old Style] calendar, the Gregorian [New Style] calendar was adopted in England [1752], when it was necessary to drop 11 days. England's calendar before 1752 reportedly began on March 25th. Other nations prior to the Gregorian calendar celebrated new Year's Day on December 25th."

1752 - Forbidden / Colonial Credit - "Britain forbids New England colonies from issuing new bills of credit. In addition, Parliament insists that all outstanding issues be promptly redeemed at maturity."

1752 - Lightening Rod - "Benjamin Franklin invents the lightening rod."

1754 - Beginning / French and Indian War - July 3rd, 1754: "The French and Indian War begins." [Link: 1]

1754 - Albany Congress - July 10th, 1754: "The Albany Congress meets."

1755 - Earthquake / N. Persia - June 7th, 1755: "Earthquake location: N. Persia. Earthquake magnitude: N/A. Number of recorded fatalities: 40,000."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207]

1755 - Earthquake / Lisbon, Portugal - November 1st, 1755: "Earthquake location: Lisbon, Portugal. Earthquake magnitude: 8.75*. Number of recorded fatalities: 60,000."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207]

1756 - French & Indian War Begins - The French & Indian War, or 'Seven Years War' [1756-1763] begins."

1757 - Company Rule / India - "Company rule in India 1757–1858"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_India] - [T.D. - 12/15/08]

1758 - Heaven and Hell / Emanuel Swedenborg -

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emanuel_Swedenborg]

1758 - Perihelion / Halley's Comet - December 25th, 1758 A.D.: "1P/1758 Y1, 1758 I (25 December 1758)"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halley%27s_Comet] - [T.D. - 06/12/07] 

1759 - Wolfe Captures Quebec- "General Wolfe captures Quebec. During his campaign he complains about being hampered by lack of funds. Similarly inflation is blamed for the lack of funds which led to the defeat of General Braddock in 1755. Consequently the British government decides to increase taxation in America, thus spurring the Revolution."

1759 - Beginning / Cherokee War - "The Cherokee War [1759-1761] against the English begins."

1759 - The Encyclopedia the Vatican suppressed - 1759: "The Vatican has a history of opposition to Encyclopedias published outside its control, and that was revealed when it moved quickly to suppress a major volume compiled by learned French Encyclopedist, Denis Diderot (1713-83).¹ The Vatican was appalled, for his Encyclopèdie, published in 1759, stood in violent opposition to its claims, supported with powerful references from leaked records from the Secret Vatican Archives that revealed the Gospel personage of Jesus Christ had no relation with reality. An outraged Pope Clement XIII (1758-69) exclaimed that ‘with forty pages against Christianity it is among the boldest book ever known, worse even than Rousseau’s Emile and Febronius‘s vilifications’. Thereupon, Clement XIII ordered:

The said book is impious, scandalous, bold, and full of blasphemies and calumnies against the Christian religion. These volumes are so much more dangerous and reprehensible as they are written in French and in the most seductive style. The author of this book, who has the boldness to sign his name to it, should be arrested as soon as possible. It is important that justice should make an example, with all severity, both of the author and those who have shared in printing or distributing such a book.²

"Accordingly, later in 1759, the Vatican ordered all volumes to be burned, prohibited their sale, and decreed arrest for Diderot should he ever enter Rome.³ His Encyclopèdie was listed on the Vatican’s infamous Index of Prohibited Books, and a ban of excommunication was pronounced on anybody who should read it. Later, in 1764, Diderot learnt with great disappointment that his publisher, Andre Le Breton, had, under instructions ‘from a team of priests’, eliminated ‘compromising evidence’ from the corrected proof sheets of ten folio volumes of a scheduled reprint his Encyclopèdie.4 However, many of his earlier versions exist today, and are held by rare book collectors and libraries. [... .]"

[Based on: vatikeaks article (The Encyclopedia the Vatican suppressed),  04-Feb-2013.]

*Link: http://www.vatileaks.com/

1760 - Population / "African Americans" - "Africans [as slaves] compose 20% of American population."

1760 - Wampum Factory  / New Jersey - "Wampum factory opened in New Jersey. Demand for wampum as currency, and later ornament, remains strong. In the factory steel drills are used to make the holes that are used for stringing the shells together. This increases output of wampum enormously causing inflation. The factory remains in production for 100 years."

1761 - Peter III / Russia - "Peter was Peter the Great's grandson and became Peter III in 1761. He only survived six months, however, because his wife decided she could run the country better and had him killed. She eventually would become known as Catherine the Great."

1761 - Ahmad Shah Abdali / India - "The gradual decline in power of the Mughals in the eighteenth century resulted in anarchy in India's political life. Confusion, disorder and disunity reigned supreme. The pleasure-loving later Mughals, the very antithesis of their great forebears, and their corrupt nobility who were engrossed in mutual rivalries weakened the central authority. Several provincial dynasties sprang up to reduce the Mughal Emperor to insignificance. The Maratha ascendancy in the north, series of foreign invasions and the terror they struck, and the defeat of Marathas at the hands of Ahmad Shah Abdali in 1761 made the condition worse. [....]"

[Based on: http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Academy/9563/chapter1.html] - [T.D. - 12/15/08]

*Links: http://www.afghan-network.net/Culture/ahmadshah.html

1761 - Depression / Colonial America  - "An economic slump [depression], hits [1761-1765] most of the American colonies."

*Link: http://www.iroquoisdemocracy.pdx.edu/html/timeline.htm

*More Links: http://www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/revolution/rev-prel.htm

1761 - 1st Life Insurance Policy? / North America - May 22nd, 1761: "22 May The first life insurance policy in the United States was issued, in Philadelphia."


1762 - Pluto / Capricorn - January 8th, 1762: Pluto at 0 degrees Capricorn, January 8th; July 8th, R.; November 10th, D. ...

[Based on: http://www.astro.com/swisseph/ae/1700/ae_1762.pdf]

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1762

1762 - Mozart Family Tour - "[....] During Mozart's formative years, his family made several European journeys in which the children were exhibited as child prodigies. These began with an exhibition in 1762 at the Court of the Elector of Bavaria in Munich, then in the same year at the Imperial Court in Vienna and Prague. A long concert tour spanning three and a half years followed, taking the family to the courts of Munich, Mannheim, Paris, London, The Hague, again to Paris, and back home via Zürich, Donaueschingen, and Munich. During this trip Mozart met a great number of musicians and acquainted himself with the works of other composers. A particularly important influence was Johann Christian Bach, who met Mozart in London in 1764–65. The family again went to Vienna in late 1767 and remained there until December 1768. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mozart] - [T.D. 11/22/08]

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mozart_family_Grand_Tour

1762 - Trivia / Sikh Khalsa Army - "[....] The military power levels of the Sikh Khalsa Army increased dramatically after 1762, this led to rapid increase in territory. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sikh_Confederacy] - [T.D. - 07/16/09]

1762 - Tsarina Catherine II / Russia - "Peter III, whose accession to the throne in 1762 saved Fredrick II of Prussia from defeat, was a total incompetent. He was married to a German wife, Sophia Augusta [1724-1796], who was as intelligent as he was stupid, and as hard-working as he was lazy. On her marriage, in 1745, it had been necessary for her husband to be converted to the Russian Orthodox faith, which she did with equanimity, taking the new name of Catherine. Being married to Peter was no suitable life for her, especially since she was quite certain Peter intended to get rid of her. Catherine struck first, and on July 9th, 1762, she led a palace revolt that overthrew Peter and made her ruler of Russia as Tsarina Catherine II [eventually to be called 'Catherine the great' - the last ruler to be generally known by such a title]. Catherine was the first ruler of Russia to actively oppose the church. She was given the title 'Great' mostly because of her ideals on the enlightenment, and her swift, able suppression of an uprising in Poland. She died in 1796, considered one of the greatest rulers of Russia. Her son Paul was crowned Paul I in 1797." [Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology of the World]

1762 - Chronometer - "Harrison invents the chronometer."

1762 - "Du Contrat Social" / Jean Jacques Rousseau - "[....] In 1762, he published two major books, Du Contrat Social, Principes du droit politique (in English, literally Of the Social Contract, Principles of Political Law) in April and then Émile, or On Education in May. The books criticized religion and were banned in France and Geneva. Rousseau was forced to flee arrest and made stops in Bern and Môtiers in Switzerland, where he enjoyed the protection of Frederick the Great of Prussia and his local representative, Lord Keith. While in Môtiers, Rousseau wrote the Constitutional Project for Corsica (Projet de Constitution pour la Corse). [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rousseau] - [T.D. - 11/22/08]

*Links: http://www.cyberessays.com/History/23.htm


1763 - Birth / Shama Rao Peshwa - 1763: "TULSI or TULSI SAHIB (1763-1843)—Shama Rao Peshwa, the elder brother of Baji Rao Peshwa. Renouncing all worldly ambitions for spiritual enlightemnent, he settled at Hathras as Tulsi Sahib: author of Ghat Ramayana, the inner version of the great epic; passed his spiritual mantle on to Soami Ji Maharaj of Agra who greatly venerated his mentor from quite an early age when he came under his influence." [Based on: http://www.ruhanisatsangusa.org/gloss.htm]

1763 - End / French & Indian War - February 10th, 1763: "French and Indian War ends [Treaty of Paris]. In the peace treaty of 1763 the British got most of the French land in North America. Also as a result of the war, the British began taxing the colonists to pay for the war."

1763 - British America & Canada - "By the Treaty of Paris, signed on February 10th, 1763, France gave up all but a few island scraps of its North American dominions. All of Canada, and all of Louisiana east of the Mississippi River was ceded to Great Britain."

1763 - Native American Land Cessions - "The north-south line dividing Indian people from the settlers is further defined [1763-1773] through new treaties and Indian land cessions.

1764 - Forbidden / Colonial Currency - "Britain forbids all its American colonies to issue paper money as legal tender. This punishes the colonies that had been careful not to over-issue paper money as well as those that had been irresponsible. The only exception is for strictly military purposes. 'No law ... could be more equitable', wrote Adam Smith, 'than the act of parliament so unjustly complained of in the colonies.' [p 348 of the Wealth of Nations]. Adam Smith was in favour of paper money but against it having the status of legal tender."

1764 - Spinning Jenny - "James Hargreaves invented the spinning jenny."

1766 - Repealed / Stamp Act - March 18th, 1766: "British Parliament repealed the Stamp Act, 1766." [Based on: The Old Farmer's Almanac (2006) by Robert B. Thomas, p. 105] [check year?]

1766 - Trivia / Forbidden Colonial Currency - "Benjamin Franklin fails to persuade British parliament to allow use of paper money in America. While in London Franklin tries unsuccessfully to persuade Parliament of the case for a general issue of colonial paper money."

1766 - On the Influence of the Planets on the Human Body / Franz Anton Mesmer -

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franz_Mesmer]

1768 - Configuration - "Grand Trine. Unusual. A triangle with three outer planets in mutual trine to each other. This can bring easy times, up to the point of laxity or sclerosis, or periods of flowering in which the pressure lifts, allowing 'non-essential' yet important cultural developments to take place. Trends are expanded upon, and things run along nicely. Boundaries can become loosened, leading either toward prosperity and security, or toward degeneration and slow disintegration. Example: 1768-1773 [earth signs trine], marking, in Europe, the peak of the Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment and the seeds of the Industrial Revolution."

1768 - Spinning Frame - "Richard Arkwright invented the spinning frame."

1768 - Public Banks / Russia - "Russia's first two public banks established. They are created by Catherine the Great to finance Russia's war with Turkey."

1769 - Venus Transit - "The transit of Venus in 1769 found observers around the globe - including Capt. James Cook in Tahiti - taking measurements in a joint effort to figure the distance from Earth to the sun. They were off by only two million miles. It's 93 million miles away [the sun], on average, and its light makes the trip in about eight minutes." [N.G.M., July 2004]

1769 - Spanish California - "Spain claims California. First Native American missions are established in California under Juanipero Serra."

1769 - Improved Steam Engine - "James Watt invented an improved steam engine."

1770 - Boston Massacre - March 5th, 1770: "Reportedly happened on this date in history: The Boston Massacre."

1770 - Australia Discovered -  "Cook discovers Australia"

1771 - Grand Masonic Convention - "In 1771 there was a grand convention of all the Masonic lodges which claimed mythical descent from the Templar Order."

1772 - Birth / Rammohun Roy - "Born in a devout Brahman family in 1772 and brought up in a strictly religious atmosphere, Rammohun Roy rebelled against all the Brahmanical traditions and conservatism and came to be acknowledged as the herald of the age of reason in India. He wasa scholar of Arabic, Persian, Sanskrit and Bengali. He studied English language and literature which braoght home to him the whole range of western liberal thought. Later he learnt Hebrew, Greek and Latin in order to understand Christanity through the original texts. He developed a broad vision and adopted a critical attitude towards socio-religious and political problems. [....]"

[Based on: http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Academy/9563/chapter1.html] - [T.D. - 12/15/08]

1772 - Pale of Settlement / Russia - 'The Pale of Settlement' as the vast area of Russia in which over ten million Jews were required to live. This order was issued by the Czar in 1772 because of the Jews' sharp business practices which had brought much misery upon the Christian population. The 'Pale' included all of the Ukraine, western Russia, all of Poland and Lithuania. Thus the Jews were banned from St. Petersburg, Moscow, and Kharkov. Even though the Jews flourished, they were not satisfied and wanted to be able to dominate all of Russia. Thus they formed the 'Social Revolutionary Party' to overthrow the Czar." [Link: 1]

1772 - Volcanic Eruption / Mt. Papandayan, Java, Indonesia - "Volcanic eruption date(s): August 12th, 1772. Number of recorded deaths: 3,000." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 491]

1773 - Boston Tea Party - "A party of Massachusetts colonists led by Samuel Adams [and disguised as Indians] dumped tea into Boston harbour. Reportedly, the members of the Boston Tea Party were all Freemasons who belonged to  the St. Andrews lodge in the city."

1774 - Electric Telegraph - "Georges Louis Lesage invented the electric telegraph."

1774 - 1st Continental Congress - September 5th, 1774: "The colonies held the First Continental Congress. Representatives from each colony, except Georgia, met in Philadelphia. The royal governor in Georgia succeeded in blocking delegates from being sent to the congress."

1774 - Borders Established / Russia - "On July 16th, 1774, the Ottoman Turks and Russia sign peace treaty. Russia gains its present-day European borders."

1775 - British Building Society - "First British building society formed. Richard Ketley, an inn proprietor in Birmingham, and a group of his customers and friends form a society for saving money for building and purchasing houses for their own occupation."

1775 - American Revolution - April 18th, 1775: "The American Revolution or War of Independence [1775-1783]. The first shots starting the revolution were fired at Lexington, Massachusetts. On April 18, 1775, British General Thomas Gage sent 700 soldiers to destroy guns and ammunition the colonists had stored in the town of Concord, just outside of Boston. They also planned to arrest Samuel Adams and John Hancock, two of the key leaders of the patriot movement." [Link: 1]

*Trivia: "In American schoolbooks the reason given for the outbreak of the Revolutionary War was the tea tax, but according to Franklin 'the colonies would gladly have borne the little tax' [of 2 percent] on tea and other matters had it not been that England took away from the colonies their money which created unemployment and dissatisfaction.' The result of the influence of the English banks on the British Parliament was horrendous poverty in America. When this situation had been created, it was easy to get people ready for war, which the Freemasons did with satisfaction. They wanted a safe base for their future global activities." [Based on: article by Juri Lina, The Barnes Review, September/October 2004, p. 10]

*Trivia: "The American Congress, and individual states finance their war effort overwhelmingly by printing money. This eventually leads to hyperinflation rendering the continentals worthless - but the Revolution is successful."

*Trivia: "Iroquois Six Nations pledge neutrality."

1775 - Astronomic Configuration - April 18th, 1775: "Sun [27 Aries], Moon [24 Scorpio], Mercury [0 Aries], Venus [22 Taurus], Mars [26 Leo], Jupiter [21 Taurus], Saturn [3 Libra R], Uranus [0 Gemini], Neptune [20 Virgo R], Pluto [26 Capricorn]."  

1775 - 2nd Continental Congress - May 10th, 1775: "The Second Continental Congress started on May 10, 1775. The delegates of the 13 colonies gathered in Philadelphia to discuss their next steps."

*Trivia: "The Declaration of Independence was approved at the Second Constitutional Congress. The Declaration of Independence introduced a fundamental change in the view of government. Thomas Jefferson declared that governments were created to serve the people, and could only act with consent of the people. It created the democratic government."

1775 - Established / U.S. Marine Corps - November 10th, 1775: "U.S. Marine Corps established, 1775." [Based on: The Old Farmer's Almanac (2006) by Robert B. Thomas, p. 97]

1775 - Native American Indian Policy - "The Continental Congress of the American Revolutionary government formulates an Indian policy and appoints commissioners for northern, middle, and southern departments."

1775 - Earthquake / Portugul - November 1st, 1775: "Earthquake location: Lisbon Portugul. Earthquake magnitude: 8.7. Number of recorded fatalities: 70,000."  

1775 - Committee of Secret Correspondence / U.S.A. - November 29th, 1775: "Committee of Secret Correspondence organized by 2nd Continental Congress, 1775." [Based on: The Old Farmer's Almanac (2006) by Robert B. Thomas, p. 97]

1775 - Steamship - "Jacques Perrier invents a steamship."

1775 - Flush Toilet - "Alexander Cummings invented the flush toilet."

1776 - Founded / Illuminati - "Reportedly, the Illuminati were founded on May 1st, 1776, the year of the American Revolution, by a young professor at the Bavarian University of Ingoldstat, Adam Weishaupt. Weishaupt's political vision was of a utopian superstate with the abolition of private property, social authority and nationality. In this anarchistic state human beings would live in harmony within a universal brotherhood, based on free love, peace, spiritual wisdom, and equality. He came into conflict with the Church because he also taught his disciples that religious freedom was the right of everyone. He believed that once the masses had been de-Christianized they would demand political freedom and the right to enjoy life without the moral straightjacket imposed by the puritanical teachings of the Church on sexual matters."

*Trivia: "[....] This movement was founded on May 1, 1776, in Ingolstadt (Upper Bavaria), by Jesuit-taught Adam Weishaupt (d. 1830),[1] who was the first lay professor of canon law at the University of Ingolstadt.[2] The movement was made up of freethinkers, as an offshoot of the Enlightenment[3], which some amateur historians believe was a conspiracy to infiltrate and overthrow the governments of many European states.[4] The group's adherents were given the name 'Illuminati', although they called themselves 'Perfectibilists'. The group has also been called the Illuminati Order and the Bavarian Illuminati, and the movement itself has been referred to as Illuminism (after illuminism). In 1777, Karl Theodor, Elector Palatine, succeeded as ruler of Bavaria. He was a proponent of Enlightened Despotism and in 1784, his government banned all secret societies, including the Illuminati. [....] Internal rupture and panic over succession preceded its downfall, which was effected by The Secular Edict made by the Bavarian government in 1785.[citation needed] [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illuminati] - [T.D. - 12/13/08]

*Trivia: "Professor Weishaupt joined a German strain of Freemasonry in 1777, being initiated in Munich. He immediately began to poach from the ranks of his fellow Masons to fill out his own clandestine group. This recruitment continued unabated until he was finally caught and expelled from the Freemasons. [....] Eventually, somebody spilled the beans about Weishaupt's project and the ideals to which it was dedicated. All of a sudden, he become one of the most hated men in Europe. He had simultaneously managed to rile both church and state. [....] The end result was a crackdown on secret societies across the board. In June 1784, both the Masons and the Illuminati were declared illegal by the King of Bavaria. Weishaupt fled to Gotha, a city in eastern Germany, to escape arrest. There he lived out the rest of his days. [....]"

[Based on: http://www.rotten.com/library/conspiracy/illuminati/] - [T.D. - 12/13/08]

*Trivia: "On May 1, 1998, exactly 222 years after the founding of the order of the Illuminati (222 being a third of 666, which in turn is a third of 1998), the European Central Bank was established, actually a cartel of private banks. All of the people shall be in debt through taxation. The Masonic bankers are thus trying to realize the Knights Templars' ancient idea of creating a European super state by means of the banking system." [Based on: article by Juri Lina, The Barnes Review, September/October 2004, p. 14]

1776 - Astronomic Configuration - July 4th, 1776: "Sun [12 Cancer], Moon [13 Aquarius], Mercury [24 Cancer], Venus [1 Cancer], Mars [20 Gemini], Jupiter [5 Cancer], Saturn [14 Libra], Uranus [8 Gemini], Neptune [22 Virgo], Pluto [27 Capricorn R]."

1776 - American Declaration of Independence - July 4th, 1776: "When in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the laws of nature and of nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.
    "We hold these truths to be self-evident: That all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; that, to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed; that whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new government, laying its foundation on such principles, and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shown that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same object, evinces a design to reduce them under absolute despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such government, and to provide new guards for their future security. Such has been the patient sufferance of these colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former systems of government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute tyranny over these states. To prove this, let facts be submitted to a candid world. [....]" [The American Declaration of Independence] [Link: 1]

*Trivia: "Among the fifty-six American rebels who signed the Declaration of Independence only six were not members of the Masonic Order. The majority of the military commanders of the American revolutionary army, which fought the British during the war of Independence, were also practicing Freemasons." [U.S. History]

*Trivia: "[....] Sirius is also associated with liberation; in fact, according to ancient teachings, the very concept of freedom itself resides in human consciousness because of the influence of this star system. Interestingly enough, the time each year our sun conjuncts Sirius at 14 degrees Cancer is close to July 4, America's Independence Day! Bastille Day, the French equivalent of Independence Day is July 14, and Canada celebrates its independence from England on July 1; Dominion Day. Venezuela's Independence Day is observed July 5, while Argentina's is celebrated on July 9. And noting, Iraq's Freedom Day, when the new Coalition government took control, happened on June 28, 2004 (two days earlier than it had been announced). [....]"

[Based on: http://www.souledout.org/cosmology/cossynthreflects/sirius.html] - [T.D. 12/28/07]

1776 - Total Lunar Eclipse - "July 31st"

1776 - 3rd Continental Congress - December 20th, 1776: "Third Continental Congress convenes."

1776 - Battle of Trenton - "On the evening of December 25, 1776, Washington along with 2,500 soldiers crossed the Delaware River in a snow storm. The river was treacherous with ice. They caught the British soldiers sleeping, killing over one hundred men and taking another thousand prisoners. Not a single American was killed. This was a major boost for the American war effort."

1776 - Submarine - "David Bushnell invents a submarine."

1777 - Partial Lunar Eclipse - "January 23rd"

1777 - Partial Lunar Eclipse - "July 20th"

1777 - British / Iroquois Alliance - "Most Iroquois Indians join the British."

1777 - Articles of Confederation Proposed / U.S.A. - November 15th, 1777: "Articles of Confederation proposed."

1778 - Pluto / Aquarius - January 27th, 1778: Pluto at 0 degrees Aquarius, August 20th, R.; December 2nd, D. ... *Link: http://www.astro.com/swisseph/ae/1700/ae_1778.pdf

1778 - French / American Alliance - "In February 1778, France and America signed a treaty which put France at war with Britain. This treaty was the first document to officially recognize America as an independent state."

1778 - Delaware Indians Treaty? - "First treaty is negotiated between the United States and the Delaware Indians. The Delaware tribe is offered the prospect of statehood."

1778 - Partial Lunar Eclipse - "December 4th"

1779 - Trivia / Abolition of Slavery, U.S.A. - "Pennsylvania begins gradual abolition of slavery."

1779 - Spinning Mule - "Samuel Crompton invented the spinning mule."

1779 - Universal History - "A consortium of London booksellers issued the mammoth 42-volume Universal History - a work that came to be much revered and which stated with considered assurance that God's work of creation began on 21 August 4004 BC."

1780 - Earthquake / Iran - February 28th, 1780: "Earthquake location: Iran. Earthquake magnitude: 0. Number of recorded fatalities: 200,000."  

1780 - Bank of Pennsylvania - "Bank of Pennsylvania founded. This is the first American bank to be established since the declaration of independence from Britain. It is basically a temporary means of raising funds for the American army which is in a desperate financial situation."

1780 - Fatality / Iroquois Confederacy - "Destruction of Iroquois Confederacy."

1780 - Bifocals - "Benjamin Franklin invented bi-focal eyeglasses."

1780 - Circular Saw - "Gervinus invented the circular saw. "

1780 - Physics Trivia - "By 1780, when Antoine Lavoisier's quantitative chemistry experiments were showing that matter is conserved, Isaac Newton's laws of motion and gravity had been in place for almost a hundred years. But while Newton gave us a framework for understanding all of nature, the frontier was wide open. People were just beginning to learn the basic facts about matter, light, and heat, and mysterious phenomena like electricity and magnetism were being elucidated." [Based on: Lee Smolin, The Trouble with Physics, p. viii (5th paragraph - Introduction), copyright 2006]

1780 - Discovered / Homeric Hymn to Demeter, Moscow - 1780: "[....] In the year 1780, the long-lost text of the Homeric Hymn to Demeter was discovered among the manuscripts of the imperial library at Moscow; and, in our own generation, the tact of an eminent student of Greek art, Sir Charles Newton, has restored to the world the buried treasures of the little temple and precinct of Demeter, at Cnidus, which have many claims to rank in the central order of Greek sculpture. [....] The central expression, then, of the story of Demeter and Persephone is the Homeric hymn, to which Grote has assigned a date at least as early as six hundred years before Christ. The one survivor of a whole family of hymns on this subject, it was written, perhaps, for one of those contests which took place on the seventh day of the Eleusinian festival, and in which a bunch of [83] ears of corn was the prize; perhaps, for actual use in the mysteries themselves, by the Hierophantes, or Interpreter, who showed to the worshippers at Eleusis those sacred places to which the poem contains so many references. About the composition itself there are many difficult questions, with various surmises as to why it has remained only in this unique manuscript of the end of the fourteenth century. [....]"

[Based on: http://bulfinch.englishatheist.org/b/pantheon/PaterOnDemeter.html] - [T.D. - 04/12/07]

1781 - Articles of Confederation / U.S.A. - March 1st, 1781: "The new United States of America had no central government to replace the British control of national issues such as commerce, foreign policy and defense. The members of the Second Continental Congress continued to govern in place of a national government. They appointed a committee to draft the Articles of Confederation. The Articles of Confederation defined the federal government powers separate from those of the states. The Articles were adopted in March 1781. In the interim, the Congress continued to act on behalf of the federal government, and they directed the war effort."

1781 - Trivia / Native American Indian Affairs - "The Articles of Confederation define [1781-1789] federal and state relationships, including the principle that the central government should regulate Indian affairs and trade."

1781 - Discovery / Planet Uranus - March 13th, 1781: "Friedrich William Herschel discovers the planet Uranus." [Link: 1]

1781 - Birth / Swaminarayan - April 2nd, 1781: "Swaminarayan ... Sva-mi-na-ra-yan.a) (2 April 1781 – 1 June 1830), also known as Sahajanand Swami, is the central figure in a modern sect of Hinduism known as the Swaminarayan Faith, a form of Vaishnavism.[2] Within the faith, Swaminarayan is equated with the Supreme Being, Purushottama, or is venerated as an incarnation of Narayana from the Nara-Narayana deity pair. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lord_Swaminarayan]

1781 - Battle of Yorktown - "October 19th, 1781, General Cornwallis and 8,000 British troops surrendered. The Battle of Yorktown, although it did not end the war, was the last major battle of the Revolutionary War."

1782 - Trivia / Great Seal of the United States - "The first Great Seal of the United States (1782) included the phoenix. It remained there until a little after 1900 when it was replaced by the eagle."

[Based on: http://phoenom.com/]

*Trivia: "In a colored sketch submitted as a design for the Great Seal by William Barton in 1782, an actual phœnix appears sitting upon a nest of flames."


1782 - Signed / Treaty of Paris - "The Treaty of Paris was signed on September 3, 1782." [Link: 1]

1782 - Bank of North America - "Bank of North America begins operations. It was granted a charter by Congress the previous year. It fulfils a wide range of banking functions and is a great commercial success."

1783 - Earthquake / Calabria, Italy - February 4th, 1783: "Earthquake location: Calabria, Italy. Earthquake magnitude: N/A. Number of recorded fatalities: 30,000."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207]

1783 - American Independence - "The Treaty of Paris was ratified on April 17, 1783, and it officially recognized American independence."

1783 - Volcanic Eruption / Laki, Iceland - "Volcanic eruption date(s): June 8th, 1783. Number of recorded deaths: 9,350." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 491]

1783 - Trivia / Bank of North America - "Unpaid soldiers prevented from looting the Bank of North America. This stimulates opposition to the bank, as much of the public sympathises with the soldiers, and the legality of the bank is later challenged by Pennsylvania's representatives."

1783 - Parachute - "Louis Sebastien demonstrates the first parachute."

1783 - Hot-Air Balloon - "Joseph Michel Montgolfier and Jacques Etienne Montgolfier invented the hot-air balloon."

1783 - Self-Winding Clock - "Benjamin Hanks patented the self-winding clock."

1784 - Bank of New York - "Bank of New York and Bank of Massachusetts both open. The Bank of New York is the oldest existing US bank [at the time of writing - 1996]."

1784 - Spanish Mississippi River - "Spain closes Mississippi River to American navigation."

1784 - Trivia / Native American Negotiations - "Congress orders the War Office to provide troops to assist the commissioners in their negotiations with the Indians."

1784 - Secret Societies Banned / Bavaria - "It was the Illuminist attempt to overthrow the Hapsburgs in 1784, exposed by police spies who had infiltrated the Order, which led to the Bavarian government banning all secret societies and driving the followers of Weishaupt underground."

1784 - Native American Indian Land Cessions - "Links to a history of Native American Indian land cessions [1784-1794] by territory and tribe." [Link: 1]

1784 - Safety Lock - "Joseph Bramah invents the safety lock."

1784 - Threshing Machine - "Andrew Meikle invents the threshing machine."

1785 - Cherokee Indian Treaty? - "Treaty of Hopewell with the Cherokee Indians."

1785 - Parachute - "Blanchard invents a working parachute."

1785 - Power Loom - "Edmund Cartwright invents the power loom."

1786 - U.S. Mint Act - "US Confederation Congress passes the Mint Act. The intention is to meet a currency shortage - but only a few tons of copper coins are minted."

1786 - Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom - "The Virginia House of Burgesses passed a statute, written by Thomas Jefferson in 1779 and sponsored by James Madison, declaring that no person should be discriminated against because of religious belief, or compelled to join or support any church. This statute helped shape the First Amendment of the United States Constitution."

1786 - Trivia / Native American Indian Affairs - "The U.S. Secretary of War is made responsible for Indian affairs."

1786 - Steamboat - "John Fitch invented a steamboat."

1787 - Shay's Rebellion / U.S.A. - February 4th, 1787 : "Shay's Rebellion, to aid the financial plight of farmers, failed, 1787." [Based on: The Old Farmer's Almanac (2006) by Robert B. Thomas, p. 103]

1787 - U.S. Constitution - May 25th, 1787: "The Constitutional Convention held in 1787 approved the Constitution of the United States of America." [Links: 1, 2, 3, 4]

*Trivia: "Among the men who drew up the Constitution of 1787, there were those who thought one should protect oneself against the financial drain of the international bankers. Therefore Article I, Sec. 8 of the Constitution reads: 'Congress shall have power . . . to coin money, regulate the value thereof...' " [Based on: article by Juri Lina, The Barnes Review, September/October 2004, p. 10]

1787 - The Northwest Ordinance - "While the Constitutional Convention debated a new government, Congress decided upon a plan for governing all western territories north of the Ohio River. The Northwest Ordinance provided for a plan of government, the creation of states, the acceptance of each new state as an equal of the original states, freedom of religion, right to a trial by jury, public support of education, and the prohibition of slavery. Arthur St. Clair was named first governor of the territory."

1787 - Final Draft / U.S. Constitution - "The final draft of the Constitution was sent to Congress on September 17th, 1787."

1787 - Religious Freedom? / U.S.A. - "The Constitution of the United States of America promises religious freedom to all individuals. France follows the American lead and provides equal rights to Jews."

*Commentary: "All individuals? Native Americans? African Americans?" - E.M.

1787 - Trivia / Native American Commerce - "The U.S. Constitution is given the power [1787-1789] to regulate commerce with foreign nations, among the states, and with Indian tribes."

1787 - Delaware - December 7th, 1787: "The 1st American state."

1787 - Astronomic Configuration - December 7th, 1787: "Sun [14 Sagittarius], Moon [15 Scorpio], Mercury [17 Sagittarius R], Venus [27  Sagittarius], Mars [26 Cancer R], Jupiter [22 Gemini R], Saturn [23 Aquarius], Uranus [29 Cancer], Neptune [20 Libra], Pluto [14 Aquarius]."

1787 - Pennsylvania - December 12th, 1787: "The 2nd American state."

1787 - New Jersey - December 18th, 1787: "The 3rd American state."

1787 - Federist Papers - "Federalist Papers published by Hamilton, Jay and Madison."

1788 - War / Ottoman Empire & Russia - "The Ottoman Empire declares war on Russia."

1788 - Georgia - January 2nd, 1788: "The 4th American state."

1788 - Connecticut - January 9th, 1788: "The 5th American state."

1788 - British Penal Colony / Australia  - January 26th, 1788: "[....] Governor Arthur Phillip sailed the Armed Tender 'Supply' into the bay on 18 January 1788. Two days later the remaining ships of the First Fleet had arrived to found the planned penal colony. Finding that the sandy infertile soil of the site in fact rendered it most unsuitable for settlement, Phillip decided instead to move to the excellent natural harbour of Port Jackson to the north. On the morning of 24 January the French exploratory expedition of Jean-François de La Pérouse was seen outside Botany Bay. On 26 January, the 'Supply' left the bay to move up to Port Jackson. It anchored in Sydney Cove and the British Flag 'Queen Ann' was hoisted on shore. On the afternoon of 26 January, the remaining ships of First Fleet arrived at Sydney Cove. The good supply of fresh water in the area led to the expansion of its population in the 19th century. [....]"

*Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Botany_Bay - [T.D. - 11/04/09]

1788 - Massachusetts - February 6th, 1788: "The 6th American state."

1788 - Maryland - April 28th, 1788: "The 7th American state."

1788 - South Carolinia - May 23rd, 1788: "The 8th American state."

1788 - New Hampshire - June 21st, 1788: "The 9th American state."

1788 - Ratification / United States Constitution - June 21st, 1788: "U.S. Constitution Ratified." [Link: 1]

1788 - Virginia - June 25th, 1788: "The 10th American state."

1788 - New York - July 26th, 1788: "The 11th American state."

1789 - U.S. President-Elect / George Washington - January 7th, 1789: "George Washington elected first U.S. president, 1789." [Based on: The Old Farmer's Almanac (2006) by Robert B. Thomas, p. 101]

1789 - 1st American President - April 30th, 1789: "The 1st American President, George Washington [Federist], begins his term."

*Trivia: "U.S. Constitution gives Congress power over money creation. The States are not allowed to coin money, issue bills of credit or make anything except gold and silver legal tender."

1789 - U.S.  Department of War - "Congress establishes a Department of War and formally grants the Secretary of War authority over Native American Indian affairs."

1789 - French Revolution - July 14th, 1789: "A Parisian mob rose, under the instigation of a journalist, Camille desmoulins, and stormed the Bastille, a government prison in Paris that was the very symbol of royal absolutism and despotism. They seized the prison, and this act is considered to represent the beginning of The French Revolution. On August 27th, a 'declaration of the rights of man,' embodying many liberal notions was propounded. And all over France, the peasants were revolting, and burning down the mansions of the noblemen who had ruled and tyrannized them. On October 5 and 6, a Paris mob marched to Versailles to bring Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette, and the royal children to Paris, where they could be with their people. The government never returned to Versailles. It had served as the royal seat for 107 years, three kings had spent part or all their reigns there, but from now on, it would be merly a museum piece."

*Trivia: "[....] Since the burning of the last witch, the great Revolution of France, so elaborately prepared by the league of the secret societies and their clever emissaries, had blown over Europe and awakened terror in the bosom of the clergy. It had, like a destroying hurricane, swept away in its course those best allies of the Church, the Roman Catholic aristocracy. A sure foundation was now laid for the right of individual opinion. The world was freed from ecclesiastical tyranny by opening an unobstructed path to Napoleon the Great, who had given the deathblow to the Inquisition. This great slaughter-house of the Christian Church - wherein she butchered, in the name of the Lamb, all the sheep arbitrarily declared scurvy - was in ruins, and she found herself left to her own responsibility and resources." [Based on: H.P. Blavatsky, Isis Unveiled, reprint (1998, Vol. 2) of the 1877 edition, p. 22]

1789 - Guillotine Invented - "The guillotine is invented.

1789 - 1-10 U.S. Amendments - September 25th, 1789: "1-10 U.S. Constitutional Amendments."  [Link: 1]

1789 - 1st Official Thanksgiving Day / U.S.A. - November 26th, 1789: "President George Washington  decreed the first official national Day of Thanksgiving - at the request of both houses of Congress - for Nov. 26, 1789. A national Thanksgiving day was observed yearly through Washington's presidency as well as through the presidency of John Adams who followed him. Later, it fell into disuse when Thomas Jefferson opposed it." [Based on: Editorial Page article by Ron Lutjens, p. B6, St. Louis Post-Dispatch]

1789 - North Carolinia - November 21st, 1789: "The 12th American state."

1790 - Rhode Island - May 29th, 1790: "The 13th American state."

1790 - French Democracy - "Within a year of the beginning of the French Revolution the land had been divided up between the peasants, slavery had been eradicated from the French colonies, price controls were introduced to protect the living standards of the poor and a democratic constitution was created. As with all radical political movements, those who advocated the replacement of the status quo were soon seduced by the power they had gained and became oppressors worse than the tyrants they replaced."

1790 - Status / Bavarian Illuminati - "In 1790 the Bavarian government decreed membership of the Illuminati to be a capital offense."

1790 - Outlawed / U.S. Slave Trade - "U.S. Slave trade outlawed in all states except Georgia and S. Carolina."

1791 - Vermont - March 4th, 1791: "The 14th American state."

1791 - U.S. Whiskey Tax - "U.S. Whiskey tax established."

1791 - Trivia / Polish Jews - "When Poland was annexed in the late 18th century, Polish Jews came under Russian rule. Catherine, empress of Russia, formed the Pale of Settlement in 1791, which restricted the places where Jews could live."

1791 - U.S. National Bank - "Bank of the United States receives a 21 year charter. Because of opposition to the bank and fears that it would contravene the Constitution, Washington is going to use his veto but is persuaded not to by Alexander Hamilton."

*Trivia: "Alexander Hamilton, a Freemason and secretary of finance in the government of George Washington, and also the agent of the international financiers, ordered the establishment of a privately owned union bank and the introduction of interest money. His argument was simple: 'A limited national debt would be a blessing to a nation.' He considered it dangerous for the government to issue its own currency.
   "Thus the United States got its first central bank in 1791. It was privately owned but had a contract running for only 20 years. It was not renewed when it expired. Andrew Jackson referred to the fact that the Constitution had given Congress the right to issue currency in sufficient quantity but not transfer this right to others.
   "The historian Richard Boesen disclosed that the Freemason Nathan Rothschild (1777-1836), who in 1806 had founded his bank in London and who partly financed the Napoleonic wars through the Bank of England, subsequently issued an ultimatum - either the contract be renewed or there would be war. Jackson called the Masonic bankers a bunch of thieves and promised to exterminate them. Rothschild gave his own orders: 'Teach these insolent Americans a lesson. Force them back to a colonial status.'
   "The British government began to limit the American sea trade and checked the American expansion in Canada. President James Madison in 1812 had no other choice but to let Congress declare war on England. The intention of the leader of the Freemasons, Rothschild, was to lay waste the country to such an extent that the Americans would be forced to seek financial aid. Great Britain, however, failed to regain the lost colonies, and the United States failed to occupy Canada." [Based on: article by Juri Lina, The Barnes Review, September/October 2004, p. 10]

1791 - Ratified / U.S. Amendments 1-10 - December 15th, 1791: "1-10 U.S. Constitutional Amendments Ratified. Amendments 1-10 include: 1) Freedom of Religion, Press, Expression; 2) Right to bear Arms; 3) Quartering of Soldiers; 4) Search and Seizure; 5) Trial and Punishment, Compensation for Takings; 6) Right to speedy trial, confrontation of witnesses; 7) Trial by jury in civil cases; 8) Cruel and Unusual punishment; 9) Construction of Constitution; 10) Powers of the States and People." [Link: 1]

*Trivia: "The Bill of Rights is the common name for Amendments 1 through 9."

1791 - Bicycles - "Early bicycles invented in Scotland."

1791 - Gas Turbine - "John Barber invents the gas turbine."

1792 - Configuration - Uranus-Pluto [Leo/Aquarius] opposition [1792-1794]. Uranus-Pluto conjunctions and oppositions might bring sudden and radical changes, like a cathartic diarrhoea, yet their full integration takes ages."

1792 - Founded / New York Stock Exchange - May 17th, 1792: "The origin of the NYSE can be traced to May 17, 1792, when the Buttonwood Agreement was signed by 24 stock brokers outside of 68 Wall Street in New York under a buttonwood tree on Wall Street. On March 8, 1817, the organization drafted a constitution and renamed itself the 'New York Stock & Exchange Board'. Anthony Stockholm was elected the Exchange's first president (for other presidents, see List of presidents of the New York Stock Exchange). [....]"

*Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_York_Stock_Exchange

*Trivia: May 17th, 1792: "Sun [26 Taurus], Moon [11 Aries], Mercury [24 Taurus R.], Venus [4 Taurus], Mars [18 Virgo], Jupiter [23 Libra R.], Saturn [26 Aries], Uranus [15 Leo], Neptune [27 Libra R.], Pluto [23 Aquarius]." [Based on: http://www.astro.com/swisseph/ae/1700/ae_1792.pdf]

1792 - Volcanic Eruption / Mt. Unzen, Japan - "Volcanic eruption date(s): May 21st, 1792. Number of recorded deaths: 14,500." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 491]

1792 - Kentucky - June 1st, 1792: "The 15th American state."

1792 - Ambulance - "The first ambulance."

1792 - Gas Lighting - "William Murdoch invented gas lighting."

1793 - Atlantis Trivia - 1793: "[....] Plato described Atlantis in two of his dialogues, the Timaeus and Critias, placing it 'west of the straits which you call the pillars of Hercules', i.e. in the Atlantic Ocean. Thomas Taylor, who was responsible for bringing these two dialogues into what he called a 'modern' tongue, was himself very appreciative of the mystical and occult side of Plato's writings. Blavatsky said that Jowett knew more Greek but Thomas Taylor knew more Plato. Finally in 1793 Thomas Taylor brought the substance of these dialogues into English. Taylor writes in his introduction: [NP] It is a singular circumstance, that though there is not, perhaps, any thing among the writings of the ancients which has more generally attracted the attention of the learned in every age than the Atlantic history of Plato, yet no more than one single passage of about twenty or thirty lines has, prior to my translation of the Timaeus, appeared in any modern language. (Thomas Taylor, Introduction to Critias, published along with Timaeus and other dialogues in 1793. The Critias was not translated by Taylor until 1804.) [....]"

[Based on: http://www.blavatsky.net/science/atlantis/articles/background.htm]

1793 - Bank Indemnity Act / England - "The Bank Indemnity Act. This act gives the directors of the Bank of England legal immunity for loans to the government. This enables the British government to borrow much larger sums for the war against France."

1794 - U.S. Mint - "US Mint Starts Operations. The Mint in Philadelphia is the first purpose-built structure authorized by the United States." [Link: 1]

1794 - Cesarean Operation / U.S.A. - January 14th, 1794: "First successful cesarean operation in U.S., 1794." [Based on: The Old Farmer's Almanac (2006) by Robert B. Thomas, p. 101]

1794 - Passed / 11th U.S. Amendment - March 4th, 1794: "11th U.S. Constitutional Amendment ['Judicial Limits'] passed." [Link: 1]

1794 - Cotton Gin - "Eli Whitney patented the cotton gin."

1795 - Ratification / 11th U.S. Amendment - February 7th, 1795: "11th U.S. Constitutional Amendment ['Judicial Limits'] ratified." [Link: 1]

1795 - Preserving Jar - "Francois Appert invented the preserving jar for food."

1796 - Tennesse - June 1st, 1796: "The 16th American state."

1796 - "Maha Nirvana Tantra" - "[....] Between 1796 and 1797 the trio of Carey, Vidyavagish and Roy fabricated a spurious religious work known as the 'Maha Nirvana Tantra' (or "Book of the Great Liberation")[8] and attempted to portray it as an ancient religious text to 'the One True God', which was actually the Holy Spirit of Christianity masquerading as Brahma. The document's judicial sections were used in the law courts of the English Settlement in Bengal as Hindu Law for adjudicating upon property disputes of the zamindari. However, British magistrates and collectors[who?] began to suspect it as a forgery; its usage, as well as the reliance on pundits as sources of Hindu Law, was quickly deprecated. Vidyavagish has a brief falling out with Carey and separated from the group but maintained ties to Ram Mohan Roy.[9] The Maha Nirvana Tantra's significance for Brahmoism lay in the wealth that accumulated to Rammohan Roy and Dwarkanath Tagore by its judicial use, and not due to any religious wisdom within. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ram_Mohan_Roy]

1796 - Fatality / Catherine the Great, Russia - "Empress Catherine died of a heart attack and Paul became Czar."

1797 - Earthquake / Quito, Ecuador - February 4th, 1797: "Earthquake location: Quito, Ecuador. Earthquake magnitude: N/A. Number of recorded fatalities: 41,000."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 208]

1797 - Pluto / Pisces - April 12th, 1797: Pluto at 0 degrees Pisces, July 21st, R. ...

*Link: http://www.astro.com/swisseph/ae/1700/ae_1797.pdf

1797 - Czar Paul I / Russia - "Catherine's son Paul is crowned Paul I. Paul was not a well-liked person from early in his life, and he didn't care. He set about to change everything about Russia including several ideals handed down by Peter the Great. This was a mistake and he was killed by his own guards in 1801. Alexander I, his son, took over next."

1797 - U.S. President John Adams - March 4th, 1797: "The 2nd American President, John Adams [Federist], begins his term."

1798 - Pluto / Pisces - February 18th, 1798: Pluto at 0 degrees Pisces, September 28th, R.; December 27th, D. ...

*Link: http://www.astro.com/swisseph/ae/1700/ae_1798.pdf

1798 - Alien and Seditions Acts - "Naturalization Act; Alien and Seditions Acts."

*Trivia: "[....] Wilson [U.S. President Woodrow Wilson], Congress and the courts supported the Sedition Act of 1918, similar in spirit to the discredited Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798. The 1918 law made it illegal to 'utter, print, write or publish any disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language about' the government, the Constitution, the American flag or 'the uniform of the Army or Navy of the United States.' The law was repealed three years later. President Harry Truman suffered a rare wartime rebuke in 1952, when the Supreme Court blocked the plans for a federal takeover of the steel industry in the Korean War. Truman wanted to avert a strike that he feared would disrupt war supplies. But the court concluded that he needed congressional approval. [....]" [Based on: Knight Ridder Newspapers article (Presidential powers test is long-standing battle), p. A3, S.L.P.D., 12/22/05]

1798 - Rothschild Expansion / Britain - "The Rothschilds expand into Britain. The Rothschilds banking house originated in medieval Frankfurt on Main. In 1798 Nathan Rothschild is sent to Manchester to deal in the cotton industry. His banking operations grow rapidly during the Napoleonic Wars, making full use of his family's international network of couriers." [Link: 1]

1798 - Naval War  / U.S. & France - "Undeclared naval war with France."

1798 - Bank of M.M. Warburg & Co. - "The man who played a very important role in providing the United States again with a central bank was Paul Warburg. He was a German immigrant, arriving in America together with his brother Felix. Both brothers became partners in the banking house Kuhn, Loeb & Co, led by the Illuminatus Jacob Schiff, who also belonged to B'nai B'rith. The Warburgs were supported by Nelson Aldrich (later to become grandfather to Nelson and David Rockefeller), known as the handyman in the Senate of John Pierpoint Morgan. The family of (Samuel Moses) Del Branco in 1559 moved from Italy to Germany taking the name Warburg. In 1798 the family founded the bank of M.M. Warburg & Co." [Based on: article by Juri Lina, The Barnes Review, September/October 2004, p. 11]

1799 - Sikh Empire / India - "Sikh Empire 1799–1849"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_India]

1799 - Income Tax  / United States - William Pitt introduces income tax. This new tax raises considerable sums. During the war the British prime minister also increases revenue by broadening the range of indirect taxes as much as possible." [Link: 1]

1799 - Rosetta Stone - "The Rosetta Stone, a black basalt slab bearing an inscription that was the key to the deciphering of Egyptian hieroglyphics and thus to the foundation of modern Egyptology, was unearthed in July 1799 by Napoleon's army in Rosetta [Rashid], Egypt, which is located in the western delta of the Nile." [Link: 1]

1799 - Battery - "Battery invented by Alessandro Volta."

1799 - Sheet Paper - "Louis Robert invents the Fourdrinier Machine for sheet paper making."

18th Century - Council of Light - "[....] The idea of a secret organization of enlightened mystics, guiding the spiritual development of the human race, was pioneered in the late eighteenth century by Karl von Eckartshausen in his book The Cloud upon the Sanctuary; Eckartshausen called this body of mystics, who remained active after their physical deaths on earth, the Council of Light.[2][3] Eckartshausen's proposed communion of living and dead mystics, in turn, drew partially on Christian ideas such as the Communion of the Saints, and partially on previously circulating European ideas about secret societies of enlightened, mystical, or magic adepts typified by the Rosicrucians and the Illuminati.[4] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_White_Brotherhood]

Earthquake Trivia / 18th Century - "Number of notable earthquakes this century: at least 8. Number of earthquake deaths this century: 878,000." [E.M.]

19th Century A.D.

Page last updated 02/05/13