1st Century A.D. -  Timecapsule Timeline  

    For centuries scholars have been playing with history like school children working on a complicated puzzle. In some places the "puzzle pieces" appear out of place, twisted, or more or less contrasted with reality. As such, history portrays a work of art beginning like a hallway of children's drawings evolving toward higher grades. It reflects a collection of attitudes ranging from free imagination to stolid ignorance.
   The following timeline offers a "framework" of world history with the objective of isolating a generic outline of prevalent information to fashion an adequate "launchpad" for future discovery. My general tendency when adding data is to believe that more is better. However, after initial stages of edification I should like to "distill" the facts and "jetison" the garbage for each entry. For the time being, however, I can admit but a crude image of metamorphosis to illustrate the facts about world history - a literal cesspool of human preoccupation. Be that as it may, below you will find a "crucible" of literary artifacts "excavated" from around the world. Colored highlights are used to catagorize data and facilitate a quicker review of events. - E.M.
Historical Summary: 1 A.D. - Present   /  Historical Summary: 500-year Neptune / Pluto Cycles

*Color Code Index

[Note: THIS COLOR INDICATES: "Highly Speculative, Theoretical, and/or Questionable Data"]

1 A.D. - Map of Europe - "Map of Europe, 1 A.D."

1 A.D.  - Birth? / Jesus -  "753 A.U.C. became A.D. 1 [where A.D. stands for Anno Domini, which is Latin for, 'in the year of the Lord']. Earlier dates are listed as 'B.C.' [Before Christ], so that Rome was founded in 753 B.C. According to the Bible, Jesus was born when Herod I ruled over Judea, but Herod I, we are certain, from historical records of the time, died in 749 A.U.C. Jesus had to be born no later than that year, which is 4 B.C. of the Christian Era." [Based on: Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World]  

"We now know, from both historical and astronomical observations, that Jesus 'of Nazareth' was actually born in 7 B.C. The usual explanation for this discrepancy is that a major miscalculation crept into the record-keeping during the early Christian era."   *Further Reading ...

1 A.D. - Trivia / Mithraism -

According to Persian mythology, Mithras was born of a virgin given the title 'Mother of God'. The name Mithras was the Persian word for 'contract.' Mithras was also known throughout Europe and Asia by the names Mithra, Mitra, Meitros, Mihr, Mehr, and Meher. The veneration of this God began about 4,000 years ago in Persia, where it was soon imbedded with Babylonian doctrines.

Mithraism apparently originated in the Eastern Mediterranean around the first or second centuries BC. It was practiced in the Roman Empire since the first century BC, and reached its apogee around the third through fourth centuries AD, when it was very popular among the Roman soldiers. Mithraism disappeared from overt practice after the Theodosian decree of AD 391 banned all pagan rites, and it apparently became extinct thereafter.


Roman worship of Mithras began sometime during the early Roman empire, perhaps during the late first century of the Common Era (hereafter CE), and flourished from the second through the fourth century BCE. during which it came under the influence of Greek and Roman mythologies. The Mithraic cult maintained secrecy. Its teaching were only reveled to initiates.


In every Mithraic temple, the place of honor was occupied by a representation of Mithras killing a sacred bull, called a tauroctony. It has been more recently proposed that the tauroctony is a symbolic representation of the constellations rather than an originally Iranian animal sacrifice scene (Ulansey, 1991).


The identification of an "age" with a particular zodiac constellation is based on the sun's position during the vernal equinox. Before 2000 BC, the Sun could have been seen against the stars of the constellation of Taurus at the time of vernal equinox [had there been an eclipse]. Due to the precession of the equinoxes, on average every 2,160 years the Sun appears against the stars of a new constellation at vernal equinox. The current astrological age started when the equinox precessed into the constellation of Pisces, in about the year 150 BC, with the "Age of Aquarius" starting in AD 2600.


[Based on: http://www.crystalinks.com/mithra.html]

1 A.D. - Birth? / Apollonius of Tyana -

Apollonius of Tyana lived in the first century of the Christian era, born about 1 CE and perhaps reaching the age of 100. He was a Neo-Pythagorean philosopher and teacher of Greek origin. His teaching influenced both scientific thought and occultism for centuries after his death. [....]

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollonius_of_Tyana]


The Neo-Pythagorean school flourished in Alexandria during the first century of the Christian Era. Only two names stand out in connection with it - Apollonius of Tyana and Moderatus of Gades. Neo-Pythagoreanism is a link between the older pagan philosophies and Neo-Platonism. Like the former, it contained many exact elements of thought derived from Pythagoras and Plato; like the latter, it emphasized metaphysical speculation and ascetic habits. A striking similarity has been observed by several authors between Neo-Pythagoreanism and the doctrines of the Essenes. Special emphasis was laid upon the mystery of numbers, and it is possible that the Neo-Pythagoreans had a far wider knowledge of the true teachings of Pythagoras than is available today. Even in the first century Pythagoras was regarded more as a god than a man, and the revival of his philosophy was resorted to apparently in the hope that his name would stimulate interest in the deeper systems of learning. But Greek philosophy had passed the zenith of its splendor; the mass of humanity was awakening to the importance of physical life and physical phenomena. The emphasis upon earthly affairs which began to assert itself later reached maturity of expression in twentieth century materialism and commercialism, even though Neo-Platonism was to intervene and many centuries pass before this emphasis took definite form. [....]

[Based on: http://www.sacred-texts.com/eso/sta/sta03.htm]

2  - "Metamorphosis" / Ovid? - "Ovid wrote [2-8 CE] the 'Metamorphosis.' It was an epic poem that begins with the creation of the world and ends with the rise of Julius Caesar. Rolfe Humphries made a translation in 1955 that became a standard. A 1997 translation by Ted Hughes, 'Tales From Ovid,' retold 24 of the original 250 stories."

3 - Birth / Mary Magdalene? - "The first mention of Mary in the New Testament is actually the story of how she was raised from death as Jairus's daughter in AD 17. Being raised [symbolically, from eternal darkness] related either to elevation of status within the Way, or as we have seen, to a release from spiritual death by excommunication. However, since women were not excommunicated, Mary's event was plainly an initiatory raising. First raisings for boys were at the age of twelve and for girls at fourteen. Given that Mary was raised in AD 17, this means that she was born in AD 3 and was therefore nine years younger than Jesus, making her twenty-seven when she entered her marital contract in AD 30." [Based on: Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, Laurence Gardner, p. 98]

6 - Trivia / Jonathan Ananus - "The man known to Jesus as Thunder was Jonathan Annas, the son of Ananus, the Sadducee High Priest from AD 6 to 15. Jonathan [meaning Jehovah gave] was alternatively called Nathanael [Gift of God], being essentially the same name. His counterpart and political rival, known as Lightning, was Simon Magus [also called Zebedee or Zebadiah, meaning Jehovah hath given], the influential head of the Samaritan Magi. He is better known in the Gospels as Simon the Canaanite or Simon Zelotes. Simon Magus [or Zebedee] was head of the West Manasseh Magi, a priestly caste of Samaritan philosophers who supported the legitimacy of Jesus. It was their ambassadors [the Magi, or wise men] who honored the baby Jesus at Bethlehem. Simon was a master showman and manuscripts of his life deal with matters of cosmology, natural magnetism, levitation, and psychokinesis. He was a confirmed advocate of war with Rome and was accordingly known as Simon Kananites [Greek: the 'fanatic']. This was later mistranslated as Simon the Canaanite." [Based on: Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, Laurence Gardner]

9 - Illyrian Subjugation / Emperor Tiberius - "Emperor Tiberius of Rome subjugated the Illyrians and divided present day Albania between Dalmatia, Epirus, and Macedonia."

9 - Roman Ambush / Arminius - "In the Teutoberg forest, the Germans under the leadership of Hermann [18 B.C.-19], or 'Arminius', in Latin, ambushed three Roman legions under Publius Quintilius Varus [d.9] in 9, and wiped them out." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World]

10 - Trivia / King Cymbeline? - "The first Pendragon [Head Dragon] of the Britannic Isle [Pen Draco Insularis] was King Cymbeline of the House of Camulot [camu-lot meaning curved light, whence Camelot], who was installed in about AD 10. The British Pendragons were not father-to-son successors in a particular descent, but were individually elected from reigning family branches by a druidic council of elders to be the overall Kings of Kings." [Based on: Laurence Gardner, Realm Of The Ring Lords]

13  - Roman Germany? - November 16th, 13 AD: "Tiberius made his triumphant procession through Rome after the siege of Germany."

14  - Roman Emperor / Tiberius - August 19th, 14 A.D.

Tiberius Caesar Augustus, born Tiberius Claudius Nero (November 16, 42 BC – March 16 AD 37), was the second Roman Emperor, from the death of Augustus in AD 14 until his own death in 37. Tiberius was by birth a Claudian, son of Tiberius Nero and Livia. His mother divorced his father and remarried to Augustus in 39 BC. Tiberius would later marry Augustus' daughter (from an earlier marriage) and even later be adopted by Augustus and by this act he became a Julian. The subsequent emperors after Tiberius would continue this blended dynasty of both families for the next forty years; historians have named it the Julio-Claudian dynasty.


[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tiberius]

14 - Total Lunar Eclipse - "September 27th, 14 A.D."

14 - German Raid / Germanicus - "In 14, Augustus was succeeded by his stepson, Tiberius [42 B.C.-37]. Tiberius did attempt to punish the Germans, at least. His nephew, Germanicus [15 B.C.-19], was in Germany, and, beginning in 14, he carried out a raid that defeated Hermann and recovered the battleflags that had been lost by Varus." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World]

17  - Celebrated Victory / Germanicus - May 26th, 17 AD: "Germanicus of Rome celebrated a victory over the Germans."

19 - Fatility / Germanicus - October 10th, 17 AD: "Julius Caesar Germanicus [33], Roman commandant of Rijnleger and the best loved of Roman princes, died of poisoning. On his deathbed he accused Piso, the governor of Syria, of poisoning him."

22 - Configuration - "Grand Cross. These are rare, requiring a fortuitous constellation of four planets in four squares [and two oppositions] to each other. It symbolises a crunch period, where times can be hard and ruthless for some and a breakthrough and great achievement for others. Most of the instances [not including those involving the inner planets] involve two of the outermost planets being squared up with Jupiter and Saturn."

22 - Configuration - "Uranus-Neptune [Cancer/Capricorn] opposition [22-26]."

23  - Apathy / Emperor Tiberius - "Tiberius lost his son Drusus, and from then on seems to have lost interest in the Empire and occupied himself with pleasure."

23 - Fatility / Joseph - "Reported date for the death of Joseph, the father of Jesus."

26 - Pluto in Sagittarius - December 2nd, 26: "Estimated date when Pluto entered [0 degrees] Sagittarius."

26 - John the Baptist - "Through long prevailing custom, the Davidic kings were allied to the dynastic Zadokite priests and the prevailing  Zadok was Jesus's own kinsman, John the Baptist. John the Baptist had risen to prominence in AD 26 upon the arrival of the Roman governor, Pontius Pilate. John the Baptist was very much of the Hebrew persuasion, but Jesus was a Hellenist. John therefore supported James [Jesus's brother], even though he acknowledged Jesus as legitimate and baptised him in the Jordan." [Based on: Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, Laurence Gardner]

27 - Roman Emperor Tiberius / Capri - "Tiberius moved [27-37 CE] to the isle of Capri and never returned to Rome."

29 - Disciples Recruited - "The first disciples were recruited in March AD 29. In The Antiquities of the Jews, Flavius Josephus of Galilee [born AD 37] indicates that Jesus began his ministry in the fifteenth year of the rule of Tiberius Caesar - that is AD 29. John the Baptist was not discredited until a year later, in March AD 30 [as confirmed by John 3:24]. He was executed by Herod the Great's successor, Herod-Antipas of Galilee, in September AD 31." [Based on: Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, Laurence Gardner]

29 - Solar Eclipse - "November 24th"

30 - Crucifixion? / Jesus - April 30th, 30 AD: "A popular traditional date for the crucifixion of Jesus. Other dates attributed to the death of Jesus include: April 7th, 30 A.D.; April 3rd, 33 A.D."

30 - 1st "Pope" - "Pope ["Saint"] Peter [Simon Peter]. Died 64?, 67? A.D."  *Further Reading ...

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_popes#Began_AD_30-249

30 - Cana Wedding Feast? - June 30 AD: "The betrothal communion [6 June AD 30] took place three months before Mary first annointed Jesus's feet at Simon's house [3 September AD 30]. The rules were strictly defined: only as Jesus's bride would Mary have been permitted to perform this act. With her first Marriage duly completed in the September, she would also have wept for her husband [as in Luke 7:38] before they were parted for their statutory separation. Prior to this, as a betrothed almah, she would have been classified as a sinner and ranked as a crippled woman. The couple would then not have come together for any physical union until the following December." [Based on: Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, Laurence Gardner]
   "One of the reasons why there is no obvious mention of Jesus's marital status in the New Testament is that the evidence was deliberately removed by Church decree." [Based on: Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, Laurence Gardner]

30 - "First Marriage"? / Jesus - September 30 AD: "In The Song of Solomon [1:12] is the bridal refrain, 'While the king sitteth at the table, my spikenard sendeth forth the smell thereof'. Not only did Mary annoint Jesus's head at Simon's house [Matthew 26:6-7 and Mark 14:3], but she also annointed his feet and wiped them afterwards with her hair in March AD 33. Two and a half years earlier, in September AD 30, she had performed this same ritual three months after the Cana wedding feast. On both occasions the anointing was carried out while Jesus was seated at the table [as defined in The Song of Solomon]. This was an allusion to the ancient rite by which a royal bride prepared her bridegroom's table. To perform the rite with spikenard was the express priviledge of a Messianic bride and was performed solely at the First and Second Marriage ceremonies. Only as the wife of Jesus and as a priestess in her own right could Mary have anointed both his head and his feet with the sacred ointment." [Based on: Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, Laurence Gardner, p. 54]
   "Mary's full title was Sister Miriam Magdala or, as she is better known, Mary Magdalene. Gregory I, Bishop of Rome 590-604, and St. Bernard, the Cistercian Abbot of Clairvaux 1090-1135, both confirmed that Mary of Bethany was synonymous with Mary Magdalene." [Based on: Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, Laurence Gardner]

31  - Fatility / Sejanus - September 18th, 31 AD: "Sejanus, the Roman head of the praetorian guard, was executed."

31 - Fatality / John the Baptist - "Reported date [September AD 31] when John the Baptist was executed."

32 - Trivia / Simon Zelotes -  "In AD 32 the Father was Simon Zelotes, and his appointed Son was his immediate lieutenant Judas Sicariote. [John 13:2 gives Judas's status as Simon's son, but their exact relationship and its priestly significance are not made clear.]" [Based on: Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, Laurence Gardner]
   "In AD 32, Simon Zelotes fell foul of the authorities, having led an unsuccessful revolt against the Governor of Judaea, Pontius Pilate. The reason for the revolt was that Pilate had been using public funds to have  his personal water supply improved. A formal complaint was lodged against him in court, whereupon Pilate's soldiers murdered the known complainants. Armed insurrection immediately ensued, led by the prominent Zealots, Simon Zelotes, Judas Sicariote and Thaddaeus. Perhaps inevitably, the revolt failed and Simon was excommunicated by edict of Herod-Agrippa. Simon's political opponent, Jonathan Annas, was thus enabled to accede to the supreme office of the Father." [Based on: Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, Laurence Gardner]

32 - Conception? / Mary Magdalene - "Reported date [December AD 32] when Mary Magdalene conceived her first child; believed to be a girl named Tamar."

33 - Anointed? / Jesus - March 33 AD: "Jesus and his disciples were in Bethany during the week before Passover, March AD 33. Firstly [as related in Matthew 26:6-7 and Mark 14:3], Jesus was anointed by Mary of Bethany, who poured a precious box of spikenard over his head. A suitable beast of burden was found and, in accordance with Zechariah's prophecy, Jesus rode into Jerusalem on a donkey. It has long been popularly supposed that this was a gesture of abject humility - and so it was- but it was also much more than that. From the time of King Solomon, to the Jewish deportation to Babylon following the fall of Jerusalem in 586 BC, the Davidic kings had all ridden to their installations on mules. The custom was representative of the monarch's accessibility to the lowliest of his subjects - an example, yet again, of the messianic code of service." [Based on: Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, Laurence Gardner]
   "On the second occasion that Jesus was anointed with spikenard, Judas Sicariote declared his dissatisfaction at the way things were going. He stated his opposition [John 12:4-5] and thus paved the way for his betrayal of Jesus. Following the failed revolt by the Zealots against Pilate, Judas had become a fugitive. Jesus was of little political use to him, for he carried no influence with the Sanhedrin Council, so Judas threw in his lot with Jesus's uncontroversial brother James, who was actually a member of that Council. Consequently, Judas not only had no interest in seeing Jesus anointed as a Messiah, but his new allegiance to James caused him to resent it once it had happened. Jesus nevertheless, was adamant about the significance of his anointing by Mary [Mark 14:9]: 'Verily I say unto you, Wheresoever this gospel shall be preached throughout the whole world, this also that she hath done shall be spoken of for a memorial to her'."
[Based on: Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, Laurence Gardner]
"Apart from the fact that Jesus was said to love Mary Magdalene, there is not much in the Gospels to indicate their intimate closeness until Mary appears with Jesus's mother and Salome [the consort of Simon Zelotes] at the Crucifixion. Not so, however, in the Nag Hammadi Gospel of Philip, where the relationship between Jesus and Mary is openly discussed: And the companion of the savior is Mary Magdalene. But Christ loved her more than all disciples, and used to kiss her often on the mouth. The rest of the disciples were offended by it and expressed disapproval. They said unto him, Why do you love her more than all of us? The savior answered and said to them, Why do I not love you like her?  ... Great is the mystery of marriage, for without it the world would not have existed. Now the existence of the world depends on man, and the existence of man on marriage." [Based on: Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, Laurence Gardner, p. 57]
We know from the Gospel chronology that the Bethany Second-Marriage anointing of Jesus by Mary Magdalene was in the week before the crucifixion. And we know that at that stage Mary was three-months pregnant and therefore should have given birth in the following September." [Based on: Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, Laurence Gardner]

33 - Solar Eclipse - "March 19th"

33 - Arrest ? / Jesus - "Estimated date when Jesus was arrested at Gethsemane."

33 - Vernal Equinox - "March 20, AD 33"

33 - Crucifixion?  / Jesus - "Estimated date [Friday, March 20th, 33 A.D.] when Jesus and two other men were led to be crucified."

*Trivia:  "The Islamic Koran [chapter 4, entitled Women] specifies that Jesus did not die on the cross, stating: 'Yet they slew him not, neither crucified him, but he was represented by one in his likeness. [....] They did not really kill him'. Also the 2nd-century historian, Basilides of Alexandrea, wrote that the crucifixion was stage-managed [with Simon the Cyrene used as a substitute], while the Gnostic leader Mani [born near Baghdad in AD 214], made precisely the same assertion. In the event, however, it would seem that Simon the Cyrene was a substitute for Simon Zelotes, not for Jesus." [Based on: Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, Laurence Gardner]

33 - Partial Lunar Eclipse - "April 3rd"

33 - Birth / Tamar? - September 33 AD: "In the contemporary setting of Jesus's own time, 15 September AD 33 [six months after the Crucifixion] was his thirty-ninth official birthday and in that month a daughter was born to Mary Magdalene. She was named Tamar [Palm tree - assimilated in Greek to the name Damaris], a traditional Davidic family name. Jesus was then required to enter a fully celibate state for three years until the 'times of restitution', as detailed in Acts 3:20-21: 'And he shall send Jesus Christ, which before was preached unto you: Whom the heaven must receive until the times of restitution of all things, which God hath spoken by the mouth of all his holy prophets since the world began.' This month of September AD 33 coincided with Simon Zelotes being formally re-established as the Father of the Community, at which juncture Jesus was finally admitted to the priesthood - a ritual in which he 'ascended into heaven'. " [Based on: Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, Laurence Gardner]

35 - St. James / Glastonbury - "Reported date when St. James [Joseph of Arimathea] preached the Gospel at Glastonbury."

36 - Meteor Shower - "Ancient Chinese records recorded an August meteor shower that was later assumed to be the Perseids. The meteorites originated when the Swift-Tuttle comet passed so close to the sun that its ice head melted and left a stream of pea-sized particles."

37 - Birth / Jesus Junior? - "As required by Messianic rules, the birth took place in AD 37 - the year after Jesus returned to his marriage at the 'time of restitution'. Following the birth of a son, however, Jesus was now destined for no less than six more years of monastic celibacy." [Based on: Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, Laurence Gardner, p. 88]

37  - Fatality / Emperor Tiberius - March 16th, 37 AD: "On a trip to the Italian mainland from his home on Capreae, the emperor Tiberius died on the Bay of Naples."

37 - Roman Emperor / Gaius Caligula - March 18th, 37: "The year 37 AD was one of administrative change throughout the Roman Empire, and especially in Palestine. Emperor Tiberius had died and the new Emperor, Gaius Caligula, sacked Pontius Pilate to install his own man, Felix, as Governor in Judaea. Also ousted from their positions were Joseph Caiaphas the High Priest, and Simon Zelotes the Father. Theopilus, the brother of Jonathan Annas, took over as High Priest, and a whole new administration was in place - more answerable to Rome than any before." [Based on: Laurence Gardner]

*Trivia: "Caligula was Tiberius' grandson. He ruled for only four years before being assassinated."
*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Roman_Emperors

40 - Saul of Tarsus - "In AD 40 Jesus was in Damascus, where the leading Jews attended a conference to discuss their position in relation to Rome. Just as Jesus knew that the Jews could never defeat Rome while divided from the Gentiles, Saul of Tarsus was equally sure that the association with Gentiles represented a weakness that left the Jews vulernable and exposed. Paul was particularly incensed when a statue of Caligula was set up within the Temple of Jerusalem - an outrage for which he put the blame squarely on Jesus and the Hellinists, whom he regarded as having split the Jewish nation. He to made his way to Damascus to state his case.
   "The account in Acts suggests that Saul went to Damascus, Syria, with a mandate from the High Priest in Jerusalem, but that cannot have been the case. The Jewish Sanhedrin had no juristiction whatever in Syria. It is much more likely that Saul, who was attached to the House of Herod, was in fact operating for the Roman administration in an attempt to suppress the Nazarenes. However, before Saul had a chance to make his presence felt at the conference, Jesus confronted him in the monastery buildings. When Saul entered at noon, the sun was at its height immediately above the vestry skylight, and Jesus was there, ready to face his accuser. Then having listened to Jesus's persuasive sermon, Saul realized that he had hitherto been blinded by sectarian dogma. [Acts 9:8]. 'Suddenly there shined round about him a light from heaven: And he fell to the earth, and heard a voice saying unto him, Saul why persecutest thou me?' [Acts 9:3-4].
   "Jesus subsequently instructed the disciple Ananias to further enlighten Saul, but Ananias hesitated, believing Saul to be an enemy agent: 'Lord, I have heard by many of this man, how much evil he hath done to thy saints at Jerusalem' [Acts 9:13]. Nonetheless, the disciple obeyed, saying 'Brother Saul, the Lord, even Jesus, that appeared unto thee in the way as thou camest, hath sent me, that thou mightest receive thy sight.' [Acts 9:17].
   "The use in the above passages of the words 'sight' and 'the way' are again cryptic for, as previously related, the doctrinal theme of the Community was called the Way. After a course of instruction on Hellinistic thinking, Saul was initiated so that he could clearly see the path to salvation in unity with the Gentiles: 'There fell from his eyes as it had been scales: and he received sight forthwith, and arose, and was baptized' [Acts 9:18]." [Based on: Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, Laurence Gardner, pp. 89-90]

9. Baktun 8. Baktun of the Lords of the Red and Black. A.D. 41-435.

Completion of Pyramid Center of Teotihuacan, consolidation of Mesoamerican cultural regime, Lords of Red and Black, first teachings of Quetzalcoatl; Moche, Nazca, and Tiahuanaco in Andes; Easter Island; emergence of the West African kingdoms; expansion and collapse of Roman Empire, rise of Christianity; collapse of Han Dynasty, spread of Buddhism in China, Southeast Asia.

[Based on: The Mayan Factor / Path Beyond Technology, by Jose Arguelles, Copyright 1939-, 1987, p. 115]

41  - Fatality / Emperor Caligula - January 24th, 41 AD: "Shortly after declaring himself a god, Gaius Caligula Germanicus, emperor from 37-41, was assassinated by two Praetorian tribunes."

41 - Roman Emperor / Claudius - January 24th, 41: "Caligula's nephew Claudius became Roman Emperor and ruled from 41-54 A.D."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Roman_Emperors

41 - King Herod Agrippa I / Judea - "Herod Agrippa I [10 B.C. - 44], a grandson of Herod I, was a friend of the Roman Emperor, Caligula. He received a high position in Judea in 37 and was eventually made king in 41. A tactful and capable man, he managed to placate both the Jews and the Romans. Had he lived a full life, he might have brought on an era of peace and saved Judea. However, he died, quite suddenly, in 44, and the chance passed." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World]

42 - Pluto in Capricorn - January 6th, 42: "Estimated date when Pluto entered [0 degrees] Capricorn."

43 - Paul the Apostle - "By AD 43 Saul was a fervent evangelist, well enough known under his new name, Paul, to be now associated in the popular mind with Peter. However a much more insidious problem remained. His conversion had been so traumatic, his change of heart so far-reaching, that Paul regarded Jesus not as an earthly Messiah with an inspiring social message, but as the manifest Son of God - a heavenly power-lord." [Based on: Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, Laurence Gardner, p. 90]


   "Through Paul's imaginitive teaching, a whole new concept of Jesus arose. No longer was he simply the long-awaited Anointed One, the Messiah who would reinstate the Davidic line and free the Jews from the oppression in Palestine. He was now the heavenly Savior of the World! ... the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of every creature: For by him were all things created, that are in heaven, and that are in earth, visible and invisible. [....] And he is the head of the body, the church ... that in all things he might have preeminence. For it pleased the Father that in him should all fullness dwell [Colossians 1:15-19]." [Based on: Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, Laurence Gardner, p. 91]

43 - Roman Britian? -  "A Britonic chieftain in southern England who maintained friendly relations with Rome was Cunobelinus [d.43], who was Shakespeare's Cymbeline. The death of Cunobelinus was followed by tribal rivalries, and the Romans took advantage of that. Immediately after Cunobelinus' death, a Roman general, Aulus Plautius, and 40,000 men invaded the island. It was not an easy conquest, however. One of Cunobelinus' sons, Caratacus [also called Caractacus and Caradoc], fought on resolutely and was not defeated and captured till 51." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World

43 - Trivia / Jesus and Mary - "Jesus and Mary once more resumed their married state in December AD 43, six years after the birth of their son." [Based on: Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, Laurence Gardner, p. 93]

44 - Fatality / James Boanerges - "James Boanerges was executed by Herod of Chalcis in AD 44 [Acts 12:1-2]." [Based on: Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, Laurence Gardner, p. 93]

44 - Birth / Joseph? - "... Mary gave birth to her second son in Provence and there is a specific reference to this in the New Testament: 'The word of God grew and multiplied' [Acts 12:24]. This son was the all-important Grail Child and he, after his grandfather, was called Joseph." [Based on: Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, Laurence Gardner, p. 93]

44 - Trivia / Mary and Martha - "Despite Mary and Martha's prominence in the Gospel texts, there is no mention at all of them in Acts, nor in any of St. Paul's epistles after their westward departure in AD 44." [Based on: Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, Laurence Gardner]

44 - Fatality / Herod Agrippa I - "Herod Agrippa I died quite suddenly."

47 - Fire / Alexandrian Library  - "The library at Alexandria, Egypt, was ravaged by fire."

49  - Christian Salvation? - "The Church convened a council in Jerusalem about this time. The participants adopted the missionary principle of St. Paul, which stressed the universal scope of salvation."

*Trivia: "The Christians were the first to make the existence of Satan a dogma of the Church. And once that she had established it, she had to struggle for over 1,700 years for the repression of a mysterious force that it was her policy to make appear of diabolocal origin. [....]" [Based on: H.P. Blavatsky, Isis Unveiled, reprint (1998, Vol. 2) of the 1877 edition, p. 13]

49 - Joseph of Arimathea / Britain - "Joseph of Arimathea had been to Britain with Mary's elder son, the twelve year-old Jesus Justus, in AD 49. This event is well remembered in West County tradition and is evidenced in William Blake's famous song Jerusalem." [Based on: Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, Laurence Gardner]

50 - Kushan Rules Afghanistan - "Kushan ruled over Afghanistan under King Kanishka."

50 - "Q" Gospel - "50-60 C.E. The Lost Gospel of Q / Over more than a century, scholars have reconstructed a hypothetical text based on a comparison of what is in the synoptic gospels of Mark, Matthew, and Luke (box, Page 41). Matthew and Luke both draw extensively from Mark in their accounts, as well as from some other source that scholars call the 'Q' gospel, from the German word Quelle, meaning 'source.' No record of this text has ever been found." [Based on: U.S. News & World Report (MYSTERIES OF FAITH / Secrets of Christianity) illustrated timeline (After Jesus: How the Good News Spread), p. 36]

51 - Bran the Blessed? / Rome - "In AD 51, Bran was taken to Rome along with Caractacus the Pendragon. Resident in Rome, Gladys, the younger daughter of Caractacus, married the Roman senator Rufus Pudens and thus became Claudia Rufina Britannica [as confirmed by the Roman poet, Martial, in about AD 68]. Caractacus' other daughter was St. Eurgen of Llan Ilid [the wife of Salog, Lord of Salisbury]. His famed son, Prince Linus, became the first appointed Bishop of Rome. In his Second Epistle to Timothy 4:21 [New Testament], Paul writes: 'Eubulus greeteth thee, and Pudens and Linus, and Claudia, and all the brethren'. Eubulus [eu-boulos: 'well advised' or 'prudent'] was a variation of Aristobulus [aristo-boulos: 'best advised' or 'Noblest in counsel']." [Based on: Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, Laurence Gardner, p. 124]

53 -  Crown Prince Jesus Justus? / Corinth - "In AD 53, Jesus junior was officially proclaimed Crown Prince at the synagogue in Corinth and duly received the Davidic Crown Prince's title of Justus [the Righteous - Acts 18:7]. He thereby formally succeeded his uncle, James the Just, as the kingly heir. Having reached the majority age of sixteen, Jesus Justus also became the Chief Nazarite, gaining entitlement to the black robe of that office - as worn by the priests of Isis, the universal Mother Goddess." [Based on: Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, Laurence Gardner, p. 94]

54  - Roman Emperor / Nero - October 13th, 54 AD: "Roman emperor Claudius I died, after being poisoned with mushrooms by his wife, Agrippina. Nero [37-68CE], son of Agrippina, succeeded his great uncle Claudius, who was murdered by his wife, as the new emperor of Rome. After the murder of his wife, Octavia [62 A.D.], Nero descended deep into a religious delirium. His acts became wild and unintelligible and he was displaced by his soldiers with Galba after which he committed suicide."

*Trivia: "Reportedly, Nero's favorite torture was to tie Christians to stakes in his palace gardens and fire them as human torches at night. This led to a major revolt by the Christians in AD 64, during the course of which Rome was engulfed by fire. The unbalanced Emperor was the suspected instigator, but he blamed the Christians and had both Peter and Paul put to death."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Roman_Emperors

57 - Japanese History  - "First mention of Japan in historical writing [Chinese history]."

59 - Fatality / Aristobulus - "Reportedly, Herod Agrippa's uncle, Aristobulus, was executed by the Romans at Verulamium [St. Albans] in AD 59. Associated spellings/words: Arwystli Hen [Aristobulus the Old]."

59  - Fatality / Agrippina - "Agrippina became insane and was murdered by her son, Nero."

60  - Comet - "A comet appeared and was interpreted by the people of Rome to mean the impending death of their new emperor."

60 - British Revolt - "In 60, the ruler of the tribe of the Iceni [in what is now Norfolk] died, and left part of his possessions to the Emperor Nero, in the hope that the Romans, in return, would protect his wife, Boudicca, and his two daughters. No such thing! The land was appropriated entirely, the daughters were raped, and when Boudicca objected, she was whipped. As a result, she roused her people to revolt, and the rebels burned Colchester, destroyed London, and killed every Roman they could find."  [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov] 

60 - Gospel According to Thomas - "c. 60-92 C.E. Thomas / Unlike the four canonical gospels, which combine stories with sayings, Thomas is a collection of 114 sayings attributed to Jesus (including brief dialogues), supposedly transcribed by Didymus Judas Thomas, one of the Twelve. Some of the sayings contradict those found in the canonical gospels." [Based on: U.S. News & World Report (MYSTERIES OF FAITH / Secrets of Christianity) illustrated timeline (After Jesus: How the Good News Spread), p. 37]

62  - Fatality / Octavia - "Nero murdered his wife Octavia."

62 - St James / Glastonbury - "Reported date for St. James's [Joseph of Arimathea] second visit to Glastonbury."

63 - Fatality / Mary Magdalene - "Mary Magdalene died in AD 63, aged sixty, at the place now called Saint Baume in southern France." [Based on: Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, Laurence Gardner]
   "John, in Revelation 12:1-17, describes Mary and her son, and tells of her persecution, her flight into exile and of the continued Roman hounding of the 'remnant of her seed' [her descendants]." [Based on: Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, Laurence Gardner]

63 - Biblical Bones? - "An Associated Press release reported [April 2nd, 1996] about a limestone box that once contained bones from biblical times. The box [dated to 63 A.D.] was discovered in Jerusalem  in 1980." [Link: 1, 2] 

*Trivia: "An ivory pomegranate long touted by scholars as the only relic from Solomon's Temple is a forgery, the Israeli Museum said Friday [12/24/04], as investigators said they had broken up several fake antiquity rings in a wide-ranging investigation. Indictments in that investigation are to be handed down next week, the officials said. Among those to be indicted is Israeli collector Oded Golan, the Justice Ministry confirmed. Golan, who denied wrongdoing, owns the two most spectacular artifacts declared fakes last year [2003]: a burial chest purported to be that of James, the brother of Jesus, and a stone tablet with inscriptions on how to maintain the Jewish Temple. The pomegranate was examined by the museum independently of the investigation by the Israeli authorities, said the director of the Israel Museum, James Snyder. A team of experts reported the thumb-sized pomegranate dates to the Bronze period, or about 3,400 years ago, meaning it is considerably older than the first Jewish Temple, and the inscription was added recently, the museum said in a statement." [Based on: News Services article, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p. A10, 12/25/04]

64 - Great Fire / Rome - "In 64 a great fire destroyed much of Rome. The blame for the fire was placed on the new sect of Christians who seemed to the Romans to be atheists, since they denied the existence of all pagan gods. What's more, they were constantly predicting that the Earth would be destroyed by fire when Jesus returned in the 'Second Coming.' They might impatiently have started the job prematurely, the Romans thought, and a number of Christians were executed." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov]

64 - Dedication / Glastonbury Chapel - "It was to the Magdalene [not to Jesus the Christ's mother Mary] that the Glastonbury chapel was dedicated by her eldest son, Jesus Justus, in AD 64." [Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, Laurence Gardner, p. 120]

64  - Christian Persecution - "Nero initiated the first persecution against the Christians. According to Seneca, Nero sentenced hundreds of Christians to die by 'tunica molesta,' a naptha impregnated 'shirt of torture.' "

64 - Died? / Simon ["Saint"] Peter - "A traditional date for the death of Simon Peter. Other dates attributed to the death of Simon Peter include: 67 A.D."

64 - Died? / Apostle ["Saint"] Paul - "A traditional date for the death of Paul the Apostle. Other dates attributed to the death of  Paul the Apostle include: 67 A.D."

64 - 2nd "Pope" - "Pope ["Saint"] Linus. Died 76?, 79? A.D."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_popes#Began_AD_30-249

65 - Exodus / Simon Zelotes - "Once James [Joseph of Arimathea] had settled permanently in the West, it was not long before Simon Zelotes led most of the Nazareenes out of Jerusalem in AD 65. He took them east of the Jordan and they spread into the region of old Mesopotamia [modern Iraq]." [Based on: Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, Laurence Gardner, p. 95]

66 - Jewish Revolt / Jerusalem - "Nero's regime had caused considerable political nervousness and temperatures were raised to dangerous heights in the Holy Land. Early in AD 66, sporadic fighting broke out in Caesarea between the Zealotes  and Romans. The hostility quickly moved to Jersulam, where the Zealotes gained a number of strategic positions. They held the city for four years until a massive Roman army led by Flavius Titus arrived in AD 70, laying Jerusalem to waste. As Jesus had so rightly predicted many years before, the Temple fell and everything fell with it. Most of the inhabitants were slaughtered; the survivors were sold into slavery and the Holy City was an empty ruin for the next six decades. It was around this time [66-70 A.D.] when the Qumran scrolls [about 500 Hebrew and Aramaic manuscripts] were allegedly hidden near the Dead Sea."

66 - Flavius Josephus / Galilee - "In AD 66, the Hasmonaean scion, Flavius Josephus, had been appointed Commander in the defence of Galilee. He had previously trained for the Pharisee priesthood, but accepted military service when the Jews rose up against their Roman overlords. Josephus subsequently became the foremost historian of the era and his writings, The Wars of the Jews and The Antiquities of the Jews, provide a comprehensive insight into the long and complex history of the nation from the time of the early patriarchs to the years of the Roman oppression." [Based on: Laurence Gardner, Bloodline Of The Holy Grail]

*Trivia: "Josephus' scholarly opus, comprising some 60,000 manuscript lines was written during the AD 80s when he was in Rome, from where the Gospel of Mark had emerged a short while before. Although Peter and Paul were executed under Nero's regime, the Gospel writings of the era were not, on the face of it, anti-Roman. Indeed, the early Christians were more inclined to blame the Jews [rather than Pilate] for the persecution of Jesus and, because the Jewish uprising of AD 66-70 had failed, they firmly believed that God had switched allegience from the Jews to themselves." [Based on: Laurence Gardner, Bloodline Of The Holy Grail]

66 A.D. - Perihelion / Halley's Comet - January 25th, 66 A.D.: "1P/66 B1 (25 January 66 AD)"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halley%27s_Comet] - [T.D. - 06/12/07] 

*Trivia: "66 AD: In the Talmud, it is mentioned that 'There is a star which appears once in seventy years that makes the captains of the ships err'.[5] Since this quote is attributed to the Rabbi Yehoshua ben Hananiah, if it is indeed a reference to Halley's Comet, it probably refers to the AD 66 perihelion, which was the only one to occur during his lifetime.[6]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halley%27s_Comet] - [T.D. - 06/12/07]

66 - Suppression? / Desposyni  Sovereignty - "Following the Jewish Revolt in Jerusalem in the 1st century AD, the Roman authorities were reputed to have burned all records (public and private) concerning the Davidic sovereign legacy of Jesus's family. However, the destruction was far from complete and relevant documents were retained by the royal inheritors, who progressed the heritage of the Messiah from the Holy Land into the West. These inheritors were called the Desposyni (Heirs of the Lord) and they were pursued by Roman dictate, to be put to the sword by Imperial command. Writing as long afterwards as AD 200, the historian Julius Africanus confirmed that the persecution was still formally operative, although the Desposyni remained politically active by way of a strict dynastic progression.
   "After the decline of the Western Empire, the torment was continued by the emergent Church of Rome, despite appeals from the family who promoted the opposing Nazarene Church of Jesus. They constantly denounced the Roman interpretations of the Virgin Birth and Resurrection, claiming that religion was to be found in the teachings of Jesus - not in the veneration of his person.
   "Through medieval times, support grew for the Messianic dynasts, but they were still harassed by the Popes, leading to the brutal inquisitions of the Middle Ages. Only by suppressing the sovereignty of the Desposyni could the Church of Rome survive." [Based on: Laurence Gardner, Genesis of the Grail Kings, Preface, p. xiii]

67 - Fatality / St. Paul - "St. Paul, Catholic apostle to the Gentiles and writer of many epistles, died [c67]. He founded one of the first Christian churches in Europe at Philippi in Macedonia. He was martyred by Nero and according to tradition invoked his right as a Roman citizen to be beheaded."

*Trivia: "Other dates attributed to the death of St. Paul include: 64 A.D."

67 - Fatality / "Saint Peter" - June 29th, 67 AD: "Saint Peter, apostle (traditional) (crucified upside down upon request)." [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/67] 

*Trivia: "Other dates attributed to the death of St. Peter include: 64 A.D."

67 - 2nd "Pope" - "Pope [Saint] Linus. Died 76?, 79? A.D."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_popes#Began_AD_30-249

68 - Fatality / Nero - June 9th, 68 AD: "Roman Emperor Nero [37-68 A.D.] commited suicide. For the first time there was no heir that could be traced back to Augustus."

68 - Roman Emperor / Galba - June 8th, 68: "Galba reigned [68-69] as the Roman emperor. He was a commander of Roman forces in Spain and acclaimed emperor by his 2 legions. When the praetorian guard accepted Galba, Nero committed suicide."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Roman_Emperors

69 - Fatality / Galba - "Galba was murdered by Otho who forced the senate to declare him emperor."

69 - Roman Emperor / Otho - January 15th, 69: "Joint Roman Emperor [along with Vitellius (2, January 69 A.D.)] ruled in the year 69 A.D."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Roman_Emperors

69  - Fatality / Otho - April 16th, 69 AD: "Otho [32-69] committed suicide after he was defeated by Vitellius' [15-69] troops at Bedriacum."

69  - Fatality / Vitellius - December 20th, 69 AD: "Vespians's supporters entered Rome and discovered Vitellius in hiding. Vitellius, a Roman commandant of Rhine and the 7th emperor, was dragged through the streets before being brutally murdered. Vitellius had been acclaimed emperor by his legions in Germany in place of Galba. He was then killed in Rome fighting the supporters of Vespasian, the Roman commander of Judea. General Vespasianus occupied Rome."

69 - Roman Emperor / Vespasianus - July 1st, 69: "Roman general Titus Flavius Vespasianus [69-79 A.D.], or 'Vespasian', became Roman Emperor."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Roman_Emperors

70 - Gospel According to Mark - "c. 70-75 C.E. Mark / The shortest of all the canonical gospels, Mark is also thought by most scholars to be the earliest. Written as a narrative, it covers the time from Jesus's baptism by John in the River Jordan up to the Ascension. Included in this gospel are many of Jesus's sayings and parables, as well as the story of his miracles." [Based on: U.S. News & World Report (MYSTERIES OF FAITH / Secrets of Christianity) illustrated timeline (After Jesus: How the Good News Spread), p. 36]

*Trivia: "[....] It is common knowledge that the present Gospels are not the originals. As with the manuscripts of the Old Testament, those of the New were soon lost to the world; not even the earliest Church Fathers claimed to have seen them. It is well known that the Gospel of Luke was preceded by another called Ur-Markus, a part of the Logia, or occult cosmology, the present one being but this older one distorted into history. The book of Matthew is an outgrowth of a prior book known as the Logia of Matthew. Jerome said the canonical version was a rewrite of the Hebrew text by a disciple of Manichaeus named Seleucus. These revisionists were literal-minded religionists and they inserted much extraneous matter, even, according to some authorities, whole chapters. The titles 'gospel according to' implies questionable authority; it means not of but attributed to; in other words, the compilers are evading the issue of eyewitness authority. There is also in all four, a biographical evasiveness peculiar to mythology. As with Sampson, Saul, and David, whole decades of Jesus' life are omitted, while miraculous deeds are thrown at the reader until he forgets to question the doer. It all adds up to the fact that the Gospels are a final rendition of an ancient esoteric literature, the subject of which is the planetary Logos [A Greek name for the planetary creativity, without personality.] personified. Writing of this, Arthur Drews confirms it thus: 'The Gospels do not contain the history of an actual man, but only the myth of the god-man Jesus, clothed in a historical dress.' [....]" [Based on: Deceptions And Myths of the Bible, Lloyd M. Graham, pp. 281-282, 1997 edition]

*Trivia: "The original Gospel of Mark was written in Rome in around AD 66. Clement of Alexandria, the 2nd-century churchman, confirmed that it was issued at a time when the Jews of Judaea were in revolt against the Roman occupiers and were being crucified in their thousands. The first published Gospel, that of Mark, makes no mention of the Virgin Birth. The concept of the Virgin Birth of Jesus is mentioned in only two of the four original Gospels [Matthew and Luke] and nowhere else in the New testament; the word 'manger' is mentioned only in Luke, and the word 'stable' is mentioned in none." [Laurence Gardner, Bloodline Of The Holy Grail]
   "The original Gospel of Mark did not include any details of the events of the Resurrection and its aftermath; it ended simply with the women fleeing from an empty sepulchre. The concluding twelve verses of Mark 16, as generally published today, were spuriously attached at a later date." [Based on: Laurence Gardner, Bloodline Of The Holy Grail]

70 - Destruction / Jewish Temple - "In May, 70, Titus placed Jerusalem under siege, and on August 28th, after Jerusalem had been weakened by famine, it was taken and the Second Temple was destroyed after six centuries of existence, and a thousand years after Solomon had constructed the first. There was never to be a third. Other parts of the city held out for another month and some fortresses in Judea held out still longer. The last stand was the town of Masda on the western shores of the Dead Sea, 35 miles southeast of Jerusalem." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World

*Trivia: "After the Temple destruction and Jewish revolt in 70 A.D., Rome labeled the region Syria Palaestina, or Palestine."

71 - Partial Lunar Eclipse - "March 4th [Two eclipses in 15 days]"

72  - Construction Begun / Roman Colosseum - "Using Jewish slaves and others, Emperor Vespasianus ordered construction of the Colosseum in Rome." [Based on: (History Channel Movie) Rome: Engineering an Empire / The rise and the fall.]

73 - Masda  Defeated - "The Romans defeated the last Zealot holdouts at the fortress of Masada, where 960 men, women, and children killed themselves rather than surrender. The Romans then abolished the priesthood, thus leaving no remnant of Jewish political organization. Because of the rebellion, the largest Jewish temple in Alexandria was later destroyed and many Jews were killed there, too. Reportedly, those Judeans who had become Christians were expecting Judea to be destroyed as part of the preliminaries to the Second Coming and they did not fight, but withdrew. As a result, they were execrated as traitors by those Judeans who had fought and survived, and Jewish conversians to Christianity stopped."

74 - Configuration - "Uranus-Pluto [Aquarius] conjunction."

74 - Chinese Silk Trade - "Chinese Emperor [74-94 A.D.] Pan Ch'ao extended Chinese control far into what is now Sinkiang and into Central Asia. During his reign China extended to the boundaries of Kushan India and Parthia and contributed to a solid belt of civilization from the Atlantic to the Pacific across Eurasia: The Roman Empire; Parthia; Kushan India; and Han China. This encouraged trade across the entire 6000 mile expanse - particularly, the silk trade."

75 - Gospel According to Matthew - "c. 75-85 C.E. Matthew / Most scholars now think Matthew was written after the destruction of Jerusalem. His gospel depicts Jesus in a Jewish, messianic context, and includes a full account of his life and ministry, from birth to Resurrection, including the parables, the Sermon on the Mount, the miracles and the sayings." [Based on: U.S. News & World Report (MYSTERIES OF FAITH / Secrets of Christianity) illustrated timeline (After Jesus: How the Good News Spread), p. 36]

76 - 3rd "Pope" - "Pope [Saint] Anacletus. Died 88 (?) A.D."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_popes#Began_AD_30-249

77 - Roman Britain - "The confusion in Rome after Nero's death made things worse, and it was not until 77 that a Roman army under Gnaeus Julius Agricola [40-93, who was father-in-law of the Roman historian, Tacitus] could land in Britain and subdue the island as far north as what is now mid-Scotland. After that, the southern two thirds of Britain was again Romanized, a process that was well along by 100 A.D." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World]

78 - Kanishka Rules Northwestern India - "About 78, Kanishka, a member of a nomad tribe, the Kushans, established his rule over the northwestern part of India and over Bactria, which now lost all traces of Hellenization. Kanishka was a patron of Buddhism, but was tolerant of other religions. He had contacts with China and encouraged the penetration of that land by Buddhism." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World

79 - 3rd "Pope" - "Pope [Saint] Anacletus. Died 88 (?) A.D."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_popes#Began_AD_30-249

79 - Roman Emperor / Titus - June 24th, 79: "Titus [39-81 A.D.], the son of Vespasian ruled [79-81 A.D.] as Roman Emperor."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Roman_Emperors

79  - Volcanic Eruption / Italy - August 24th, 79 AD: Pliny the Elder [b.23CE], Roman naturalist, witnessed the eruption of long-dormant Mount Vesuvius and was overcome by the fumes at nearby Stabiae as he tried to rescue refugees from Pompeii and Herculaneum. The eruption [around 1 p.m.] buried the Roman cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum in 13 feet of volcanic ash and pumice. An estimated 20,000 people died. The event was described by Pliny the Younger, the elder's nephew, in a letter to Tacitus."

79 - Buried / Pompeii & Herculaneum - November 1st, 79 AD: "Lava and ashes from Mt. Vesuvius buried the town of Pompeii and Herculaneum."

79  - Update / Hindu Calender - "The Hindu calendar was updated to the solar year with this year as year 1. The original dated back to about 1000 BC."

80 - Trivia / Flavius Josephus - "Josephus' scholarly opus, comprising some 60,000 manuscript lines was written during the AD 80s when he was in Rome, from where the Gospel of Mark had emerged a short while before. Although Peter and Paul were executed under Nero's regime, the Gospel writings of the era were not, on the face of it, anti-Roman. Indeed, the early Christians were more inclined to blame the Jews [rather than Pilate] for the persecution of Jesus and, because the Jewish uprising of AD 66-70 had failed, they firmly believed that God had switched allegience from the Jews to themselves." [Based on: Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, Laurence Gardner]

80  - Completed / Roman Colosseum - "The Roman Colosseum was inaugurated with 100 days of gladiator combat."

80 - Destroyed by Fire / Roman Pantheon - "The Roman Pantheon was destroyed by fire in AD 80."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pantheon%2C_Rome

81  - Fatality / Emperor Titus - September 13th, 81 AD: "Titus Flavius Vespasianus, emperor of Rome [69-81], died at 42."

81 - Roman Emperor / Domitian - September 14th, 81: "Domitian [51-96 A.D.], become Roman Emperor and ruled from 81-96 A.D."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Roman_Emperors

85 - "Catholic" - "Ignatius [85-107], a bishop of Antioch coined the term "Catholic [katholikos: general, universal, f. kata in respect of + hodos way]."

85 - Gospel According to Luke - "c. 85-95 C.E. Luke / The author of this gospel also wrote the Acts of the Apostles. His narrative includes the story of Jesus's life from his birth to the Resurrection, his ministry to the poor, women and oppressed groups, and his miracles. It focuses on his teachings about salvation and fulfillment of Old Testament prophecies." [Based on: U.S. News & World Report (MYSTERIES OF FAITH / Secrets of Christianity) illustrated timeline (After Jesus: How the Good News Spread), p. 36]

88 - 4th "Pope" - "Pope ["Saint"] Clemens [Clement I]. Died 97 (?) A.D."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_popes#Began_AD_30-249

95  - Book of Revelations? - "St. John the Divine established a Christian colony on the island of Patmos after being exiled from Ephesus. It is said that he wrote here the Book of Revelations in a grotto overlooking the main town. Greek Orthodox tradition says that he is the apostle John but that is not confirmed."

95 - Gospel According to John - "c. 95 C.E. John / The last canonical gospel, John focuses more on spiritual themes rather than historical events and emphasizes the divinity of Jesus and his role as the Messiah. He does not include the parables and exorcisms and the Secoind Coming. However, John recounts private conversations between Jesus and his disciples." [Based on: U.S. News & World Report (MYSTERIES OF FAITH / Secrets of Christianity) illustrated timeline (After Jesus: How the Good News Spread), p. 37]

96  - Fatility / Emperor Domitian - September 18th, 96 AD: "Domitian, Roman emperor, died. He was murdered and was succeeded by Nerva."

96 - Roman Emperor / Nerva - September 18th, 96: "The Roman Emperor Domitian was assassinated and succeeded by Marcus Cocceius Nerva [30-98 A.D.], an elderly senator who ruled from 96-98 A.D. He was called the first of five 'good Emperors,' who tried to rule humanely and avoid arbitrary behavior."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Roman_Emperors

98 - Roman Emperor  / Trajan - January 28th, 98: "Marcus Ulpius Traianus [53-117 A.D.], adopted by Nerva, became Roman Emperor and ruled from 98-117 A.D.."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Roman_Emperors

100 - Final Form? / Old & New Testaments - "Reportedly, by 100 A.D. the Old and New Testaments had reached their final form."

*Trivia: "[....] In 1869 Kuenen's The Religion of Israel established Bible criticism as a valid field of investigation. He was followed by many others in Holland, Germany, and France. In 1889 the book of biblical essays called Lux Mundi gave up all pretense of the scriptures' historicity or divine inspiration, admitting that the Bible is a confused mass of myth, legend, and garbled history, often contradicting provable facts. [....]" [See: Barbara G. Walker, The Women's Encyclopedia of Myths and Secrets, p. 98]

100 - Gentile Christianity - "Christianity became a Gentile religion, albeit with Judaistic roots: and, by 100 A.D., the groundwork was laid for Christianity to become a world religion, while Judaism remained a small, nationalist cult."

100 - Aksum / Northern Ethiopia - "By 100 A.D. the African kingdom of Aksum [Axum] was established, in what is now northern Ethiopia."

???? - Ancient Christian Worship Site? / Rihab, Jordan - "[....] The cave is under St. George's Church [Rihab, Jordan], which some believe was built in the year 230, though the date is widely disputed. That would make it one of the oldest churches in the world, along with one unearthed in the Jordanian southern port of Aqaba in 1998 and another in Israel discovered in 2005. [NP] Al-Housan [Archaeologist Abdel-Qader al-Housan] said there was evidence that the underground cave was used as a church by 70 disciples of Jesus in the first century after Christ's death, which would make it the oldest Christian site of worship in the world. [....] Parker [S. Thomas Parker, a historian at North carolina State University] asked how archaeologists could be certain whether the 'cave was actually a center of Christian worship.' [....]" [Based on: A.P. article (Ancient cave linked to early Christians), p. A9, S.L.P.D., 06/12/08]

2nd Century A.D.

100 - Map of Europe - "Map of Europe, 100 A.D."

100 - Coptic Script - "The Coptic script was adopted from the Greek alphabet approximately around the 2nd century CE. The Copts adopted the Greek alphabet completely even though many of the Greek letters represent sounds that didn't exist in Egyptian. Instead they kept the extraneous letters for their numeric values. In addition, the Copts added 5 letters, taken from the Demotic script, that represent sounds that don't exist in Greek. The final count of signs was 32, and neatly represented the Egyptian language at the beginning of the first millenium CE." [Link: 1, 2]

101 - 5th "Pope" - "Pope ["Saint"] Evaristus. Died 105 (?) A.D."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_popes#Began_AD_30-249

105 - Paper / China - "A Chinese eunuch , Tsai Lun [50-118 A.D.], invented a technique for using such substances as tree bark, hemp, and rags to make a thin, flexible white sheet upon which one could write. Because of the similarity of the new material to Egyptian papyrus, the Europeans gave it that name, which became 'paper' in English."

106 - 6th "Pope" - "Pope ["Saint"] Alexander I. Died 115 (?) A.D."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Alexander_I

107 - Roman Dacia - "Roman Emperor Trajan crossed the lower Danube river and annexed Dacia [located in what is now Romania] to the Empire."

*Trivia: "[....] In its territorial peak after the conquest of Dacia by Trajan, the Roman Empire controlled approximately 5 900 000 km². (2,300,000 sq.mi.) of land surface, thereby being the largest empire in the classical antiquity period of European history. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_empire]

110 - Configuration - "Uranus-Neptune [Cancer] conjunction [110-111]."

112 - Completion / Trajan's Forum - "Forum of Trajan unveiled in Rome. It stood for 700 years." [Based on: (History Channel Movie) Rome: Engineering an Empire / The rise and the fall.]

114 - Roman Armenia - "Roman Emperor Trajan annexed Armenia to the Empire. Later he turned southward and marched through the Tigris-Euphrates valley, annexing that area to the Empire."

115 - "Virgin Mary" Cult - "Irenaeus [115-200]; Bishop of Lyon, he opposed Gnosticism and was the main promulgator of the cult of the 'Virgin Mary'."

116 - Jewish Rebellion / Cyrene - "In 116 A.D., the Jews in Cyrene rebelled. Cyrene, a city in northwestern Libya, was the one remaining place in the Roman Empire where Jews lived in considerable numbers in peace and prosperity. The rebellion resulted in the eradication of that Jewish community."

117 - 7th "Pope" - "Pope ["Saint"] Sixtus I. Died 126, 125 (?) or 128 A.D."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Sixtus_I

117 - Roman Emperor / Hadrian - August 11th, 117: "Publius Aelius Hadrianus [76-138 A.D.], Trajan's adopted son, became Roman Emperor and ruled from 117-138 A.D. He abandoned the Tigris-Euphrates valley and let it return to Parthian rule."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Roman_Emperors

118  - Roman Emperor Hadrian / Rome - July 9th, 118 AD: "Hadrian, Rome's new emperor, made his entry into the city."

121 - Construction Begun / Temple of Venus, Rome - "The Temple of Venus was built [121-135] in Rome." *Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temple_of_Venus_and_Roma

122 - Construction Begun / Hadrian's Wall, Britain - September 13th, 122 AD: "Emperor Hadrian begins construction of 72-mile long wall across the narrowest part of Britain between 122 and 127 A.D. This was to keep the northern Picts out of Britain, but it also indicated that the Romans would make no serious effort to advance farther north."

125 - Multiple Christian Gospels? - "In 125 A.D. St. Irenaeus said ,'There was a multitude of gospels' in his day. Those that came down to us are but the ones the priesthood needed for its purpose, the rest it destroyed." [Based on: Deceptions and Myths Of The Bible, Lloyd M. Graham, p.5]

126 - 8th "Pope" - "Pope ["Saint"] Telesphorus. Died 137 (?) A.D."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Telesphorus

126 - Returns to Rome / Emperor Hadrian - "Emperor Hadrian returns to Rome and overseas construction of the Pantheon." [Based on: (History Channel Movie) Rome: Engineering an Empire / The rise and the fall.]

126 - Rebuilt / Roman Pantheon - "About this time, the Roman Pantheon was rebuilt."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pantheon%2C_Rome

127 - Configuration - "Uranus-Pluto [Libra/Aries] opposition [127-129]. Uranus-Pluto conjunctions and oppositions might bring sudden and radical changes, like a cathartic diarrhoea, yet their full integration takes ages."

131 - Jewish Rebellion / Jerusalem - "Jews rebell after Emperor Hadrian decides to build [on the site of Jerusalem] a new city that was completely Roman and Pagan. By 134 A.D., the Romans had ended the revolt. Judea was completely emptied of Jews, and the new Roman town was built."

132 - Jewish Diaspora - "From 132 to135 the charismatic figure of Simon Bar Kokhba led Jews who resisted an imperial ban on certain religious rites. They also opposed a Roman colony that was established on the site of Jerusalem, a holy city to the Jews. The Roman victory against Bar Kokhba's army brought the final dispersion of the Jewish people. Although some Jews remained, Jewish culture and the Jewish people essentially survived through the communities of the Diaspora."

135 - Roman Jerusalem - "In AD 135, Jerusalem was again crushed by Roman armies - this time under Emperor Hadrian - and the surviving Jews were content [in their despair at such final military defeat] to concern themselves solely with rabbinical law and religion. Meanwhile, the Pauline sect [now quite divorced from its Judaic origins] was becoming ever more troublesome to the authorities. [Based on: Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, Laurence Gardner]

135 - Byzantine Empire - "The Byzantine Empire [135-638] was the eastern half of the Roman Empire, which survived for a thousand years after the western half had crumbled into various feudal kingdoms and which finally fell to Ottoman Turkish onslaughts in 1453. The city of Byzantium grew from an ancient Greek colony founded on the European side of the Bosporus. The fall of Rome to the Ostrogoths in 476 marked the end of the western half of the Roman Empire. The eastern half continued as the Byzantine Empire, with Constantinople as its capital. Constantine the Great wanted this city to be built from scratch as the center of the Christian world. He and his following emperors made Constantinople into one of the most elaborate and civilized cities in the world. The wealth that was displayed was incredible. Until the Fourth Crusade, Constantinople enjoyed 874 years of growth and stability. Few cities in history have lasted as long without being overrun by an invading army."

*Trivia: "There is no consensus on the starting date of the Byzantine period. Some place it during the reign of Diocletian (284–305) due to the administrative reforms he introduced, dividing the empire into a pars Orientis and a pars Occidentis. Others place it during the reign of Theodosius I (379–395) and Christendom's victory over paganism, or, following his death in 395, with the division of the empire into western and eastern halves. Others place it yet further in 476, when the last western emperor, Romulus Augustus, was forced to abdicate, thus leaving sole imperial authority to the emperor in the Greek East. In any case, the changeover was gradual and by 330, when Constantine I inaugurated his new capital, the process of further Hellenization and increasing Christianization was already underway.

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_Roman_Empire]

135 - Inauguration / Temple of Venus, Rome - "Temple of Venus inaugurated by Emperor Hadrian."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temple_of_Venus_and_Roma

*Trivia: "[....] The oldest temple known of Venus dates back to 293 BCE, and was inaugurated on August 18. Later, on this date the Vinalia Rustica was observed. A second festival, that of the Veneralia, was celebrated on April 1 in honor of Venus Verticordia, who later became the protector against vice. Her temple was built in 114 BCE. [NP] After the Roman defeat near Lake Trasum in 215 BCE, a temple was built on the Capitol for Venus Erycina. This temple was officially opened on April 23, and a festival, the Vinalia Priora, was instituted to celebrate the occasion. [....] The last great temple of Venus was built by the emperor Hadrianus near the Colusseum in 135 CE. [....]"

[Based on: http://www.crystalinks.com/venusrome.html] - [T.D. - 12/01/06]

136 - Christians vs. Nazarenes - By the time of Bishop Hyginus [from AD 136], there was little or no connection between the Pauline Christians and the Nazarene followers of Jesus's own Judaic doctrine. The latter had settled mainly in Mesopotamia, Syria, southern Turkey and Egypt - apart from the established movements in Britain and Gaul." [Based on: Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, Laurence Gardner]

138 - 9th "Pope" - "Pope ["Saint"] Hyginus. Died 140 (?) A.D."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Hyginus

138 - Roman Emperor / Antonius Pius - July 10th, 138: "After the death of Emperor Hadrian of natural causes at age 62, Antonius Pius [86-161 A.D.] became Roman Emperor and ruled from 138-161 A.D."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Roman_Emperors

139 - Trivia / Sothis Cycle? - July 20th, 139: "[....] According to Roman writer Censorinus, the Egyptian New Year's Day fell on July 20 in the Julian Calendar in 139 CE, which was a heliacal rising of Sirius in Egypt. From this it is possible to calculate that the previous occasion on which this occurred was 1322 BCE, and the one before that was 2782 BCE. This latter date has been postulated as the time when the calendar was invented, but Djer's reign preceded that date. Other historians push it back another whole cycle, to 4242 BCE. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egyptian_calendar] - [T.D. - 12/23/07]

*Links: http://www.specialtyinterests.net/sothic_star3.html#ab

140 - 10th "Pope" - "Pope ["Saint"] Pius I. Died 155 (?) A.D."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Pius_I

141 A.D. - Perihelion / Halley's Comet - March 22nd, 141 A.D.: "1P/141 F1 (22 March 141)"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halley%27s_Comet] - [T.D. - 06/12/07] 

141 - Building Finished / Temple of Venus, Rome - "Temple of Venus building finished."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temple_of_Venus_and_Roma

150 - Unpopularity? / Nazarenes - "By the middle of the 2nd century, the original Nazarenes [the followers of Jesus's and James's teachings] were unpopular not only with the Roman authorities, but were being severly harassed by the Pauline Christians - particularly by Ireaneus, Bishop of Lyon [born c.AD 120]. He condemned them as heretics for claiming that Jesus was a man and not of divine origin as ruled by the new Faith. In fact, he even declared that Jesus had himself been practising the wrong religion and that he was personally mistaken in his belief! Irenaeus wrote of the Nazarenes, whom he called ebionites [poor], that: 'they like Jesus himself, as well as the Essenes and Zadokites of two centuries before, expound upon the prophetic books of the Old Testament. They reject the Pauline epistles, and they reject the apostle Paul, calling him an apostate of the Law.' In retaliation, the Nazarenes of the desposynic Church denounced Paul as a 'renegade' and a 'false apostle', claiming that his idolatrous writings should be rejected altogether." [Based on: Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, Laurence Gardner, p. 132]

150 - Trivia / Teotihuacan, Mexico - "In Mexico, archaeologists are reasonably sure that the monuments of Teotihuacan in their present form were built during the period 150 to 300 A.D. Underneath the facades of all three of the pyramids, however, have been found the traces of earlier layers of construction, marking earlier pyramids that stood on the same sites, going back to primordial sacred mounds - some of which contained caves - that were venerated in far antiquity." [Based on: Heaven's Mirror, Quest For The Lost Civilization, Graham Hancock and Santha Faiia, p. 25]

154 - 11th "Pope" - "Pope ["Saint"] Anicetus. Died April 17th, 167 A.D."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Anicetus

156 - King Lucius? / Britain - "In the mid-2nd century, King Lucius, great-grandson of Arviragus revived the spirit of early disciples in Britain. In so doing, he was popularly held to have 'increased the light of Joseph's first missionaries and, accordingly, became known as Lleiffer Mawr [the Great Luminary]." [Based on: Laurence Gardner, Bloodline Of The Holy Grail]

*Trivia: "Lucius openly confirmed his Christianity at Winchester in AD 156."

158 - Sol invictus - The earliest dated use of Sol invictus is in a dedication from Rome, AD 158.[4] Another, stylistically dated to the 2nd century AD, is inscribed on a Roman phalera: "inventori lucis soli invicto augusto" (to the contriver of light, sol invictus augustus ).[5] Here "augustus" is most likely a further epithet of Sol as "august" (an elevated being, divine or close to divinity), though the association of Sol with the Imperial house would have been unmistakable and was already established in iconography and stoic monism.[6] These are the earliest attested examples of Sol as invictus, but in AD 102 a certain Anicetus restored a shrine of Sol; Hijmans (2009, 486, n. 22) is tempted "to link Anicetus' predilection for Sol with his name, the Latinized form of the Greek word ?????t??, which means invictus".[7] - Wikipedia link

*Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sol_Invictus - [T.D. - 05/29/10]

160 - Roman Retreat / Scotland - "The Romans abandoned their garrison at Cramond, Scotland, and retreated to Hadrian's Wall."

161 - Roman Emperor / Marcus Aurelius - March 7th, 161 AD: "Marcus Aurelius [121-180 A.D.] was the Roman Emperor [161-180 A.D.], along with a co-Emperor, Lucius Aurelius Verus [130-169 A.D.]. Marcus Aurelius was called the last of the 'Good Emperors.' When he died in 180 A.D., he broke the rule of succession by adoption, which had worked so well in the 80 years since Nerva. Instead, Marcus Aurelius' son, Commodus, succeeded."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Roman_Emperors

165 - Burnt / Seleucia  - "Roman general Avidius Cassius burnt the city of Seleucia and put an end to Hellenism in the east."

166 - 12th "Pope" - "Pope ["Saint"] Soter. Died 174 A.D."  

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Soter

[....] Most early churches put forth spurious claims to foundation by apostles, even though the apostles themselves were no more than the mandatory "zodiacal twelve" attached to the figure of the sacred king. Early popes were often mere names, drawn from the titles of Roman gods, such as Eleutherios or Soter, falsely inserted into an artificial chronology to simulate succession from Peter. But even Catholic scholars now admit that the stories of Peter's upside-down crucifixion before Nero, and burial in the Vatican hill, were ficticious. (3) [....]

(3) Attwater, 274.

[Based on: The Women's Encyclopedia of Myths and Secrets, Barbara G. Walker (copyright 1983), p. 787-792]

167 - Marcomanni Invasion / Rome - "In 167 A.D., Germanic tribesmen [the Marcomanni, one of the Alemanni group, apparently] poured across the Roman borders for the first such invasion since the Cimbri and Teutones over two and a half centuries earlier. Marcus Aurleius managed to drive them back but only with the greatest of difficulty."

174 - 13th "Pope" - "Pope ["Saint"] Eleuterus. Died 189 A.D."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Eleuterus

177 - Christian Persecution - "Lucius openly confirmed his Christianity at Winchester in AD 156 and his cause was heightened in AD 177 by a mass Roman persecution of Christians in Gaul. This was enforced especially in the old Herodian regions of Lyon and Vienne, where St. Irenaeus and 19,000 Christians were put to death thirty years later. During the persecution, a good many Gaulish Christians fled to Britain, especially to Glastonbury, where they sought the aid of Good King Lucius." [Based on: Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, Laurence Gardner]

179 - Church of St. Peter - "A Latin plaque above the vestry fireplace at St. Peter's, Cornhill, in the old City of London, reads: In the year of our Lord 179, Lucius, the first Christian king of this island now called Britain, founded the first church in London, well known as the Church of St. Peter in Cornhill; and founded there the archiepiscopal seat, and made it the metropolitan church and the primary church of his kingdom. So it remained for the space of 400 years until the coming of St. Augustine. [....] Then, indeed, the seat and the pallium of the archbishopric was translated from the said church of St. Peter in Cornhill to Dorobernia, which is naow called Cantebury." [Based on: Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, Laurence Gardner]

180 - Roman Emperor / Commodus - "Having reached the height of its glory in Hadrian's era [AD 117-138], Roman Imperialism began to decline under Commodus. His ineffective rule [AD 180-192] prompted a good deal of disunity which led to many decades of civil war, pitting various generals against each other and against the central government. A conflict arose over who should wear the crown, and opposing sections of the army began to elect their own sovereigns." [Based on: Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, Laurence Gardner] *Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Roman_Emperors

185 - Configuration - "Uranus-Pluto [Gemini] conjunction [185-186]."

185  - Super Nova - December 7th, 185: AD: "Emperor Lo-Yang of China saw a supernova."

189 - 14th "Pope" - "Pope ["Saint"] Victor I. Died: 199 A.D."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Victor_I

192 - Fatality / Roman Emperor Commodus - "Commodus grew unpopular and was assassinated in 192 A.D."

193  - Fatality / Roman Emperor Publius Pertinax - March 28th, 193 AD: "Publius Helvius Pertinax, Roman Emperor [192-93], was assassinated."

193 - Roman Emperor / Septimius Severus - April 9th, 193: "Emperor Lucius Severus [AD 193-211] managed to restore some order by judicious use of the Praetorian Guard [the Emperor's personal bodyguard], but his discipline did not last for long. Throughout the 3rd century, internal disputes left the borders of the Empire open to attack by Sassanians from Persia and Goths from the Black Sea regions." [Based on: Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, Laurence Gardner]

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Roman_Emperors

  193 - Greatest Extent / Roman Empire - "Septimius Severus ruled [193-211] Rome. The empire reached its greatest extent with almost 50 provinces."

193  - Fatility / Emperor Marcus Didius - June 1st, 193 AD: "The Roman Emperor, Marcus Didius, was murdered in his palace."

193 - Configuration - "Uranus-Neptune [Cancer/Leo Capricorn/Aquarius] opposition [193-197]."

199 - 15th "Pope" - "Pope ["Saint"] Zephyrinus. Died: December 20th, 217 A.D."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Zephyrinus

3rd Century A.D.

200 - Map of Europe - "Map of Europe, 200 A.D."

200 - Samkhya - Sankhya, also Samkhya, (Sanskrit: ??????, IAST: sa?khya - 'enumeration') is one of the six schools of classical Indian philosophy. Sage Kapila is traditionally considered to be the founder of the Sankhya school, although no historical verification is possible. It is regarded as one of the oldest philosophical systems in India.[1] [NP] Sankhya was one of the six orthodox systems (astika, those systems that recognize vedic authority) of Hindu philosophy. The major text of this Vedic school is the extant Samkhya Karika, written by Ishvara Krishna, circa 200 AD. This text (in karika 70) identifies Sankhya as a Tantra[2] and its philosophy was one of the main influences both on the rise of the Tantras as a body of literature, as well as Tantra sadhana[3]. There are no purely Sankhya schools existing today in Hinduism, but its influence is felt in the Yoga and Vedanta schools. [NP] Sankhya is an enumerationist philosophy that is strongly dualist.[4][5][6] Sankhya philosophy regards the universe as consisting of two realities: Purusha (consciousness) and Prakriti (phenomenal realm of matter). They are the experiencer and the experienced, not unlike the res cogens and res extensa of Descartes. Prakriti further bifurcates into animate and inanimate realms. On the other hand, Purusha separates out into countless Jivas or individual units of consciousness as souls which fuse into the mind and body of the animate branch of Prakriti. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samkhya] - [T.D. - 08/02/09]

200 - Avestan Script - "Avestan was an Iranian language with which the earliest Zoroastrian hymns were orally transmitted. By the 3rd century CE an alphabet was created to write down the hymns. The alphabet was modelled on the Pahlavi script which recorded Middle Persian [3rd century BCE to 9th century CE], and which in turn was derived from Aramaic." [Link: 1]

200 - Runic Inscriptions - "The first Runic inscriptions appeared around 200 CE, but its origins may lie much deeper in the pre-history of Northern Europe." [Link: 1]

200 - Ogham Inscriptions - "Oghams were used to write very old Irish, from 3rd to 6th century of our era. Ogham inscriptions are found exclusively in Ireland, Scotland, and Wales." [Link: 1]

200 - Mishnah Compiled - "Judah the son of Simeon Gamaliel [Acts 5:34, and teacher of Paul, Acts 22:3], compiled the Mishnah about 200 A.D. Mishnah is from the root meaning 'to repeat' the oral teaching."

200 - Birth / Julius Africanus - "The early Christian historian, Julius Africanus of Edessa (AD 200-245), observed that, as well as having godly status, the Elohim were defined in some non-canonical works as 'foreign rulers' and 'judges'." [Based on: Laurence Gardner, Genesis of the Grail Kings, p. 30]

200  - Catacombs of St. Calixtus - "Pope Zephyrinus assigned his deacon, Calixtus [a former slave], to administer the large underground complex beneath the Appian Way. The subterranean graveyard had existed from about 150CE. This first official Christian cemetery probably originated as the private open-air burial ground of the noble Cecili family of Rome. From this time on it became known as the Catacombs of St. Calixtus. It extended over an area of 20 km., one 3-5 levels, and includes some 500,000 tombs." [Edward Gibbon]

204 - Birth / - Ammonius Saccus

Although Ammonius Saccus was long believed to be the founder of Neo-Platonism, the school had its true beginning in Plotinus (A.D. 204-269?). Prominent among the Neo-Platonists of Alexandria, Syria, Rome, and Athens were Porphyry, Iamblichus, Sallustius, the Emperor Julian, Plutarch, and Proclus. Neo-Platonism was the supreme effort of decadent pagandom to publish and thus preserve for posterity its secret (or unwritten) doctrine. In its teachings ancient idealism found its most perfect expression. Neo-Platonism was concerned almost exclusively with the problems of higher metaphysics. It recognized the existence of a secret and all-important doctrine which from the time of the earliest civilizations had been concealed within the rituals, symbols, and allegories of religions and philosophies. To the mind unacquainted with its fundamental tenets, Neo-Platonism may appear to be a mass of speculations interspersed with extravagant flights of fancy. Such a viewpoint, however, ignores the institutions of the Mysteries--those secret schools into whose profundities of idealism nearly all of the first philosophers of antiquity were initiated.

When the physical body of pagan thought collapsed, an attempt was made to resurrect the form by instilling new life into it by the unveiling of its mystical truths. This effort apparently was barren of results. Despite the antagonism, however, between pristine Christianity and Neo-Platonism many basic tenets of the latter were accepted by the former and woven into the fabric of Patristic philosophy. Briefly described, Neo-Platonism is a philosophic code which conceives every physical or concrete body of doctrine to be merely the shell of a spiritual verity which may be discovered through meditation and certain exercises of a mystic nature. In comparison to the esoteric spiritual truths which they contain, the corporeal bodies of religion and philosophy were considered relatively of little value. Likewise, no emphasis was placed upon the material sciences. [....]

[Based on: http://www.sacred-texts.com/eso/sta/sta03.htm]

207 - Christian Persecution - "Lucius openly confirmed his Christianity at Winchester in AD 156 and his cause was heightened in AD 177 by a mass Roman persecution of Christians in Gaul. This was enforced especially in the old Herodian regions of Lyon and Vienne, where St. Irenaeus and 19,000 Christians were put to death thirty years later. During the persecution, a good many Gaulish Christians fled to Britain, especially to Glastonbury, where they sought the aid of Good King Lucius." [Based on: Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, Laurence Gardner]

210 - Birth / Mani - "Mani (in Persian: ????) was born of Iranian (Parthian) parentage in Babylon, Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq) which was a part of Persian Empire about 210-276 CE. He was a religious preacher and the founder of Manichaeism, an ancient Persian gnostic religion that was once prolific but is now extinct. [....] Mani presented himself as a saviour, the apostle of Jesus Christ’. In the 4th- century Manichaean Coptic papyri, Mani was identified with the Paraclete-Holy Ghost and he was regarded as the new Jesus. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mani_%28prophet%29]

*Trivia: "[....] Manichaeism originated in 3rd Century Babylon (a province of Persia at the time), and reached, over the span of the next ten centuries, from North Africa in the west, to China in the East. [....] The name Mani is mainly a title and term of respect rather than a personal name. This title was assumed by the founder himself and so completely replaced his personal name that the precise form of the latter is not known. Mani's holy book was called Arzhang a Parthian word meaning "Worthy", and was beautified with paintings. Therefore Iranians gave him the title of "The Painter".

211 - Roman Emperor / Caracalla - February 4th, 211: "After the death of his father [Septimius Severus'], Caracalla became Roman Emperor."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Roman_Emperors

211 - Anarchy / Roman Empire - "After the death of Septimius Severus, a period of near-anarchy prevailed in the Roman Empire, as emperors followed each other rapidly. Few of them died in bed, and succession was usually by military coup."

212 - Trivia / Roman Citizenship - "Caracalla extended Roman citizenship to all inhabitants of the Empire who were not slaves."

217 - 16th "Pope" - "Pope ["Saint"] Callixtus I. Died: 222 A.D."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Callixtus_I

217 - 1st "Antipope" / Hippolytus - "Anti-Pope Hippolytus [217-235]."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_popes_%28graphical%29

218 A.D. - Perihelion / Halley's Comet - May 17th, 218 A.D.: "1P/218 H1 (17 May 218)"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halley%27s_Comet] - [T.D. - 06/12/07] 

220 - Kingdoms Trivia / China - "Three Chinese kingdoms [Wei: 220-265, Shu: 221-263, and Wu: 229-280] ranged from 220-280 A.D."

222 - 17th "Pope" - "Pope ["Saint"] Urban I. Died: 230 A.D."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Urban_I

224 - Sassanid Dynasty / Persia - "A new Dynasty [the Sassanid] came into being following the rebellion of Ardashir in 224 A.D. which killed Artabanus V, the last Parthian ruler. In place of Parthia, people speak of the 'Sassanid Empire,' or the 'New Persian Empire,' the 'Neo-Persian Empire,' or simply 'Persia.' "

230 - 18th "Pope" - July 21st, 230: "Pope ["Saint"] Pontian. Died: ??? A.D."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Pontian

230 - Emperor Sujin / Japan - "The Emperor Sujin ascended the Japanese throne and records began to be kept. Reportedly, much of what was written continued to be legendary."

235 - 19th "Pope" - "Pope ["Saint"] Anterus. Died: 236? A.D."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_popes_%28graphical%29

230 - Manicheism - "[....] Manichaeism originated in 3rd Century Babylon (a province of Persia at the time), and reached, over the span of the next ten centuries, from North Africa in the west, to China in the East. [....] The name Mani is mainly a title and term of respect rather than a personal name. This title was assumed by the founder himself and so completely replaced his personal name that the precise form of the latter is not known. Mani's holy book was called Aržang a Parthian word meaning "Worthy", and was beautified with paintings. Therefore Iranians gave him the title of "The Painter".

Early 3rd-4th century Christian writers such as Hippolytus and Epiphanius write about a Scythianus, who visited India around 50 AD from where he brought "the doctrine of the Two Principles". According to these writers, Scythianus' pupil Terebinthus presented himself as a "Buddha" ( "He called himself a Buddas" writings of Cyril of Jerusalem. Terebinthus went to Palestine and Judaea where he met the Apostles ("becoming known and condemned" Isaia), and ultimately settled in Babylon, where he transmitted his teachings to Mani, thereby creating the foundation of Manicheism.

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manicheism]

235 - "Imperial Crisis" / Roman Empire -

Crisis of the Third Century (also known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" ) is a commonly applied name for the crumbling and near collapse of the Roman Empire between 235 and 284 caused by the three simultaneous crises of external invasion, internal civil war and economic collapse. The changes in the institutions, society, economic life and eventually religion were so profound and fundamental, the "Crisis of the Third Century" is increasingly seen as the watershed marking the difference between the classical world and the early medieval world, or world of late antiquity. [....]

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crisis_of_the_Third_Century]

235 - Christian Persecution / Roman Empire - "In AD 235, the Emperor Maximinus decreed that all Christian bishops and priests should be seized, their personal wealth confiscated and their churches burned. The captives were sentenced to various forms of punishment and slavery, including penal servitude at the lead mines in Sardina. On arrival, each captive would have one eye removed and the left foot and right knee damaged to restrict movement. The men were also castrated. If that were not enough, they were chained from their wastes to their ankles so they could not stand upright and the fetters were permanently welded. Not suprisingly, the majority did not live for more than a few months. In those days, being a Christian was in itself dangerous, but to be a known leader was tantamount to signing a personal death warrant." [Based on: Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, Laurence Gardner, p. 133]

236 - 20th "Pope" - "Pope ["Saint"] Fabian. Died: 250 (?) A.D."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_popes_%28graphical%29

249 - Roman Emperor / Decius - "By the time of Emperor Decius [AD 249], the Christians had become so rebellious that they were proclaimed criminals and their mass persecution began on an official basis. This continued into the reign of Diocletian, who became Emperor in AD 284." [Based on: Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, Laurence Gardner]

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Roman_Emperors

250 - Goths / Balkan Peninsula - "About 250 A.D., the Goths flooded into Dacia, crossed the Danube, and visited destruction on the Balkan Peninsula."

250 - Famine & Plague / Roman Empire - "[....] But a long and general famine was a calamity of a more serious kind. It was the inevitable consequence of rapine and oppression, which extirpated the produce of the present, and the hope of the future harvests. Famine is almost always followed by epidemical diseases, the effect of scanty and unwholesome food. Other causes must however have contributed to the furious plague, which, from the year two hundred and fifty, to the year two hundred and sixty-five, raged without interruption in every province, every city, and almost every family, of the Roman empire. During some time five thousand persons died daily in Rome; and many towns, that had escaped the hands of the barbarians, were entirely depopulated. [....]" [Edward Gibbon, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire]

250 - Major Trading Center / Axum - "By 250 A.D., Axum had become a major trading center, and was particularly active in the ivory traffic."

251 - 2nd "Antipope" / Novatian - "Anti-Pope Novatian [251-258]."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_popes_%28graphical%29

251 - 21st "Pope" - March 251: "Pope ["Saint"] Cornelius. Died: June 253 A.D."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Cornelius

253 - 22nd "Pope" - June 253: "Pope ["Saint"] Lucius I. Died: March 5th, 254 A.D."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Lucius_I

254 - 23rd "Pope" - March 12th, 254: "Pope ["Saint"] Stephen I. Died: August 2nd, 257 A.D."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Stephen_I

253 - Roman Emperor / Valerian - "Valerian reigned as Roman Emperor from 253-260 A.D."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Roman_Emperors

256 - Configuration - Uranus-Pluto [Aries/Libra Taurus/Scorpio] opposition [256-262]. Uranus-Pluto conjunctions and oppositions might bring sudden and radical changes, like a cathartic diarrhoea, yet their full integration takes ages."

257 - 24th "Pope" - August 30th, 257: "Pope ["Saint"] Sixtus II. Died: August 6th, 258 A.D."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Sixtus_II

259 - 25th "Pope" - July 22nd, 259: "Pope ["Saint"] Dionysius. Died: December 26th, 268 A.D."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Dionysius

267 - Goths / Greece - "In 267 A.D., the Goths sacked Athens, Sparta, and Corinth. Other German tribes invaded other portions of the Roman Empire, and Roman cities began to build walls about themselves since the frontiers seemed to have become porous."

268 - Roman Emperor / Claudius II - "Claudius II became Roman Emperor."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Roman_Emperors

259 - 26th "Pope" - January 5th, 269: "Pope ["Saint"] Felix I. Died: 274 A.D."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Felix_I

269 - Goth Victories / Claudius II - "In 269, and again in 270, Claudius II won tremendous victories over the Goths, slaughtering them and driving the remnants beyond the frontiers. [Some Goths became Romanized and settled within the Empire.]"

270 - Fatallity / Valentine - "In the mid-third century, Rome was involved in one of its many wars and, as tends to happen in any country at war, the math-as-survival dynamic had kicked in: As more men died, fewer signed up. Military recruiting efforts weren't going very well.  Married men of the day didn't want to leave their families to fight the good fight, and young men in love wanted to stay home with their sweethearts. In a stroke of sub-genius, the Roman emperor Claudius unilaterally forbade marriage, thinking such a move would change things and that men would once again sign up for military service. But a local Roman priest named Valentine defied the emperor's dictate and secretly continued to marry people in his church. As you might expect, word got around about Valentine's actions. The emperor and his minions undoubtedly were performing today's equivalent of tapping Valentine's phone and reading his e-mails to find out what treason he was commiting in the name of love. Then as now, leaders didn't react well to dissidence and minority opinions; Valentine was arrested, shackled and taken to a Roman prison. He languished for a long time in the dungeon of that prison, eventually dying a horrible, lonely death on February 14th in the year 270, possibly having been beheaded. It's fair to assume that the demise of the priest named Valentine was not altogether pleasant. Eventually, he was sainted by the church, and by the middle of the 18th century we were celebrating his day. [....]" [Based on: Title for Other Views Page article (Would that love were simple) by Kurt Ullrts not transcribed - E.M.]

270 - Roman Emperor / Aurelian - August 270: "Claudius II died in his bed [unusual for the period] in 270, and succeeding him was the equally capable Aurelian, who became Roman Emperor."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Roman_Emperors

271 - Building a Wall / Rome - "In 271 A.D., Roman Emperor Aurelian [215-275 A.D.] began the task of building a wall about Rome - a city that had had no need of one for five centuries."

274 - Sun-God Temple / Rome - "On Dec. 25, 274, Aurelian had proclaimed the sun-god principal patron of the empire and dedicated a temple to him in the Campus Martius."

*Link: http://christianism.com/articles/13.html

*Trivia: "Sol Invictus ("Unconquered Sun") was a Roman god identified in the later Roman empire[ambiguous] with Sol, accompanied with the epithet invictus meaning unconquered that was commonly given to Sol from the 2nd century AD onwards. There is much confusion about Sol Invictus because modern scholarship long maintained that he was actually a distinct sun god introduced from Syria by the emperor Aurelian in AD 274.[1] In recent publications this older view has been definitively refuted, and it now seems certain that the Romans revered the sun, Sol (with various epithets, including invictus) as a god, without interruption, from as far back as we can trace Roman religion until the end of antiquity[ambiguous].[2]"

*Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sol_Invictus

275 - 27th "Pope" - January 4th, 275: "Pope ["Saint"] Eutychian (Eutychianus). Died: December 7th, 283 A.D."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Eutychian

281 - Configuration - "Uranus-Neptune [Leo] conjunction [281-282]. Uranus-Neptune energies work surreptitiously. They influence awareness and the inner movies playing within the world psyche."

280 - Gupta Empire / India - "The Gupta Empire (Hindi: ...) was ruled by members of the Gupta dynasty from around 280 to 550 CE and covered most of Northern India, parts of Gujarat and Rajasthan and what is now western India and Bangladesh. The capital, of the Guptas, was Pataliputra, present day Patna, in the Indian state of Bihar. [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gupta_Empire] - [T.D. - 12/15/08]

283 - 28th "Pope" - December 17th, 283: "Pope ["Saint"] Caius (Gaius). Died: April 22nd, 296 A.D."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Caius

284 - Divided / Roman Empire - "In 284 A.D., the period of near-anarchy and frequent changes of Emperor came, at least temporarily, to an end. A general named Diocletian [284-316 A.D.] became Roman Emperor, and was the first, since Marcus Aurelius a century before, to have both a long reign and a quiet death. [....] He abandoned Rome and set up his capital in Nicomedia in northwestern Asia Minor. In order to make the Empire easier to rule, he divided it into a western and eastern half. He chose a co-Emperor to rule the west, while he himself ruled the east. What's more, each Emperor chose a 'Caesar' who would assist him and serve as his successor - a kind of vice Emperor." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World]  

*Trivia: "[....] Augustus's reforms, turning the Roman state into an empire, survived mostly unchanged until the Diocletian reform at end of the 3rd century, which turned the empire into a tetrarchy. This was due to the near-collapse of the empire during the period of invasion, civil war, and economic chaos known as the Crisis of the Third Century. While the political form given by Diocletian was short lived, it led to the division of the Empire into two halves. This allowed Roman rule to continue for two more centuries over the whole empire, although divided into the Eastern and the Western Roman Empire. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Empire]

*Trivia: "By the time of Diocletian, about 10 % of the population of the Roman Empire was Christian."

*Trivia: - "By the time of Emperor Decius [AD 249], the Christians had become so rebellious that they were proclaimed criminals and their mass persecution began on an official basis. This continued into the reign of Diocletian, who became Emperor in AD 284. He dispensed with any vestige of democratic procedure and instituted an absolute monarchy. Christians were required to offer sacrifices to the divine Emperor and they suffered the harshest punishments for disobedience. It was ruled that all Christian meeting-houses be demolished and disciples who convened alternative assembelies were put to death. All Church property was confiscated by the magistrates, while all books, testaments and written doctrines of the faith were publicly burned. Christians of any prominent or worthy birthright were barred from public office and Christian slaves were denied any hope of freedom. The protection of Roman law was withdrawn and those who argued with the edicts were roasted alive over slow fires or eaten by animals in the public arena." [Based on: Laurence Gardner, Bloodline Of The Holy Grail]

295  - Perihelion / Halley's Comet - April 20th, 295 A.D.: "1P/295 J1 (20 April 295)"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halley%27s_Comet] - [T.D. - 06/12/07] 

296 - 29th "Pope" - June 30th, 296: "Pope ["Saint"] Marcellinus. Died: April 1st, 304? A.D."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Marcellinus

3rd Century A.D. - Ancient Church / Israel - "Israeli prisoners Ramil Razilo ... and Biton Maymon on Sunday [11/06/05] clean ancient mosaics from what may be the Holy Land's oldest church. Razilo found the mosaics while removing rubble at Megiddo Prison in Israel." [Based on: A.P. picture article, p. A6, S.L.P.D., 11/08/05]

*Trivia: "[....] Archaeologists said the church dated from the third century - decades before Constantine legalized Christianity across the Byzantine Empire. 'It's the oldest archaeological remains of a church in Israel, maybe even in the entire region,' said Yotam Tepper, the excavation's head archaeologist. [....] Razilo was helping to excavate the area before the construction of new wards for 1,200 Palestinians. [....] Two mosaics inside the church - one covered with fish, an ancient Christian symbol that predates the cross - tell the story of a Roman officer and a woman named Aketous who donated money to build the church in the memory 'of the god, Jesus Christ.' " [Based on: Washington Post article (Prisoner uncovers ancient church), p. A6, S.L.P.D., 11/08/05]

3rd- 5th Century A.D. - Gospel of Mary - "3rd-5th Century C.E. Mary / Written in the form of a dialogue between Jesus and his disciples, this gospel depicts Mary of Magdala as one of Jesus's most beloved disciples, singled out by Jesus for special teachings and private revelation. She is a leader among the male apostles and comforts them when Jesus dies." [Based on: U.S. News & World Report (MYSTERIES OF FAITH / Secrets of Christianity) illustrated timeline (After Jesus: How the Good News Spread), p. 37]

4th Century A.D.

300 - Map of Europe - "Map of Europe, 300 A.D."

300 - Yamato Period / Japan - "Japanese Kufun or Yamato Period [300-710 A.D.] begins."

300 - Gospel of Judas - "4th Century C.E. Judas / The Gospel of Judas reveals Judas to be the most beloved and trusted of all the Apostles rather than the evil betrayer seen in the canonical gospels. In this version, paradoxically, he commits a supreme act of obedience and love by handing Jesus over to the detachment of soldiers to be crucified in accordace with God's will." [Based on: U.S. News & World Report (MYSTERIES OF FAITH / Secrets of Christianity) illustrated timeline (After Jesus: How the Good News Spread), p. 37]

*Trivia: "[....] The Gospel of Judas [discovered by looters in the 1970s] was originally written in Greek about 140 years after Jesus and Judas died. The current manuscript is a copy of the original text translated into the Coptic language by a professional scribe in a group known as the Gnostics. Extensive analysis of the paper, ink, writing style and text all indicate that the copy was made about A.D. 300, according to Terry Garcia of the National Geographic Society. 'We are confident that this is a genuine piece of ancient Christian apocryphal literature,' he said. [....] In a key passage, Jesus compares Judas to the other disciples, saying: 'You will exceed all of them. For you will sacrifice the man that clothes me.' By helping Jesus get rid of his flesh, Judas will help liberate the divine being within. [....]" [Based on: Los Angeles Times article (Traitor or friend? / Manuscript portrays Judas as Jesus' most trusted disciple), pp. A1 & A8, S.L.P.D., 04/07/06]

300 - Goths / Poland & Ukraine - "The most important of the Germanic tribes at this time [250-300] were the Goths. They may have originally dwelt in what we now call Sweden in the time of Augustus. With time, they drifted southward until, by 300, they formed a rather large, loosely bound realm in what is now Poland and the Ukraine. In Poland they lorded over the primitive Slavs, who were a peaceful folk who were easily enslaved (some people think the word 'slave' comes from 'Slav.'). [....] The Goths split up into two groups: the 'Ostrogoths' to the east, and the 'Visigoths' to the west." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 99] 

303 - Destruction / Christian Texts - "In 303 C.E. Emperor Diocletian decreed that all Christian books be handed over and burned. Refusal would bring arrest and death!"

303 - First Christian Nation / Armenia - "Armenia made Christianity its official religion and became the first Christian nation."

305 - Abdication / Roman Emperor Diocletian - "In 305 A.D., Diocletian abdicated. Subsequently, his system of two Emperors and two Caesars broke down. His abdication was a signal for various generals to fight for the throne."

307 - 30th "Pope" - May 307: "Pope ["Saint"] Marcellus I. Died: 309 A.D."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Marcellus

307 - "Protector of the Empire" / Mithra -


Persian savior, whose cult was the leading rival of Christianity in Rome, and more successful than Christianity for the first four centuries of the "Christian" era. In 307 A.D. the emperor officially designated Mithra "Protector of the Empire." (1)

   Christians copied may details of the Mithraic mystery-religion, explaining the resemblance later with their favorite argument, that the devil had anticipated the true faith by imitating it  before Christ's birth. Some resemblances between Christianity and Mithraism were so close that even St. Augustine declared the priests of Mithra worshipped the same deity as he did.  (2) [....]

(1) Legge 2, 271; Angus, 168.
(2) Reinach, 73

[Based on: The Woman's Encyclopedia of Myths and Secrets (Copyright 1983), by Barbara G. Walker, pp. 663-665]

307 - Roman Emperor / Constantine I - "Roman general Constantine invaded Italy, defeated Maxenttius, and marched on Rome. It occured to Constantine that since even Diocletian had failed to suppress the Christians, it might be good politics to get those enthusiasts on his side. Therefore, he spread the news that he had seen a glowing cross in the heaven and placed Christian insignia on his soldiers' shields." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Roman_Emperors

309 - 31st "Pope" - April 18th, 309 or 310: "Pope ["Saint"] Eusebius. Died: 310 A.D."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Eusebius

310 - 32nd "Pope" - July 10th, 310 or 311: "Pope ["Saint"] Miltiades. Died: January 10th or 11th 314 A.D."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Miltiades

313 - Edict of Milan - "With the Edict of Milan, Constantine allowed Christians free exercise of their religion. Roman Emperor Constantine I [288?-337 A.D.] was honored for establishing Christianity as the official religion of the Roman Empire. He didn't become a Christian himself until the final weeks of his life, when he accepted baptism on his deathbed, as insurance for his after-life." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World

313 - Trivia / Christian Bishops, Rome - "From Nero's crucifixion of Peter to the Edict of Milan in AD 313 [when Christianity was officially recognized], there were no fewer than thirty appointed Christian bishops in Rome." [Based on: Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, Laurence Gardner] 

314 - 33rd "Pope" - January 314: "Pope ["Saint"] Silvester I. Died: December 31st, 335 A.D."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Silvester_I

314 - Date Change / Birth of Jesus - "It was not until AD 314 that Emperor Constantine the Great arbitrarily changed the date of Jesus's birthday to 25 December so as to coincide with the pagan sun festival."

320 - Chandra Gupta I / India -  "Chandra Gupta [320-540 A.D.], who reigned from 320-330 A.D., founded the first true empire in India after the Mauryan Dynasty."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gupta_Empire

321 - dies Solis / "Sunday" - Constantine decreed (March 7, 321) dies Solis—day of the sun, "Sunday"—as the Roman day of rest [CJ3.12.2]: [....] *Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sol_Invictus

325 - Astronomic Configuration - January 1st, 325: "Jupiter [21 Capricorn], Saturn [17 Gemini R], Uranus [14 Aquarius], Neptune [12 Scorpio], Pluto [24 Aquarius]."

325 - Council of Nicaea - "Once the Christian religion was under a more or less Christian Emperor, the Emperor could say which point of view was indeed a heresy, and which point of view was 'orthodox' [from Greek words meaning 'true opinion']. In 325 A.D., a council of bishops was held at Nicaea in northwestern Asia Minor. Under Constantine's strong direction, the views of an Alexandrian  deacon, Athanasius [293-373 A.D.], were declared orthodox, and those of another Alexandrian deacon, Arius [250-336 A.D.], were declared heretical. The former view 'Catholicism', was given an advantage over 'Arianism' [the two disagreed over the nature of the Trinity]." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World] [Link: 1

*Trivia: "The trinity concept of the Father, Son and Holy Ghost is strictly Christian and was not established as a doctrine until the Council of Nicaea in AD 325."

*Trivia: "The Roman Catholic Church has two far mightier enemies than the 'heretics' and the 'infidels'; and these are - Comparative  Mythology and Philology. [....]" [Based on: H.P. Blavatsky, Isis Unveiled, reprint (1998, Vol. 2) of the 1877 edition, p. 30]

328 - Configuration - "Uranus-Pluto [Aquarius] conjunction. Uranus-Pluto conjunctions and oppositions might bring sudden and radical changes, like a cathartic diarrhoea, yet their full integration takes ages."

330 - Roman Capital / Constantinople - On May 11, 330 A.D., Roman emperor Constantine I, in an attempt to strengthen the empire, refounded Byzantium as Constantinople, the 'New Rome' and capital of the eastern half of the empire. Constantinople became the capital of the Roman Empire on May 11, 330."

330 - Samudragupta / India - "Samudragupta [Chandra Gupta's son] rules [330-380 A.D.] at the height of the Gupta Dynasty."

336 - 34th "Pope" - January 18th, 336 A.D.: "Pope ["Saint"] Marcus. Died: October 7th, 336 A.D."

Marcus was pope in the year 336. He is said to have been a Roman, but little is known of his early life. He was consecrated on January 18, 336, and died October 7 that same year.

Some evidence suggests that the early lists of bishops and martyrs known as the "Depositio episcoporum" and "Depositio martyrum" were begun during his pontificate. Marcus is credited with the foundation of the basilica of San Marco in Rome.

His feast day is on October 7.

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Marcus]
*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Marcus

337 - 35th "Pope" - February 6th, 337 A.D.: "Pope ["Saint"] Julius I. Died: April 352 A.D."


On this second banishment from Alexandria, Athanasius came to Rome, and was recognised as a regular bishop by the synod presided over by Julius in 342. Julius sent a letter to the Eastern bishops that is an early instance of the claims of primacy for the bishop of Rome. Even if Athanasius and his companions were somewhat to blame, the letter runs, the Alexandrian Church should first have written to the pope. "Can you be ignorant," writes Julius, "that this is the custom, that we should be written to first, so that from here what is just may be defined" (Epistle of Julius to Antioch, c. xxii).

It was through the influence of Julius that, at a later date, the council of Sardica in Illyria was held, which was attended only by seventy-six Eastern bishops, who speedily withdrew to Philippopolis and deposed Julius at the council of Philippopolis, along with Athanasius and others. The three hundred Western bishops who remained, confirmed the previous decisions of the Roman synod; and by its 3rd, 4th, and 5th decrees relating to the rights of revision claimed by Julius, the council of Sardica perceptibly helped forward the pretensions of the Bishop of Rome. Julius on his death in April 352 was succeeded by Liberius.

Julius is considered a saint in the Roman Catholic Church.

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Julius_I]
*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Julius_I

337 - Fatality / Emperor Constantine - May 22nd, 337: "After Constantine died in 337 A.D., his three sons divided the Empire amongst themselves. They were the first emperors who were brought up with a Christian education, but they behaved just as badly as the early pagan Emperors."

350 - Zodiac / Greece - "There are three main branches of astrology today, namely Western astrology, Indian or Jyotish astrology, and Chinese or East Asian astrology. The study of Western astrology and the belief in it, as part of astronomy, is first found in a developed form among the ancient Babylonians; and directly or indirectly through the Babylonians, it spread to other nations. It came to Greece about the middle of the 4th century B.C., reached Rome before the advent of the Christian era, and India with the Hellenistic Indo-Greek kingdoms. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_astrology] - [T.D. - 08/02/08]

350 - Trivia? / Ostrogoths & Visigoths - "In 350 A.D., the Ostrogothic kingdom, in what is now Poland and the Ukraine, had reached its fullest extent of size and power under a king named Ermanaric (d. 376). The Visigoths, for their part, now occupied what had been the Roman province of Dacia." [ Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 103] 

350 - Western Migration / Hsiung-nu [Huns] - "By 350 A.D., the Hsiung-nu began to drift westward. To the Europeans, once they arrived there, the nomads were known as 'Huns.' " [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World

351 - Roman Emperor / Constantius II - "By 351 A.D., Constantine's second son, Constantius II [317-361 A.D.], was in firm, solitary control."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Roman_Emperors

352 - 36th "Pope" - May 17th, 352: "Pope Liberius. Died: September 24th, 366 A.D."


After the death of the emperor Constantius in 361, Liberius annulled the decrees of that assembly, but, with the concurrence of bishops Athanasius and Hilarius, retained the bishops who had signed and then withdrew their adherence. In 366 Liberius gave a favourable reception to a deputation of the Eastern episcopate, and admitted into his communion the more moderate of the old Arian party. He died on September 24, 366.

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Liberius]
*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Liberius

354 - Bishop Augustine - "Augustine [354-430]; The greatest of the Latin Fathers, he was a Bishop of Hippo whose writings included the 'City of God' and his 'Confessions'. He is considered the primary theologian of the early church and had great influence on the concepts of original sin, salvation by grace, and the sacraments."


The term Patristic is employed to designate the philosophy of the Fathers of the early Christian Church. Patristic philosophy is divided into two general epochs: ante-Nicene and post-Nicene. The ante-Nicene period in the main was devoted to attacks upon paganism and to apologies and defenses of Christianity. The entire structure of pagan philosophy was assailed and the dictates of faith elevated above those of reason. In some instances efforts were made to reconcile the evident truths of paganism with Christian revelation. Eminent among the ante-Nicene Fathers were St. Irenæus, Clement of Alexandria, and Justin Martyr. In the post-Nicene period more emphasis was placed upon the unfoldment of Christian philosophy along Platonic and Neo-Platonic lines, resulting in the appearance of many strange documents of a lengthy, rambling, and ambiguous nature, nearly all of which were philosophically unsound. The post-Nicene philosophers included Athanasius, Gregory of Nyssa, and Cyril of Alexandria. The Patristic school is notable for its emphasis upon the supremacy of man throughout the universe. Man was conceived to be a separate and divine creation--the crowning achievement of Deity and an exception to the suzerainty of natural law. To the Patristics it was inconceivable that there should ever exist another creature so noble, so fortunate, or so able as man, for whose sole benefit and edification all the kingdoms of Nature were primarily created.

Patristic philosophy culminated in Augustinianism, which may best be defined as Christian Platonism. Opposing the Pelasgian doctrine that man is the author of his own salvation, Augustinianism elevated the church and its dogmas to a position of absolute infallibility--a position which it successfully maintained until the Reformation. Gnosticism, a system of emanationism, interpreting Christianity in terms of Greek, Egyptian, and Persian metaphysics, appeared in the latter part of the first century of the Christian Era. Practically all the information extant regarding the Gnostics and their doctrines, stigmatized as heresy by the ante-Nicene Church Fathers, is derived from the accusations made against them, particularly from the writings of St. Irenæus. In the third century appeared Manichæism, a dualistic system of Persian origin, which taught that Good and Evil were forever contending for universal supremacy. In Manichæism, Christ is conceived to be the Principle of redeeming Good in contradistinction to the man Jesus, who was viewed as an evil personality. [....]

[Based on: http://www.sacred-texts.com/eso/sta/sta03.htm]

*Trivia: "The ancient sortilegium, or divination by means of Sortes or lots - an art and practice now decried by the clergy as an abomination, designated by Stat. 10 Jac. as felony, and by Stat. 12 Carolus II. excepted out of the general pardons, on the ground of being sorcery - was widely practiced by the clergy and monks. Nay, it was sanctioned by St. Augustine himself, who does not 'disapprove of this method of learning futurity, provided it be not used for worldly purposes.' More than that, he confesses having practiced it himself (Vide "The Life of St. Gregory of Tours.").
   "Aye; but the clergy called it Sortes Sanctorum, when it was they who practiced it; while the Sortes Praenestinae, succeeded by the Sortes Homericae and Sortes Virgilianae, were abominable heathenism, the worship of the Devil, when used by anyone else.
  "Gregory de Tours informs us that when the clergy resorted to the Sortes their custom was to lay the Bible on the altar, and to pray the Lord that He would discover His Will, and disclose to them futurity in one of the verses of the book. Gilbert de Nogent writes that in his days (about the twelfth century) the custom was, at the consecration of bishops, to consult the Sortes Sanctorum, to thereby learn the success and fate of the episcopate. On the other hand, we are told that the the Sortes Sanctorum were condemned by the Council of Agda, in 506. In this case again we are left to inquire, in which instance has the infallibility of the church failed? Was it when she prohibited that which was practiced by her greatest saint and patron, Augustine, or in the twelfth century, by the clergy for the benefit of the bishop's elections? Or, must we still believe that in both of these contradictory cases the Vatican was inspired by the direct 'spirit of God'?" [Based on: H.P. Blavatsky, Isis Unveiled, reprint (1998, Vol. 2) of the 1877 edition, pp. 20-21]

355 - 3rd "Antipope" / Felix II - "Anti-Pope Felix II [355-365]."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_popes_%28graphical%29

361 - Pagan Roman Emperor / Julian - November 361: "Constantius II died in 361 and a cousin, Julian [331-363] became Emperor. Julian was a capable general who, even as a young man, defeated the German tribe of Franks who had crossed the Rhine River and invaded Gaul. [....] Once he became Emperor, Julian did what he had longed to do all along. He abandoned the Christian religion in which he had been raised and returned to paganism." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 104] 

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Roman_Emperors

363 - Roman Emperor / Jovian - "Julian is killed in battle and Jovian [a Christian] succeeds as Roman Emperor."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Roman_Emperors

364 - West Roman Emperor / Valentinian I - February 26th, 364: "Jovian died in 364 and was succeeded by Valentinian I, who appointed his brother Valens as co-Emperor. It was Valens who ruled in the east, and it was he who had to face the crisis created by the Visigoths who had entered the Empire to escape from the Huns."

365 - Configuration - "Uranus-Neptune [Leo/Aquarius] opposition [365-368]."

365 - Tsunami / Alexandria - "[....] 'Cleopatra: the Search for the Last Queen of Egypt' reveals a glimpse of her life through objects of diverse materials such as bronze, ceramics, potteries and various stones. All these items were submerged as a result of earthquakes and tsunamis recorded in ancient texts such as the tsunami that rocked Alexandria in 365 A.D. [....] 'The whole earth was made to shake and shudder,' wrote the Roman historian, Ammianus Marcellinus, as he described how ships were thrown a mile or two inland onto the roofs of houses in Alexandria. [....]" [Based on: Arab News.com article (Cleopatra: Egypt’s Queen presented in a new light) by LISA KAAKI, 06/01/11]

*Link: http://arabnews.com/lifestyle/art_culture/article446291.ece

366 - 37th "Pope" - 366: "Pope ["Saint"] Damascus I. Died: 383 A.D."

Saint Damasus I (ca. 305-383) was Pope from 366. Probably born near the city of Guimarães (in Gallaecia, Hispania), in what is present-day Portugal, under the Western Roman Empire, his life coincided with the rise of Constantine the Great and the reunion and redivision of the Western and Eastern Roman Empire as well as what is sometimes known as the Constantinian shift associated with the widespread legitimization of Christianity and the later adoption of Christianity as the religion of the Roman state.


Damasus faced accusations of murder and adultery in his early years as Pope. The neutrality of these claims have come into question with some suggesting that the accusations were motivated by the schismatic conflict with the supporters of Arianism. His personal problems were contrasted with his religious accomplishments, which included restoring the Basilica di San Lorenzo fuori le Mura, appointing the later-Saint Jerome as his personal secretary,creating (through Jerome) a translation of the Old Latin Bible that commoners could more easily understand that was also more accurate in that the version of the Old Testament from which this was translated was the original Hebrew instead of Greek, and presiding over the Council of Rome in 382, at which, according to Catholic tradition and the 6th century document Decretum Gelasianum, the modern Catholic canon of scripture was first set down.

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Damasus_I]
*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Damasus_I

366 - 4th "Antipope" / Ursicinus - "Anti-Pope Ursicinus [366-367]."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_popes_%28graphical%29

367 - Formation / Christian New Testament - "The New Testament, as we know it, began to take shape in AD 367, when an initial selection of writings was collated by Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria. From this list, certain works were approved and ratified by the council of Hippo in AD 393 and the Council of Carthage in AD 397." [Based on: Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, Laurence Gardner]


"Every one knows," wrote the great Manichean of the third century, Fauste, "that the Evangeliums were written neither by Jesus Christ, nor his apostles, but long after their time by some unknown persons, who, judging well that they would hardly be believed when telling of things they had not seen themselves, headed their narratives with the names of the apostles or of disciples contemporaneous with the latter." 

[Based on: H.P. Blavatsky, Isis Unveiled, reprint (1998, Vol. 2) of the 1877 edition, pp. 37-38]

374 - Saint Ambrose - "Ambrosius, or 'St. Ambrose' [339-397] the Bishop of Milan from 374 A.D., established the concept of church leaders having power over secular rulers."

374 - Huns / Europe - "The Huns crossed the Ostrogothic frontier and entered Europe. The Ostrogoths could not stand against the Huns. Ermanaric, who had ruled over their large territory, was [according to legend] forced to kill himself in despair at seeing his kingdom vanish under the thundering hooves of the Hunnish horsemen. The Visigoths, who lived just across the Danube from the Romans, clamored in terror to be allowed across the river. The Romans allowed the Goths to enter, but it was not entirely an act of mercy, for the Roman officials plundered the Goths and profited in this manner." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 104] 

374  - Perihelion / Halley's Comet - February 16th, 374 A.D.: "1P/374 E1 (16 February 374)"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halley%27s_Comet] - [T.D. - 06/12/07] 

375 - West Roman Emperor / Valentinian II - "Ruling the Roman Empire in the west, Valentinian I died in 375 and was succeeded by his two sons Gratian and Valentinian II."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Roman_Emperors

376 - Seized by Christians / Mithra's Cave Temple, Vatican Hill - "[....] Mithra's cave-temple on the Vatican Hill was seized by Christians in 376 A.D. (22) Christian bishops of Rome pre-empted even the Mithraic high priest's title of Pater Patrum, which became Papa, or Pope. (23) Mithraism entered into many doctrines of Manichean Christianity and continued to influence  its old rival for over  a thousand years. (24) The Mithraic festival of Epiphany, marking the arrival of sun-priests or Magi at the Savior's birth place, was adopted by the Christian church only as late as 813 A.D. (25)

(22) J.H. Smith, D.C.P., 146. (23) H. Smith, 252. (24) Cumont, O.R.R.P., 154. (25) Brewster, 55.

[Based on: The Woman's Encyclopedia of Myths and Secrets (Copyright 1983), by Barbara G. Walker, p. 665]   

378 - Battle of Adrianople - "The Visigoths, angered by mistreatment by Romans, had gathered arms and had begun to raid farming areas for the food  that Roman officials were willing to sell them only at impossible prices. In 378 A.D., at Adrianople [about 150 miles west of Constantinople], Valens and the Romans were slaughtered. The battle of Adrianople put an end to the Roman legion. Now there followed a long period in which the key to victory lay in  the cavalry." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 105] 

379 - East Roman Emperor / Theodosius I - "Theodosius I [347-395 A.D.] became Roman Emperor [who ruled from the east]. He was an ardent Christian and began an active persecution of pagans."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theodosius_I
*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Roman_Emperors

380 - Chandra Gupta II / India - "Chandra Gupta II rules [380-415 A.D.] during the Gupta Dynasty."

381 - Configuration - Uranus-Pluto [Libra/Aries] opposition [381-382]. Uranus-Pluto conjunctions and oppositions might bring sudden and radical changes, like a cathartic diarrhoea, yet their full integration takes ages."

384 - 38th Pope / Siricius - December 11th, 384: "Pope ["Saint"] Siricius. Died: November 26th, 399 A.D."

St. Siricius, Bishop of Rome from 17 December 384 until his death on 26 November 399, was successor to Damasus and was himself succeeded by Anastasius I. He was the author of two decrees concerning clerical celibacy, and was the first Bishop of Rome to use the title of Pope.

He was elected unanimously, despite Antipope Ursinus’s attempt to promote himself. He was the first Pope to issue decretals.


[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Siricius]
*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Siricius

387 - Burnt / Alexandrian Library - "The library at Alexandria was burnt at the orders of the Roman Emperor Theodosius."

391 - Pagan Rites Banned / Theodosian Decree - "[....] Mithraism disappeared from overt practice after the Theodosian decree of AD 391 banned all pagan rites, and it apparently became extinct thereafter. [....]"

[Based on: http://www.crystalinks.com/mithra.html]

393 - Council of Hippo - "The New Testament, as we know it, began to take shape in AD 367, when an initial selection of writings was collated by Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria. From this list, certain works were approved and ratified by the council of Hippo in AD 393 and the Council of Carthage in AD 397." [Based on: Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, Laurence Gardner]

394 - Termination / Olympic Games  - "Theodosius I put an end to the Olympic games after they had been part of the Greek tradition for nearly 12 centuries." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World p. 105] 

395 - Trivia / Roman Christianity - "Before his death in 395 A.D., Roman Emperor Theodosius I arranged to have the Empire divided between his two sons. The elder, Arcadius [377-408 A.D.] ruled the east from Constantinople. The younger, Honorius [384-423 A.D.] ruled the west, not from Rome itself, but from Milan in northwestern Italy. The two sons of Theodosius, however, were both incompetent, and the Empire was never to be united again. Theodosius had also made Christianity the sole religion of the Empire, and Constantinople assumed preeminence over other Christian centres in the East as Rome did in the West." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 105] 

397 - Council of Carthage - "The New Testament, as we know it, began to take shape in AD 367, when an initial selection of writings was collated by Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria. From this list, certain works were approved and ratified by the council of Hippo in AD 393 and the Council of Carthage in AD 397." [Based on: Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, Laurence Gardner]

399 - 39th Pope / Anastasius I - November 27th, 399: "Pope ["Saint"] Anastasius I. Died: 401 A.D."

Anastasius I was pope from November 27, 399-401. He condemned the writings of the Alexandrian theologian Origen shortly after their translation into Latin.

Among his friends were Augustine, Jerome, and Paulinus. Jerome speaks of him as a man of great holiness who was rich in his poverty.

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Anastasius_I]
*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Anastasius_I

5th Century A.D.

400 - Easter Island - "Archaeological evidence indicates discovery of the island by Polynesians at about 400 AD."

400 - Map of Europe - "Map of Europe, 400 A.D."

400 - Visigoths / Italy - "The East Roman Empire got rid of Alaric and his Visigoths by encouraging him to turn westward. Alaric invaded Italy in 400 A.D., but he was met by Stilicho [a Vandal]. [....] In the war of German against German, Stilicho beat Alaric in northern Italy, and Alaric was forced to withdrawl." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 106] 

400 - Genesis Commentary - "The oldest and first complete Jewish commentary on Genesis is Genesis Rabbah. It was complied about 400 A.D., but includes teachings much earlier. Verses outside Genesis are brought in to further explain Genesis. There are comments, questions, and arguments from the great Rabbis about the meaning of each verse in Genesis one."

*Trivia: "It is well known to all historical and theological scholars that the Old Testament's book of Genesis was extracted from older Mesopotamian records. Why is it, then, that so many of those same scholars uphold the Church's veneration of Genesis as an absolute truth, whereas they decry the original records as legend and mythology? It is because, in the final analysis, despite falling congegrations, Church opinion always wins at an official level since it is inherently tied to the governments which control the acedemic establishments."  [Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, Laurence Gardner, p. 77]

400 - Vanished? / Ancient World Literature - "[....] ... Gilbert Murray said: 'The polemic literature of Christianity is loud and triumphant; the books of the pagans have been destroyed.' By the fifth century the destruction was so complete Archbishop Chrysostom could boast of it thus: 'Every trace of the old philosophy and literature of the ancient world has vanished from the face of the earth.' Doane, Bible Myths, p. 436. [....]" [Based on: Deceptions And Myths of the Bible, Lloyd M. Graham, p. 281, 1997 edition]

*Trivia: "[....] We affirm on good grounds that there are hundreds of the most valuable works on the occult sciences, which are sentenced to eternal concealment from the public, but are attentively read and studied by the privileged who have access to the Vatican Library. The laws of nature are the same for heathen sorcerer as for Catholic saint; and a 'miracle' may be produced as well by one as by the other, without the slightest intervention of God or Devil." [Based on: H.P. Blavatsky, Isis Unveiled, reprint (1998, Vol. 2) of the 1877 edition, p. 16]

*Trivia: "Let us adduce one more argument, if only for the sake of circumstantial evidence. In what countries have 'divine miracles' flourished most, been most frequent and most stupendous? Catholic Spain, and Pontifical Italy, beyond question. And which more than these two, has access to ancient literature? Spain was famous for her libraries; the Moors were celebrated for their profound learning in alchemy and other sciences. The Vatican is the storehouse of an immense number of ancient manuscripts. During the long interval of nearly 1,500 years they have been accumulating, from trial after trial, books and manuscripts confiscated from their sentenced victims, to their own profit. The Catholics may plead that the books were generally committed to the flames; that the treatises of famous sorcerers and enchanters perished with their accursed authors. But the Vatican, if it could speak, could tell a different story. [....]" [Based on: H.P. Blavatsky, Isis Unveiled, reprint (1998, Vol. 2) of the 1877 edition, p. 19]

400 - Period of Migrations / "German" People - "All the Aryan peoples have had their heroic age, the achievements of which form the basis of later saga. For the Germans this was the period of the Migrations, as it is called, in round numbers the two hundred years from 400 to 600, at the close of which we find them settled in those regions which they have, generally speaking, occupied ever since. [....]"

[Based on: http://www.authorama.com/nibelungenlied-2.html] - [T.D. - 12/08/07]

402 - 40th Pope / Innocent I - November 27th, 399: "Pope ["Saint"] Innocent I. Died: March 12th, 417 A.D."


It was during his papacy that the siege of Rome by Alaric and the Visigoths (408) took place, when, according to a doubtful anecdote of Zosimus, the ravages of plague and famine were so frightful, and divine help seemed so far off, that papal permission was granted to sacrifice and pray to the pagan deities; the pope happened, however, to be absent from the city on a mission to Honorius at Ravenna at the time of the sack in 410.


[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Innocent_I]
*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Innocent_I

405 - Latin Bible - "Eusebius Hieronymus, or 'St. Jerome' [347-420 A.D.] translated the Hebrew writings into Latin. His version of the Bible, the 'Vulgate' [from a Latin word for 'the common people'] was completed in 405 A.D. and became the official version up to the Renaissance. Jerome was commissioned by Pope Damasus I [366-384]. Augustine was disturbed at Jerome for setting aside the inspired Septuagint [LXX] to go back to the original Hebrew text that no one else could understand." [Link: 1]

407 - Configuration - "Neptune-Pluto [Taurus] conjunction [407-412], squared by Uranus [Aquarius]."

407 - Roman Withdrawl / Britain - "When Italy was being plagued by the Visigoths, the Sueves, and the Vandals, Stilicho was forced to draw on whatever troops were available, and he called upon the legions stationed in Britain to come to Italy. They left Britain, beginning in 407. The withdrawl was undoubtedly thought to be temporary at first, but it turned out to be permanent." [Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 108] 

409 - German Spain - "The Sueves and Vandals crossed Gaul with scarcely any opposition and, by 409 A.D., were settling down in Spain. [....] This successful invasion was blamed on Stilicho, who had done everything he could to protect Italy at least. In August 408 A.D., he was executed. The German tribesmen, who made up much of the 'Roman' army, deserted in indignation, and Alaric, still waiting not far outside Italy, seized his chance." [Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 107] 

410 - German Rome - "He [Alaric] marched into Italy again and, in 410, his soldiers actually took Rome. For the first time since the sack by the Gauls, exactly eight centuries before, Rome was in Foreign hands. Alaric remained only six days, then marched into southern Italy where he died of fever. [....] The Visigoths then trekked into Spain where they fought successfully against the German tribes that were already there." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 107] 

410 - Cassianite Order - "The Cassianite Order has an interesting history. Although St. Benedict is customarily regarded as the father of Western monasticism, he was actually preceded by John Cassian, who founded his Cassianite monastery in about AD 410 [albeit following innovatory communal endeavors by Martin, Bishop of Tours, and Honoratius, Archbishop of Arles]. The significant advance in monastic discipline made by Cassian [to be followed by Benedict and others] was its separation and independence from the organization of the episcopal Church. Cassian denounced the taking of holy orders as a 'dangerous practice', and declared that monks should 'at all costs avoid bishops'. Initially an ascetic hermit in Bethlehem, John Cassian established his twin schools near Marseilles - one for men, and one for women. Hence, Marseilles became a recognized conventual centre: the birthplace of the Candlemas ritual which succeeded the earlier torchlight procession of Persephone of the Underworld. Similarly, the Feast of the Madonna originated at St. Victor's Basilica in Marseilles." [Based on: Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, Laurence Gardner]

411 - Configuration - "Neptune-Pluto [22-23 Taurus] conjunction [411-412]. Neptune-Pluto cycles last about 495 years - half a millennium. They characterise an underlying driving-force behind history, an undertow of reality which marries the inevitable ram-force of Pluto with the imaginal, ideational power of Neptune. This combined force helps us define our underlying historical reality on a collective-unconscious level - this world-view and body of collective experience being a combination of actualities and perceptions." [Link: 1]

413 - Triple Set of Walls / Constantinople - "Beginning in 413 A.D, and taking 34 years to complete, a triple set of walls was built across the landward approaches to Constantinople." [Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 108] 

413 - Burgundian Settlement / Germania prima - "[....] The Franks had as neighbors up-stream in the first half of the fifth century the Burgundians, an East Germanic tribe. These Burgundians, who were closely allied to the Goths, had originally dwelt in the Baltic region between the Vistula and the Oder, whence they had made their way south westward across across germany and settled in the year 413 in Germania prima on the west bank of the Rhine about Worms. Here a tragic fate was soon to overtake them. In the year 435 they had already suffered a reverse in a conflict with the Romans under Aetius, and two years later, in 437, they were practically annihilated by the Huns. [....] With the great battle of Chalons in 451 the tide turned against him [Attila], and two years afterward he died a mysterious death. [....]"

[Based on: http://www.authorama.com/nibelungenlied-2.html] - [T.D. - 12/08/07]

416 - Volcanic Eruption? / Krakatoa - "The Javanese Book of Kings (Pustaka Raja) records that in the year 338 Saka (416 AD) [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Krakatoa] - [T.D. - 10/11/08]

417 - 41st Pope / Zosimus - March 18th, 417: "Pope ["Saint"] Zosimus. Died: December 27th, 418 A.D."


According to the Liber Pontificalis Zosimus was a Greek and his father's name was Abram. Some scholars deduce from this that the family was of Jewish origin, but this cannot be certain.


[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Zosimus]
*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Zosimus

418 - 5th Antipope / Eulalius - "Anti-Pope Eulalius [418-419]."

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_popes_%28graphical%29

418 - 42nd Pope / Boniface I - December 28th, 418: "Pope ["Saint"] Boniface I. Died: December 4th, 422 A.D."


On the death of Pope Zosimus, two parties put forward their own candidate for Pope, one for Boniface, the other for Eulalius. Galla Placidia asked the emperor Honorius to intervene, and he sent an edict instructing both men to leave Rome. At the following Easter, Eulalius returned to the city to perform baptisms and celebrate the feast; when the emperor heard of this, Eulalius was stripped of his rank and banished from Rome, and on December 28, 418 Boniface became Pope.


[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Boniface_I]
*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Boniface_I

418 - Visigoths / Toulouse, Gaul - "Afterward, they [Visigoths] moved into southwestern Gaul, and there settled down and made it into a land of their own. They established their capital in 418 at the Gallic city of Toulouse. [....] Reigning over them from 418-451, was Theodoric I, a son of Alaric. The kingdom of Toulouse was the first of the Germanic kingdoms to be established." [Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 107] 

422 - 43rd Pope / Celestine - December 422: "Pope ["Saint"] Celestine. Died: April 6th, 432 A.D."

He was a Roman and is supposed to have been a near relative of the Roman Emperor Valentinian III. Nothing is known of his early history except that his father's name was Priscus. He is said to have lived for a time at Milan with St. Ambrose. The first notice, however, concerning him that is known is in a document of Pope Innocent I, in the year 416, where he is spoken of as Celestine the Deacon.


[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Celestine_I]
*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Celestine_I

428 - Vandals / North Africa - "Bonifacius [Roman general in charge of the African province with Carthage as its capital], decided to seek help among the German tribesmen, and the Vandals, unhappy in Spain, were ready to supply that help in their own way. In 428 Gaiseric [the Vandal leader, sometimes called Genseric] and some 80,000 Vandals were carried in Roman ships to Africa." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 107] 

431 - Vandal Victory / Hippo, Nortn Africa - "Gaiseric takes Hippo, the city where St. Augustine [who died in 430 A.D.] had reigned as bishop." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 107] 

432 - 44th Pope / Sixtus III - July 31st, 432: "Pope ["Saint"] Sixtus III. Died: August 18th, 440 A.D."

Sixtus III (d. 440) was pope from July 31, 432 to August 18, 440.

The name of Sixtus is often connected with a great building boom in Rome: Santa Sabina on the Aventine Hill was dedicated during his pontificate and he built Santa Maria Maggiore, whose dedication to Mary the Mother of God reflected his acceptance of the Ecumenical council of Ephesus which closed in 431. At that council the debate over Christ's human and divine natures turned on whether Mary could be called the "Mother of Jesus" as a human only or the "Mother of Christ" as both God and Man. The council gave her the Greek title Theotokos ("God-bearer"), and the dedication of the large church in Rome is a response to that.


[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Sixtus_III]
*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Sixtus_III

432 - Celtic Church / Ireland - "Ireland had never been part of the Roman Empire, but it had converted to Christianity, beginning about 432, as a result of the labors of Patricius [St. Patrick], a missionary from Britain. What developed was called the Celtic Church, one that differed in some respects from orthodox Catholic doctrine." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World

433 - Attila the Hun - "In 433, two brothers, Attila [406-453 A.D.] and Bleda [d. 455 A.D.], began to rule over the Huns. The Huns were still expanding in all directions. Most important was their expansion into Germany, which drove some of the German tribes across the Rhine and led to the establishment of the Germanic kingdoms." [Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 108] 

433 -  Hiung-nu / Turks - "In AD 433 a Hiung-nu clan called Asena disliking the autocratic style of the ruling Toba sovereigns of Northern China, migrated westward to Kan-suh [Kansu] a territory neighbouring another Hiung-nu people called the Jeu-Jeu or Jwen-Jwen [Jon Turks]. Here existed a mountain which, owing to its shape, was called Turku, Durku or T'u-chuen, still meaning in some Turkish dialects 'helmet' from which, it is believed, the national name 'Turk' descended. The exact location of the mountain is still unclear to this day. The Asena people were skilled iron workers and mounted archers. The reference to the 'Blue' Turks [Gok Turkler] in the Orkhon inscriptions indicates their belief of being the chosen people of the Supreme Sky [Tangri]. They believed themselves to be descended from a grey wolf; and the staffs of their war banners were capped by a golden wolfs head."

10. Baktun 9. Baktun of the Maya. A.D. 435-830.

Second galactic Mayan visitation, Pacal Votan of Palenque and flourishing of Mayan cultural regime; Muhammed and rise of Islam; Roman Christian Western Europe and Byzantine Orthodox Christian Eastern Europe; rise of Hinduism, India; spread of Buddhism to Tibet, Korea, Japan; T'ang Dynasty, China; rise of kingdoms in Southeast Asia, Indonesia (Borobadur, Java); ascendency of Tiahuanaco, Andes; Polynesian civilization, Oceania; early flourishing of Nigerian civilization.

[Based on: The Mayan Factor / Path Beyond Technology, by Jose Arguelles, Copyright 1939-, 1987, p. 115]

436 - Roman Withdrawl Complete / Britain -  "Roman withdrawl from Britain complete."

437 - Huns / Burgundia - "The Nibelungen saga is made up of two parts, on the one hand the mythical story of Siegfried and on the other the story, founded on historic fact, of the Burgundians. When and how the Siegfried myth arose it is impossible to say; its origin takes us back into the impenetrable mists of the unrecorded life of our Germanic forefathers, and its form was moulded by the popular poetic spirit. The other part of the saga is based upon the historic incident of the overthrow of the Burgundian kingdom by the Huns in the year 437. [....]"

[Based on: http://www.authorama.com/nibelungenlied-2.html] - [T.D. - 12/08/07]

439 - Configuration - "Uranus-Pluto [Gemini] conjunction [439-440]. Uranus-Pluto conjunctions and oppositions might bring sudden and radical changes, like a cathartic diarrhoea, yet their full integration takes ages."

439 - German Carthage - "Gaiseric took Carthage in 439 A.D., and established what was, under him, the strongest of the Germanic kingdoms. In 450 A.D., Gaiseric was still on the throne, and had developed a navy of his own. The Vandals of Carthage were the only Germanic kingdom to be strong at sea." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 108] 

440 - 45th Pope / Leo I - September 29th, 440: "Pope ["Saint"] Leo I. Died: November 10th, 461 A.D."

Pope Saint Leo I, or Leo the Great, was a Roman aristocrat who was Pope from 440 to 461. He is the first widely known Pope, and even sometimes assigned the title "first Pope". He stopped the invasion of Italy by Attila the Hun in 452 by his moral persuasion, was a theologian, and was a leading figure in the centralization of the government of the Church.


[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Leo_I]
*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Leo_I

446 - German England -  "The most decisive event in the formation of English took place in 446 A.D., when Germanic tribes left their homes in Germany and Denmark on the shores of the Baltic and landed in England under their mythical leaders Hengist [stallion] and Horsa [horse]."

448 - Meroveus / Gaul - "One of the greatest threats posed to the early Roman Church prior to 751 was the royal Merovingian dynasty of Gaul. They were male-line descendants of the Fisher Kings, with an ancestry tracing back to the family of Jesus and were named after their founder Meroveus, whom the Franks had proclaimed their Guardian at Tournai in AD 448. The Merovingians reigned by an ancient tradition of Messianic right and inheritance passed down from generations of ancestors. In keeping with the Grail Code, they served as guardians of their people, rather than territorial overlords. Hence, they were styled 'Kings of the Franks', but never Kings of France." [Realm Of The Ring Lords, Laurence Gardner]

449 - Anglo Saxon Settlement / Britain - "Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain begins."

450 - Old English Period -  "Earliest [450-480 A.D.] Old English [500-1100 A.D.] inscriptions"

450 - "Last of the Romans" / General Aetius - "By 450 A.D., the only general Rome had that could be considered Roman, was Aetius. He was the last to win victories in the west and has sometimes been called 'the last of the Romans' for that reason." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 108] 

451 - Battle of Chalons / Gaul - "Aetius of Rome, in alliance with Theodoric I, the aged king of the Visigoths, and with some other Germanic groups, marched north to oppose Attila. The armies met on the Catalaunian Plain, about 100 miles east of Paris. Aetius, maneuvering cleverly, won the battle - the last great victory of West Roman arms. Theodoric died in the fight." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 109] 

*Trivia: "In 451 A.D., Attila led his Huns westward across the Rhine River and into Gaul. It was the first time (and the last) that central Asian tribesmen penetrated west of the Rhine. To be sure, most of his forces were Ostrogoths, for the Huns had ruled the Ostrogoths for 80 years now. Attila was forced to leave Gaul as the result of his defeat, but he was by no means wiped out. He turned toward Italy, where his looting was so terrible that he was called 'the Scourge of God,' the whip with which God was punishing the sins of Italy." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 109] 

451 - Perihelion / Halley's Comet - June 28th, 451 A.D.: "1P/451 L1 (28 June 451)"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halley%27s_Comet] - [T.D. - 06/12/07] 

452 - Configuration - "Uranus-Neptune [Leo] conjunction [452-453]. Uranus-Neptune energies work surreptitiously. They influence awareness and the inner movies playing within the world psyche."

452 - Hun Victory / Aquileia - "In 452, he [Attila the Hun] laid siege to Aquileia, a city at the northern tip of the Adriatic sea. He took and destroyed it. Some of the inhabitants, fleeing from the devestation, took refuge among the swampy lagoons to the west, and there they made the first settlements of what became the city of Venice. Attila then moved southward toward Rome and there was no resistance worth mentioning." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 109] 

452 - Attila the Hun / Rome, Italy - "In Rome was Pope Leo I (400-461), sometimes called 'Leo the Great,' who had attained the Papacy in 440. He left Rome and came to meet Attila in full papal regalia, asking that Rome be left unharmed. Attila turned back (according to the story) because of the superstitious awe he felt at the Pope's majesty. That is, however, so unlike Attila, that it is much easier to believe that the Pope brought with him a sizable gift of gold for the Hunnish leader. Nevertheless, the story of Leo's facing down of Attila did much to raise papal prestige further." [Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 109] 

453 - Fatality / Attila The Hun - "Attila left Italy and, in 453, married again, celebrated overenthusiastically, and died that night in his own tent. As soon as he was gone, the German tribesmen who made up the bulk of his army revolted." [Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 109] 

455 - Vandals / Rome - "Gaiseric, the leader of the Vandals in North Africa, led an expedition against Italy. For two weeks, the Vandals efficiently removed all that was movable and valuable for carting off to Carthage." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World

456 - Jutes / Kent - "In 456, a party of Jutes from what is now Denmark (the Danish peninsula is still called Jutland in English to this day) landed in Kent, in the southeasternmost portion of Britain. They had been summoned by Vortigern to protect the land against the Picts. They promptly protected it by taking over Kent." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 111] 

461 - 46th Pope / Hilarius - November 17th(?), 461: "Pope ["Saint"] Hilarius. Died: February 28th(?), 468 A.D."


In Rome Hilarus worked zealously to counter the new emperor's edict of toleration for schismatic sects (467), inspired, according to a letter of Pope Gelasius I by a favourite of Emperor Anthemius named Philotheus, who espoused the Macedonian heresy. On one of the emperor's visits to St Peter's, the pope openly called him to account for his favourite's conduct, exhorting him by the grave of St Peter to promise that he would allow no schismatical assemblies in Rome


[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Hilarius]
*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Hilarius

466 - Visigoth Kingdom / Euric I - "Theodoric II was killed and succeeded by Euric I. Under him, the Visigothic kingdom reached its peak." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World

468 - Status / East Roman Empire - "In 468, the East Roman Emperor, Leo I, sent a naval expedition against Gaiseric, but that was useless. Gaiseric defeated them easily. However, in 500, the East Roman Empire was still entirely intact." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World

476 - Astronomic Configuration - January 1st, 476: "Jupiter [29 Libra], Saturn [14 Leo R], Uranus [9 Sagittarius], Neptune [15 Libra], Pluto [18 Leo R]."

476 - Fall / West Roman Empire - "The Germans in Italy wanted land and power, as their kinsmen in Gaul, Spain, and North Africa had. When the Romans refused to grant this, the Germans simply took it. Their leader, Odoacer (433-493), forced the Emperor, Romulus Augustulus, a boy who had come to the throne in 475, to abdicate on September 4, 476. Nor did Odoacer bother to name another puppet Emperor. He simply allowed the title to lapse, so that there was no Emperor at all in the west, five centuries after Augustus had become Rome's first Emperor. For this reason, 476 is usually given as the date of 'the fall of the Roman Empire.' This is wrong in two ways. In the first place, the West Roman Empire had been disintegrating for seven decades and 476 was just one more step in that disintegration. In the second place, there was still an Emperor in Constantinople (his name was Zeno and he reigned from 474-491); and, if there was no Emperor in Italy, then Zeno became the ruler of the entire Empire - in theory, at least." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 110] 

*Trivia: "[....] The end of the Western Empire is traditionally set as 4th September 476, when the Germanic chieftain Odoacer forced the abdication of the last Western Emperor Romulus Augustus and sent the Imperial insignia to Constantinople; henceforth Odoacer ruled nominally as dux on behalf of Constantinople. After another millennium, in 1453, the Eastern Empire, better known as the Byzantine Empire, fell to the Ottoman Turks. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Empire]


[....] Back in AD 330, Emperor Constantine the Great had split his Roman Empire formally in two, with the West governed from Rome and the East from Byzantium (in north-western Turkey), which he renamed Constantinople. But not long afterwards the Western Empire collapsed - demolished by the Visigoths and Vandals. The last Roman Emperor, Romulus Augustulus, was deposed by the German chieftan Odoacer, who became king of Italy in AD 476. In the absence of an Emperor, the prevailing High Bishop, Leo I gained the title of Pontifex Maximus (Chief pontiff or bridge-builder), later known as the Pope (Papa: Father). In the East, the story was different and the Byzantine Empire was destined to flourish for another thousand years.
    From the 5th century, the Church of Rome continued in the West, while the Byzantine Church emerged from its centers at Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem. Each of the churches sought supremecy over the other, and a main point of contention was an argument as to whether Jesus was the Son of God or whether he was God incarnate. Along with this, the nature of the Holy Spirit (or Holy Ghost) became a matter of heated discussion, and the whole affair became known as the Trinity Debate. This erupted into a fever in 867, when Patriarch Photius of Constantinople excommunicated Pope Nicholas I of Rome because he fronted an inferior Faith!
    The Catholics of Western Christendom then decried to ratify what was called the Filioque Article. This had been introduced at the Council of Toledo in 598, and it declared that the Holy Spirit proceeded "from the Father and from the Son" (Latin: filioque). The eastern Orthodox bishops claimed otherwise, stating that the Spirit proceeded "from the Father through the Son" (Greek: dia tou huiou). It was a somewhat intangible and extraordinary point of theological dispute, but it was good enough to split formal Christianity down the middle. In reality, it was simply a trivial excuse to perpetuate the dispute over whether the Church should be politically managed from Rome or Constantinople. The result was the formation of two quite distinct Churches from the same original, and the unresolved dialogue drove a wedge firmly between the factions. [....]

[Based on: Laurence Gardner, Lost Secrets of the Sacred Ark, pp. 141-142]

477 - Saxons / Britain - "By 477, other Germanic tribesmen, the Saxons, were also coming to Britain." [Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 111] 

480 - Monastaries - "Benedict of Nursia [480-543]; The head of Monte Casino, he is considered the most important figure in the Monastic movement. He established the rules for monasteries which were followed thoughout the Middle Ages."

480 - Birth / Boethius - "The exact birthdate of Boethius [Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius] is unknown. However, it is generally placed at around AD 480, the same year of birth as St. Benedict. Boethius was born to a patrician family which had been Christian for about a century. His father's line included two popes and both parents counted Roman emperors among their ancestors. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boethius]

481 - Clovis / Gaul - "The Franks were a Germanic tribe just east of the Rhine who, even in the time of Julian, had carried through serious raids into Gaul. The rulers of the Franks were descended from a leader named Merovech, so that they were called the 'Merovingians.' In 481, a 15-year-old Merovingian named Clovis succeeded to the leadership of the Frankish tribes." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 111] 

*Trivia: "When Meroveus's son Childeric died in AD 481, he was followed by his son Clovis, the most prominent of all the Merovingians and traditionally reckoned founder of the French monarchy. At that time the Roman Church greatly feared the increasing popularity of the Arian religion in Gaul [a Christian faith which did not subscribe to the divinity of Jesus], and Catholicism was dangerously close to being completely overrun in Western Europe. Clovis was, in practice, neither Catholic nor Arian and it occured to the Roman hierarchy that the rise of Clovis could be used to their advantage. As it transpired, Clovis aided them quite inadvertently when he married the Burgundian Princess Clotilde." [Based on: Realm Of The Ring Lords, Laurence Gardner]

486 - Frankish Victory / Soissons - "Clovis beat Syagrius at Soissons in northern Gaul. The last bit of land in the west that might be considered Roman was gone." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World

493 - Catholic Franks ["France"] - "Clovis, himself, was pagan, but his wife Clotilda, a princess of the Burgundians [another Germanic tribe] was Christian [Catholic]. In 493 Clovis converted to Christianity [Catholicism] and forced his tribesmen to follow suit. The Franks were the only Catholic Germanic tribe at this time." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World

494 - Canonization / Bishop George of Alexandria - "The ancient Greeks believed that dragons were benevolent creatures with the ability to convey the wisdom and secrets of life, while in contrast the early Hebrews saw dragons as the meddlesome purveyors of sin. The mighty dragon was the emblem of the Chinese Empire, being a national symbol of good fortune, and outside the Hebrew tradition dragons were generally seen as the guardians of universal knowledge and the benign protectors of humankind.
   "To the Celtic races of Europe, the dragon was the ultimate symbol of sovereignty (hence, the Dark Age Pendragons: the Head Dragons or King of Kings), but in AD 494 Pope Gelasius I challenged the Celtic Church by canonizing a certain Bishop George of Alexandria, who was said to have slain a dragon. This violent and unpopular Turkish churchman was reputed to have insulted and persecuted dissenters, and was eventually killed by a Palestinian mob in AD 361. He emerged, however, as the famous martyr St. George, with surrounding legends that grew ever more exaggerated. At the Council of Oxford in 1222, it was proclaimed that St. George's feast day should be 23 April, and in the 14th century he became the Catholic patron saint of England by decree of King Edward III Plantagenet." (Based on: Laurence Gardner, Genesis of the Grail Kings, pp. 1-2)."

495 - Trivia / Roman Synod -

The Pope (from Greek: pappas, father; from Latin: papa, Papa, father1) is the head of the Catholic Church, which considers him the successor of St. Peter as Bishop of Rome. The office of the Pope is called the Papacy; his ecclesiastical jurisdiction is called the Holy See (Sancta Sedes in Latin) or Apostolic See (this latter, on the basis that both St. Peter and St. Paul were martyred at Rome). Early bishops occupying the See of Rome were designated vicar (representative) of Peter; for later popes the more authoritative vicar of Christ was substituted; this designation was first used by the Roman Synod of AD 495 to refer to Pope Gelasius I, an advocate of papal supremacy among the patriarchs. Vicar of Christ is more appropriate to the Pope, as he takes the place of Jesus as the visible head of the Church; he succeeds Peter in this office. The first Patriarch of Rome to bear the title of "Pope" was Pope Boniface III in 607, the first Bishop of Rome to assume the title of "universal Bishop" by decree of Emperor Phocas. Previous Patriarchs of Rome are called "Popes" by courtesy. The Patriarchs of some Oriental Orthodox Churches are also called "Pope" by courtesy. [....]

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Pope]

495 - Babylonian Talmud - "Numerous Jewish academies are built in Babylonia during the 5th century by a Jewish leader known as the 'exilarch.' In 495 A.D. the Babylonian Talmud is written down."

6th Century A.D.

500 - Map of Europe - "Map of Europe, 500 A.D."

500s - Alvars - "The Alvars spelt as Azhwars(Tamil: ...) ... ‘those immersed in god’) were Tamil poet saints of south India who lived between the sixth and ninth centuries and espoused ‘emotional devotion’ or bhakti to Visnu-Krishna in their songs of longing, ecstasy and service. [....] The Bhakti literature that sprang from Alvars has contributed to the establishment and sustenance of a culture that broke away from the ritual-oriented Vedic religion and rooted itself in devotion as the only path for salvation. In addition they helped to make the Tamil religious life independent of a knowledge of Sanskrit. [2] As part of the legacy of the Alvars, five Vaishnava philosophical traditions (sampradayas) have developed at the later stages.[3] [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alvars] - [T.D. 01/23/10]

500 - Trivia / Chichen Itza - "According to popular opinion, about 500, the city of Chichen Itza was founded by the Mayans in Yucatan."

500 - Trivia / Germanic Tribes - "In 500, the situation was this: the Saxons and Jutes were entrenched in southeastern Britain; the Franks were in northern Gaul; the Visigoths were in southern Gaul and Spain; the Ostrogoths were in Italy; and the Vandals were in North Africa. Nowhere was there an inch of territory under Roman rule." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World

500 - Trivia / The God of Israel - "Did Abraham worship the same God as Moses or did he know him by a different name? This would be a matter of prime importance to us today, but the Bible seems curiously vague on the subject and gives conflicting answers to this question. J says that men had worshipped Yahweh ever since the time of Adam's grandson, but in the sixth century, P seems to suggest that the Israelites had never heard of Yahweh until he appeared to Moses in the Burning Bush. P makes Yahweh explain that he really was the same God as the God of Abraham, as though this were a rather controversial notion: he tells Moses that Abraham had called him 'El Shaddai' and did not know the divine name Yahweh. The discrepency does not seem to worry either the biblical writers or their editors unduly. J calls his God 'Yahweh' throughout; by the time he was writing, Yahweh was the God of Israel and that was all that mattered." [Based on: A History of God, Karen Armstrong, p. 14]

500 - Burgundian Victory / Clovis - "About 500, Clovis defeated the Burgundians [his wife's kingsmen] in eastern Gaul."

506 - Trivia / Council of Agda -  "Gregory de Tours informs us that when the clergy resorted to the Sortes their custom was to lay the Bible on the altar, and to pray the Lord that He would discover His Will, and disclose to them futurity in one of the verses of the book. Gilbert de Nogent writes that in his days (about the twelfth century) the custom was, at the consecration of bishops, to consult the Sortes Sanctorum, to thereby learn the success and fate of the episcopate. On the other hand, we are told that the the Sortes Sanctorum were condemned by the Council of Agda, in 506. In this case again we are left to inquire, in which instance has the infallibility of the church failed? Was it when she prohibited that which was practiced by her greatest saint and patron, Augustine, or in the twelfth century, by the clergy for the benefit of the bishop's elections? Or, must we still believe that in both of these contradictory cases the Vatican was inspired by the direct 'spirit of God'?" [Based on: H.P. Blavatsky, Isis Unveiled, reprint (1998, Vol. 2) of the 1877 edition, pp. 20-21]

*Trivia: "[....] Furthermore, we find anathemas fulminated against this lottery of fate, at the council of Vares, which forbids 'all ecclesiastics, under pain of excommunication, to perform that kind of divination, or to pry into futurity, by looking into any book, or writing, whatsoever.' The same prohibition is pronounced at the council of Agda in 506, of Orleans, in 511, of Auxerre in 595, and finally at the council of Aenham in 1110; the latter condemning 'sorcerers, witches, diviners, such as occasioned death by magical operations, and who practiced fortune-telling by the holy-book lots'; and the complaint of the joint clergy against de Garlande, their bishop at Orleans, and addressed to Pope Alexander III., concludes in this manner: 'Let your apostolical hands put on strength to strip naked the iniquity of this man, that the curse prognosticated on the day of his consecration may overtake him; for the gospels being opened on the altar according to custom, the first words were: and the young man, leaving his linen cloth, fled from them naked [translated from the original document in the Archives of Orleans, France].' "

[Based on: H.P. Blavatsky, Isis Unveiled, reprint (1998, Vol. 2) of the 1877 edition, pp. 21-22]

500 - Decline / Gupta Dynasty, India - "By 500, the Gupta dynasty had petered out, and India began to go through another period of small and competing states." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World

507 - Visigoth Victory / Clovis - "In 507, Clovis defeated the Visigoths and drove them out of Gaul."

508 - Clovis / Paris - "Clovis made his capital at Paris."

509 - Birth / Adi Shankara? - "[....] The traditional accounts of Adi Shankara's life can be found in the Shankara Vijayams, which are poetic works that contain a mix of biographical and legendary material, written in the epic style. The most important among these biographies are the Madhaviya Sa?kara Vijaya? (of Madhava, c. 14th century), the Cidvilasiya Sa?kara Vijaya? (of Cidvilasa, c. between 15th century and 17th century), and the Keraliya Sa?kara Vijaya? (of the Kerala region, extant from c. 17th century).[2][3] [....] An important variant date accepted for the acharya's birth is 509 B.C gathered from three of the 5 mutts established by him. A few rare works on his life, Prachina-shankara-vijaya by Anandagiri and vyasachaliya-shankara-vijaya by vyasachala give the date of 2593 kali yuga for his birth corresponding to 509 B.C. There are also epigraphic evidences supporting this date of birth for the acharya. [[2]] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adi_Shankara] - [T.D. - 12/15/08]

*Trivia: "Adi Shankara ... (788 CE - 820 CE), also known as Sankara Bhagavatpadacarya and Adi Sankaracarya, was an Indian philosopher who consolidated the doctrine of Advaita Vedanta, the most influential sub-school of Vedanta. His teachings are based on the unity of the soul and Brahman, in which Brahman is viewed as without attributes. [....] At the time of Adi Shankara's life, Hinduism was increasing in influence in India at the expense of Buddhism and Jainism. Hinduism was divided into innumerable sects, each quarreling with the others. The followers of Mimamsa and Sankhya philosophy were atheists, insomuch that they did not believe in God as a unified being. Besides these atheists, there were numerous theistic sects. There were also those who rejected the Vedas, like the Charvakas. [....] Even though he lived for only thirty-two years, his impact on India and on Hinduism was striking. He reintroduced a purer form of Vedic thought. His teachings and tradition form the basis of Smartism and have influenced Sant Mat lineages.[32] He is the main figure in the tradition of Advaita Vedanta. He was the founder of the Dasanami Sampradaya of Hindu monasticism and ?a?mata of Smarta tradition. He introduced the Pañcayatana form of worship. [....] Regarding meditation, Shankara refuted the system of Yoga and its disciplines as a direct means to attain moksha, rebutting the argument that it can be obtained through concentration of the mind. His position is that the mental states discovered through the practices of Yoga can be indirect aids to the gain of knowledge, but cannot themselves give rise to it. According to his philosophy, knowledge of brahman springs from inquiry into the words of the Upanishads, and the knowledge of brahman that shruti provides cannot be obtained in any other way.[33] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adi_Shankara] - [T.D. - 08/02/09]

511 - Franks ["France"] - "By the time of his death in 511, Clovis was master of virtually all of Gaul. In centuries to come, Gaul was the one province in the west that lost its name. It was Gaul no more, but eventually became 'France,' from the word 'Frank.' In German, the land is called 'Frankreich' ['realm of the Franks']. On Clovis's death, his four sons each inherited a portion of the Frankish kingdom and, as was inevitable, they fought eachother. This happened over and over and kept the Franks from becoming stronger than they were." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 112] 

516 - Configuration - Uranus-Pluto [Taurus/Scorpio Gemini/Sagattarius] opposition [516-520]. Uranus-Pluto conjunctions and oppositions might bring sudden and radical changes, like a cathartic diarrhoea, yet their full integration takes ages."

517 - Pluto in Sagittarius - December 26th, 517: "Estimated date when Pluto entered [0 degrees] Sagittarius."

520 - Boethius / Magister Officiorum - "[....] By 520, at the age of about forty, Boethius had risen to the position of magister officiorum, the head of all the government and court services. Afterwards, his two sons were both appointed consuls, reflecting their father's prestige.

In 523, however, Theodoric ordered Boethius arrested on charges of treason, possibly for a suspected plot with the Byzantine Emperor Justin I, whose religious orthodoxy (in contrast to Theodoric's Arian opinions) increased their political rivalry. Boethius himself attributes his arrest to the slander of his rivals. Whatever the cause, Boethius found himself stripped of his title and wealth and imprisoned in Pavia, awaiting an execution that took place in 524 or the following year.

Boethius's most popular work is the Consolation of Philosophy, which he wrote in prison while awaiting his execution, but his lifelong project was a deliberate attempt to preserve ancient classical knowledge, particularly philosophy. He intended to translate all the works of Aristotle and Plato from the original Greek into Latin. His completed translations of Aristotle's works on logic were the only significant portions of Aristotle available in Europe until the 12th century. [....]

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boethius]

525 - Died / Boethius - "The death of Boethius in the sixth century marked the close of the ancient Greek school of philosophy. The ninth century saw the rise of the new school of Scholasticism, which sought to reconcile philosophy with theology. [....]"

[Based on: The Secret Teachings of All Ages, by Manly P. Hall (Paperback Edition 2003), p. 27]

525 - Christianized / Phoenix Cycle - "From classical sources we discover that the Greeks recognized what was called the Phoenix Cycle, derived from Egyptian legends of the Bennu bird that rose from its own ashes every 500 years. There are some indications this Cycle was linked with the Plutonic revolution of 247 years doubled. The Phoenix Cycle was considered to be so important that, in the 1st century A.D., early Egyptian Christian mystics under Saint Mark combined forces with the Alexandrine Greeks to develop a calendral system that would be coordinated with the Phoenix Cycle's rhythm, past and future. It was not fully accepted into Europe until one cycle later in A.D. 525, when it was introduced by the Roman theologian and mathematician, Dionysius Exioguus, who 'Christianized' the Cycle and was the first to apply to it the term anno Domini."

526 - Earthquake / Antioch, Syria - May 20th, 526: "Earthquake location: Antioch, Syria. Earthquake magnitude: N/A. Number of recorded fatalities: 250,000."  [The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207]

526 - Decline / Ostrogothic Kingdom - "In 526, Theodoric died, and his successors [as so often happens] were far less capable than he. Thus, the Ostrogothic kingdom began to decline." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World

527 - East Roman Emperor / Justinian I - "Justinian I becomes East Roman Emperor. He and his wife were convinced Catholics." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World

529 - Paganism Silenced? - "In 529, Justinian and his wife had Plato's Academy  [which had still taught pre-Christian philosophy to the few who would listen] closed. It had been in existence for over nine centuries. With its closing, the last voice of paganism was silenced. Justinian also put an end to the annual appointment of consuls. He put scholars to work preparing a new law code. In 529 they came up with 12 volumes of a well-organized legal system. This was the 'Code of Justinian,' and was followed by a 50-volume collection of legal opinions. It has remained one of the bases of European law generally in all the centuries since." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World

*Trivia: "[....] Once that the metaphysical allegories of Plato were being prepared to be discussed in public in the form of Grecian dialects, all the elaborate system of the Christian trinity would be unraveled and the divine prestige completely upset. The eclectic school, reversing the order, had adopted the inductive method; and this method became its death-knell. Of all things on earth, logic and reasonable explanations were the most hateful to the new religion of mystery; for they threatened to unveil the whole ground-work of the trinitarian conception; to apprise the multitude of the doctrine of emanations, and thus destroy the unity of the whole. It could not be permitted, and it was not. History records the Christ-like means that were resorted to. [....]" [Based on: H.P. Blavatsky, Isis Unveiled, reprint (1998, Vol. 2) of the 1877 edition, p. 34]

530 - Perihelion / Halley's Comet - September 27th, 530 A.D.: "1P/530 Q1 (27 September 530)"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halley%27s_Comet] - [T.D. - 06/12/07] 

532 - Pluto in Capricorn - December 21st, 532: "Estimated date [also 533] when Pluto entered [0 degrees] Capricorn."

*Links: http://www.isleofavalon.co.uk/GlastonburyArchive/ephem/ed-lite1.html

532 - Riots / Constantinople - "In 532, there were bloody riots in Canstantinople over horse races. Some 30,000 people were killed, and Constantinople was virtually in ashes." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World

534 - Decline / Vandal Kingdom - "In 534, Belisarius defeated the Vandal king Gelimer at Carthage. With that, the Vandal kingdom in North Africa disappeared after a little over a century of existence. Arianism was wiped out and Carthage became Roman again." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World

535 - Configuration - "Uranus-Neptune [Leo/Aquarius] opposition [535-539]."

535 - Volcanic Eruption? / Krakatoa - "David Keys, Ken Wohletz, and others have postulated that the violent eruption of Krakatoa in 535 may have been responsible for the global climate changes of 535-536.[5] Keys explores what he believes to be the radical and far ranging global effects of just such a putative 6th century eruption in his book Catastrophe: An Investigation into the Origins of the Modern World. Additionally, in recent times, it has been argued that it was this eruption which created the islands of Verlaten and Lang (remnants of the original) and the beginnings of Rakata — all indicators of early Krakatoa's caldera's size. However, there seems to be little, if any, datable charcoal from that eruption, even if there is plenty of circumstantial evidence."

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Krakatoa] - [T.D. - 10/11/08]

537 - Hagia Sophia / Constantinople - "Justinian builds new cathedral called Hagia Sophia [Holy Wisdom] in Constantinople."

539 - Belisarius / East Roman Empire - "By 539, Belisarius had taken Sicily, Rome, and Ravenna."

546 - Ostrogoths / Rome - "In 546, the Ostrogoths retook a virtually ruined and depopulated Rome." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World

546 - United Turks - "The period AD 546 - 582 marks the first brilliant epoch of early Turkish history. The tribes were finally united and began a remarkable advance under the leadership of Tumen who took the title of Ili-Khan or Ilk Han. Though only a servile clan in China a mere fifty years previously, now they were in a position to send an embassy to the east Roman Emperor Justin II in AD 567. The object of the mission was to establish commercial relations with the West, especially in the silk trade, and cooperate with the Greeks against the Persians, because the latter wanted to make the Persian gulf the only outlet for the silk trade, and to disrupt Turkish communication with western powers." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World

550 - King Arthur? - "The Germanic invaders of Britain, usually referred to as the Saxons, continued to flood into the land. They were stopped for a while when they were defeated in a battle at Mount Badon [the place and time are not exactly known], so that the Britons won a half-century respite. By 550, however, the Saxons were pressing westward again. Nevertheless, that momentary flash of light for the Britons gave rise to the immortal romance of King Arthur and his Knights of the Round Table." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World

552 - Buddhism / Japan   - "A traditional date when Buddhism was introduced to Japan."

552 - Asuka Period / Japan  - "Japanese Asuka Period [552-645], named after the Asukadera temple in Asuka."

554 - Defeat / Ostrogoths - "In 552, Narses finally defeated the Ostrogoths in the last pitched battle in a bitter war that had lasted over a quarter of a century. By 554, the last Ostrogoths were driven out of Italy." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World

558 - Bulgars / Constantinople - "In 558, the Bulgars penetrated to the walls of Constantinople and were defeated by Belisarius in his last victory." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World

566 - The Dark Ages - "A traditional date for the beginning of the Dark Ages [566-1095]."

568 - Visigoths / Spain - "In 568, Leuvigild became Visigothic king of Spain. He expanded his realm by conquering the Sueves, who had held northwestern Spain for over a century and a half. Southward he also forced the East Romans back till they held only the immediate shore." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World] 

569 - Solar Eclipse - "November 24th"

570 - Birth / Muhammad - "About 570, Muhammad was born."

572 - Lombards / Alps - "A new wave of Germanic tribesmen [Lombards] poured over the Alps."

582 - Configuration - "Uranus-Pluto [Pisces] conjunction [582-583], squared Neptune [Gemini]. Uranus-Pluto conjunctions and oppositions might bring sudden and radical changes, like a cathartic diarrhoea, yet their full integration takes ages."

586 - Catholic Visigoths - "In 586, Recared I succeeded to the Visigoth throne and he turned Catholic, forcing all the Visigoths to do the same." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World

589-617 - Sui Dynasty / China - "The decline and fall of the Later Han dynasty produced a long period of independant states each contending for hegemony over neighboring states; this period, in fact, lasted so long that the more or less uniform Chinese culture almost died out completely. Starting in 384 A.D., however, the Northern Wei kingdom began the long, ardous process of reuniting the kingdoms into a single empire." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World

590 - Trivia / Sister Miriam Magdala - "Mary's full title was Sister Miriam Magdala or, as she is better known, Mary Magdalene. Gregory I, Bishop of Rome 590-604, and St. Bernard, the Cistercian Abbot of Clairvaux 1090-1135, both confirmed that Mary of Bethany was synonymous with Mary Magdalene." [Laurence Gardner]

591 - Avars / Constantinople - "In 591, the Avars reached the walls of Constantinople and were then driven back." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World

595 - Marriage / Muhammad - "By 595, Muhammad married a rich widow, and this gave him the leisure to meditate." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World

596 - St. Augustine / Britain -  "St. Augustine arrives in Britain. Beginning of Christian conversion."

598 - "Filioque Article" / Council of Toledo -

[....] Back in AD 330, Emperor Constantine the Great had split his Roman Empire formally in two, with the West governed from Rome and the East from Byzantium (in north-western Turkey), which he renamed Constantinople. But not long afterwards the Western Empire collapsed - demolished by the Visigoths and Vandals. The last Roman Emperor, Romulus Augustulus, was deposed by the German chieftan Odoacer, who became king of Italy in AD 476. In the absence of an Emperor, the prevailing High Bishop, Leo I gained the title of Pontifex Maximus (Chief pontiff or bridge-builder), later known as the Pope (Papa: Father). In the East, the story was different and the Byzantine Empire was destined to flourish for another thousand years.
    From the 5th century, the Church of Rome continued in the West, while the Byzantine Church emerged from its centers at Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem. Each of the churches sought supremecy over the other, and a main point of contention was an argument as to whether Jesus was the Son of God or whether he was God incarnate. Along with this, the nature of the Holy Spirit (or Holy Ghost) became a matter of heated discussion, and the whole affair became known as the Trinity Debate. This erupted into a fever in 867, when Patriarch Photius of Constantinople excommunicated Pope Nicholas I of Rome because he fronted an inferior Faith!
    The Catholics of Western Christendom then decried to ratify what was called the Filioque Article. This had been introduced at the Council of Toledo in 598, and it declared that the Holy Spirit proceeded "from the Father and from the Son" (Latin: filioque). The eastern Orthodox bishops claimed otherwise, stating that the Spirit proceeded "from the Father through the Son" (Greek: dia tou huiou). It was a somewhat intangible and extraordinary point of theological dispute, but it was good enough to split formal Christianity down the middle. In reality, it was simply a trivial excuse to perpetuate the dispute over whether the Church should be politically managed from Rome or Constantinople. The result was the formation of two quite distinct Churches from the same original, and the unresolved dialogue drove a wedge firmly between the factions. [....]

[Based on: Laurence Gardner, Lost Secrets of the Sacred Ark, pp. 141-142]

600 - Status / East Roman Empire - "By 600, the East Roman Empire still held North Africa, parts of Italy, the Spanish coast, and the islands of the Mediterranean." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World

600 - Christian Lombards - "The Lombards were Arian Christians, but, by 600, had been converted to Catholicism. By 600, Arianism had just about been wiped out everywhere, nearly three centuries after it had been condemned at the Council of Nicaea." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World

600 - Celtic Christianity - "By 600, Ireland was at its height. It was the only place in the west where Greek was understood, and it seemed for a while that Celtic Christianity might prove a possibly successful competitor against orthodox Catholicism." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World

Earthquake Trivia / 5th Century - "Number of notable earthquakes this century: at least 1. Number of earthquake deaths this century: 250,000." [E.M.]

7th Century A.D.

Page last updated 06/01/11