Chronology:
15 Billion B.C.
- 4 Million B.C.   11,000 B.C. - 9,000 B.C.   9,000 B.C. - 3,000 B.C.   3,000 B.C. - 1 A.D.
Historical Summary: 3000 B.C - 1 A.D.   Historical Summary: 500-year Neptune / Pluto Cycles

Timeline: 1 A.D. - Present  

Historical Summary: 1 A.D. - Present

*Color Code Index

3,891,102 - Satya Yuga? - "Theoretical date marking the beginning of another Maha Yuga, or Great Age [traditionally a cycle of 4,320,000 years] and the beginning of the world's most recent Satya Yuga [Also: Krta Yuga, Krita Yuga], or Golden Age [traditionally a cycle of 1,728,000 years]." [- E.M.]

*Trivia: "The Babylonian historian Berossus [3rd century B.C.] ascribed 2,160,000 years to the period 'between creation and universal catastrophe.' " [Based on: Fingerprints Of The Gods, p. 260, by Graham Hancock]

*Trivia: "Sri Yukteswar’s introduction to The Holy Science includes his explanation of the Yuga Cycle – revolutionary because of his premise that the earth is now in the age of Dwapara Yuga, not the Kali Yuga that most Indian pundits believe to be the current age.[4] His theory is based on the idea that the sun “takes some star for its dual and revolves round it in about 24,000 years of our earth – a celestial phenomenon which causes the backward movement of the equinoctial points around the zodiac.”[1] The common explanation for this celestial phenomenon is precession, the ‘wobbling’ rotating movement of the earth axis. Research into Sri Yukteswar’s explanation is being conducted by the Binary Research Institute. [....] In The Holy Science, Sri Yukteswar concludes that we are currently in the beginning stages of Dwapara Yuga, which began around 1699 A.D. This now puts us in the year 308 Dwapara according to Sri Yukteswar. Thus, we are moving closer to the grand center, and will pass into Treta Yuga around the year 4099 A.D.[1] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Holy_Science] - [T.D. - 10/19/08]

3.7 Million - Woolly rhino / Tibet - "[....] The recently uncovered Tibetan woolly rhino, named Coelodonta thibetana, lived in the middle Pliocene around 3.7 million years ago, before the Ice Age, or Pleistocene, began about 2.8 million years ago. [....] The discovery was published in Science, a scientific journal, on Friday [09/02/11]. [....]" [Based on: Article (Scientists unearth evidence that Ice Age giants originated in Tibet) English.news.cn 2011-09-04 16:33:19 - Editor: Wang Guanqun]

*Link: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english2010/china/2011-09/04/c_131096820.htm

3.5 Million - Freshwater lake / Mars - "LOS ANGELES (AP) — NASA's Curiosity rover has [2013] uncovered signs of an ancient freshwater lake on Mars, which scientists say could have been a perfect spot for tiny primitive organisms to flourish if they ever existed on the red planet. [N.P.] The watering hole near the Martian equator existed about 3.5 billion years ago around the time when life evolved on Earth. Scientists say the Martian lake was neither salty nor acidic, and contained life-friendly nutrients. [...] Early in its history, Mars was more tropical, with streams and rivers. With water plentiful, scientists think it was a place where primitive life could have thrived by feeding on rocks and minerals similar to tiny organisms on Earth that hide in caves and underwater vents. [N.P.] Around 3.5 billion years ago, Mars underwent a shift and raged with volcanic activity. NASA's older rovers Spirit and Opportunity found geologic evidence that water flowed during this time, but it was highly acidic and considered too caustic for life. [N.P.] Scientists thought much of the planet had been awash in acidic water until Curiosity earlier this year found signs of an old streambed near its landing site with a neutral pH. [... .]"

[Based on: A.P. article (NASA: Ancient Mars lake may have supported life), by ALICIA CHANG — Dec. 9, 2013 2:53 PM EST]

*Link: http://bigstory.ap.org/article/nasa-ancient-martian-lake-may-have-supported-life

3.4 Million - Find rewrites history of tool use - "Two ancient animal bones from Ethiopia show signs of butchering by human ancestors, moving back the earliest evidence for the use of stone tools by about 800,000 years, researchers say. [NP] The bones appear to have been cut and smashed some 3.4 million years ago, the first evidence of stone tool use by Australopithecus Afarensis, the species best known for the dubbed 'Lucy,' says researcher Zeresenay Alemseged. [....] The oldest confirmed stone tools are less than 2.6 million years old, perhaps from only a little before the emergence of the genus Homo." [Based on: News Services article (Find rewrites history of tool use), p. A16, S.L.P.D., 08/12/10]

3.3 Million - Australopithecus afrensis - "A 3.3-million-year-old skeleton of a young child curled into a ball no bigger than a cantaloupe - described as 'a bright beam of light' on human evolution - was unveiled Wednesday [09/20/06 - even though it was discovered in 2000, six years ago!] by paleontologists working in Ethiopia. [NP = new paragraph] The bones may be the best fossil yet found of the primitive human ancestor Australopithecus afarensis. That is the same species as the superstar fossil dubbed Lucy, an adult female discovered nearby in 1974. [NP] The skeleton, described in the British scientific journal Nature and National Geographic magazine, represents the first juvenile remains of these ancient humanlike creatures, making the fossil the oldest child by far ever found. [....] .... From the waste down, the skeleton looks like a human's. But her upper body had many apelike features.. Her brain was small, her nose flat like a chimpanzee's and her face long and projecting. Her finger bones were curved  and almost as long as a chimp's. [....] Some parts of the skeleton are missing - the pelvis, the lowest part of the back and parts of the limbs - but what is preserved is remarkably complete. The brain case, the lower jaw with most of its teeth, both collar bones, many vertebrae and ribs, the fingers, both kneecaps and the delicate bone that holds open the throat, called the hyoid, are all present. [....] The fossil-hunting team happened upon the skeleton in 2000 in a region plagued by extreme heat, flash floods, malaria, wild beasts and occasional shootouts between rival ethnic groups. [....] .... Researchers estimate the child may have been 3 years old. [....]" [Based on: Chicago Tribune article (Fossil of oldest child uncovered) by Peter Gorner, p. A1 & A5, S.L.P.D., 09/21/06]

3 Million - Hominid? / South Africa - "The story of the origin of man looks likely to be rewritten yet again after the discovery of a 3 million-year-old skeleton in South Africa. The fossil is understood to be 500,000 years older than anything previously discovered south of Tanzania. It is said to show that our ancestors had greater genetic diversity than previously believed and were spread far wider across Africa. Although the remains are said to be those of a hominid - a human-like being who walked upright, the brain appears to have been the size of a tennis ball - only a third of the size of a modern human brain."

3 Million - Australopithicus africanus - "The first discovery of an early hominid species in Africa was by Raymond Dart, who found a well preserved skull of a juvenile in South Africa in 1924. His discovery led to an intense focus on Africa as the probable site of human origins and early development, as Charles Darwin had earlier predicted. Dart named this newly discovered species Australopthicus africanus, or Southern Ape of Africa." [Links: 1, 2]

2.5 Million - Hominines' Diet / Meat? - "[....] And indeed the earliest-known stone tools, found in Gona, Ethiopia, suggest that 2.5 million years ago meat was a central part of hominines' diet. The sharpened stones were used to cut flesh and pound marrow-rich bones from carcasses either scavanged or hunted and then defended against other carnivores. [....]" [Based on: Compact History Of The World, edited by Geoffrey Parker, copyright 2003, p. 13] - [First published by Times Books (as The Times Compact Atlas of World History) 1995 - updated and reprinted 2002]

2.3 Million -  Homo / Ethiopia - "An upper jaw of early Homo, the genus to which modern humans belong, was recovered with primitive stone tools at Hadar, Ethiopia. Dated to 2.33 million years, they represent the oldest firmly dated association of stone tools with a fossil human ancestor. Never before at this site has a hominid fossil been found in stone tool-bearing layers. The age of the Hadar jaw, 2.33 mya, was determined by potassium-argon analyses of 80 grains extracted from volcanic ashes located less than one meter above the fossil."

2.2 Million - First Human Species? - "Homo habilis is the earliest known species of the genus Homo; that is, the first human species. It existed from approximately 2.2 to 1.6 million years ago in east Africa." [Links: 1, 2]

*Trivia: - Genesis 1:26 - vyamr alhym nash adm btslmnv kdmvtnv vyrdv bdgt hym vbavp hsmym vbbhmh vbkl-harts vbkl-hrms hrms al-harts:

And [v] God [alhym] said [amr]: "Let us [n] make [ash] man [adm] in [b] our [nv] image [tslm], after our [nv] likeness [dmvt]; and let them have dominion [rdh] over [b] the fish [dg] of the sea [ym], and [v] over [b] the fowl [avp] of the [h] air [smym], and [v] over [b] the cattle [bhmh], and [v] over [b] all [kl] the [h] earth [arts], and [v] over [b] every [kl] creeping [rms] thing that creepeth [rms] upon [al] the [h] earth [arts]."

*Trivia: - Genesis 1:27 - vybra alhym ][ at-hadm btslmv btslm alhym bra atv zkr vnqbh bra atm:

So God [alhym] created [bra] man [adm] in [b] his own image [tslm], in [b] the image [tslm] of God [alhym] created [bra] he him [avtv]; male [zkr] and female [nqbh] created [bra] he them [avtm].

*Trivia: - Genesis 2:7 - vyytsr yhvh alhym at-hadm apr mn-hadmh vypch bapyv nsmt chyym vyhy hadm lnps chyh:

And [v] the LORD [yhvh] God [alhym] formed [ytsr] man [adm] of the dust [apr] of [mn] the [h] ground [admh], and [v] breathed [npch] into [b] his nostrils [ap] the breath [nsmh] of life [chyym]; and [v] man [adm] became [yhy? / hyh?] a living [chy] soul [nps].

*Trivia: - Genesis 2:22 - vybn yhvh alhym ][ at-htsla asr-lqch mn-hadm lash vybah al-hadm:

And the rib [tsla], which [asr] the LORD [yhvh] God [alhym] had taken [lqch] from [mn] the man [adm], made [ash] he a woman [ash], and brought her unto [al] the man [adm].

*Trivia: "The Seventh Command: 'And when this was done, the Seventh Intellect said: 'Let us make man after our own fashion and let us endow him with powers to rule the earth.' Then the Seven-Headed Intellect, The Creator of All Things throughout the Universe, created man and placed within his body a living, imperishable spirit, and man became like the Creator in intellectual power." [Based on: Col. James Churchward, The Sacred Symbols Of Mu, p. 99]

*Link: http://www.sacred-texts.com/atl/ssm/ssm07.htm

*Trivia: - "The fact that Adam is credited with the knowledge of good and evil, having eaten from the tree that made him wise (Genesis 3:6), determines that he was of the strain called homo sapiens. In practice, he would actually have been of the further advanced modern strain called homo sapiens-sapiens. Adam's date, consequently, falls into a post-35,000 BC category. But the Neanderthalers and others preceded this era - so how could Adam be said to be the 'first' man? Of what particular strain was he the first?" [Based on: Laurence Gardner, Genesis of the Grail Kings, p. 15]

*Reference Links: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/03/120315152514.htm

2.2 Million - Robust australopithicines - "In the 1930's and 40's, the first specimens of robust autralopithicines were discovered in east and southern Africa. These discoveries and the ones that have followed have considerably complicated our view of the hominid family tree. These creatures, which are now classified into several distinct species, represent a line - or several lines - of hominids which evolved along side early human species and undoubtedly interacted with them." [Links: 1, 2]

2,163,102 - Treta Yuga? - "Theoretical date for the beginning of the world's most recent Treta Yuga, or Silver Age [traditionally a cycle of 1,296,000 years]." [- E.M.]

*Commentary: - Treta Yuga & Lemuria - [- E.M.]

2 Million - Homo erectus -  "Homo erectus lived from approximately 2 million to around 400,000 years ago. Homo erectus was the first hominid to be as large and as heavy as modern human beings." [Links: 1, 2]

1.9 Million - Australopithecus sediba - "Australopithecus sediba is a species of Australopithecus, based on fossil remains dated to between 1.977 and 1.98 million years ago in the early Pleistocene.[3][4] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australopithecus_sediba]

*Links: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=first-of-our-kind

1.8 Million - Pleistocene Period - "The Ice Age began in the Pleistocene Period [1.8-11,000 B.C.], approximately 1.8 million years ago. During the Pleistocene, mountain glaciers formed on all the continents and vast glaciers, in places as much as several thousand feet thick, spread across North America and Eurasia. In the eastern U.S., the ice at one time penetrated as far south as central Pennsylvania and northern New Jersey. The Cenozoic [Recent Life] Era is divided into two main sub-divisions: the Tertiary and the Quaternary. Most of the Cenozoic is the Tertiary, from 65 million years ago to 1.8 million years ago. The Quaternary includes only the last 1.8 million years. " [Links: 1, 2]

*Trivia: "The Pleistocene has been dated from 2.588 million (±5,000) to 12,000 years before present (BP), with the end date expressed in radiocarbon years as 10,000 carbon-14 years BP.[3] It covers most of the latest period of repeated glaciation, up to and including the Younger Dryas cold spell. The end of the Younger Dryas has been dated to about 9640 BC (11,590 calendar years BP). [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pleistocene]

*Trivia: "It is perfectly safe to say that at the commencement of the Pleistocene Period there was no land with an elevation of over 100 feet, if as much, on the face of the earth. That is, land which had been raised."  [Based on: Col. James Churchward, Cosmic Forces of Mu, Volume Two, p. 93]

1.8 Million - Homo Erectus / Georgia - "A possibly 1.8 million-year-old Homo erectus jaw was dug up in Dmanisi, Georgia [formerly of the USSR]."

1.8 Million - Extinction? / Giant Wolly Mammoths - "[....] Giant woolly mammoths have been extinct since the Earth's last Ice Age 1.8 million to around 11,500 years ago. [....]"

[Based on: MSNBC article (Reindeer herder finds remains of baby mammoth in Russia's Arctic / Discovery could be a 'sensation of global significance,' official says) Reuters updated 8/19/2011 6:01:57 AM ET - Copyright 2011 Thomson Reuters.]

*Link: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/44200347/ns/technology_and_science-science/

1.8 Million - Tidal Wave? / Northern Hemisphere - "In North Eastern Asia, Siberia especially, and prominent along the Lena River Valley and watershed, are very distinct geological markings showing that at the end of the Pliocene or beginning of the Pleistocene, and at the very time when the supposed ice cap was covering all of the Northern parts of the Northern Hemisphere, a great flood of water without ice, coming from the south, rolled in a northerly direction over the great plains of Manchuria, Mongolia and Siberia. The wave ended in the Artic Ocean. Had there been an ice cap covering the northern parts of Asia, these waters could not have rolled north, they would be running uphill; neither were the mountains which now intersect the land in all directions, in existence then, because the waters would have been unable to pass them. This Asiatic phenomena shows that, over one-half of the Northern parts of the Northern Hemisphere, water and ice rolled in a southerly direction and over the opposite parts of the Northern Hemisphere a wave, of water only, passed over the land, going in a northerly direction." [Based on: Col. James Churchward, Cosmic Forces of Mu, Volume Two, pp.129-130]

*Trivia: "The earth has been subjected to two forms of cataclysms, arising from two distinct causes. First, the volcanic cataclysm arising from volcanic workings. These cataclysms affect local areas only. Second, the magnetic cataclysm, caused by a lurch of the earth going back into magnetic balance. A magnetic cataclysm results from the earth getting out of magnetic balance. The earth is out of magnetic balance when her pole gets drawn towards the sun more than 23 1/2 degrees from its mean position. When the pole has been drawn more than 23 1/2 degrees from mean, the earth's gyroscopical force carries it back at too great a velocity, which causes a displacement of the earth's surface waters. During the early part of the earth's history, magnetic cataclysms were of frequent occurence, as shown by various rock formations. They continued down to the end of the Tertiary Era [1.8 Million B.C.], when the earth's crust had been so thickened and compacted that the earth went into the final magnetic balance." [Based on: Col. James Churchward]

1.76 Million - Axes & other tools - "Scientists uncover evidence that humans used stone axes and other tools ['known collectively as Acheulian tools'] earlier than believed / Ancient humans [Homo erectus?] used hand axes earlier than thought " [Based on: Title (and text) for newser article by ALICIA CHANG | Associated Press, 08/31/11]

*Link: http://tinyurl.com/3vc8r6s

1.5 Million - Hominines' Diet / Cooked Food? - "[....] Burnt bones found in southern Africa indicate that by 1.5 million years ago hominines had learned to cook their food, a development which would have aided digestion by breaking down animal proteins before eating. [....]" [Based on: Compact History Of The World, edited by Geoffrey Parker, copyright 2003, p. 13] - [First published by Times Books (as The Times Compact Atlas of World History) 1995 - updated and reprinted 2002]

1.5 Million - Trapped Bacteria / Beneath Antarctic Glacier - "[....] The researchers concluded that the ancestors of the bacteria probably lived in the ocean millions of years ago, and when the Antarctic valleys rose, a pool of seawater was trapped and eventually capped by the glacier ['about 1.5 million years ago when the glacier moved over a lake. It doesn't freeze because it is four times saltier than the ocean.']." [Based on: A.P. article (Bacteria at home under glacier / Scientists say they have survived on sulfur and iron compounds.), p. A4, S.L.P.D., 04/20/09]

1.5 Million - Living Side by Side? / Homo erectus & Homo habilis - "[....] The discovery by Meave Leakey ... shows that two species of early human ancestors [Home erectus & Homo habilis] lived at the same time in Kenya. That pokes holes in the cheif theory of man's early evolution: that one of those species [Homo erectus] evolved from the other [Homo habilis]. [....] The old theory is that the first and oldest species in our family tree, Homo habilis, evolved into Homo erectus which then became human, Homo sapiens. But Leakey's find suggests those two earlier species lived side by side about 1.5 million years ago in parts of Kenya for at least half a million years. She and her research colleagues report the discovery in a paper published in today's edition of the journal Nature. [NP] The paper is based on fossilized bones found in 2000. The complete skull of Homo erectus was found within walking distance of an upper jaw of Homo habilis, and both date from the same general time period. That makes it unlikely that Homo erectus evolved from Homo habilis, researchers said. [....]" [Based on: A.P. article (Fossils of two human ancestors seem to show our evolution was No straight line, by Seth Borenstein p A1 & A9, S.L.P.D., 08/09/07]

1.4 Million - Volcanic Ash? - "According to Valmiki the period of Ramayana is at the beginning of Tretayuga. Reckoning with these numbers some archaeologists found volcanic ash which was 1,400,000 years old and associated it with the period of the Ramayana. On the other hand, there are others who assert that the Ramayana occured about 8,000 years ago." [Reference?]

1.36 Million - Stone Tools? / China - "Researchers have determined that stone tools found in a region of northern China are 1.36 million years old, which provides direct evidence of the earliest human occupation of eastern Asia as far as 40 degrees north. The stone tools were found in China's Nihewan Basin. During the period when they were used, 1.36 million years ago, much of the area was covered by a large lake that was ringed with forests of birch and elm trees. Mammals such as hippopotamuses, hyenas, rhinoceroses, and horses roamed the area."

1.1 Million - Homo antecessor / Europe - "[....] The fossils of a lower jaw and teeth more than 1.1 million years old were found in sediments, along with stone tools and animal bones that appeared to have been butchered. The remains have been attributed to the previously known species Homo antecessor, a possible ancestor of Neanderthals and modern humans. [....] Other sites on the continent have yielded artifacts of a roughly comparable age, but no fossil bones. Until now, the earliest remains of Homo antecessor, found in the same mountains, were 800,000 years old. Far to the east, in the republic of Georgia, recent fossil discoveries show that early Homo had moved into parts of Eurasia from Africa about 1.9 million years ago. [....] The animal bones showed cut marks and other signs of processing, including fractures for extracting marrow." [Based on: New York Times article (Pre-human fossil found in Spain / The remains were with stone tools and animal bones that were apparently butchered.), p. A2, S.L.P.D., 03/27/08]

*Trivia: "Ancestors of humans include Neanderthals, genome indicates ['1 to 4 percent of the genome of non-Africans today']" [Based on: Title for New York Times article by Nicholas Wade, p. A13, S.L.P.D., 05/07/10]

*Reference Links: http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2012-04/uot-sfe_1032812.php

1 Million - Australopithecines Extinction  - "By 1 million years ago, the australopithecines, which had lived on earth for 4 million years, were extinct. All were gone." [Link: 1]

867,102 - Dvapra Yuga? - "Theoretical date for the beginning of the world's most recent Dvapra Yuga, or Copper Age [traditionally a cycle of 864,000 years]." [- E.M.]

780,000 B.C. - Reversal? / Earth's Magnetic Field - "Every 11 years, on average, the sun reverses its overall magnetic polarity: Its north magnetic pole becomes a south pole, and vice versa. So a complete magnetic solar cycle  - returning the sun to its initial orientation - actually lasts an average of 22 years. No one completely understands the entire process, just as no one understands why the Earth's field also reverses itself at seemingly random intervals, most recently about 780,000 years ago." [Based on: N.G.M., July 2004, p. 21]

778,000 B.C. - Human Occupation? / Levant - "While men in the Levant were out hunting 780,000 years ago, women were busy shelling pistachios and almonds to supplement their diet, according to recent finds at the Gesher Benot Ya'aqov site in northern Israel. The discovery of both nuts and 'nutcrackers' in the same archaeological layer provides the earliest evidence - from the Lower Palaeolithic period - that nuts were an important part of these hominids' diet and that they had the tools to open them. The seven species of hard-shelled nuts, including pistachios, acorns, and wild almonds, were preserved by waterlogged sediment. 'Some of the nuts [water chestnuts and the seeds of prickly water lilies] were not known to have grown in this country,' said Naama Goren-Inbar, of the Institute of Archaeology at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem."

733,000 B.C. - Helecho eruption - "[....] In a paper published in Geology this month [October], Harris et al. 2011 report a very interesting find on the island of Tenerife, one of the Canary Islands. This is the remains of an ancient collapse event on the south-eastern part of Cañadas volcano. The landslide deposit, which is up to 50 metres thick, has been mapped across a large area – 90 square kilometres – and this is just the onshore component of the mass, which may extend another 50 km offshore. [....] The dating yields a date of about 733,000 years ago, with an error of just 3,000 years. [....]" [Based on: AGU article (Geological evidence for a large landslide in Tenerife) Posted by dr-dave, 10/04/11]

*Link: http://blogs.agu.org/landslideblog/2011/10/04/geological-evidence-for-a-large-landslide-in-tenerife/

*Related Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tenerife

700,000 B.C. - Modern Human / Neanderthal Divergence - "Ancestral modern human and Neanderthal populations begin to diverge [....] The common ancestor of modern humans and Neanderthals [post-700,000 B.C.?] may have been Homo heidelbergensis ... though some scientists consider it a European species ancestral to Neanderthals alone." [Based on: N.G.M. (October 2008) Illustrated Timeline, p. 45.]

*Trivia: "Ancestors of humans include Neanderthals, genome indicates ['1 to 4 percent of the genome of non-Africans today']" [Based on: Title for New York Times article by Nicholas Wade, p. A13, S.L.P.D., 05/07/10]

697,500 B.C. - Human Occupation? / Northern Europe - "Ancient tools found in Britain show that humans lived in northern Europe 200,000 years earlier than was previously known, at a time when England's climate was warm enough to be the home of elephants and saber-tooth tigers, scientists said Wednesday [12/14/05]. The 32 black flint artifacts, found in river sentiments in Pakefield, in eastern England, date back 700,000 years and represent the earliest unequivocal evidence for human presence north of the Alps, the scientists said. The finding dashes the longheld theory that humans did not migrate north from the relatively warm climates of the Mediterranean region until half a million years ago, the scientists said. [....] Jim Rose, a professor at the University of London who also was involved in the study, said that 700,000 years ago England was still connected to the European mainland and enjoyed periods of balmy weather between the time that massive glaciers swept through the area. [....] The artifacts suggest the early humans didn't colonize northern areas of Europe, but merely expanded their migratory patterns there when the weather permitted, the scientists said." [Based on: A.P. article (Flint tools trace humans farther in Europe's past), p. A12, S.L.P.D., 12/15/05]

647,995 B.C. - Greenhouse Gases Trivia / Planet Earth - "A core of ice nearly two miles long from the underbelly of Antarctica shows that levels of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane have not been so high as they are today [11/25/05] for 650,000 years. The research is published in today's issue [11/25/05] of the journal Science. It shows that the level of carbon dioxide today is 7 percent higher than it has been in the last 650,000 years. And the level of methane, an even more powerful greenhouse gas, is 130 percent higher, said Thomas Stocker, a climate researcher at the University of Bern and senior member of the European ice-coring team that wrote two papers based on the core. [....]" [Based on: Los Angeles Times article by Usha Lee McFarling (Greenhouse gases are much higher now, ice cores show), p. A7, S.L.P.D., 11/25/05] 

640,000 B.C. - Denisovan Trivia - "[...] The estimated average time of divergence between Denisovan and Neanderthal sequences is 640,000 years ago, and that between both of these and the sequences of modern Africans is 804,000 years ago. They suggest that the divergence of the Denisova mtDNA results either from the persistence of a lineage purged from the other branches of humanity through genetic drift or else an introgression from an older hominin lineage.[9] [...] 9. # ^ a b c d e Reich, David; Green, Richard E.; Kircher, Martin; Krause, Johannes; Patterson, Nick; Durand, Eric Y.; Viola, Bence; Briggs, Adrian W. et al. (2010), "Genetic history of an archaic hominin group from Denisova Cave in Siberia", Nature 468 (7327): 1053–1060, doi:10.1038/nature09710, PMID 21179161 [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Denisova_hominin]

603,426 B.C. - MetaCycle - "Uranus-Neptune-Pluto MetaCycles [lasting approximately 3,940 years] represent an overlying patterning of collective human experience on a very longterm basis."

Note: "Planetary configuration data later than 600 B.C. gives estimated projections only, and in some places may be off by several years." [
- E.M.]

600,000 B.C. - Ice Age? -  "About 600,000 years ago, the Earth entered the first series of  'ice ages,'  which it had experienced in the most recent period of its existence. When the glaciers were at their peak, the sea level reportedly dropped as much as 300 feet." [Based on: Popular Geologic Theory]

*Trivia: "The geological Glacial Period is one of those bizarre, fantastic, mythical theories that has taken strong root in the minds of our present-day scientists. The Glacial Period is history repeating itself. Such scientific misconceptions have pervaded the scientific world all through history and even back beyond historical times, as is shown by the symbolical Tower of Babel; and when there was Atlas disturbing the scientific fraternity until they clubbed together and unceremoniously buried him in the Northwest corner of Africa. The Glacial Period is really modern and up-to-date, for it boasts of having a family of little glaciations, so that there will be some support for it in its old age. Agassiz and his assistants, who framed the Glacial Period Theory and surrounded it with such a corrollary of impossibilities, never studied the origin and workings of forces or natural laws, otherwise they would never have foisted such a raw scientific proposition on an unsuspecting public." [Col. James Churchward, Cosmic Forces of Mu, Volume Two, pp.114-115]

*Trivia: "To form an ice cap around the Northern parts of the Northern Hemisphere down to the 40th Parallel, of a thickness of 20,000 feet, would require more water than now exists in the Artic Ocean, North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans. Where did the water come from? and where has it gone to since? The water which formed the Northern Ice Cap could not have come from the the South, because the South Pole was imitating her northern sister by dressing herself also up in an equally imposing ice cap. Between the two, there was more water used in forming these two lumps of ice than now exists on the face of the earth!" [Based on: Col. James Churchward, Cosmic Forces of Mu, Volume Two, p.125]

600,000 B.C. - Neanderthals - "Recent DNA testing of ancient DNA extracted from a neanderthal bone has shown a large number of differences from modern humans, at least at one genetic locus, suggesting to the authors that neanderthals would have been a distinct species that last shared a common ancestor with modern humans >600,000 years ago." [Links: 1, 2, 3]

600,000 B.C. - Large Nasal Width / Homo Fossil, Ethiopia - "A skull of this age from Bodo, Ethiopia, exhibits the largest nasal width of any Homo fossil."

600,000 B.C. - Eruption? / Supervolcano, Yellowstone - "Their is substantial evidence indicating that super volcano Yellowstone in Wyoming, after being dormant for 600,000 years, might erupt at any moment. Its aftereffect should exceed Toba's [73,000 B.C.] in loss of human life, and because of the potential for global entrance into the next glaciation, severe temperature declines may persist for centuries." [Brackets text added - E.M.] [Based on: http://zyx.org/TOBA.html] 

5,550 B.C. - New Age Estimates? / Homo erectus, Java - "ALBUQUERQUE — New age estimates for Homo erectus fossils on the Indonesian island of Java have physical anthropologists scratching their crania. [NP] After convincing most of their colleagues that H. erectus may have persisted on the Indonesian island of Java as recently as 30,000 years ago — late enough to have coexisted in Asia with modern humans for more than 100,000 years — anthropologists presented new analyses April 14 suggesting the fossils in question may actually predate Homo sapiens by hundreds of thousands of years. [NP] It all depends which radiometric method you use to assess the fossils’ age, New York University anthropologist Susan Antón reported at the annual meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists. [NP] Antón and an Indonesian colleague lead a team that first announced in 1996 that sediment at two H. erectus sites on Java dates to between 50,000 and 30,000 years ago. Those 'remarkably young' dates, based on analyses of radioactive elements in fossil-bearing sediment, suggest that H. erectus survived well into the era dominated by modern humans, Antón said. Many researchers now accept those dates. [NP] But a new analysis, based on measurements of radioactive argon’s decay in volcanic rock above and below the fossils, puts H. erectus’ age on Java at roughly 550,000 years. It’s not clear why these estimates differ so dramatically and which one is more accurate, Antón said. [NP] 'It’s confusing right now, but I suspect that Homo erectus’ age on Java is still relatively young,' said Christopher Stringer of London’s Natural History Museum. A new analysis of sediment on Java suggests that animal fossils on the island date to between 200,000 and 150,000 years ago, providing a possible framework for when H. erectus lived there, he added."

[Based on: Science News article: ('Java Man' takes age to extremes / New dating of Indonesian strata produces unexpected results) By Bruce Bower Web edition : Friday, April 16th, 2010]

*Link: http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/58346

500,000 B.C. - Human Remains? / Britain - "In a gravel pit at Boxgrove, just outside Chichester, the remains of a man have been discovered, half a million years old. Only a shin bone and two teeth were discovered, but his position, under thick layers of gravel show that he is the oldest 'man' so far discovered in Britain. Also in Boxgrove England, a fossilized rhinoceros shoulder blade with a projectile wound was found recently and dated to this time."

*Trivia: "Ancient tools found in Britain show that humans lived in northern Europe 200,000 years earlier than was previously known, at a time when England's climate was warm enough to be the home of elephants and saber-tooth tigers, scientists said Wednesday [12/14/05]. The 32 black flint artifacts, found in river sentiments in Pakefield, in eastern England, date back 700,000 years and represent the earliest unequivocal evidence for human presence north of the Alps, the scientists said. The finding dashes the longheld theory that humans did not migrate north from the relatively warm climates of the Mediterranean region until half a million years ago, the scientists said. [....]" [Based on: A.P. article (Flint tools trace humans farther in Europe's past), p. A12, S.L.P.D., 12/15/05]
      
500,000 B.C. - Human Remains? / Germany - "A human jawbone of about this age, homo Heidelbergensis, was found in Heidelberg, Germany, in 1907."

498,000 B.C. - Evolutionary origin of religions - "The evolutionary origin of religions is the emergence of religious behavior during the course of human evolution. When humans first became religious remains unknown, but there is credible evidence of religious behavior from the Middle Paleolithic era (300–500 thousand years ago)[citation needed] and possibly earlier.

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evolutionary_origin_of_religions]

448,000 B.C. - Flooding? / Ancient Britain - "Scientists using sonar to probe the floor of the English Channel have found that Britain was sliced from the European continent by massive prehistoric floods that cut it off from human migration for 120,000 years. [NP] The new research, published in today's issue of the journal Nature, found evidence of at least two floods between 180,000 and 450,000 years ago. [....] The researchers surmised that the source of the flooding was a lake in the region of the modern North Sea that overflowed because advancing glaciers blocked water from draining elsewhere. [....] The mega-floods altered Britain's course in history, cutting early humans off from the island and temporarily halting migration. [NP] 'Between 180,000 years ago and 60,000 years ago there's actually no evidence for humans living in Britain,' Gupta [Sanjeev Gupta] said." [Based on: Los Angeles Times article (Prehistoric floods cut off present-day Britain), p. A12, S.L.P.D., 07/19/07]

419,000 B.C. - PH Status / Earth's Oceans - "Whether or not carbon dioxide contributes to global warming, it is turning the oceans acidic [2005], Britain's leading scientific organization warned Thursday [06/30/05]. [....] The burning of fossil fuels by cars and power plants releases more than 25 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide into the air each year. Roughly a third of that is absorbed by the oceans, where the gas undergoes chemical reactions that produce carbonic acid, which is corrosive to shells. [....] Depending on the rate of fossil fuel burning, the PH of ocean water near the surface is expected to drop to 7.7 to 7.9 by 2100, lower than any time in the last 420,000 years, the Royal Society report said." [Based on: New York Times article, 07/01/05]

400,000 B.C. - Irish Elk - "Irish Elk [Megaloceros giganteus] lived in temperate climates throughout Europe and western Asia from about this time to a last record in Ireland at 10,600 years ago."

400,000 B.C. - Wolf Bones - "Human and wolf bones have been found in the same place from about this time."

400,000 B.C. - Homo sapiens - "The transition from Homo erectus to Homo sapiens, the earliest forms of our own species, occurred approximately 300,000 to 400,000 years ago." [Links:  1, 2]

400,000 B.C. - Blade production - "Archaeology has long associated advanced blade production with the Upper Palaeolithic period, about 30,000-40,000 years ago, linked with the emergence of Homo Sapiens and cultural features such as cave art. Now researchers at Tel Aviv University have uncovered evidence which shows that 'modern' blade production was also an element of Amudian industry during the late Lower Paleolithic period, 200,000-400,000 years ago as part of the Acheulo-Yabrudian cultural complex, a geographically limited group of hominins who lived in modern-day Israel, Lebanon, Syria and Jordan. [....]"

[Based on: Article (Archaeologists find blade production earlier than originally thought) 17 OCT 2011 | Provided by Tel Aviv University / Posted on Monday, October 17, 2011 10:23:34 AM by Red Badger]

*Link: http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/2793914/posts

400,000 B.C. - Ancient Hearths? - "What may be one of Europe's oldest hearths has been found at a 400,000-year-old Stone Age site in southeastern England by archaeologists from Liverpool University. The find consisted of an area of red, baked sediments, whose limited expanse suggests a controlled fire rather than a natural one. The burnt sediments have been removed intact as part of a one-cubic-meter block so laboratory tests can be undertaken to help identify the nature of the burning. The site, near Bury St. Edmunds in Suffolk, was in a favorable spot near a source of water. According to Gowlett, it seems to have been used over centuries during a lull between the Ice Ages, when numerous large mammals, including bear and deer, undoubtedly hunted by early humans, were found in the area. Thousands of flint flakes have been discovered at the camp, the by-products of stone tool manufacturing, and many have been matched to the cores from which they were struck. Human control of fire is well documented at sites dating from 150,000 to 200,000 years ago, and remains of hearths between 300,000 and 400,000 years old have been found at a handful of sites in France, Hungary, and China. If confirmed, this latest find will provide further evidence that early humans had mastered the use of fire, in this case the ancestors of Neandertals in northern Europe."

400,000 B.C. - Stone tools / Iran - "[....] The earliest archaeological artifacts in Iran were found in the Kashafrud and Ganj Par sites that date back to the Lower Paleolithic era. Mousterian Stone tools made by Neanderthal man have also been found.[49] There are more cultural remains of Neanderthal man dating back to the Middle Paleolithic period, which have been found mainly in the Zagros region and less frequently in central Iran at sites such as Shanidar, Kobeh, Kunji, Bisetun, Tamtama, Warwasi, Palegawra, and Yafteh Cave.[50] Discovery of human skeletons in the Huto cave and the adjacent Kamarband cave near the town of Behshahr in the Mazandaran Province, south of the Caspian Sea in Iran, suggest human habitation of the area as early as 75,000 years ago.[51] However, recent studies in the valleys of Shuresh, around the earlier mentioned caves, led to the discovery of 400,000 year old stone tools.[52] Evidence for Upper Paleolithic and Epipaleolithic periods are known mainly from the Zagros region in the caves of Kermanshah and Khorramabad. [NP] Early agricultural communities such as Chogha Bonut in 8000 BC,[53][54] Susa (now a city still existing since 7000 BC)[55][56] and Chogha Mish dating back to 6800 BC.[57][58] started to form in the western Iran. Dozens of pre-historic sites across the Iranian plateau point to the existence of ancient cultures and urban settlements in the 4th millennium BC,[58][59][60] centuries before the earliest civilizations arose in nearby Mesopotamia.[61] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iran#Pre-Historic_era]

400,000 B.C. - Human Remains / Israel - "Israeli archaeologists announced on Monday [12/27/10] that they may have just found the earliest evidence of the existence of modern man. If it proves to be the case, it would upset the most commonly accepted theories of the origins of humans. [NP] A team of archaeologists from Tel Aviv University excavating a cave in central Israel found teeth in the cave that are about 400,000 years old and resemble the remains of modern men, known scientifically as Homo sapiens, that have been found in Israel. [NP] Until now, the earliest Homo sapien remains were just half as old. [....]" [Based on: ClevelandLeader article (Ancient Human Remains Found in Israel Call Into Question the "Out of Africa" Theory) by By Julie Kent. Published on 12/28/2010 - 10:39am]

http://www.archaeologynews.org/story.asp?ID=702921&Title=Ancient%20Human%20Remains%20Found%20in%20Israel%20Call%20Into%20Question%20the

http://www.archaeologynews.org/story.asp?ID=704161&Title=Human%20remains%20spark%20spat

*Trivia: "[....] In a recent article in the American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Barkai and his team suggest three theories: the Qesem teeth could belong to earlier humans or homo sapiens that developed independently from those in Africa and Europe. They could, as Shara Bailey suggests, represent an evolving Neanderthal in Southwest Asia. Or they could be from unknown extinct hominid species. [NP] But Bailey says whether the residents of Qesem Cave were like us or not, does not make the discoveries any less important. 'Any new material that we find, especially from this poorly documented time period 200,000 to 400,000 years ago, is great and necessary for our ongoing interpretation of human evolution and Neanderthal evolution.' [NP] Israeli archeologist Barkai expects Qesem Cave will continue to yield magical artifacts. He and his team from Tel Aviv University hope to find bones to add to the story of our ancient ancestors."

[Based on: News.com article (Centuries-Old Cave Reveals Secrets of Ancient Humans / Tools and teeth found in Israel could be oldest ever discovered) by Rosanne Skirble, 01/26/2011]

http://www.voanews.com/english/news/middle-east/Centuries-Old-Cave-Reveals-Secrets-of-Ancient-Humans-114637989.html

370,000 B.C. - Lineage Separation? / Ancestral Modern Humans & Neanderthals - "[....] Estimated date of lineage separation, based on genetic data [....]" [Based on: N.G.M. (October 2008) Illustrated Timeline, p. 45.]

300,000 B.C. - Middle Paleolithic - "The Middle Paleolithic (or Middle Palaeolithic) is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. The term Middle Stone Age is used as an equivalent or a synonym for the Middle Paleolithic in African archeology.[1] The Middle Paleolithic and the Middle Stone Age broadly spanned from 300,000 to 30,000 years ago. There are considerable dating differences between regions. The Middle Paleolithic/Middle Stone Age was succeeded by the Upper Paleolithic subdivision which first began between 50,000 and 40,000 years ago.[1] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_Paleolithic]

300,000 B.C. - Prehistoric Rock Art - "The most ancient evidence of the production of art predates the generally accepted earliest dates for the appearance of modern humans. Cup marks and a meandering line were etched into a sandstone cave in India two or three hundred thousand years ago. Line markings on bone, teeth, ivory and bone of equal antiquity are known from the campsites of archaic humans. Sculpture, in the form of modified natural forms, has been dated to 250-300,000 years ago in the Near East." [Links: 1]

300,000 B.C. - Flint tools / Northern France - "The deposits at Etricourt Manancourt in the Picardie region of France documents the history of early European settlements, revealing at least five prehistoric levels, ranging between 300,000 and 80,000 years old. [....]" [Based on: pasthorizonspr.com Article (300 000 year old flint tools found in Northern France) - Source: INRAP]

http://www.pasthorizonspr.com/index.php/archives/07/2012/300-000-year-old-flint-tools-found-in-northern-france

300,000 B.C. - First Homo sapiens? / African Gold Mines - "Some 300,000 years ago, the Anunnaki assigned to the African mines mutinied. It was then that the chief medical officer of the Anunnaki used genetic manipulation and in-vitro fertilization techniques to create 'primitive workers' - the first Homo sapiens to take over the backbreaking toil in the gold mines." [Based on: Genesis Revisited (Copyright 1990), by Zecharia Sitchin, p. 20]

280,000 B.C. - Animal Remains / Los Angeles Bones - "Reportedly, a mastodon tooth and camel jaw of about this time were found in tunnels under Los Angeles in 1997."

278,000 B.C. - Human Remains / China - "The Jinniushan cranium found in 1985 by a student excavation team from Peking University under the direction of Prof. Lu Zun'e, is one of the more recent fossil human specimens discovered in China. The cranium was directly associated with a partial skeleton, including a complete pelvis, portions of the spinal column, and nearly complete hand and foot bones. The remains were recovered from a collapsed limestone cave in Yingkou county, Liaoning. The human bearing deposits have been dated to approximately 250-280,000 years ago. The Jinniushan cranium shows certain derived features that ally it to early forms of H. sapiens. These traits include a cranial capacity within the range of modern people, thin vault bones, an expansion of the parietal region, a more gracile cranial base and a more rounded occipital bone, posteriorly. In other respects it shares features with H. erectus such as projecting brow ridges, low cranial height and an elongate, strongly buttressed cranial vault."

250,000 B.C. - Human Habitation? / Siberia - "Russian Archeologist Yuri Mochanov of the Yakutish Academy of Sciences announced the discovery of human habitation in northern Siberia that dated back to at least 30,000 years. More precise techniques later measured the stone artifacts at the site to 250-300,000 years ago."

250,000 B.C. - Evolution? / Human Brain - "Reportedly, about this time the human brain size stopped its slow trend toward enlargement. It may correspond with the human attainment of the rudiments of language." [Reference?]

250,000 B.C. - Human Occupation? / Central Mexico - "[....] On July 5th [2005], British scientists announced that literally hundreds of human footprints, approximately one-third of them children, found in Central Mexico during 2003, have been conclusively dated to the very dawn of modern man. Silvia Gonzalez, a geoarchaeologist at Liverpool's John Moores University, in England, co-discovered the impressions in an abandoned quarry near the city of Puebla, sixty miles southeast of Mexico City. They are perfectly preserved as trace fossils in ash laid down by a nearby volcano, known as Cerro Toluquilla, during the ancient past. [....] Long before the Puebla footprints were found, Ancient American investigators wrote of Brazil's Pedra Furada site, which pre-dated mainstream notions of the continent's earliest human settlers by nearly twenty thousand years. More remarkable still, our fall, 1997 issue reported the find of another university-trained archaeologist, Dr. Virginia Steen-McIntyre, who unearthed unmistakable evidence for human habitation in Central Mexico going back a fantastic quarter-of-a-million years! These on-going discoveries are replacing out-dated paradigms, while validating the very premise of our magazine." [Based on: Ancient American magazine article (Issue # 64, Entitled: Mexico's 40,000-Year-Old Footprints Demolish "Land-Bridge" Theory) by Frank Joseph]  - [Paragraph indents removed to save space - E.M.]

200,000 B.C. - Wiki Trivia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/11th_millennium_BC

200,000 B.C. - Mu ["Lemuria"]? - Man made his advent on earth about two hundred thousand years ago, on the continent of Mu, or Lemuria. Mu, the 'Empire of the Sun,' was reportedly a continent that supported over 60 million inhabitants in the Pacific Ocean, and consisted of ten distinct tribes, or peoples all under one government. As legend has it, nearly the entire continent fell into the Pacific Ocean by 10,000 B.C. - E.M. [See: The Children of Mu, by Col. James Churchward]

*Trivia: "The time I have given as the time man had been on earth may appear long but it is taken from two tablets written by the Naacals, which state that about the time Mu went down [10,000 B.C.] man had been on earth 200,000 years. There are many Oriental legends stating the same thing." [Based on: The Children of Mu, p. 27 (footnote), by Col. James Churchward] (Other names associated with Mu include: Lemuria, and Kuiland.)

*Trivia: "Most of the ancient nations kept in their temples imperishable records - writings on either stone or burnt clay tablets like bricks. Some of the oldest known are in Tibet and some were written, according to the astrological dates written on them, 70,000 years ago. There are hundreds in India dating back 35,000 years and some are even older but without a date. In the Himalayan monastaries, writings of 70,000 years ago are to be seen. Some of these date man back 200,000 years or 270,000 years. The dates are given by the positions of stars, one to the other." [Based on: The Children of Mu, by Col. James Churchward]

200,000 B.C. - Homo Erectus / Java - "In December 1996, skulls found on the Indonesian island of Java suggested that homo erectus [thought to have disappeared about 200,000 years ago] was still in existence 40,000 years ago."

200,000 B.C. - Neanderthals / Eurasia - "[....] The Neanderthals, our closest prehistoric relatives, dominated Eurasia for the better part of 200,000 years. During that time, they poked their famously large and protruding noses into every corner of Europe, and beyond. - south along the Mediterranean from the Strait of Gibraltar to Greece and Iraq, north to Russia, as far west as Britain, and almost to Mongolia in the east. [....]" [Based on: N.G.M. (October 2008) article (Last of the Neanderthals) by Stephen S. Hall, p. 38.]

200,000 B.C. - Evolution? / Human Speech - "Reportedly, human speech began no earlier than about this time." [Source? Link?]

200,000 B.C. - Anatomically Modern Humans - "DNA studies have revealed that the first anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens sapiens) arose in Africa between 200,000 and 140,000 years ago. The earliest modern-looking human skulls yet found are about 150,000 years old and come from the Omo basin in Ethiopia and Klasies River Mouth in southern Africa. Around 100,000 years ago, these early populations began to migrate northwards out of Africa. [....]" [Based on: Compact History Of The World, edited by Geoffrey Parker, copyright 2003, p. 14] - [First published by Times Books (as The Times Compact Atlas of World History) 1995 - updated and reprinted 2002]

195,000 B.C. - Modern Humans - "Modern humans appear." [Based on, St. Louis Post-Dispatch timeline diagram, p. A5, 03/29/05]

*Trivia: "[....] Earliest known anatomically modern human fossil [....]" [Based on: N.G.M. (October 2008) Illustrated Timeline, p. 45.]

193,000 B.C. - Meet the Contenders for Earliest Modern Human - "[....] Originally the fossils, Omo I (a partial skull and skeleton) and Omo II (a partial skull), were thought to be 130,000 years old, but a dating reanalysis in 2005 revealed they were much older—195,000 years old, making them the oldest fossils assigned to Homo sapiens. [....]" [Based on: Smithsonian article (HOMINID HUNTING / Meet the Contenders for Earliest Modern Human), January 11, 2012]

*Link: http://tinyurl.com/create.php

190,000 B.C. - Human Remains / Ethiopia - February 17th, 2005: "NEW YORK - Bones discovered nearly 40 years ago in Ethiopia appear to be the oldest known fossils of modern-looking humans and come from around the dawn of the species, a new analysis shows. Researchers determined that the specimens are about 195,000 years old. Previously, the oldest known fossils of Home sapiens were Ethiopian skulls dated to about 160,000 years ago. Genetic studies estimate that Homo sapiens arose about 200,000 years ago, so the new research brings the fossil record more in line with that, said John Fleagle of Stony Brook University in New York, an author of the study. [....]" [Based on, A.P., 02/17/05]

178,000 B.C. - Human Remains / China - "The Dali specimen from Shaanxi, is dated to approximately 180,000 YA. It is similar in many ways to Jinniushan and represents a pre-modern form of H. sapiens. Its cranial capacity is intermediate between earlier forms of H. erectus and later more modern forms of H. sapiens, although it overlaps the range of variation seen in both. Dali is also intermediate in its morphological character, retaining many features associated with Asian H. erectus while evincing a number of derived features associated with modern humans such as expansion of the parietals and transformation in cranial base anatomy."

178,000 B.C. - Flooding? / Ancient Britain - "Scientists using sonar to probe the floor of the English Channel have found that Britain was sliced from the European continent by massive prehistoric floods that cut it off from human migration for 120,000 years. [NP] The new research, published in today's issue of the journal Nature, found evidence of at least two floods between 180,000 and 450,000 years ago. [....] The researchers surmised that the source of the flooding was a lake in the region of the modern North Sea that overflowed because advancing glaciers blocked water from draining elsewhere. [....] The mega-floods altered Britain's course in history, cutting early humans off from the island and temporarily halting migration. [NP] 'Between 180,000 years ago and 60,000 years ago there's actually no evidence for humans living in Britain,' Gupta [Sanjeev Gupta] said." [Based on: Los Angeles Times article (Prehistoric floods cut off present-day Britain), p. A12, S.L.P.D., 07/19/07]

174,000 B.C. - Human Occupation? / Australia - "A remarkable find in the Northern Territory, Australia, has opened a fierce debate on the prehistory of humans. The date of the find, if correct, dramatically pushes back the date at which people began to create art and language, and triples the date of occupation of Australia. It is, however, strongly contended. [....] Enormous sculpted boulders, described by Australian scientists Richard Fullagar and Paul Tacon as similar in concept to Stonehenge, and thousands of detailed circular engravings have been dated by them at around 75,000 years old, with stone tools dating back to 176,000 years. Fullagar and Tacon say that the engravings and sculptures are possibly the oldest rock art in the world - more than twice the age of the famous French rock art paintings at Chauvet and Cosquer. But the most extraordinary find, published in British Antiquity in December 1996, revealed that Australia may have been occupied for up to 176,000 years - more than 110,000 years longer than previously thought. While excavating in sediments below the rock art, the scientists recovered ochre dating back between 116,000 and 176,000 years. If Aboriginals really have been in Australia for over 100,000 years it enormously changes the traditional view of pre-history in several ways. Hieroglyphs [over 250] discovered in the National Park forest of the Hunter Valley, 100 km north of Sydney [Australia], were known in the first years of 1900. They resemble archaic Egyptian hieroglyphs and among them there is the unmistakable image of Anubis, the ancient Egyptian judge of the dead!"

168,000 B.C. - Human Clothing? - "Clothing first appeared 170,000 years ago. That's what University of Florida researchers have deduced from an unlikely source - the annoying clothing louse. [....] The study, in this month's print edition of Molecular Biology and Evolution, finds that the one louse species began to diverge into two about 170,000 years ago, 70,000 years before humans started migrating to colder climates, which began about 100,000 years ago. [NP] Because clothing doesn't last for 170,000 years, looking at lice was the best way to deduce this. [NP] Interestingly, humans seem to have started wearing clothes well after they lost body hair, which genetic skin-coloration research puts at about 1 million years ago. That means that people spent a good long while wandering around without protective and warming body hair and without clothing, says Reed. [....] While the last Ice Age occurred about 120,000 years ago, from the study results humans probably began wearing clothes in the one before it, 180,000 years ago. Modern humans first appeared about 200,000 years ago." [Based on: SCIENCEFAIR article (We were all naked until 170,000 years ago) by By Elizabeth Weise, 01/07/11]

http://www.archaeologynews.org/story.asp?ID=707341&Title=We%20were%20all%20naked%20until%20170000%20years%20ago

150,000 B.C. - Native Americans? - "How long has man lived in the Western Hemisphere? The more cautious anthropologists give him 10,000 to 15,000 years. But Dr. George F. Carter of Johns Hopkins thinks this estimate is much too conservative. There is good reason to believe, says Carter, that there were Americans of a primitive sort in interglacial times, more than 150,000 years ago. [....]" [Based on Time Magazine article (Science: The First Americans)]

*Link: http://tinyurl.com/3zgdc7e

*Related Links: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970204740904577192960294508268.html

135,000 B.C. - Modern Dog - "DNA evidence in 1997 indicated that the modern dog has been around since about this time." [Source? Link?]

*Related links: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/01/120123152528.htm

128,000 B.C. - Island Hopping / Mediterranean Sea? - "Two years ago a team of U.S. and Greek archaeologists were combing a gorge on the island of Crete (map) in Greece, hoping to find tiny stone tools employed by seafaring people who had plied nearby waters some 11,000 years ago. [....] Crete has been surrounded by vast stretches of sea for some five million years. The discovery of the hand ax suggests that someone besides technologically modern humans—perhaps Neanderthals, Homo heidelbergensis, Homo erectus, or primitive Homo sapiens—island-hopped across the Mediterranean for tens of millennia. [....] The team found more than 30 hand axes, as well as other stone tools of similar vintage, embedded into sediments at nine different locations on the southwestern coast of Crete near the town of Plakias. It looked to the team as if the artifacts had possibly eroded out from caves in the sea cliffs, and later had become incorporated into ancient beach deposits. Over time, geological processes lifted these ancient beaches up and away from the shore, forming natural terraces. [NP] The stone tools themselves cannot be dated. Radiocarbon dating experts, however, have pinpointed the youngest of the sediments at the ancient beach locations associated with the hand axes to at least 45,000 years ago and geologists and soil scientists dated the oldest to at least 130,000 years ago. [....] Early Humans 'Not Lost at Sea'? / The dating of the sites has convinced project leader Thomas Strasser, an archaeologist at Rhode Island's Providence College, that early humans were voyaging across the Mediterranean tens of millennia earlier than believed. [NP] 'These early people were intentional seafarers,' he emphasized, 'not individuals lost at sea.' [....] Stirring Debate / The new finds, which will be published in June in Hesperia: The Journal of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens, could rock many archaeological boats. [NP] Researchers have long theorized, for example, that ancient human migrants from Africa—such as Homo erectus and Homo heidelbergensis—departed the continent on foot, trekking eastward through the Sinai Peninsula and then across the Middle East. (See 'Massive Genetic Study Supports "Out of Africa" Theory.') [NP] But the finds on Crete open an entirely new possibility. 'Mediterranean islands like Crete have never been searched for Paleolithic evidence,' Runnels stated, 'so people need to look there now.' [NP] Moreover, the discovery could spark a host of other scientific debates. [NP] If ancient humans were crossing the Mediterranean, Runnels said, then they certainly could have crossed other water barriers, such as the Red Sea or the Gulf of Aden. 'And that means that the assumptions that we have had—that the peopling of Eurasia was done by early hominins moving overland through the Near East, into India and down—will have to be revisited.' Hominins, or hominids, are members of humankind's ancestral lineage. [NP] Not surprisingly, the new research in Crete is already stirring debate. [....] More Evidence of Ancient Seafaring / At present, the earliest widely accepted evidence of ancient seafaring comes from Australia. [NP] To reach the southern continent from the Southeast Asian mainland some 50,000 years ago, modern humans had to cross a 600-mile-long (970-kilometer-long) band of islands and at least ten ocean straits. The largest of these straits spanned 44 miles (71 kilometers) of open water—a gap that no large-bodied animal had ever managed to cross before Homo sapiens. To undertake such a lengthy crossing, human seafarers likely lashed together bamboo to make a simple watercraft. (Related: 'Early Polynesians Sailed Thousands of Miles for Trade.') [NP] Other pieces of evidence, however, suggest that seafaring could go back much deeper in time. [NP] The discovery of human remains and stone tools in Spain dating to over a million years ago may indicate that some ancient hominin navigated the hazardous Straits of Gibraltar from Morocco, a journey of less than 12 miles (19 kilometers). [NP] Moreover, Michael Morwood, an archaeologist at the University of New England in Armidale, Australia, has long proposed that Homo erectus voyaged from the Indonesian island of Bali to nearby Flores, where excavations have revealed 700,000- to 800,000-year-old stone tools. [NP] If additional work confirms that the earliest stone tools on Crete date to more than 130,000 years ago, archaeologists may want to take a closer look at these hypotheses. [....] [Based on: Archaeology News article (It wasn't supposed to happen like this.) by Heather Pringle for National Geographic magazine, Published February 17, 2010]

*Link: http://www.archaeologynews.org/story.asp?ID=571449&Title=Primitive Humans Conquered Sea, Surprising Finds Suggest

*Related Links:

http://www.bostonherald.com/news/international/general/view/20110816human_precursors_went_to_sea_team_says/srvc=news&position=also

125,000 B.C. - "Out of Africa" "[....] In the new paper [2011], an international team of researchers reported they had found artifacts - hand axes, leaf-shaped blades and other stone tools - excavated from a rock shelter on the northeast end of Jebel Faya, a 6-mile-long limestone mountain in the United Arab Emirates. [NP] They dated the artifacts pulled from the lowest, and thus the oldest, of three layers of dirt to about 125,000 years old. Humans may have left Africa earlier / Tools near the Persian Gulf date the migration about 60,000 years earlier than was previously believed. [....]"

[Based on: Los Angeles Times article (Humans may have left Africa earlier / Tools near the Persian Gulf date the migration about 60,000 years earlier than was previously believed.) 01/28/11]

http://www.archaeologynews.org/story.asp?ID=715644&Title=Humans%20may%20have%20left%20Africa%20earlier

*Related Links: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970204740904577192960294508268.html

118,000 B.C. - Trivia / Carbon 14 - "According to popular science, the age of fossils of once-living creatures can be determined by radio carbon dating, often abbreviated as carbon dating. When plants take up carbon dioxide from the air, the carbon they 'inhale' includes a radioactive form of carbon, carbon-14, as well as the normal, non-radioactive carbon-12. Carbon-14's half life is precisely known: 5,730 years. By comparing the amount of carbon-12 in a fossil to the remaining amount of carbon-14, the age of the fossil can be determined. Animal fossils [including human] can be dated this way because the animals eat plant matter. This technique only works to an age of about 120,000 years, because beyond that time so little carbon-14 remains that it is impossible to measure it."

118,000 B.C. - Human Remains / China - "The Maba cranium, dated to approximately 120,000 years ago was discovered in 1958 in the southern Chinese province of Guangdong. It was the first substantial specimen of a pre-modern form of H. sapiens found in East Asia. It was iniatially thought to be an Asian Neandertal but does not in fact show any of the derived features of Neandertals as known from Europe and the Near East. The Maba skull is similar to other more complete finds of pre-modern H. sapiens subsequantly found in China, differing only in minor ways, such as the size and shape of the orbits and nasal bones. Maba is also somewhat reminiscent of the recently discovered Narmada skull from India."

118,000 B.C. - Cores reveal when Dead Sea 'died' - "Sediments drilled from beneath the Dead Sea reveal that this most remarkable of water bodies all but disappeared 120,000 years ago. [....]"

[Based on: BBC Nesw article (Cores reveal when Dead Sea 'died') by Jonathan Amos, December 2011]

*Link: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-15938294

115,000 B.C. - Human Habitats / South Africa - "In September 1988, a team of international physicists came to South Africa to verify the age of human habitats in Swaziland and Zululand. The most modern techniques indicated an age of 80,000 to 115,000 years." [Based on: Genesis Revisited (Copyright 1990), by Zecharia Sitchin, p. 22]

113,000 B.C. - North American Ice Age? - "In North America the last Ice Age is called the Wisconsin Glaciation [named for rock deposits studied in the state of Wisconsin] and its early phase has been dated by geologists to 115,000 years ago. There were various advances and retreats of the ice-cap after that, with the fastest rate of accumulation taking place between 60,000 years ago and 17,000 years ago - a process culminating in the Tazewell Advance, which saw the glaciation reach its maximum extent around 15,000 B.C. By 13,000 B.C., however, millions of square miles of ice had melted, for reasons that have never properly been explained, and by 8,000 B.C. the Wisconsin had withdrawn completely. The Ice Age was a global phenomenon, affecting both the northern and the southern hemispheres; similar climatic and geological conditions therefore prevailed in many other parts of the world as well [notably in eastern Asia, Australia, new Zealand, and South America]." [based on, Popular Gologic Theory]

*Trivia: "The geological Glacial Period is one of those bizarre, fantastic, mythical theories that has taken strong root in the minds of our present-day scientists. The Glacial Period is history repeating itself. Such scientific misconceptions have pervaded the scientific world all through history and even back beyond historical times, as is shown by the symbolical Tower of Babel; and when there was Atlas disturbing the scientific fraternity until they clubbed together and unceremoniously buried him in the Northwest corner of Africa. The Glacial Period is really modern and up-to-date, for it boasts of having a family of little glaciations, so that there will be some support for it in its old age. Agassiz and his assistants, who framed the Glacial Period Theory and surrounded it with such a corrollary of impossibilities, never studied the origin and workings of forces or natural laws, otherwise they would never have foisted such a raw scientific proposition on an unsuspecting public." [Col. James Churchward, Cosmic Forces of Mu, Volume Two, pp.114-115]

*Trivia: "To form an ice cap around the Northern parts of the Northern Hemisphere down to the 40th Parallel, of a thickness of 20,000 feet, would require more water than now exists in the Artic Ocean, North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans. Where did the water come from? and where has it gone to since? The water which formed the Northern Ice Cap could not have come from the the South, because the South Pole was imitating her northern sister by dressing herself also up in an equally imposing ice cap. Between the two, there was more water used in forming these two lumps of ice than now exists on the face of the earth!" [Col. James Churchward, Cosmic Forces of Mu, Volume Two, p.125]

100,000 B.C. - Hominids - "The fossil record shows that about 100,000 years ago, several species of hominids populated Earth. Homo sapiens could be found in Africa and the Middle East; Homo erectus, as typified by Java Man and Peking Man, occupied Southeast Asia and China; and Neanderthals roamed across Europe."

100,000 B.C. - Afro-Arabian Expansion - "The 'Weak Garden of Eden' model for the origin and dispersal of modern humans posits a spread around 100,000 years ago followed by population bottlenecks. Then around 50,000 years ago a dramatic growth occurred in genetically isolated, small population. In a 1998 article Stanley Ambrose proposed an alternative hypothesis, a volcanic winter scenario, to explain recent human differenciation. The bottleneck was caused by a volcanic winter resulting from the super-eruption of Toba in Sumatra. If Ambrose's hypothesis is correct modern human races differentiated abruptly through founder effect, genetic drift and adaptation to local environments around 70,000 years ago. Ambrose points out that the Out of Africa dispersal date of around 100,000 years ago fits the generally warm, humid last interglacial period, 130 - 74,000 years ago. An impressive body of paleontological evidence shows an Afro-Arabian biotic community expanded northward during this period. Several such multi-species dispersals out of Africa have occurred during previous interglacial phases. He considers the variants of the Replacement model to be more accurate and realistic than the Multiregional models."

*Trivia: "Migration of anatomically-modern humans." [Based on: Compact History Of The World, edited by Geoffrey Parker, copyright 2003, p. 14] - [First published by Times Books (as The Times Compact Atlas of World History) 1995 - updated and reprinted 2002]

100,000 B.C. - Human Shelters / India - "The Bhimbetka rock shelters ... are an archaeological World Heritage site located in Raisen District in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. The Bhimbetka shelters exhibit the earliest traces of human life in India; a number of analyses suggest that at least some of these shelters were inhabited by man for in excess of 100,000 years.[1][2] Some of the Stone Age rock paintings found among the Bhimbetka rock shelters are approximately 30,000 years old.[3] [....] The name Bhimbetka is associated with Bhima, a hero-deity renowned for his immense strength, from the epic Mahabharata.[4] The word Bhimbetka is said to derive from Bhimbaithka, meaning 'sitting place of Bhima'.[4] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhimbetka]

100,000 B.C. - Modern Humans / China - "[....] The research, based at the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology in Beijing, was published Oct. 25 in the online early edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. [NP] The discovery of early modern human fossil remains in the Zhirendong (Zhiren Cave) in south China that are at least 100,000 years old provides the earliest evidence for the emergence of modern humans in eastern Asia, at least 60,000 years older than the previously known modern humans in the region. [....]" [Based on: ScienceDaily article (Modern Humans Emerged Far Earlier Than Previously Thought, Fossils from China Suggest), 10/28/10]

*Link: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/10/101025172924.htm

100,000 B.C. -  Hominid Fossils / Australasia - "The hominid fossils from Australasia are argued to show a continuous anatomic sequence, with the earliest Australians displaying features seen in Indonesia 100,000 years ago. Similar evidence is seen in northern Asia. One million years old Chinese fossils differ from Javan fossils in ways that parallel the differences between north Asians and Australians today. Morphological continuity is also evidenced by prominently shoveled maxdlary incisors occurring in high frequency in living east Asians and in all the earlier Asian fossils. They point out the fact that the Neandertals and modern humans in the Near East shared an identical culture. They also argue that the Neandertals were not fully replaced. The more recent DNA isolation from Neandertal fossils counters this belief."

100,000 B.C. - Civilization? / Arabian Peninsula - December 8th, 2010: "A once fertile landmass now [2010] submerged beneath the Persian Gulf may have been home to some of the earliest human populations outside Africa, according to an article published Wednesday [12/08/10] in Current Anthropology. [NP] In recent years, archaeologists have turned up evidence of a wave of human settlements along the shores of the Gulf dating to about 7,500 years ago. But how could such highly developed settlements pop up so quickly, with no precursor populations to be found in the archaeological record? Jeffrey Rose, an archaeologist and researcher with the University of Birmingham in the U.K., believes that evidence of those preceding populations is missing because it's under the Gulf. [NP] 'Perhaps it is no coincidence that the founding of such remarkably well developed communities along the shoreline corresponds with the flooding of the Persian Gulf basin around 8,000 years ago,' Rose said. 'These new colonists may have come from the heart of the Gulf, displaced by rising water levels that plunged the once fertile landscape beneath the waters of the Indian Ocean.' [NP] Rose said that the area in and around this 'Persian Gulf Oasis' may have been host to humans for over 100,000 years before it was swallowed up by the Indian Ocean around 8,000 years ago. [NP] 'Where before there had been but a handful of scattered hunting camps, suddenly, over 60 new archaeological sites appear virtually overnight,' Rose said. 'These settlements boast well-built, permanent stone houses, long-distance trade networks, elaborately decorated pottery, domesticated animals, and even evidence for one of the oldest boats in the world.' [NP] Historical sea level data show that, prior to the flood, the Gulf basin would have been above water beginning about 75,000 years ago. And it would have been an ideal refuge from the harsh deserts surrounding it, with fresh water supplied by the Tigris, Euphrates, Karun, and Wadi Baton Rivers, as well as by underground springs. When conditions were at their driest in the surrounding hinterlands, the Gulf Oasis would have been at its largest in terms of exposed land area. At its peak, the exposed basin would have been about the size of Great Britain, Rose says. [NP] Evidence is also emerging that modern humans could have been in the region even before the oasis was above water. Recently discovered archaeological sites in Yemen and Oman have yielded a stone tool style that is distinct from the East African tradition. That raises the possibility that humans were established on the southern part of the Arabian Peninsula beginning as far back as 100,000 years ago or more, Rose says. That is far earlier than the estimates generated by several recent migration models, which place the first successful migration into Arabia between 50,000 and 70,000 years ago. [NP] The Gulf Oasis would have been available to these early migrants, and would have provided 'a sanctuary throughout the Ice Ages when much of the region was rendered uninhabitable due to hyperaridity,' Rose said. 'The presence of human groups in the oasis fundamentally alters our understanding of human emergence and cultural evolution in the ancient Near East.' It also hints that vital pieces of the human evolutionary puzzle may be hidden in the depths of the Persian Gulf." [Based on: FOX NEWS.com article (Lost Civilization Under Persian Gulf?) Published December 08, 2010 / FoxNews.com] - [My brackets. NP = new paragraph. - E.M..]

*Link: http://www.foxnews.com/scitech/2010/12/08/lost-civilization-persian-gulf/

97,000 B.C. - 'World's oldest child' / Morocco - "Last year [2010], while a Penn team of archaeologists was working in Morocco, members uncovered a treasure beyond anything they'd imagined - a skeleton of a child from 108,000 years ago. [NP] They don't know what killed him at about age 8, but his remains are believed to be one of the most complete ever found of this period. [NP] The skeleton promises to open a window into a pivotal time in human evolution when Neanderthals still ruled Europe, and Africans were inventing art and symbolic thought. [NP] One of the earliest sites where people left evidence of artwork and symbolism is in Morocco, where a team led by Penn Museum's Harold Dibble found the child. [....]"

[Based on: online article (Penn team uncovers skeleton of 'world's oldest child'), June 16, 2011 / By Faye Flam, Inquirer Staff Writer] - [My brackets. NP = new paragraph. - E.M.]

*Link: http://articles.philly.com/2011-06-16/news/29665786_1_modern-humans-neanderthals-skeleton

*Related Links:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morocco
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2LrBsZmZmdg
http://channel.nationalgeographic.com/series/naked-science/4971/Videos/09924_00#tab-Videos/09924_00

93,000 B.C. - Genetic divergence? / African and non-African humans - "[...] The results suggest that the genetic divergence between African and non-African humans began between 62 and 95 thousand years ago, which tallies with other studies estimating the time through dating of stone tools and fossils, but they disagree with the results of recent genetic studies that estimated the migration began much earlier, up to 130 thousand years ago or even before. [...] The new date, which agrees with the archaeological evidence, shows that modern humans were in Europe and Asia before and after the most recent glaciation, and they were therefore able to survive and adapt to a dramatically changing climate. [NP] The paper was published in the journal Current Biology on 21st March."

[Based on: PHYS.ORG article (Out of Africa date brought forward) by Lin Edwards - 03/22/13]

*Link: http://phys.org/news/2013-03-africa-date-brought.html

90,000  B.C. - Pottery? - "Potassium-argon dating and thermoluminescence can be used to date pieces of pottery back to about this time."


80,000 B.C. - Expansion / Homo sapiens - "After millions of years of sluggish evolution a major population expansion of early modern Homo sapiens occurs from 80,000 to 30,000 years ago. A scenario consistent with ecological and genetic evidence indicates spread to separate regions from an initial restricted area about 100,000 years ago followed by dramatic population growth, especially after 50,000 B. P." [Link * number 3]

73,000 B.C. - Homo sapiens / India - "The history of India begins with evidence of human activity of Homo sapiens as long as 75,000 years ago hominids (Homo Erectus) from about 500,000 years ago. The Indus Valley Civilization, which spread and flourished in the north-western part of the Indian subcontinent from c. 3300 to 1300 BCE, was the first major civilization in India. A sophisticated and technologically advanced urban culture developed in the Mature Harappan period, from 2600 to 1900 BCE. This Bronze Age civilization collapsed at the beginning of the second millennium BCE and was followed by the Iron Age Vedic Civilization, which extended over much of the Indo-Gangetic plains and which witnessed the rise of major polities known as the Mahajanapadas. In one kingdom, Magadha, Mahavira and Gautama Buddha were born in the 6th or 5th century BCE, who propagated their Shramanic philosophies. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_India] - [T.D. - 06/06/10]

73,000 B.C. - Human Art? / Australia - "A remarkable find in the Northern Territory, Australia, has opened a fierce debate on the prehistory of humans. The date of the find, if correct, dramatically pushes back the date at which people began to create art and language, and triples the date of occupation of Australia. It is, however, strongly contended. Enormous sculpted boulders, described by Australian scientists Richard Fullagar and Paul Tacon as similar in concept to Stonehenge, and thousands of detailed circular engravings have been dated by them at around 75,000 years old, with stone tools dating back to 176,000 years. While excavating in sediments below the rock art, the scientists recovered ochre dating back between 116,000 and 176,000 years. If Aboriginals really have been in Australia for over 100,000 years it enormously changes the traditional view of pre-history in several ways."

73,000 B.C. - Fashioned Ornaments? - "About 75,000 years ago, in a Stone Age cave overlooking the ocean, someone collected shells and bored holes in them, producing the oldest known evidence that humans had fashioned an ornament. Discovery of the set of beads pushes back by about 30,000 years the first indications of the ability to make and use such symbolic materials. [....] The previously oldest known human ornaments are perforated teeth and eggshell beads from Bulgaria and Turkey, dated 41,000 to 43,000 years old, and 40,000-year-old ostrich-shell beads from Kenya." [Based on: article by Randolph E. Schmid, The Associated Press, 04/16/04]

73,000 B.C. - Human Habitation / Iran - "[....] Discoveries in the Huto cave near the town of Behshahr, Mazandaran south of the Caspian in Iran, suggest human habitation of the area as early as 75,000 years ago.[17] [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caspian_sea]

73,000 B.C. - Fire Used to Make Tools? / Africa - "Early humans crossed a threshold around 75,000 years ago, when they started painting symbols, carving patterns and making jewelry. A new study found they also began to use fire to make tools around that time. [NP] Until now, this complex, multistep process for tool making was only known to occur as recently as 25,000 years ago in Europe. But the new findings show this breakthrough occurred much earlier, and in Africa, not Europe. [....]"

[Based on: Live Science article (Study: Fire used to make tools 75,000 years ago / Discovery points to breakthrough occurring earlier in Africa, not Europe) by Clara Moskowitz, updated 6:47 p.m. CT, Thurs., Aug 13, 2009] *Link: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/32410104/ns/technology_and_science-science/

73,000 B.C. - Eruption / Super Volcano Toba, Indonesia - "Their is substantial evidence to show that within the time of the super volcano Toba's eruption in the Indonesian Pacific, the world's population of homo sapiens decreased from over one hundred thousand to less than two thousand, basically because global temperatures dropped five degrees for many years. This was within the current interglacial and at its start.[....] The eruption of 2,800 cubic km of magma at Toba caldera 75,000 years ago was the largest eruption in the last 2 million years. [....]" [Based on: http://zyx.org/TOBA.html].

*Related link: http://web.archive.org/web/20060426232017/http://zyx.org/TOBA.html

*Trivia: "The Toba supereruption ... was a supervolcanic eruption that occurred some time between 69,000 and 77,000 years ago at Lake Toba (Sumatra, Indonesia). It is recognized as one of the Earth's largest known eruptions. The related catastrophe theory holds that this event plunged the planet into a 6-to-10-year volcanic winter and possibly an additional 1,000-year cooling episode. This change in temperature resulted in the world's human population being reduced to 10,000 or even a mere 1,000 breeding pairs, creating a bottleneck in human evolution. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toba_catastrophe_theory]

*Trivia: NEW EXCAVATIONS IN INDIA REVEAL ANCIENT LIFE, By Culturekiosque Staff

OXFORD, ENGLAND, 24 FEBRUARY 2010 — The School of Archaeology, University of Oxford, have announced that newly discovered archaeological sites in southern and northern India have revealed how people lived before and after the colossal Toba volcanic eruption 74,000 years ago. The international and multidisciplinary research team, led by Oxford University in collaboration with Indian institutions, has uncovered what it calls 'Pompeii-like excavations' beneath the Toba ash.

Stone tools, plants and animal bones, among other artifacts of human occupation and environment in the two regions, have been the subject of a seven-year study.

http://www.archaeologynews.org/story.asp?ID=574910&Title=NEW EXCAVATIONS IN INDIA REVEAL ANCIENT LIFE

73,000 B.C. - Early evidence found of sophisticated human tools - "Early humans developed sophisticated techniques for sharpening stone spear points more than 75,000 years ago, at least 50,000 years earlier than archaeologists had previously believed, researchers reported Thursday [10/28/10]. [....]" [Based on Los Angeles Times article (Early evidence found of sophisticated human tools / Refined techniques for sharpening spear points date back more than 75,000 years, archaeologists say, much more than previously believed.) by Thomas H. Maugh II, 10/30/10]

http://www.archaeologynews.org/story.asp?ID=678929&Title=Early%20evidence%20found%20of%20sophisticated%20human%20tools

70,000 B.C. - Uighur Empire  - "The Uighur Empire was possibly the first, and unquestionably the largest, most important, and most powerful of all the colonial empires belonging to Mu. Colonization commenced just north of Burma more than 70,000 years ago." [Based on: Col. James Churchward, The Children of Mu]

*Trivia: "[....] All who left the motherland [Mu] in any direction were called Mayas. Colonization must have started at least 70,000 years before Mu sank [about 10,000 B.C.], for there are Naacal writings in the Orient stating that the Holy Brothers carried the religion and the sciences of the Motherland to the colonies 'over 70,000 years ago.' [....]" [Based on: The Children of Mu, by Col. James Churchward, p. 20]

70,000 B.C. - Human Habitation / Greece - "The country of Greece has been inhabited since 70,000 B.C." [Based on: The History Channel, 2004]

70,000 B.C. - Trivia / Australian Aborigines - "An international research team, led by the University of Copenhagen and Natural History Museum of Denmark, is seeking to rewrite the history books by suggesting that Aboriginal Australians descend directly from an early human expansion into Asia that took place some 70,000 years ago. [...] Professor Eske Willerslev from the University of Copenhagen, who headed the study, explains: 'Aboriginal Australians descend from the first human explorers. While the ancestors of Europeans and Asians were sitting somewhere in Africa or the Middle East, yet to explore their world further, the ancestors of Aboriginal Australians spread rapidly; the first modern humans traversing unknown territory in Asia and finally crossing the sea into Australia. It was a truly amazing journey that must have demanded exceptional survival skills and bravery.' [....]"

[Based on: IrishWeatherOnline article (Lock Of Hair Reveals Origins Of Australian Aborigines) by Mark Dunphy - Fri Sep 23, 4:45 pm]

http://www.irishweatheronline.com/news/history/archaeology/lock-of-hair-reveals-origins-of-australian-aborigines/39370.html

*Trivia: "[....] To find out how many migrations there were, Willerslev's team compared the Aboriginal Australian genome with Han Chinese, European and African genomes. They calculated that the Aboriginal Australians split from the other three between 75,000 and 62,000 years ago. The Chinese and European populations split much later, between 38,000 and 25,000 years ago. That suggests there were two migrations into east Asia. [....]"

[Based on: NewScientist article (Humans colonised Asia in two waves) 19:00 22 September 2011 by Michael Marshall]

http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn20954-humans-colonised-asia-in-two-waves.html?DCMP=OTC-rss&nsref=online-news

69,000 B.C. - Volcanic Winter? - "A new hypothesis about recent human evolution suggests that humans came close to extinction because of a 'volcanic winter' that occured 71,000 years ago. Reportedly, the 'volcanic winter' [subsequent to the eruption of Mount Toba in Sumatra] lasted about six years and was followed by 1,000 years of the coldest Ice Age on record."

68,000 B.C. - European Ice Age? - "Known technically as the Wurm Glaciation, this European Ice Age started about 70,000 years ago, a little later than its American counterpart [at 115,000 yrs. ago], but attained its maximum extent at the same time [17,000 years ago], and then experienced the same rapid withdrawl [15,000 - 13,000 B.C.], and shared the same terminal date [8,000 B.C.]." [Based on, Popular Geologic Theory]

*Trivia: "To form an ice cap around the Northern parts of the Northern Hemisphere down to the 40th Parallel, of a thickness of 20,000 feet, would require more water than now exists in the Artic Ocean, North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans. Where did the water come from? and where has it gone to since? The water which formed the Northern Ice Cap could not have come from the the South, because the South Pole was imitating her northern sister by dressing herself also up in an equally imposing ice cap. Between the two, there was more water used in forming these two lumps of ice than now exists on the face of the earth!" [Col. James Churchward, Cosmic Forces of Mu, Volume Two, p.125]

68,000 B.C. - South American Emigration? - "The topography of South America today is totally different from what it was 20,000 years ago, the time when droves of Carians, Karians, and Negro colonists were leaving the Motherland to find new homes and more room upon the earth. When this exodus from the Motherland commenced we have not as yet been told, but there are various records of emigration some 35,000 years ago and others 70,000 years ago. Then South America was like the rest of the world - flat and without mountains." [Based on: The Children of Mu, by Col. James Churchward]

62,000 B.C. - B-haplogroup - Quoting excerpt ...

Seven thousand five hundred fifty-six (7556) haplotypes of 46 subclades in 17 major haplogroups were considered in terms of their base (ancestral) haplotypes and timespans to their common ancestors, for the purposes of designing of time-balanced haplogroup tree. It was found that African haplogroup A (originated 132,000 ± 12,000 years before present) is very remote time-wise from all other haplogroups, which have a separate common ancestor, named ?-haplogroup, and originated 64,000 ± 6000 ybp. It includes a family of Europeoid (Caucasoid) haplogroups from F through T that originated 58,000 ± 5000 ybp. A downstream common ancestor for haplogroup A and ?-haplogroup, coined the ?-haplogroup emerged 160,000 ± 12,000 ybp. A territorial origin of haplogroups ?- and ?-remains unknown; however, the most likely origin for each of them is a vast triangle stretched from Central Europe in the west through the Russian Plain to the east and to Levant to the south. Haplogroup B is descended from ?-haplogroup (and not from haplogroup A, from which it is very distant, and separated by as much as 123,000 years of “lat- eral” mutational evolution) likely migrated to Africa after 46,000 ybp. The finding that the Europeoid haplogroups did not descend from “African” haplogroups A or B is supported by the fact that bearers of the Europeoid haplogroups, as well as all non-African haplogroups do not carry either SNPs M91, P97, M31, P82, M23, M114, P262, M32, M59, P289, P291, P102, M13, M171, M118 (haplogroup A and its subclades SNPs) or M60, M181, P90 (haplogroup B), as it was shown recently in “Walk through Y” FTDNA Project (the reference is incorporated therein) on several hundred people from various haplogroups.

[Based on: Article (Re-Examining the "Out of Africa" Theory and the Origin of Europeoids (Caucasoids) in Light of DNA Genealogy) by Anatole A. Klyosov, Igor L. Rozhanskii]

*Link: http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?paperID=19566

60,000 B.C. - Neanderthals / Iraq - "Homo Neanderthalensis discovered at Shanidar cave, Iraq." [Link: 1]

58,000 B.C. - Rapid Advance / Norh American Glaciation? - "There were various advances and retreats of the ice-cap after 113,000 B.C., with the fastest rate of accumulation taking place between 60,000 years ago and 17,000 years ago." [Based on: Popular Geologic Theory]

57,000 B.C. - Human Presence / Australia - "In 1974 a near complete skeleton was found near Lake Mungo, a dry lakes in western New South Wales. The corpse of this individual, Lake Mungo 3 was covered with red ochre before burial. In 1999 the specimen was restudied (Thorne, et. al.,1999). The researchers carried out ESR and U-series dating study. The age estimate obtained for the human skeleton through the combination of U-series and ESR analyses was 62,000 ± 6000 years. The age agrees with age estimates for the burial sediment, 61,000 ± 2000 years. The age results are far older than previously assumed. The authors concluded that the Lake Mungo 3 burial documents the earliest known human presence on the Australian continent. The specimens age implies that the present Australian indigenous population colonized the continent by 57,000-71,000 years ago."

56,000 B.C. - Europeoid (Caucasoid) haplogroups - Quoting excerpt ...

Seven thousand five hundred fifty-six (7556) haplotypes of 46 subclades in 17 major haplogroups were considered in terms of their base (ancestral) haplotypes and timespans to their common ancestors, for the purposes of designing of time-balanced haplogroup tree. It was found that African haplogroup A (originated 132,000 ± 12,000 years before present) is very remote time-wise from all other haplogroups, which have a separate common ancestor, named ?-haplogroup, and originated 64,000 ± 6000 ybp. It includes a family of Europeoid (Caucasoid) haplogroups from F through T that originated 58,000 ± 5000 ybp. A downstream common ancestor for haplogroup A and ?-haplogroup, coined the ?-haplogroup emerged 160,000 ± 12,000 ybp. A territorial origin of haplogroups ?- and ?-remains unknown; however, the most likely origin for each of them is a vast triangle stretched from Central Europe in the west through the Russian Plain to the east and to Levant to the south. Haplogroup B is descended from ?-haplogroup (and not from haplogroup A, from which it is very distant, and separated by as much as 123,000 years of “lat- eral” mutational evolution) likely migrated to Africa after 46,000 ybp. The finding that the Europeoid haplogroups did not descend from “African” haplogroups A or B is supported by the fact that bearers of the Europeoid haplogroups, as well as all non-African haplogroups do not carry either SNPs M91, P97, M31, P82, M23, M114, P262, M32, M59, P289, P291, P102, M13, M171, M118 (haplogroup A and its subclades SNPs) or M60, M181, P90 (haplogroup B), as it was shown recently in “Walk through Y” FTDNA Project (the reference is incorporated therein) on several hundred people from various haplogroups.

[Based on: Article (Re-Examining the "Out of Africa" Theory and the Origin of Europeoids (Caucasoids) in Light of DNA Genealogy) by Anatole A. Klyosov, Igor L. Rozhanskii]

*Link: http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?paperID=19566

50,000 B.C. - Mu Colony / Mexico? -  "Mu's 1st colony in North America was established at Mexico more than 50,000 years. B.C." [Based on: The Children of Mu, by Col. James Churchward]

20,000 B.C. - Humans in South America? - "Stone tools unearthed at a Brazilian rock-shelter may date to as early as 22,000 years ago. Their discovery has rekindled debate about whether ancient people reached the Americas long before the famed Clovis hunters spread through parts of North America around 13,000 years ago. [...] Among other South American locations proposed as human settlements well before North America’s Clovis culture, the most controversial is Brazil’s Pedra Furada rock-shelter. There, archaeologists unearthed burned wood and sharp-edged stones and dated them to more than 50,000 years ago. Pedra Furada’s excavators regard the finds as evidence of ancient human hearths and stone tools. Critics, and especially many Clovis investigators, say the Brazilian discoveries could have resulted from natural fires and rock slides. [....]"

[Based on: Sciencenews article (Disputed finds put humans in South America 22,000 years ago / Brazilian site may have been home to people before the Clovis hunters) by Bruce Bower, Web edition: March 13, 2013]

http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/348953/description/Disputed_finds_put_humans_in_South_America_22000_years_ago

50,000 B.C. - Four Species of Humans - "A miniature, long-lost relative of modern humans has been discovered [2003], shaking up science's view of how human beings evolved on Earth. [....] Scientists found Hobbit and six other skeletons of this lost species on Flores, a remote Indonesian Island, according to a study to be published today [10/28/04] in the scientific journal Nature. The discovery means that about 50,000 years ago, there were four species of humans roaming the Earth at the same time: Homo sapiens (modern humans), Homo Erectus, Neanderthals and this new relative, called Homo Floresiensis (also called Flores Man). [....] Scientists think Homo Floresiensis was wiped out 12,000 years ago in a massive volcanic eruption that also killed off the island's pigmy elephants, said co-discoverer Peter Brown of the University of New England. [....] In Flores, so far the oldest modern-human bones are 11,000 years old." [Based on: article by Seth Borenstein, Knight Ridder Newspapers, 10/28/04]

*Trivia: "Scientists say they have found more bones in an Indonesian cave that offer additional evidence of a second human species - short and Hobbit-like - that roamed the Earth the same time as modern man. The discovery of a jawbone, to be reported in Thursday's [10/13/05] issue of the journal Nature, represents the ninth individual belonging to a group believed to have lived 12,000 years ago. The bones are in a wet cave on the island of Flores in the eastern limb of the Indonesian archipelago, near Australia. [....]" [Based on: A.P. article, p. A6, S.L.P.D., 10/12/05]

50,000 B.C. - Human Population Boom - "Human population begins to grow again after period of stagnation." [Based on: Compact History Of The World, edited by Geoffrey Parker, copyright 2003, p. 14] - [First published by Times Books (as The Times Compact Atlas of World History) 1995 - updated and reprinted 2002]

50,000 B.C. - Cataclysm? / Mu  ["Lemuria"] - "These records tell us that the legendary paradise of man, thought of as the Garden of Eden, was laid on the lost continent of Lemuria which was sunk by earthquakes and tidal waves fifty thousand years ago." [Based on: The Shariyat-Ki- Sugmad, Book Two, by Paul Twitchell, p. 107, Second Edition - 1988]

50,000 B.C. - Mediterranean Population Boom - "A population boom some 40,000 to 50,000 years ago may have given rise to some uniquely modern human behaviors - like flashy dressing. Archaeologists Mary Stiner and Steve Kuhn of the University of Arizona and Erksin Güleç of Ankara University say their study of animal bones suggests a rise in population density around the Mediterranean that accompanied, and may have even caused, a proliferation in objects of personal adornment like shell beads. The archaeologists have noticed a shift in diet during this time from slow-reproducing animals that are relatively easy to capture ['unless,' says Kuhn 'you have a really bad back'], like tortoises and shellfish, to quickly reproducing, hard-to-catch game like rabbits and birds. They speculate that a burgeoning human population forced people to broaden their diet to include animals that were more difficult to hunt. Finds of shell beads from places like Üçagizli Cave in Turkey and Ksar' Akil in Lebanon also suggest a growing population. 'You use ornaments to identify things about yourself,' says Kuhn. 'The target audience for the beads is people who are more or less strangers, that know just enough about you to understand what ornaments mean. As populations grow, you deal with more strangers. Beads are a new form of communication, so that you know at a distance who the person is and how you should deal with them.' "

50,000 B.C. - Human Civilization / North America - "If we were to start the beginning of man's history in America we would have to go back beyond 50,000 years ago and possibly more than 100,000 years ago. Geological records show very high and advanced civilization in North America more than 50,000 years ago. [Based on: The Children of Mu, by Col. James Churchward]

*Trivia: "Archaeologists in South Carolina announced on Wednesday [11/17/04] radiocarbon dates that they say suggest that people made tools on a wooded hillside near the Savannah River about 50,000 years ago. [....] The so-called artifacts were uncovered last spring [2003] as Goodyear [Albert C.] and his team dug below occupation levels estimated to be 16,000 years old. The site, near Barnwell S.C., is called Topper, named for the person who brought it to the attention of archaeologists more than 20 years ago. Until recent discoveries elsewhere, the earliest Americans were once thought to be the Clovis hunters, who left finely worked projectile points across the United States, beginning about 13,000 years ago [11,000 B.C.]. The Mount Verde site in Chille shows human occupation a few thousand years earlier [14,000 B.C.?], so far the oldest evidence for people in the New World that nearly all scholars can agree on." [Based on: New York Times article, 11/18/04]

50,000 B.C. - Human Settlement / Scandinavia - "That part of Europe which now forms the Scandinavian countries had a settlement made from Central America at least 50,000 years ago. The Central American tradition says that the Quetzals 'had milk white skins, blue eyes and light, flaxen hair', the characteristics of the Scandinavians today." [Based on: The Children of Mu, by Col. James Churchward]

48,000 B.C. - Highland Neanderthals? - March 9th, 2011: "ATHENS, Greece - High in the wind-swept mountain ridges of northern Greece, archaeologists have made a surprising discovery: hundreds of prehistoric stone tools that may have been used by some of the last Neanderthals in Europe, at a time when hunter-gatherers were thought to have kept to much lower altitudes. [NP] The two sites used between 50,000 to 35,000 years ago were found last summer [2010] in the Pindos Mountains, near the village of Samarina - one of Greece's highest - some 400 kilometers (250 miles) northwest of Athens. [....]"

[Based on: A.P. article (Stone tool troves point to highland Neanderthals) by Nicholas Paphitis, 03/09/11]

*Link: http://www.seattlepi.com/national/1103ap_eu_greece_highland_neanderthals.html?source=rss

43,188 B.C. - Astronomic Configuration - Reportedly "... modern astrologers who have charted the Mayan date for the end of the Fifth Sun calculate that there will be a most peculiar arrangement of planets at the time [2012 A.D.], an arrangement so peculiar that it can only occur once in 45,200 years."

[Based on: Fingerprints Of The Gods, by Graham Hancock]

43,000 B.C. - Flute / Slovenia - "A fragment of a 45,000 year old flute was found in Slovenia." [Reference?]

43,000 B.C. - Aurignacian culture - "The Aurignacian culture ... is an archaeological culture of the Upper Palaeolithic, located in Europe and southwest Asia. It lasted broadly within the period from ca. 45,000 to 35,000 years ago in terms of conventional radiocarbon dating, or between ca. 47,000 and 41,000 years ago in terms of the most recent calibration of the radiocarbon timescale. [1] The name originates from the type site of Aurignac in the Haute Garonne area of France. [NP] The oldest known example of figurative art, the Venus of Hohle Fels, comes from this culture. It was discovered in September 2008 in a cave at Schelklingen in Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany. [....] Aurignacian figurines have been found depicting faunal representations of the time period associated with now-extinct mammals, including mammoths, rhinoceros, and the European horse, along with anthropomorphized depictions that could be inferred as some of the earliest evidence of religion. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aurignacian]

40,000 B.C. - Human Paintings / Spain - "According to new dating tests, these [see link] are the first paintings ever made by humans. They are seals painted more than 42,000 years ago, located in the Cave of Nerja, in Málaga, Spain. And they may change our ideas about humanity's evolution. [...] Researchers think that this cave was one of the last points in Europe in which neanderthals—who lived from 120,000 to 35,000 years ago—sought refuge, escaping the push of the Cro-Magnon, the first earliest homo sapiens to reach Europe. [....]" [Based on: Gizmodo article (These Are the Earliest Human Paintings Ever) , February 2012]

*Links: http://gizmodo.com/5883082/this-is-the-first-painting-humanity-ever-made
                          http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2159197/Cave-artwork-Spain-confirmed-oldest-Europe-40-800-years-old-painted-Neanderthals.html?ITO=1490

40,000 B.C. - Human Occupation / Russia - "Humans lived within the Arctic Circle tens of thousands of years earlier than previously believed, paleontologists from Norway and Russia report. The common assumption has been that humans first colonized the far north at the end of the last Ice Age, around 13,000 to 14,000 years ago. But stone artifacts, animal bones, and a mammoth tusk with human-made marks found at a Paleolithic site in the Russian Arctic push this date back to nearly 40,000 years ago. Anatomically modern humans began arriving in Europe and the Middle East about 40,000 to 35,000 years ago. Neandertals are thought to have appeared in Europe about 120,000 years ago. They disappear from the fossil record about 28,000 years ago."

*Link: http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2002-03/uoca-eie032102.php

40,000 B.C. - Modern Human Fossil / Europe - "[....] Earliest modern human fossil in Europe [....]" [Based on: N.G.M. (October 2008) Illustrated Timeline, p. 45.]

40,000 B.C. - Deep-Sea Fishing? / East Timor - "The prehistoric trawlermen: Our ancestors mastered deep-sea fishing 42,000 years ago, cave find reveals / *Remains of more than 2,800 fish unearthed in East Timor cave / *Show humans were catching fast-moving fish like tuna far earlier than previously thought / *Archaeologists also uncover world's oldest fish hook" [Based on: Title for Mail Online article, By Simon Tomlinson, Last updated at 1:12 PM on 25th November 2011]

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2066156/Humans-mastered-deep-sea-fishing-techniques-42-000-years-ago-cave-reveals.html?ITO=1490

39,000 B.C. - Occupation / Australia - "The Nyiyaparli Heritage Sub-Committee and Karlka Nyiyaparli Aboriginal Corporation working with archaeologists from the heritage company Archae-aus evaluated a rock shelter in the area as part of a larger survey. The samples of charcoal retrieved along with artefacts were analysed using carbon-dating techniques and returned a date that amazed the archaeologists – the layer of occupation was 41,230 calendar years old (ka). [....]"

http://www.pasthorizonspr.com/index.php/archives/01/2013/new-dates-refine-australian-timeline]

38,000 B.C. - "Venus" figurine - "The Venus of Hohle Fels (also known as the Venus of Schelklingen; in German variously Venus vom Hohlen Fels, vom Hohle Fels; Venus von Schelklingen) is an Upper Paleolithic Venus figurine found in 2008 near Schelklingen, Germany. It is dated to between 35,000 and 40,000 years ago, belonging to the early Aurignacian, at the very beginning of the Upper Paleolithic, which is associated with the assumed earliest presence of Homo sapiens in Europe (Cro-Magnon). It is the oldest undisputed example of Upper Paleolithic art and figurative prehistoric art in general. In 2011, the figure is still being researched in the University of Tübingen, though there are plans to house it and other discoveries from the region in a planned new museum in Swabia.[1] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Venus_of_Hohle_Fels]

38,000 B.C. - Sufism? / Central Asia - "Reportedly, there is a tradition in Sufism that it originated in Central Asia 40,000 years ago." [Reference?]

38,000 B.C. - Homo Erectus / Java - "In December 1996, skulls found on the Indonesian island of Java suggested that homo erectus [thought to have disappeared about 200,000 years ago] was still in existence 40,000 years ago." [Reference?]

38,000 B.C. - Human Occupation / Europe - "Reportedly, Stone-age humans came to Europe, probably from central Asia and the Middle East, in 2 waves of migration that began about this time. DNA evidence from Y-chromosomes in 2,000 A.D. suggested that 4 of 5 European men shared a common ancestor from this 1st wave." [Reference?]

*Related links:

http://www.pasthorizonspr.com/index.php/archives/01/2013/native-american-connection-to-40000-year-old-human-in-northwest-china

38,000 B.C. - Human Occupation / Central Mexico - "Since its foundation in 1993, the writers of Ancient American magazine have argued that the first human visitors to this continent arrived from overseas, tens of thousands of years ago. Our conclusion was consistently ridiculed or dismissed by Establishment archaeologists, while their version of the past was almost universally embraced by educators and television commentators as indisputable dogma. They insist that post-glacial man crossed a land-bridge from Mongolia into Alaska no earlier than 11,000 Years Before Present. However, a major discovery to the contrary, made two years ago [2003] by university-trained experts and independently validated earlier this summer [2005], confirms a human presence in America some forty thousand years old. The find is additionally important, because it proves that men were on the move around the world much earlier than mainstream scholars would have us believe. Moreover, it pointedly implies that the forty thousand-year-old residents originated in someplace other than Mongolia. The origins of the newly found evidence coincide with the Upper Paleolithic, or Late Stone Age, when modern men appeared for the first time in Europe, and began painting cave art on the subterranean surfaces of Lascaux, in southwestern France, and Altamira, in northern Spain. Meanwhile, they mined red ochre at a place called Lion Cave, in Africa's Swaziland, and manufactured the earliest flaked stone tools, mostly of chert, in Southeast Asia. [....] On July 5th, British scientists announced that literally hundreds of human footprints, approximately one-third of them children, found in Central Mexico during 2003, have been conclusively dated to the very dawn of modern man. Silvia Gonzalez, a geoarchaeologist at Liverpool's John Moores University, in England, co-discovered the impressions in an abandoned quarry near the city of Puebla, sixty miles southeast of Mexico City. They are perfectly preserved as trace fossils in ash laid down by a nearby volcano, known as Cerro Toluquilla, during the ancient past. [....] Long before the Puebla footprints were found, Ancient American investigators wrote of Brazil's Pedra Furada site, which pre-dated mainstream notions of the continent's earliest human settlers by nearly twenty thousand years. More remarkable still, our fall, 1997 issue reported the find of another university-trained archaeologist, Dr. Virginia Steen-McIntyre, who unearthed unmistakable evidence for human habitation in Central Mexico going back a fantastic quarter-of-a-million years! These on-going discoveries are replacing out-dated paradigms, while validating the very premise of our magazine." [Based on: Ancient American magazine article (Issue # 64, Entitled: Mexico's 40,000-Year-Old Footprints Demolish "Land-Bridge" Theory) by Frank Joseph]  - [Paragraph indents removed to save space - E.M.]

38,000 B.C. - Volcanic Eruptions? / Caucasus Region - "A 300,000-year Neandertal reign over Eurasia may have ended in dark skies. Researchers uncovered layers of volcanic ash that they say represents eruptions around the Caucasus region of southwestern Russia about 40,000 years ago - just around the time when Neandertal numbers began to fall and allow for the rise of modern humans. [NP] Such suggestive findings come from the Mezmaiskaya cave in southwestern Russia, which shows evidence of Neandertal activity up until the volcanic ash layer. Then the former cave inhabitants seemingly disappear without a trace. [....]" [Based on: article (Volcanic Winter May Have Doomed Neandertals) Submitted by LiveScience Staff - posted (see link): 07 December 2010 08:40 am ET]

http://www.archaeologynews.org/story.asp?ID=694280&Title=Volcanic%20Winter%20May%20Have%20Doomed%20Neandertals

*Trivia: [See article (Volcanic Eruptions May Have Wiped Out Neandertals) in December 2010 issue of Scientific American Magazine]

36,000 B.C. - Emerald Tablets? - By one report, an ancient set of tablets ascribed to Hermes, or Thoth, etc., date back some 36,000 years B.C. [Reference?]

35,000 B.C. - Birth / Adam? - "The fact that Adam is credited with the knowledge of good and evil, having eaten from the tree that made him wise (Genesis 3:6), determines that he was of the strain called homo sapiens. In practice, he would actually have been of the further advanced modern strain called homo sapiens-sapiens. Adam's date, consequently, falls into a post-35,000 BC category. But the Neanderthalers and others preceded this era -so how could Adam be said to be the 'first' man? Of what particular strain was he the first?" [Based on: Laurence Gardner, Genesis of the Grail Kings, p. 15]

35,000 B.C. - Homo Sapien Expansion - "We modern humans emerged anatomically earlier than the cultural characteristics that we today commonly associate with modern humans. A new set of cultural features appeared in full bloom during the Upper Paleolithic, about 30,000 to 35,000 years ago, when population expansion spread to extensive new areas in Asia, Europe and Australia. The cultural baggage of H. sapiens at the time included musical instruments, ceramics, sculpture, flaked stone blades, portable art objects, jewelry, and new tools and equipment. Materials employed were stone, bone, antler, teeth, ivory, wood and clay. The important invention of the needle occurred and sewn, fitted clothing and footwear were invented. A dozen bird bone flutes are known from between 32,000 and 22,000 BP. Art included the adornment of bodies by 30,000 years ago. Materials proveniences of hundreds of miles distance indicate long distance travel or trade networks." [Link * number 4]

*Related Links: http://summitcountyvoice.com/2011/09/17/archaeology-were-did-the-neanderthals-go/

35,000 B.C. - Neanderthal / Cro-Magnon Crossover? - "In terms of geological time, there appeard to be nothing to separate the late neanderthalers and the early Cro-magnons, but they were as different from each other as cattle are from horses. Not only that, but their cultures were remarkably dissimilar, with the Cro-Magnons displaying an uncanny sophistication in terms of their art, clothing, habitation and general lifestyle.
   "The apparent time-frame for the Neanderthal/Cro-Magnon crossover was about 35,000-30,000 BC, and they did exist as contemporaries for a time, thereby proving that one did not evolve from the other. It is of particular interest to note that there has never been a trace of any interbreeding between the distinctly different strains, and as the Cro-Magnons grew to prominence, so the Neanderthalers became totally extinct." [Based on: Laurence Gardner, Genesis Of The Holy Grail, p. 67]

33,000 B.C. - Indian Tablets? - "Most of the ancient nations kept in their temples imperishable records - writings on either stone or burnt clay tablets like bricks. Reportedly, some of the oldest were written [according to the astrological dates written on them] 70,000 years ago. There are hundreds in India dating back 35,000 years and some are even older but without a date." [Based on: The Children of Mu, by Col. James Churchward]

32,000 B.C. - Neanderthal Crossbreading? - "Three fossils - 34,000 to 36,000 years old - may support the theory that early Europeans bred with Neanderthals, a WU [Washington University] anthropologist says." [Based on: article by Tina Hesman, St Louis Post-Dispatch, 09/23/03]

*Related Links:

http://www.redorbit.com/news/science/1112424959/ice-age-hominins-and-their-adaptability-to-climate-change/index.html

33,000 B.C. - East Timor Settlement - "A settlement twice as old as any previously known in East Timor has been identified following carbon dating from an archaeological dig. Researchers at the Australian National University [ANU] dated the shells from a cave near Tutuala village at the eastern end of the island at between 30,000 and 35,000 years old." [Reference?]

33,000 B.C. - South American Emigration - "The topography of South America today is totally different from what it was 20,000 years ago, the time when droves of Carians, Karians, and Negro colonists were leaving the Motherland to find new homes and more room upon the earth. When this exodus from the Motherland commenced we have not as yet been told, but there are various records of emigration some 35,000 years ago and others 70,000 years ago. Then South America was like the rest of the world - flat and without mountains." [Based on: The Children of Mu, by Col. James Churchward]

33,000 B.C. - Ground-edge Implement / Australia - "This new evidence indicates that Australia was an important locale of technological innovation 35,000 years ago. [NP] Melbourne, Australia - infoZine - The oldest ground-edge stone tool in the world has been discovered in Northern Australia by a Monash University researcher and a team of international experts. [NP] Evidence for stone tool-use among our earliest hominid ancestors dates to 3.4 million years ago, however, the first use of grinding to sharpen stone tool edges such as axes is clearly associated with modern humans, otherwise known as Homo sapiens. [....] " 'The ground-axe fragment is dated to 35,000 years ago, which pre-dates the oldest examples of ground-edge implements dated to 22,000-30,000 years ago from Japan and Northern Australia.' " [NP] Archaeological excavations undertaken in May 2010 at Nawarla Gabarnmang in Northern Australia uncovered the artifact. [....]" [Based on: Article (World's Oldest Ground-edge Implement Discovered in Northern Australia)  by Jeannine Chatterton-Papineau, Saturday, November 13, 2010 : SOURCE: Monash University, Victoria, Australia]

*Link: http://www.infozine.com/news/stories/op/storiesView/sid/44609/

32,000 B.C. - Cave Art - "The oldest known cave art is that of Chauvet in France, the paintings of which may be 35,000 years old according to radiocarbon dating, and date back to 33,000 BCE (Upper Paleolithic).[4] Some researchers believe the drawings are too advanced for this era and question this age.[5] However, over 80 radiocarbon dates had been taken by 2011, with samples taken from torch marks and from the paintings themselves, as well as from animal bones and charcoal found on the cave floor. The radiocarbon dates from these samples show that there were two periods of creation in Chauvet: 35,000 years ago and 30,000 years ago.[6]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cave_painting]

31,000 B.C. - Ancient Dog Skull Shows Early Pet Domestication - "Ancient Dog Skull Shows Early Pet Domestication / 33,000-year-old fossil suggests dogs arose in multiple places, study says."

[Based on: Title for National Geographic article (Ancient Dog Skull Shows Early Pet Domestication / 33,000-year-old fossil suggests dogs arose in multiple places, study says) Christine Dell'Amore, National Geographic News, Published August 19, 2011]

*Link: http://tinyurl.com/3c8glna

*Related links: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/01/120123152528.htm

*Trivia: "Fossils point to origin of dogs ['... suggesting dogs originated in Europe some 19.000 to 32,000 years ago.'] / Europe looks like best case, but experts keep searching" [Based on: Title for A.P. article, p. A7, S.L.P.D., 11/15/13]

30,000 B.C - Nephilim? - "We now discover why it was that the Nephilim/Watchers were said to have fallen from grace having fathered their offspring from the daughters of men. Enoch tells that those of their senior number [the seven archangels] were annoyed that the Chiefs of the Tens had begun to teach their offspring too much too soon by imparting some of the secrets of the signs in earlier days. It was reported that they had taught about the metals of the earth, and how to use them; they taught about the roots of the earth and their medicines; they taught about the sun, the moon and the constellations, and of clouds and weather patterns. The Archangels were said to have admonished the chiefs of the Watchers for having 'revealed the eternal secrets' and for having thrown humankind into an internecine turmoil so that the preeminent sons of the Watchers were at varience with the evolutionary sons of men.
   "The writings indicate that, in light of their new-found supremecy, the Watchers' offspring took advantage of their priviledge and assumed martial control over their mundane brothers, [who were called the Eljo] slaughtering them wholesale in the process. It is often said that 'a little knowledge is a dangerous thing', and this is presented as the case in this regard. Although the sons of the Watchers [called the Naphidem] had gained an amount of advanced knowledge from their Nephilim fathers, they were genetically still somewhat primitive by way of their mothers, and they were, seemingly, unable to cope with this knowledge. Hence, they demonstrated the darwinian principle of the 'survival of the fittest'. They were bigger and stronger than their neighbors; they were generally superior to their neighbors; and so they slew their neighbors. Indeed the Jubilees text indicates that there was a full-blown genocide, with the Naphidem race against the Eljo people, while the Nephilim unsuccessfully endeavored to restrain their Naphidem sons." [Based on: Laurence Gardner, Genesis Of The Grail Kings,  pp. 59-60]
   "It is apparent, therefore, that the story of the Naphidem-Eljo racial war comes from long before the Flood, and from long before Adam. On that account, it is significant [as will be disclosed when we look at the Sumerian historical listings] that the Nephilim ancestry is itself said to trace back tens of thousands of years. From the time of the genocidal slaughter, the Nephilim became what we might describe as 'guardian angels' - the custodians of a salvaged world which they had practically destroyed. Their new domain was essentially the world of the Naphidem - a root breed of culturally advanced Afro-Asian homo sapiens, who had superseded their Eljo predecessors by about 30,000 years." [Based on: Laurence Gardner, Genesis Of The Grail Kings, p.61] 

30,000 B.C. - Rock Art / Europe - "The oldest known example of rock art in Europe is an arrangement of eighteen cup marks on a rock slab over a child's burial in a French cave. Radiocarbon dates for European paintings range back to more than 32,000 years [Gould]. By this time art traditions are known to have existed in southern Africa, the Levant, eastern Europe, India and Australia [Bednarik]. A California rock art site has been dated to about 20,000 years ago, based on analysis of mineral varnish covering a pictograph. Some 200 caves in southwestern France and northern Spain [the French-Cantabrian area] contain cave paintings from the Upper Paleolithic period [Fritz]. These are radiocarbon dated from 32,410 at Chauvet to 11,600 at Le Portel [Gould]. By 30,000 years ago rock art included hand stencils, complex finger markings and two-dimensional paintings. Also by 30,000 years ago perspective, shading, outlining of animal forms and the depiction of movement are all evidenced. And the pigments demonstrate considerable effort and complexity of formulation. Recent exploration [1999] of the Chauvet Cave near Vallon-Pont-d'Arc in southern France has yielded the oldest footprints of Homo sapiens sapiens and a cavern with a dozen new animal figures. The footprints appear to be those of an eight-year-old boy, according to prehistorian Michel-Alain Garcia of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Nanterre. They are between 20,000 and 30,000 thousand years old, perhaps twice as old as those discovered previously at Aldene, Montespan, Niaux, Pech Merle, and other Upper Palaeolithic sites." [Links: 1, 2]

*Trivia: "Cave drawings thought to be older than those in the famed caves of Lascaux have been discovered [December 2005] in a grotto in western France, officials from the Charente region said Sunday [02/05/06]. A first analysis by officials from the office of cultural affairs suggests the drawings were made some 25,000 years ago, said Henri de Marcellus, mayor of the town of Vilhonneur where the cave is situated. He said, however, that the date needed further investigation before it could be confirmed. Cavers exploring a part of a grotto in the Vilhonneur forest made the discovery in December [2005], the local newspaper Charente Libre reported Saturday [02/04/06]. The famed Lascaux Cave in Montignac, in the Dordogne region of southwestern France, has long been considered one of the finest examples of cave paintings. The art dates back 13,000 years, as does cave art in Altamira, in northwestern Spain. However, the Chauvet cave, discovered in the mid-1990s in southeastern France, features some 300 examples of Paleolithic animal art dating back in some cases 31,000 years." [Based on: News Services article (Ancient cave art is found in France), p. A8, S.L.P.D., 02/06/06]

30,000 B.C. - Trivia / AIDS Virus - "In a discovery that sheds new light on the history of AIDS ['published Thursday in Science magazine'], scientists have found evidence that the ancestor [SIV, the simian immunodeficiency virus?] to the virus that causes the disease has been in monkeys and apes for at least 32,000 years - not just a few hundred years, as had been previously thought. [....]" [Based on: New York Times article (AIDS virus much older than previously thought) by Donald G. McNeil Jr., p. A18, S.L.P.D., 09/17/10]

30,000 B.C. - Neanderthal Extinction? - "Homo Sapiens Neanderthalensis disappeared at the beginning of this era [about 30,000 B.C.], but he left behind evidence of his Spiritual perceptions. This is most clearly seen in Neanderthal Burials at Shanidar in northern Iraq, excavated by Richard Solecki, and in Russian Turkestan. The Shanidar grave contained the body of a 42 year old man, sprinkled with flowers. The Turkestan grave contained a 4 year old boychild buried with the accouterment of a warrior. The Shanidar burial is not in and of itself evidence of a belief in an Afterlife. But in the case of the boy from Turkestan, one must ask why a boy, who could not have been a warrior, were buried with such equipment unless there were an expectation that he might need it? This is the best evidence of a belief in an afterlife 45,000 years ago, though it is not proof."

*Trivia: "[....] 28,000 years ago? Last Neanderthals [....]" [Based on: N.G.M. (October 2008) Illustrated Timeline, p. 45.]

*Related Links:

http://www.redorbit.com/news/science/1112424959/ice-age-hominins-and-their-adaptability-to-climate-change/index.html

30,000 B.C. - Colonial Empire / India? - "Valmiki, the Hindu sage-historian, writing from ancient temple records, said: 'that the children of the Motherland were mighty navigators who took their ships from the eastern to the western oceans and from the southern to the northern seas in days so remote that India was only a colony and had not yet become an Empire.' It was more than 30,000 years ago that India was turned from a colony into a colonial empire." [Based on: The Children of Mu, by Col. James Churchward]

30,000 B.C. - "Lion Person" Figurine - "A lion headed figure, first called the lion man (German: Löwenmensch, literally 'lion person'), then the lion lady (German: Löwenfrau), is an ivory sculpture that is the oldest known zoomorphic (animal-shaped) sculpture in the world and one of the oldest known sculptures in general. The sculpture has also been interpreted as anthropomorphic, giving human characteristics to an animal, although it may have represented an unfactual presence deity. The figurine was determined to be about 32,000 years old[1][2] by carbon dating material from the same layer in which the sculpture was found. It is associated with the archaeological Aurignacian culture.[3] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lion_man]
*Related Links: http://www.spiegel.de/international/zeitgeist/0,1518,802415,00.html

30,000 B.C. - Human Occupation / Japan  - "Although the Japanese do not settle Japan until the third century B.C., humans had lived in Japan from about 30,000 B.C. For Japan was not always an island. During the Ice Ages, it was connected to the Korean peninsula by means of a land bridge. All four main Japanese islands were connected, and the southern island of Kyushu was connected to the Korean peninsula while the northern island of Hokkaido was connected to Siberia. Around 10,000 B.C. these original inhabitants developed a unique culture which lasted for several thousand years: the Jomon [cord pattern] culture."

*Trivia: "[....] "The first signs of occupation on the Japanese Archipelago appeared with a Paleolithic culture around 30,000 BC, followed from around 14,000 BC by the Jo-mon period, a Mesolithic to Neolithic semi-sedentary hunter-gatherer (possibly ancestors of the Ainu)[18] culture of pit dwelling and a rudimentary form of agriculture. [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japan]

29,995 B.C. - "Deep-Freeze" Bacteria -

A new type of organism discovered in an Arctic tunnel [2005] came to life in the lab after being frozen for 32,000 years. The deep-freeze bacteria could point to new methods of cryogenics, and they are the sort of biology scientists say might exist on Mars and other planets and moons. [....]

NASA described the newfound critter as "the first fully described, validated species ever found alive in ancient ice."

"They immediately started swimming when the ice melted," Hoover told LiveScience, adding that the cryopreserved bacteria were instantly ready to eat and multiply.

[....]

[Based on: Robert Roy Britt, Senior writer, LiveScience.com.] [http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/7019473]

28,186 B.C. - Neptune-Pluto Conjunction - "Neptune-Pluto cycles last about 495 years - half a millennium. They characterise an underlying driving-force behind history, an undertow of reality which marries the inevitable ram-force of Pluto with the imaginal, ideational power of Neptune.  Note: Neptune-Pluto configurations later than 600 B.C. represent estimated projections that could be off by several years. They are caluclated by subtracting [from 577 B.C.] multiples of  493 years."

*Trivia: - Phoenix Cycle - "[....] From classical sources we discover that the Greeks recognized what was called the Phoenix Cycle, derived from Egyptian legends of the Bennu bird that rose from its own ashes every 500 years. There are some indications this Cycle was linked with the Plutonic revolution of 247 years doubled. [....] According to the Pythagorean/NeoPlatonic Greeks and Egyptians, with each Cycle culmination and for a hundred years on either side of it, it was prophesied that an influx of special souls would be incarnating - variously called savants, masters, teachers, messiahs, avatars, and bodhisattvas by different traditions - whose chosen work was to raise overall planetary consciousness. [....]" [Based on: Article: TOP 10 PROPHECIES FOR THE YEAR 2000 / Was the ancient Phoenix Cycle adopted into the western Gregorian calendar from ancient Egypt... by Joseph Robert Jochmans]

*Link: http://web.archive.org/web/20000818065824/http://www.mm2000.nu/sphinxe.html

28,000 B.C. - "Denisovans" - "A 30,000-year-old finger bone found in a cave in southern Siberia came from a young girl who was neither an early modern human nor a Neanderthal, but belonged to a previously unknown group of human relatives who may have lived throughout much of Asia during the late Pleistocene epoch. Although the fossil evidence consists of just a bone fragment and one tooth, DNA extracted from the bone has yielded a draft genome sequence, enabling scientists to reach some startling conclusions about this extinct branch of the human family tree, called 'Denisovans' after the cave where the fossils were found. The findings are reported in the December 23 issue of Nature by an international team of scientists, including many of the same researchers who earlier this year published the Neanderthal genome. Coauthor Richard Green of the University of California, Santa Cruz, played a lead role in the analysis of the genome sequence data, for which a special portal was designed on the UCSC Genome Browser. The team was led by Svante Pääbo of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany. [NP] By comparing the Denisovan genome sequence with the genomes of Neanderthals and modern humans, the researchers determined that the Denisovans were a sister group to the Neanderthals, descended from the same ancestral population that had separated earlier from the ancestors of present-day humans. The study also found surprising evidence of Denisovan gene sequences in modern-day Melanesians, suggesting that there was interbreeding between Denisovans and the ancestors of Melanesians, just as Neanderthals appear to have interbred with the ancestors of all modern-day non-Africans. [NP] 'The story now gets a bit more complicated,' said Green, an assistant professor of biomolecular engineering in the Baskin School of Engineering at UC Santa Cruz. 'Instead of the clean story we used to have of modern humans migrating out of Africa and replacing Neanderthals, we now see these very intertwined story lines with more players and more interactions than we knew of before.' [....]"

[Based on: Paleontology & Archaeology article (Fossil finger bone yields genome of a previously unknown human relative) Published: Wednesday, December 22, 2010 - 13:41]

*Trivia: "The Denisova hominin (/d??ni?s?v?/) is the remains (a finger bone and tooth) of a member of the genus Homo that may belong to a previously unknown species based on an analysis of their mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). In March 2010, discovery was announced of a finger bone fragment of a juvenile that lived about 41,000 years ago found in Denisova Cave (Altai Krai, Russia), a region also inhabited at about the same time by Neanderthals and modern humans.[1][2] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Denisova_hominin]

*Links: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/09/110922121405.htm

*Related Links: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/02/120207133602.htm

28,000 B.C. - Equinox at Aries -  "The period of a complete cycle of the vernal point around the celestial sphere is approximately 25,800 [or 25,776] years. In other words, after 25,800 years, the vernal point is back at the starting point or fiduciary vernal point [zero degrees sidereal Aries]. For the same reason that astrologers have allowed for twelve signs as the sun passes through its annual orbit, this 25,800 years cycle is also divided into twelve signs, with each of these twelve signs averaging some 2,150 [or 2,148] years each." [Reference?]

28,000 B.C. - Trivia / Primitive Tools - "Evidence has emerged of common origins of primitive tools dating back over 30,000 years recovered from ancient sites in America, and those from sites in the trans-Baikal region of Siberia."

28,000 B.C. - Human Presence / Chile - "In Chile, scientists excavating a 12,500-year-old settlement at Monte Verde have found evidence of a human presence that may extend back as far as 30,000 years."

28,000 B.C. - Ice Age Camp / Artic Siberia - "Russian scientists uncovered a 30,000-year-old site where ancient hunters lived on the Yana River in Siberia, about 300 miles north of the Artic Circle and not far from the Bering land bridge that then connected Asia with North America." [Based on: A.P. article, 01/02/04]

27,000 B.C. - Trivia / Villages - "It is unlikely that we will ever determine which of the 'cities' currently contending for the honor of being oldest is the more ancient. It is indeed probable hat none of the settlements now being considered was the first to develop into a city. The evidence now available suggests 7,000 B.C. as a likely date for the beginning of cities. That would be 20,000 years after the oldest known 'villages'." [Reference?]

25,000 B.C. - 13 Moon Calendar? - "The 13 Moon calendar reflects the natural cycle of the thirteen month lunar year, and is, in fact, a cycle used by all indigenous cultures present and past. Amazingly, human understanding of lunar phases can be traced back to around 25000 BC. The modern version of this calendar is formed by 13 regular months of 28 days each, plus one day out of time. This period also equals the length of a solar year. The cycle of 28 days reflects the natural female cycle of menstruation. Moreover, the days are designated by the progression of the Tzolkin count. Each day is formed by the combination of one of the 13 pulsations, one of the 20 solar frequencies, and a color which represents one of the four directions. The most effective way to break the hypnotic spell of artificial time is to follow the thirteen month calendar. The 13:20 frequency transcends all cultural boundaries, and this calendar has been made available in a number of different languages. The 13 Moon calendar synchronizes all people of Earth with the natural cycles of planetary, solar, and galactic rhythms."  

25,000 B.C.  - Neanderthal Extinction - "Extinction of Neanderthals." [Based on: Compact History Of The World, edited by Geoffrey Parker, copyright 2003, p. 14] - [First published by Times Books (as The Times Compact Atlas of World History) 1995 - updated and reprinted 2002]

*Trivia: "An international team of scientists thinks it has solved [2006] the ultimate mystery of the Neanderthals: where and when they made their last stand before extinction. It was at Gibraltar 28,000 years ago, the scientists say, about 2,000 years more recently than previously thought. [....] recently revised dating shows that anatomically modern Homo sapiens migrated to Europe from Africa by 35,000 years ago and over time they displaced Neanderthals, who had lived on the continent for about 2000,000 years. [....]" [Based on: New York Times article, p. A7, S.L.P.D., 09/14/06]

25,000 B.C. - Decorated Corpse / France - "A 27,000-year-old human skeleton laid out in a room decorated with ancient art and a crude representation of a face are among the rare finds in a cave in western France, officials said Friday [06/02/06]. The state took over ownership of the cave in the Vilhonneur forest on May 12, the French Culture Ministry said in a statement. It was only the second known case of a human body being placed in a decorated cave from the Upper Paleolithic Period, the ministry said. Cavers exploring part of a grotto once used to dispose of animal carcasses discovered the cave in December [2005]." [Based on: News Services article (27,000-year-old skeleton found in cave), p. A29, S.L.P.D., 06/03/06]

24,000 B.C. - Beginning / Grand Cycle? - "Approximate [theoretical ] beginning date for the 26,000-year Grand Cycle period of evolution that reportedly culminates in December, 2012."

24,000 B.C. - World's oldest portrait reveals the ice-age mind - "Twenty-six thousand years ago in the Czech Republic, one of our ice-age ancestors selected a hunk of mammoth ivory and carved this enigmatic portrait of a woman - the oldest ever found. By looking at artefacts like this as works of art, rather than archaeological finds, a new exhibition at the British Museum in London hopes to help us see them and their creators with new eyes. [NP] Human ancestors date back millions of years, but the earliest evidence of the human mind producing symbolic imagery as a form of creative expression cannot be much older than 100,000 years. That evidence comes from Africa: this exhibition explores the later dawning of representative art in Europe and shows that even before the remarkable paintings of the Lascaux cave, France, humans were able to make work as subtle as the expressive face above. [see link] [... .]"

[Based on: NewScientist article (World's oldest portrait reveals the ice-age mind) - Julia Sklar, reporter - 01/25/13]

*Link: http://www.newscientist.com/blogs/shortsharpscience/2013/01/worlds-oldest-portrait.html

24,000 B.C. - Stone Age hunters from Europe / North America? - "New archaeological evidence suggests that America was first discovered by Stone Age people from Europe – 10,000 years before the Siberian-originating ancestors of the American Indians set foot in the New World. [NP] A remarkable series of several dozen European-style stone tools, dating back between 19,000 and 26,000 years, have been discovered at six locations along the US east coast. Three of the sites are on the Delmarva Peninsular in Maryland, discovered by archaeologist Dr Darrin Lowery of the University of Delaware. One is in Pennsylvania and another in Virginia. A sixth was discovered by scallop-dredging fishermen on the seabed 60 miles from the Virginian coast on what, in prehistoric times, would have been dry land. [NP] The new discoveries are among the most important archaeological breakthroughs for several decades - and are set to add substantially to our understanding of humanity's spread around the globe. [....]"

[Based on: The Independent article (New evidence suggests Stone Age hunters from Europe discovered America) DAVID KEYES - Tuesday 28 February 2012]

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/new-evidence-suggests-stone-age-hunters-from-europe-discovered-america-7447152.html

23,400 B.C. - Atlantis Kingdom? -  Reportedly, "Atlantis was governed by a king, that is, Atlantis was a kingdom over 25,400 years ago. An Egyptian papyrus states that Poseidon was the first king of Atlantis and that he was followed by a long line of Poseidons, thus forming a Poseidon Dynasty. A map drawn up by Admiral Piri Reis [believed to have been compiled from earlier source documents at the library of Constantinople in 1513 A.D.] portrays a large island in the Atlantic Ocean to the east of the South American coast where  no such island now exists. The island is located right over the sub-oceanic Mid-Atlantic Ridge just north of the equator and 700 miles east of the coast of Brazil, where the tiny rocks of the St.s Peter and Paul now jut above the waves." [Link: 1]

23,000 B.C. - Amazon Sea? - "There are a collection of clay tablets in a monastary located in western Tibet that contain maps of various parts of the earth. Twenty-five thousand years ago, according to one map, two great streams of colonists were crossing the center of South America in boats. They were going from the Motherland [Mu] in the Pacific Ocean to Atlantis and points beyond, even through the Mediterranean Sea as far as Asia Minor. This map showed the Amazon Sea opening to the Atlantic Ocean on the east, and connecting [by canal] to the Pacific Ocean on the west. The Amazon basin only became a swamp after the great island of Atlantis was submerged." [Based on: The Children of Mu, by Col. James Churchward]

23,000 B.C. - Trivia / Indo-European -  "According to popular history, basic Indo-European is thought to have started 25 thousand years ago in central Europe and through Russia and Iran to the Indian subcontinent.”

23,000 B.C. - Pendant / Iberian Peninsula - "[....] There are, thus, few means for dating certain remains. There were two periods of human occupation in Irikaitz, the most recent being 25,000 years ago, the pendant discovered this summer [2011] being from that time. But, it is the older occupation that gives headaches in trying to date it. Yes, it dates from the early Stone Age (Lower Palaeolithic), but when exactly? There hardly exist archaeological sites similar to this one, to act as a reference. As this archaeologist explained, 'there is no other case of the Lower Palaeolithic under these conditions along the strip of land bordered by the Bay of Biscay, and only a few like it in the whole of the Iberian Peninsula'. It is impossible to narrow the dating to less than an interval of 350,000 years: 'We know it cannot date from later than 150,000 years ago (when that period ended), and neither can it be prior to 500,000 years ago, because the sea covered the area during that period'. [....]" [Based on Basque research article (Irikaitz archaeological site: only for the tenacious) - 12/27/11]

*Link: http://www.basqueresearch.com/berria_irakurri.asp?Berri_Kod=3671&hizk=I

23,000 B.C. - Colonization / North America - "25,000 years ago: first colonisation of North America. A hamlet consisting of huts built of rocks and of mammoth bones is founded in what is now Dolni Vestonice in Moravia in the Czech Republic. This is the oldest human permanent settlement that has yet been found by archaeologists.[5]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/11th_millennium_BC] - [T.D. - 01/29/12]

22,000 B.C. - "Venus" figurine - "Several small, corpulent figures have been found during archaeological excavations of the Upper Paleolithic, the Venus of Willendorf, perhaps, being the most famous.[2] It is estimated to have been carved 24,000–22,000 BCE. Some archaeologists believe they were intended to represent goddesses, while others believe that they could have served some other purpose. These figurines predate the available records of the goddesses listed below as examples by many thousands of years, so although they seem to conform to the same generic type, it is not clear whether they, indeed, were representations of a goddess or that, if they are, there was any continuity of religion that connects them with Middle Eastern and Classical deities. [NP] he Paleolithic period extends from 2.5 million years ago to the introduction of agriculture around 10,000 BCE. Archaeological evidence indicates that humans migrated to the Western Hemisphere before the end of the Paleolithic. It is the prehistoric era distinguished by the development of stone tools, and covers the greatest portion of humanity's time on Earth. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mother_goddess]

21,000 B.C. - Geology Trivia / Cantabrian Sea - "[....] The data obtained in the studies were compared with samples of different layers of the ocean beds or lakes, in order to observe the changes in the distribution of the microfossils. Thus, for example, a species that can be currently observed living in cold Nordic waters appeared in great quantities in the south of the Gulf of Bizkaia during a determined period, indicating that, in that period, the waters of the Cantabrian Sea were much colder than they are now. Dating of these samples confirm that this period coincided with the last Great Ice Age and detected by the UPV/EHU team in waters of the Basque continental shelf and carbon dated (14C) at about 23,000 years. [....]" [Based on: Basque Research article (Small fossils provide key clues for interpreting environmental changes), 07/23/09]

*Link: http://www.basqueresearch.com/berria_irakurri.asp?Berri_Kod=2316&hizk=I - [T.D. - 08/11/09]

20,000 B.C. - Birth / Osiris? - "Osiris was a man and his history has been recorded by the Naacals, Their writings say: 'Osiris was born in Atlantis [about] 22,000 years ago. On arriving at young manhood, he left Atlantis and went to the Motherland to study in her colleges. He entered a Naacal college where he studied and remained until he became a Master and a Holy Brother. He then returned to Atlantis and there purged religion of the extravagances and excesses which had crept into it. He then became the head of the Atlantian Church, a position which he held through a long life.' [....]" [Based on: The Children of Mu, by Col. James Churchward]

20,000 B.C. - Humans in South America? - "Stone tools unearthed at a Brazilian rock-shelter may date to as early as 22,000 years ago. Their discovery has rekindled debate about whether ancient people reached the Americas long before the famed Clovis hunters spread through parts of North America around 13,000 years ago. [...] Among other South American locations proposed as human settlements well before North America’s Clovis culture, the most controversial is Brazil’s Pedra Furada rock-shelter. There, archaeologists unearthed burned wood and sharp-edged stones and dated them to more than 50,000 years ago. Pedra Furada’s excavators regard the finds as evidence of ancient human hearths and stone tools. Critics, and especially many Clovis investigators, say the Brazilian discoveries could have resulted from natural fires and rock slides. [....]"

[Based on: Sciencenews article (Disputed finds put humans in South America 22,000 years ago / Brazilian site may have been home to people before the Clovis hunters) by Bruce Bower, Web edition: March 13, 2013]

http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/348953/description/Disputed_finds_put_humans_in_South_America_22000_years_ago

18,000 B.C.

18,000 B.C. - Mountains? - "Mountains were relatively unknown before 20,000 years ago. Most of our mountains were  not raised until about 10,000 to 11,000 B.C. There are Oriental records which speak of both the first and second migrations of Uighurs into Europe. The first entered Europe during the Pliocene, before the mountains were raised. The second migration took place during the Pleistocene and after the mountain raising, many thousands of years after the first migration. The people of the first migration were pretty generally wiped out by the Great magnetic Cataclysm and subsequent mountain raising. They were not entirely wiped out as three small communities or families were saved. The descendants of these today are: the Bretons of France, the Basques of Spain, and the genuine Irish. They are all linguistically related." [Based on: The Children of Mu, by Col. James Churchward]

*Trivia: "The Bible relates that the waters of the 'Flood' rose 26 feet and covered the mountains. In Psalms there is a reference 'before the mountains were raised.' Many of the Central Asiatic tribes date their time from the raising of the Himalayas and mountains of Central Asia. The Zulus claim that they came to South Africa from the north, as their country in the north was ruined by the raising of the mountains." [Based on: The Children of Mu, by Col. James Churchward]

18,000 B.C. - Trivia / Sumeria  - "Sumer is a Naga-Maya word meaning 'flat lands or plains.' From this they took or were given the name Sumerians, plainsmen or men of the plains. It is thus seen that the Sumerians and the Akkadians were one and the same people; the difference being that one set lived inland, countrymen, and the other set lived on the seashore, shoremen. Historians, however have written as if the Akkadians and Sumerians were two different peoples, which is erroneous. Valmiki, the Hindu sage-historian, in his works written 1,300 B.C., tells us that 'these colonists...of the Euphrates settlement' [Akkadians and Sumerians] 'called their settlement Babylonia and their chief city, Babylon.' Babylon was also 'Ka Ra' which is Naga-Maya meaning 'the city of the Sun.' Valmiki also states 'that the Naacals left India and went to Babylonia, there to teach the religion and the sciences of the Motherland.' " [Based on: Col. James Churchward]

18,000 B.C. - Trivia / Babylon  - "The history of Babylonia is made up of the histories of the Akkadians, the Sumerians, the Chaldaens, the Assyrians, the Medes, and the Persians; only one of which today exists as a distinctive people. The recorded history such as has been found, referring to what historians have called 'the Old Oriental Empires' and recorded by our scientists, consists of the reading of a few tablets and inscriptions written in cuneiform and then matching up the translations with the Biblical Legends. The furthest any of these go back is 5,000 years ago. The commencement of Babylonia dates back 18,000 years or more when a settlement on the river Euphrates was made by a company of Naga-Mayas from India. In after times they met the end of the Eastern Line from Mu. The people they met were Semitic. After the Akkad settlement was firmly established, the Akkadians worked inland up the Euphrates River and became known as Sumerians. Herodotus, Lib. 1-181, says; Berosus, who was an early Babylonian priest-historian, wrote, 'the first inhabitants of Babylonia were foriegners of another race.' Berosus then proceeds to establish distinctions between the foriegners and the Babylonians and Assyrians, and follows by saying, 'Civilization was brought to Mesopotamia by Oannes and six other beings, half man and half fish who came up the river from the persian gulf.' " [Based on: Col. James Churchward]

18,000 B.C. - Trivia / Chaldaens  - "The Akkadians and Sumerians, the real and ancient Babylonians, were far in advance of a Semitic people living to the north of them, as regards both civilization and learning. Surrounding the settlement at Akkad, and at various places along the river, there were large areas of tall reeds, the homes of vicious animals. To protect themselves against these marauding beasts the settlers built stockades around their homes and villages. These stockades they called Chaldi. All of their colleges and temples of learning were within an enclosure. This enclosure was called Chaldi. Later, Chaldi was the name given to the learned class and their colleges." [Based on: Col. James Churchward]

18,000 B.C. - Trivia / Akkadians -  "Beginning in 3,000 B.C. ... a group of people called Akkadians drifted into the Tigris-Euphrates valley along the northern fringes of Sumeria. They spoke a language [Semitic?] entirely unrelated to Sumerian." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov, Copyright 1991, p. 33]

*Trivia: "The first Akkadians were a company of Naga-Mayas from India who came through the Persian Gulf and made their first settlement at the mouth of the Euphrates river. They called the place Akkad. Akkad is a Naga-Maya word meaning 'soft and marshy ground' which today is the character of the ground on the Euphrates Delta. When the settlement was formed the people adopted the name they had given to their settlement and thus became known as Akkadians. Temple records in India speak of this settlement but give no date. Contemporary records have dates of about 18,000 years ago." [Based on: Col. James Churchward]

??? B.C. - Trivia / Semites -  "The Sumerians and Akkadians were attacked and conqured by a Semitic people coming down from the North. These Semitics finding the civilization of the Akkadians and Sumerians so far in advance of their own, instead of putting them to the sword or enslaving them, assimilated them, that is, they were placed on an equality with their conquers and intermarried. Their scientists were given the greatest honors. So successfully did this work that in the absorbtion the Akkadians and Sumerians were never known again as a separate people. They disappeared from history. There is no mystery about the origin of the Semitic race which came down from the north. They left the Motherland, Mu, and first made a settlement in Yucatan calling their city Zahia, the remains of which are to be found a few miles from Uxmal. From there a company migrated to the east, forming a settlement on the Caucasian Plains and around the foot of the Caspian sea. This is the hinterland of asia minor and where we find the Biblical historical mountain, Mt. Ararat, raising its imposing head some 15,000 or 16,000 feet above the level of the plain. The Egyptians called this country Zahia after the Yucatan name." [Based on: Col. James Churchward]

*Trivia: "Reportedly, 'Classical scholars know about the orientalising periods in Greek art; and near eastern specialists are familar with Minoan, Mycenaean, Hellinistic and still later Greek influence in Western Asia and Egypt. The interconnections antedate not only the earliest Hebrew and Greek writings, but also the earliest texts of Sumer and Egypt." [Reference?]

18,000 B.C. - Pottery / China - "Pottery fragments found in a south China cave have been confirmed to be 20,000 years old, making them the oldest known pottery in the world, archaeologists say. [...] The ancient fragments were discovered in the Xianrendong cave in south China's Jiangxi province, which was excavated in the 1960s and again in the 1990s, according to the journal [journal Science - 06/29/12] article." [Based on: A.P. article (20,000-year-old pottery found in China), p. A7, S.L.P.D., 06/29/12]

18,000 B.C. - Human Art / Spain -  "There were paintings discovered in northern Spain [Altimira cave] of bison, deer, and other animals, in red and black, drawn perhaps as long as 20,000 years ago." [Reference?]

18,000 B.C. - American Indian Migration? - "Nearly all of today's [2008] American Indians in North, Central and South America can trace part of their ancestry to six women whose descendants immigrated about 20,000 years ago, a DNA study suggests. [....] The six 'founding mothers' apparently did not live in Asia because the DNA signatures they left behind aren't found there, Perego [Ugo Perego] said. They probably lived in Beringia, the now-submerged land bridge that stretched to North America, he said. [....] The work was published this week by the journal PloS One. Perego is from the Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation in Salt Lake City and the University of Pavia in Italy." [Based on: A.P. article (Indians' DNA reveals six 'mothers'), p A3, S.L.P.D., 03/14/08]

*Related Links:

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2012/01/120203-native-americans-siberia-genes-dna-science/

18,000 B.C. - Architecture / Jordanian desert - "[...] The research, published 15 February, 2012 in PLoS One by a joint British, Danish, American and Jordanian team, describes huts that hunter-gatherers used as long-term residences and suggests that many behaviours that have been associated with later cultures and communities, such as a growing attachment to a location and a far-reaching social network, existed up to 10,000 years earlier. [....]" [Based on: University of Cambridge Research News article (Archaeologists discover Jordan’s earliest buildings / Some of the earliest evidence of prehistoric architecture has been discovered in the Jordanian desert, providing archaeologists with a new perspective on how humans lived 20,000 years ago.) - Dr Lisa Maher, February 18, 2012]

*Link: http://www.cam.ac.uk/research/news/archaeologists-discover-jordans-earliest-buildings/

17,000 B.C.

16,354 - Neptune-Pluto conjunction -  

16,290 B.C. - Oldest Pottery Known to Science? / China - "Examples of pottery found in a cave at Yuchanyan in China’s Hunan province may be the oldest known to science. [NP] By determining the fraction of a type, or isotope, of carbon in bone fragments and charcoal, the specimens were found to be 17,500 to 18,300 years old. [NP] The authors say that the ages are more precise than previous efforts because a series of more than 40 radiocarbon-dated samples support the estimate. [NP] The Yuchanyan cave was the site where the oldest kernels of rice were found in 2005, and it is viewed as an important link between cave-dwelling hunter-gatherer peoples and the farmers that arose later in the basin of the nearby Yangtze River. [....]" [Based on: Archaeology News article (Oldest pottery in the world found in China), by Elliott King, 01/11/10]

http://www.archaeologynews.org/story.asp?ID=554925&Title=Oldest pottery in the world found in China

16,000 B.C.

16,000 B.C. - Peopling Of The Americas? - "[....] Some 15,000-18,000 years ago, people came from Asia through the Bering Strait and began to fill the American continents. The Americas were the last continents to be populated, so Lewis [Cecil Lewis, assistant professor of anthropology at the University of Oklahoma] wants to understand how this process happened. His recent study focuses on South America and asks what part of the subcontinent has the most genetic diversity. [....] The genetic diversity of the Americas is largely a subset of that in Asia. As a result, DNA tells a story about human origins, which began in Africa and spread throughout the world. [NP] Lewis is interested in the founder effects within the Americas with a particular focus on South America. At the outset, Lewis expected western South America to have a more diverse population than eastern South America because most anthropologists believe South America to have been peopled from west to east. Unexpectedly, the genetic data from the Lewis study was not consistent with this idea. [....] While the focus of this study was South America, a similar and interesting pattern of genetic diversity emerged in North America. The pattern suggests another major founder effect in North America, but after the initial founder effect from Asia. [....] A paper by Lewis on this subject is currently available on 'Early View' in the scientific journal American Journal of Physical Anthropology." [Based on: Science News article (The Peopling Of The Americas: Genetic Ancestry Influences Health, Anthropologist Says), 08/16/09]

*Link: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/08/090814111455.htm

*Other Links: http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2012-06/osu-ndd061912.php

15,000 B.C.

15,000 B.C. - Tiahuanaco - "Just 12 miles southward of the southernmost tip of Lake Titicaca lie the remains of Tiahuanaco, the site of a technologically advanced culture considered by many archaeologists to be the oldest ruins in the world. Although some misguided scholars have attributed the  buildings of Tiahuanaco to the Incas, it has now been established that  the city was already in ruins when the first Incas came upon the scene. In his voluminous work Tianacu: the Cradle of American Man, the late Professor Arthur Posnansky explains the archaeo-astronomical calculations which led to his controversial re-dating of Tiahuanaco. According to Posnansky, Tiahuanaco had been in active use as a port as early as 15,000 B.C. Based on the mathematical/astronomical calculations of Prof. Posansky, and Professor Rolf Muller [who has also challenged the official dating of Machu Picchu], it pushes the main phase of construction of Tiahuanaco back to 15,000 B.C. This chronology also indicates that the city later suffered immense destruction in a phenomenal natural catastrophe around the eleventh millennium B.C., and thereafter rapidly became separated from the lakeshore. The orthodox historical view is that the ruins of Tiahuanaco cannot possibly be dated much earlier than 500 A.D." [Links: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

*YouTube Link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hniLIpalieY&feature=related

15,000 B.C. - Species Extinction - "... in different parts of the earth (for different reasons and at different times) the long epoch of glaciation witnessed several quite distinct episodes of extinction. In all areas, the vast majority of the many destroyed species were lost in the final seven thousand years from about 15,000 BC down to 8,000 BC. [....] In the New World, for example, more than seventy genera of large animals became extinct between 15,000 BC and 8,000 BC, including all North American members of seven families, and one complete order, the Proboscidea. These staggering losses, involving the violent obliteration of more than 40 million animals, were not spread out evenly over the whole period; on the contrary, the vast majority of the extinctions occured in just two thousand years, between 11,000 BC and 9000 BC. To put this in perspective, during the previous 300,000 years only about twenty genera had disappeared.
   "The same pattern of late and massive extinctions was repeated across Europe and Asia. Even far-off Australia was not exempt, losing perhaps nineteen genera of large vertebrates, not all of them mammals, in a relatively short period of time.
   "The northern regions of Alaska and Siberia appear to have been the worst hit by the murderous upheavals between 13,000 and 11,000 years ago. In a great swathe of death around the edge of the Artic Circle the remains of uncountable numbers of large animals have been found - including many carcases with the flesh still intact, and astonishing quantities of perfectly preserved mammoth tusks. Indeed, in both regions, mammoth carcases have been thawed to feed to sled dogs and mammoth steaks have featured on restaurant menus in Fairbanks. One authority has commented, 'Hundreds of thousands of individuals must have been frozen immediately after death and remained frozen, otherwise the meat and the ivory would have spoiled ... Some powerful general force was certainly at work to bring the catastrophe about.' " [Based on: Graham Hancock, Fingerprints Of The Gods, p. 212-213]

15,000 B.C. - Human Art / France - "The cave art of Paleolithic man of Lascaux, France dates to this time. It contains some 600 paintings, 1,500 engravings, and innumerable mysterious dots and geometric figures." [Reference?]

*Trivia: "[....] The famed Lascaux Cave in Montignac, in the Dordogne region of southwestern France, has long been considered one of the finest examples of cave paintings. The art dates back 13,000 years, as does cave art in Altamira, in northwestern Spain. However, the Chauvet cave, discovered in the mid-1990s in southeastern France, features some 300 examples of Paleolithic animal art dating back in some cases 31,000 years." [Based on: News Services article (Ancient cave art is found in France), p. A8, S.L.P.D., 02/06/06]

15,000 B.C. - Civilization / Uighur - "Chinese legend tells that the Uighurs were at the height of their civilization about 17,000 years ago. This date agrees with geological phenomenon." [Reference?]

15,000 B.C. - Trivia / Athens, Greece - ""There are many records stating that Asia Minor, the Lower Balkans and Egypt were first colonized through Mayax and Atlantis. According to the temple records at Sais, a city existed on the spot which Athens occupied 11,500 years ago and which was built 17,000 years ago - a thousand years before the history of Lower Egypt commenced." [Based on: Col. James Churchward]

15,000 B.C. - Destruction? / Uighur Empire - "Various Oriental traditions record that the destruction of the Uighur Empire occurred 17,000 years ago. [....] The Uighurs were the forefathers of all of the present-day Aryan Races." [Based on: Col. James Churchward, Cosmic Forces of Mu, Volume Two, p.133-134]

15,000 B.C. - Maximum Extent / European Ice Age? - "Known technically as the Wurm Glaciation, this European Ice Age attained its maximum extent 17,000 years ago, and then experienced the same rapid withdrawl, and shared the same terminal date [8,000 B.C.]." [Based on: Popular Geologic Theory]

15,000 B.C. - Maximum Extent / Norh American Glaciation? - "The Tazewell Advance saw the North American glaciation reach its maximum extent around 15,000 B.C. By 13,000 B.C., however, millions of square miles of ice had melted, for reasons that have never properly been explained, and by 8,000 B.C. the Wisconsin had withdrawn completely." [Based on: Popular Geologic Theory]

*Trivia: "The geological Glacial Period is one of those bizarre, fantastic, mythical theories that has taken strong root in the minds of our present-day scientists. The Glacial Period is history repeating itself. Such scientific misconceptions have pervaded the scientific world all through history and even back beyond historical times, as is shown by the symbolical Tower of Babel; and when there was Atlas disturbing the scientific fraternity until they clubbed together and unceremoniously buried him in the Northwest corner of Africa. The Glacial Period is really modern and up-to-date, for it boasts of having a family of little glaciations, so that there will be some support for it in its old age. Agassiz and his assistants, who framed the Glacial Period Theory and surrounded it with such a corrollary of impossibilities, never studied the origin and workings of forces or natural laws, otherwise they would never have foisted such a raw scientific proposition on an unsuspecting public." [Col. James Churchward, Cosmic Forces of Mu, Volume Two, pp.114-115]

*Trivia: "The earth has been subjected to two forms of cataclysms, arising from two distinct causes. First, the volcanic cataclysm arising from volcanic workings. These cataclysms affect local areas only. Second, the magnetic cataclysm, caused by a lurch of the earth going back into magnetic balance. A magnetic cataclysm results from the earth getting out of magnetic balance. The earth is out of magnetic balance when her pole gets drawn towards the sun more than 23 1/2 degrees from its mean position. When the pole has been drawn more than 23 1/2 degrees from mean, the earth's gyroscopical force carries it back at too great a velocity, which causes a displacement of the earth's surface waters. During the early part of the earth's history, magnetic cataclysms were of frequent occurence, as shown by various rock formations. They continued down to the end of the Tertiary Era, when the earth's crust had been so thickened and compacted that the earth went into the final magnetic balance." [Col. James Churchward]

14,000 B.C.

14,000 B.C. - Tiahuanaco - "On top of the Andes Mountains, 13,500 feet above the level of the Pacific Ocean on the shores of Lake Titicaca, are the ruins of a prehistoric city called Tiahuanaco. Among the ruins of this city there is a wonderful monolith called by archaeologists 'one of the archaeological wonders of the world.' It is completely covered with inscriptions, most of which are Cara-Maya. The stone is reportedly about 16,000 years old." [Based on: Col. James Churchward]

14,000 B.C. - Lower Egypt - "The Nile Colony was the original name of Lower Egypt. It was started at Sais on the Nile Delta by Mayas, coming from Atlantis under the leadership of Thoth about 16,000 years ago. Thoth was the Son of an Atlantean Priest, who founded a temple at Sais on the banks of the Nile, where he taught the Osirian Religion. Thoth was the god of writing, learning, and medicine. It was he who composed the early and most important portions of the Book of the Dead [the 64th chapter] at the commencement of Egyptian Civilization. He was depicted as having the head of an ibis bird." [Based on: Col. James Churchward]

14,000 B.C. - Human Art / France - "Several thousand engravings are made at La Marche, France, mostly of animals but also including some humans." [Reference?]

14,000 B.C. - Egyptian Sky Chart - "Reportedly, the original sky chart of the remote Ancient Egyptians [dating back to 11:57 pm July 3rd 14,000 BCE] was incorporated into the Narmer Plate in 4,468 B.C. Plato [4th century B.C.] reported that the Egyptians had observed the stars 'for ten thousand years'." [Link: 1]

14,000 B.C. - Manoa / "City of Gold" - "According to legends, a group of Cara Mayas left Central America and founded the city of Manoa [The City of Gold] more than sixteen thousand years ago." [Based on: Col. James Churchward]

14,000 B.C. - Human Civilization / Peru - "Reportedly, sixteen thousand years or more ago Peru enjoyed a civilization as prominent as the civilization of Yucatan - this was about the time Egyptian history commenced."
    "The walls of Sacsahuaman in Peru, that in a certain way resemble the underwater constructions of Bimini, are an archeological mystery because they date back to an ancient age and because the stones are disposed in a way to appear merged together. Nobody can explain how such big stones, with so strange internal and external angles, were transported, cut and measured, and disposed with precise purposes, but also in an irregular manner by prehistorical people, so ancient that even Incas haven't documentations on them. Some of the lines near Nazca [Peru] continue in parallel for kilometers though they come across mountains and valleys on their way. Who could trace them and what was their purpose?" [Reference?]

14,000 B.C. - Egyptian Book of the Dead - "The earliest texts bear within themselves proofs, not only of having been composed, but also of having been revised, or edited, long before the days of king Meni, and judging from many passages in the copies inscribed in hieroglyphics upon the pyramids of Unas [the last king of the Vth dynasty, about B.C. 3,333], and Teta, Pepi I., Mer-en-Ra, and Pepi II. [kings of the VIth dynasty, about B.C. 3,300-3,166], it would seem that, even at that remote date, the scribes were perplexed and hardly understood the texts which they had before them. The most moderate estimate makes certain sections of the Book of the Dead as known from these tombs older than three thousand years before Christ. We are in any case justified in estimating the earliest form of the work to be contemporaneous with the foundation of the civilization which we call Egyptian in the valley of the Nile." [Link: 1]

14,000 B.C. - Trivia / Mount Verde, Chille - "Until recent discoveries elsewhere, the earliest Americans were once thought to be the Clovis hunters, who left finely worked projectile points across the United States, beginning about 13,000 years ago [11,000 B.C.]. The Mount Verde site in Chille shows human occupation a few thousand years earlier [14,000 B.C.?], so far the oldest evidence for people in the New World that nearly all scholars can agree on." [Based on: New York Times article, 11/18/04]

14,000 B.C. - Height of Civilization / Atlantis  - "A reported date marking the height of Atlantian civilization." [Reference?]

14,000 B.C. - Cara Maya / South & Central America - "Maya records state that Karas [Carians, Chancas] made settlements along the coasts of South and Central America [Mayax] during the time of Queen Moo. According to the Troano Manuscript, Queen Moo lived 16,000 years ago." [Based on: Col. James Churchward]."

13,800 B.C. - Fossil Remains / Domestic Dogs -  "Fossil remains of dogs have been found in human-occupied caves. Reportedly the oldest date back some 14,000 years." [Reference?]

13,500 B.C. - Human Settlement / North America - "SUMMIT COUNTY — New archaeological research in Texas suggests that humans lived in North America thousands of years earlier than previously believed. [NP] For about 100 years, archaeologists have dated the earliest human artifacts to the Clovis people, about 13,000 years ago. The new finds push this date back by about 2,500 years, into the pre-Clovis era, according to a press release from Baylor University. Their analysis proved that the site was undisturbed and that the artifacts were in place since they were discarded 15,500 years ago. [....]" [Based on: Summit Voice article (Archaeologists find evidence of pre-Clovis settlement / New research may change long-held views on early North American inhabitants) by Bob Berwyn, 04/04/11]

13,000 B.C.

13,000 B.C. - Mountains? - "Many records show that from 12,000 to 15,000 years ago mountains were unknown. Reportedly, the Bible relates that the waters of the 'flood' rose 26 feet and covered the mountains. Also, in Psalms, there is a reference: 'before the mountains were raised.' Many of the Central Asiatic tribes date their time from the raising of the Himalayas and mountains of Central Asia. The Zulus claim that they came to South Africa from the north, as their country in the north was ruined by the raising of the mountains. Legends say that hundreds of millions of lives were lost during the raising of the Asiatic mountains. Geological phenomena throughout the world confirm the fact that mountains are of recent origin. But the greatest exibits of all are: the Valley of Mexico and the Andes in south America [Based on: Col. James Churchward]."

*Trivia: "The Bible relates that the waters of the 'Flood' rose 26 feet and covered the mountains. In Psalms there is a reference 'before the mountains were raised.' Many of the Central Asiatic tribes date their time from the raising of the Himalayas and mountains of Central Asia. The Zulus claim that they came to South Africa from the north, as their country in the north was ruined by the raising of the mountains." [Based on: Col. James Churchward, The Children Of Mu, pp. 53-54]

13,000 B.C. - Transition Period - "Fifteen thousand years ago in a span of several decades a dramatic shift in global weather brought a rapid end to the cold, glacial Pleistocene epoch. The impact of this period of intense transitions for humanity is aptly expressed in the survival of flood epics in so many now disparate mythologies." *Link *  [< number 14]

*Trivia: "Since 13,000 B.C., a vast area of land [the size of Australia, Canada, and North America combined], now [2,000 A.D.] lies below sea level. For the most part, modern archaeology continues to 'avoid' this area, in spite of the numerous man-made structures that litter its surface." [Reference?]

13,000 B.C. - Egyptian Agriculture - "At some point between 13,000 B.C. and 10,000 B.C. Egypt has enjoyed a period of what has been described as 'precocious' agricultural development - possibly the earliest agricultural revolution anywhere in the world identified with certainty by historians. This golden age of agricultural plenty, however, was brought to an abrupt halt around the middle of the 11th millennium B.C." [Reference?]

13,000 B.C. - Ancient Skeleton? / Mexico - "Deep inside an underwater cave in Mexico, archaeologists may have discovered the oldest human skeleton ever found in the Americas. [NP] Dubbed Eva de Naharon, or Eve of Naharon, the female skeleton has been dated at 13,600 years old. If that age is accurate, the skeleton—along with three others found in underwater caves along the Caribbean coast of the Yucatán Peninsula—could provide new clues to how the Americas were first populated. [NP] The remains have been excavated over the past four years near the town of Tulum, about 80 miles southwest of Cancún, by a team of scientists led by Arturo González, director of the Desert Museum in Saltillo, Mexico (see map of Mexico). [....]"

[Based on: National Geographic News article (Oldest Skeleton in Americas Found in Underwater Cave?) by Eliza Barclay, September 3, 2008] - [My brackets. NP = new paragraph. - E.M.]

*Link: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2008/09/080903-oldest-skeletons.html
 http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2010/09/100915-oldest-skeleton-underwater-cave-science/

13,000 B.C. - Extinction / Wooly Rhinoceros - "15,000 years ago: The wooly rhinoceros goes extinct."

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/11th_millennium_BC]

13,000 B.C. - Melting Ice? / North America - "The Tazewell Advance saw the North American glaciation reach its maximum extent around 15,000 B.C. By 13,000 B.C., however, millions of square miles of ice had melted, for reasons that have never properly been explained, and by 8,000 B.C. the Wisconsin had withdrawn completely." [Based on: Geological Theory]

13,000 B.C. - Migrations / Siberia to America - "[....] Determining how long ago the mutations took place, the researchers concluded that the southern Altaian lineage diverged genetically from the Native American lineage about 13,000 to 14,000 years ago. This correlates with current theories that support the migration of peoples into the Americas from Siberia between roughly 15,000 and 20,000 years ago. [....]"

[Based on: Popular Archaeology article (December 2011, Cover Stories, Daily News - New Genetic Research Suggests Link Between Earliest Native Americans and Southern Siberia), Thu, Jan 26, 2012] - [The detailed study is published in the American Journal of Human Genetics]

http://popular-archaeology.com/issue/december-2011/article/new-genetic-research-suggests-link-between-earliest-native-americans-and-southern-siberia

13,000 B.C. - Human Settlement / Upper Egypt - "Both Indian and Egyptian records speak about a settlement called Maioo, in Nubia [Upper Egypt] near the modern town of Suakin. Colonization reportedly took place somewhere in the neighborhood of 15,000 years ago. Valmiki: 'The Mayas from India established a colony in Egypt, giving it the name of Maioo.' Valmiki in 'Ramayana,' Vol 1, page 342, Fauche's translation reads: 'The Naacals first established themselves in the Deccan, India, and from there carried their religion and learning to the colonies of Babylonia and Egypt'." [Based on: Col. James Churchward]

12,410 - Neptune-Pluto Conjunction -  

12,595 B.C. - Ancient Artifacts? / Sac River, Missouri - "Missouri's Sac River flows over the broken halves of an unfinished spearpoint crafted some 13,000 years ago and discovered at a nearby dig site dubbed Big Eddy for the river's potent swirls. Researchers have found even older artifacts that may date back 14,600 years. If true, it would mean people have lived here a thousand years before the arrival from Asia of the Clovis people, long thought to be the first Americans. Workers at the site must dig fast to learn more: Periodic surges of water from an upstream hydroelectric dam are washing away Big Eddy's remaining clues." [Based on: N.G.M. (October 2005), p. 92]

*Trivia: "[....] Before the Sac was dammed, seasonal floods regularly covered this area with silt, burying whatever tools or trash Native Americans and their distant ancestors left on the ground. Those stacked layers, or strata, are well defined at Big Eddy, affording archaeologists the rare opportunity to place ancient artifacts and cultures in clear chronological sequence. [....] The finds have sparked excitement and added to current debates on when the earliest Americans arrived. Conventional theory holds that the first arrivals were the so-called Clovis people, whose oldest artifacts, from the Trinity River Basin in Texas, are about 13,500 years old. But Lopinot's team has turned up what may be signs of earlier human activity. An oblong stone and fragments of a sandstone boulder could have been used as a hammer and anvil, based on their location and similarity to anvil stones discovered at other sites. Radiocarbon dating of charcoal found at the same depth yielded ages of 14,000 to 14,600 years - predating the oldest Clovis artifacts by at least 500 years. [....]" [Based on: N.G.M. (October 2005), pp. 94-96]

12,286 B.C. - Human DNA / North America - "[...] University of Oregon archaeologist Dennis Jenkins led excavations that turned up fossilized human feces - known as coprolites - that were radiocarbon dated to 14,300 years ago. [N.P.] That is 1,000 years before the oldest stone points of the Clovis culture, which for much of the 20th century was believed to represent the first people in North America." [Based on: DIGEST article (Oregon cave with human DNA dubbed historic), p. A13, S.L.P.D., 10/04/14]

12,221 B.C. - Scraper-Like Tool? / North America - November 5th, 2009: "Archaeologists claim to have found the oldest known artefact in the Americas, a scraper-like tool in an Oregon cave that dates back 14,230 years. [NP] The tool shows that people were living in North America well before the widespread Clovis culture of 12,900 to 12,400 years ago, says archaeologist Dennis Jenkins of the University of Oregon in Eugene. [NP] Studies of sediment and radiocarbon dating showed the bone's age. Jenkins presented the finding late last month in a lecture at the University of Oregon. [....]"

[Based on: naturenews article (Oldest American artefact unearthed - Oregon caves yield evidence of continent's first inhabitants.) by Rex Dalton Published online 5 November 2009 | Nature | doi:10.1038/news.2009.1058]

*Link: http://www.nature.com/news/2009/091105/full/news.2009.1058.html?s=news_rss

12,000 B.C.

12,000 B.C. - Pole Star Vega - "[...] Vega was the northern pole star around 12,000 BCE and will be so again around the year 13,727 when the declination will be +86°14'.[12] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vega]

12,000 B.C. - Ancient Letters? - "In one of the caves at Mas d'azil in southern France, as in Spain, Portugal and England, pebbles were found covered with mysterious geometrical signs and decorations partly similar to letters of our alphabet [ex: M, T, EI]. The French archaeologist Piette dated them as far back as 12,000 to 8,000 B.C." [Reference?]

12,000 B.C. - Rock Art? / Britain - "The faint scratchings of a speared reindeer are believed to have been carved by a hunter-gatherer in the Ice Age more than 14,000 years ago. [NP] The archaeologist who found the carving on the Gower peninsula, Dr George Nash, called it 'very, very exciting.' [NP] Experts are working to verify the discovery, although its exact location is being kept secret for now.Dr Nash, a part-time academic for Bristol University, made the discovery while at the caves in September 2010. [....]" [Based on: BBC article (Carving found in Gower cave could be oldest rock art / An archaeologist believes a wall carving in a south Wales cave could be Britain's oldest example of rock art. ) 07/25/11]

*Link: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-wales-south-west-wales-14272126
*More Links: http://www.stonepages.com/news/archives/004796.html

11,800 B.C. - Mastadon hunts? - "Fossil points to Mastodon hunts 13,800 years ago" [Based on: Title for Livescience.com article, October 20, 2011 4:57 PM]

*Link: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2011/10/20/scitech/main20123388.shtml

11,000 B.C.

Last page update 10/04/14