15 Billion - 4 Million B.C. 11,000 B.C. - 9,000 B.C. 9,000 B.C. - 3,000 B.C. 3,000 B.C. - 1 A.D.
Historical Summary: 3000 B.C - 1 A.D. Historical Summary: 500-year Neptune / Pluto Cycles
Timeline: 1 A.D. - Present Historical Summary: 1 A.D. - Present
*Color Code Index
*Interlude: "Did orthodox church dogma suggest Earth was created about 4,000 B.C.? Apparently, it did. Unfortunately, this long-held popular paradigm has seriously warped a modern view of the ancient world by attributing post-4,000 B.C. dates to the oldest civilizations and world cultures on the planet. Not only the first people, the first civilizations, the first languages, the first calendars, the first monuments, the first governments and religions, but after about 4,000 B.C. one can find nearly every Biblical event [thus all of Earth's history]. One can find things this way because, what some people once believed (apparently) some people still do! " [- E.M.]
- This page currently under construction -
3,000 B.C. - Wiki Trivia - "The 3rd millennium BC spans the Early to Middle Bronze Age. [NP] It represents a period of time in which imperialism, or the desire to conquer, grew to prominence, in the city states of the Middle East, but also throughout Eurasia, with Indo-European expansion to Anatolia, Europe and Central Asia. The civilization of Ancient Egypt rose to a peak with the Old Kingdom. World population is estimated to have doubled in the course of the millennium, to some 30 million people. [....]"
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3th_millennium_BCE]
3,000 B.C. - Altithermal - "It is suspected by Earth scientists that the sun shone particularly brightly about this time. This episode is called the Altithermal, and may have contributed to the rise of the early civilizations. Another similar high heat episode occurs around 1,000 A.D."
3,000 B.C. - Jiroft Culture - "A "Jiroft culture" has been postulated as an early Bronze Age (late 3rd millennium BC) archaeological culture, located in what is now Iran's Sistan and Kerma-n Provinces. [....]"
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jiroft_culture]
3,000 B.C. - Gilgamesh Epic - "The interesting fact for Sumer is that pictorial representations of the Mesopotamian classics appear many centuries before our earliest texts thereof. For example, the greatest Mesopotamian classic is the Gilgamesh Epic. Seals depicting scenes from the Gilgamesh Epic are exceedingly common, and begin about 1,000 years before the earliest cuneiform tablets dealing with those scenes. Accordingly, the materials out of which the Gilgamesh Epic was fashioned by the second millennium B.C. were circulating orally, and pictorally, around 3,000 B.C." [Link: 1]
3,000 B.C. - Astrology / China - "[....] Astrology is believed to have originated in China about the 3rd millennium BC. Astrology was always traditionally regarded very highly in China, and indeed Confucius is said to have treated astrology with respect saying: 'Heaven sends down its good or evil symbols and wise men act accordingly'.  The 60 year cycle combining the five elements with the twelve animal signs of the zodiac has been documented in China since at least the time of the Shang (Shing or Yin) dynasty (ca 1766BC - CA 1050BC). Oracles bones have been found dating from that period with the date according to the 60 year cycle inscribed on them, along with the name of the diviner and the topic being divined about. One of the most famous astrologers in China was Tsou Yen who lived in around 300 BC, and who wrote: 'When some new dynasty is going to arise, heaven exhibits auspicious signs for the people'. Astrology in China also became combined with the Chinese form of geomancy known as Feng shui. [....]"
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_astrology] - [T.D. - 08/02/08]
3,000 B.C. - Trivia / Akkadians - "Beginning in 3,000 B.C. ... a group of people called Akkadians drifted into the Tigris-Euphrates valley along the northern fringes of Sumeria. They spoke a language entirely unrelated to Sumerian, one of a group we call 'Semitic' today, because the people who speak it are described, in the Bible, as having been descended from Shem, the oldest son of Noah."
[Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov, Copyright 1991, p. 33]
*Trivia: "[....] The spread of Akkadian as the language of administration throughout the Near East led to contacts with Indo-European languages and also facilitated the borrowing of hundreds of its lexical items by languages like Hebrew. [....]" [Based on: A History of the Hebrew Language, Angel Saenz-Badillos, 2000 edition, p. 13]
3,000 B.C. - Trivia / Cuneiform - "It is estimated that 99 percent of the Babylonian tablets have yet to be dug. The oldest ones reportedly go back to 3,000 B.C. In tablets almost 5,000 years old, and others less than 3,000 years old - the 'Noah figure' of Utnapishtim is known variously as Zisudra, Xisuthros or Atrahasis."
3,000 B.C. - Trivia / Old English - "Old English is spawned from a common Germanic language group in the Elbe river region."
3,000 B.C. - Burial sites / Oman - " '[....] An area of 600sqkm has been covered and many new sites have been found that will shed light on Oman and its glorious past,' informs to Biubwa Ali Al Sabri, Director of Excavation and Archaeological Sites at the Ministry of Heritage and Culture. [N.P.] She added that many of the sites found in Sohar are burial sites belonging to the Wadi Souq period (1900- 1100 BC). 'Also older sites that are as old as 5000 years have been found and a distinctive pattern can be seen within the area that stretches from Liwa to Gyal as Shabol," pointed out the Omani archaeology expert. [...] She also pointed out that earlier excavations in Sohar had unearthed proofs of Oman's connections both with India, China and the city states of Mesopotamia. [NP] 'We also know through text from the old archives in Mesopotamia that Oman, or Magan as it was referred to in ancient times, played an important role as an exporter,' Al Sabri added. [....]"
[Based on: gulfnews article (5,000-year-old burial sites discovered in Sohar / An area of 600sqkm has been covered and many new sites have been found, expert says) - Staff Report, Published: 15:47 December 11, 2011]
3,000 B.C. - Astrology / Babylon - "The history of astrology can now be traced back to ancient Babylonia, and indeed to the earliest phases of Babylonian history, in the third millennium B.C. [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_astrology] - [T.D. - 08/02/08]
3,000 B.C. - Valley of Lambayeque / Peru - "Two ancient temples thought to be about 3,000 years old, from the time when high civilisation established itself in northern Peru, have been uncovered in the archaeological complex of Collud-Zarpán. [....] The two temples belong to the Cupisnique culture that developed in the region between 3000 and 2000BC. [....] The Collud and Zarpán temples are from a time of consolidation of high civilisation in northern Peru, whereas the nearby temple of Ventarrón, which last year it was discovered to be 4500 years old, is from a time when the first civilisations were only just beginning to form. [NP] The three archaeological complexes that cover an area of 40km2 en total, formed part of an ancient centre of civilisation in the valley of Lambayeque, 'that was one of the largest of the Peruvian coast, with the best water engineering and best soil quality', explains Ignacio."
[Based on: Article (3000 year old temples discovered in Lambayeque), 10/22/08]
*Links: http://enperublog.com/2007/11/12/peru-unveils-4000-year-old-temple/ - [T.D. - 01/30/10]
3,000 B.C. - Canaanites Enter Canaan - "A traditional date when the Canaanites entered Canaan." [Link: 1]
*Trivia: "An alternate name for Canaan, especially for cities along the shore, was Phoenicia. This was used by the Greeks from their word for purple, because in later centuries a purple dye was manufactured there. The northern portion of Canaan came to be called Syria in later times; this again being a Greek name, taken from that of a tribe that lived in the region." [Based on: Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov, Copyright 1991, p. 34]
*Trivia: "The basic situation described in the Exodus saga - the phenomenon of immigrants coming down to Egypt from Canaan and settling in the eastern border regions of the delta - is abundantly verified in the archaeological finds and historical texts. From earliest recorded times throughout antiquity, Egypt beckoned as a place of shelter and security for the people of Canaan at times when drought, famine, or warfare made life unbearable or even difficult." [Based on: Israel Finkelstein, The Bible Unearthed, pp. 52-53.]
3,000 B.C - Neolithic Cathedral / Britain - "A team of archaeologists  has unearthed a Neolithic cathedral a massive building of a kind never before seen in Britain, which go back nearly 5,000 years, easily predating the Egyptian pyramids. [NP] According to a report in The Press and Journal, the cathedral, at 82 ft long and 65 ft wide, is placed between two of Orkneys most famous Neolithic landmarks, the Ring of Brodgar and the Stones of Stenness. [....]"
[Based on: Archaeology News article (Archaeologists unearth 5,000-year-old cathedral in Britian) Published on : Wednesday 26 Aug 2009 14:57 - by ANI]
http://www.archaeologynews.org/story.asp?ID=487528&Title=Archaeologistsunearth5000-year-old cathedral in Britian
*Trivia: "A carving believed to be Scotland's earlist human face, dating back thousands of years, has been found on the Orkney island of Westray [Archaeologist Jakob Kainz made the discovery of the face]. [NP] The small Neolithic sandstone human figurine is believed to be up to 5,000 years old. [....]"
[Based on: BBC News article (Scotland's 'earliest face' found) - Page last updated at 05:52 GMT, Friday, 21 August 2009 06:52 UK] *Link: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/scotland/north_east/8212074.stm
3,000 B.C. - Trivia / Minoan Civilization - "Bronze Age civilization, centring on the island of Crete. It was named after the legendary king Minos. It is divided into three periods: the early Minoan period [c.3000-2200 B.C.], the Middle Minoan period [c.2200-1500 B.C.] and the Late Minoan period [c.1500-1000 B.C.]. According to Mythology, Crete was the place where Zeus grew up. He was especially worshipped on the island, and king Minos was considered his son. The island has many myths surrounding it: here, the Minotaur was defeated by Theseus, Daedalus and Icarus worked here. The first great civilization of Greece started on Crete. It is called the Minoan, after its most famous king, Minos. There is a theory that Minos actually was several kings. The Minoan period started sometime around the 3rd Millennium B.C. and ended in the 15th century, probably because of natural disasters like earthquakes. Reportedly, Minoan cities were unwalled." [Link: 1]
3,000 B.C. - Division / Semitic Language - "[....] A common view is that the first division within Semitic happened before 3000 BCE, separating Northeast Semitic (Akkadian) from the rest. It seems likely that before 2000 BCE West Semitic had already split into two branches, Northern and Southern. At the end of the second millennium the Canaanite and Aramaic groups emerged within Northwest Semitic. In the south, differences developed among the Arabic (North Arabian), South Arabian, and Ethiopic. Each one of these branches eventually evolved into the languages and dialects we know today. [....]" [Based on: Angel Saenz-Badillos, A History of the Hebrew Language, 2000 edition, p. 10]
3,000 B.C. - Archaic Indians / Newfoundland - "More than 5,000 years ago, this barren, sea-lashed coast [Labrador & Newfoundland] was home to the Maritime Archaic Indians [MAI], who hunted and fished the coasts of Labrador and Newfoundland for more than 2,000 years. The first evidence of the Maritime Archaic culture was discovered more than 30 years ago when James A. Tuck of Memorial University of Newfoundland excavated 56 elaborate burials exposed during housing construction on a small promontory at Port au Choix, on the Gulf of St. Lawrence just south of the Strait of Belle Isle. Buried between 4,400 and 3,300 B.P., the dead - along with offerings of tools, animal bones, carved animal effigies, and small, white quartz pebbles - were covered in red ochre, earning them the moniker the 'Red Paint People.' Tool kits contained woodworking implements for building dwellings and watercraft; finely wrought bone and ivory fishhooks, harpoons, and harpoon heads, bone foreshafts; and long, narrow ground slate lances for hunting whale and walrus; and fragments of fish spears, all of which pointed to a lifeway dependent on the deep sea."
3,000 B.C. - Maize Cultivation / Mesoamerica - "Evidence of maize cultivation in Mesoamerica." [Based on: Compact History Of The World, edited by Geoffrey Parker, copyright 2003, p. 16] - [First published by Times Books (as The Times Compact Atlas of World History) 1995 - updated and reprinted 2002]
3,000 B.C. - Commercial Capital / Elba, Syria - "Ebla, Syria, was a commercial capital of this era [3,000-2,000 B.C.]. In 1975 tens of thousands of cuneiform tablets were found that supported Ebla's role."
*Trivia: "[....] The archaeological mission working at the site of Tal Faras unearthed a number of buildings dating back to the 4th millennium BC, under which laid another building from the 5th millennium BC. The findings also included ovens to make pottery. [....]"
[Based on: Global Arab Network article (French Archaeologists: Buildings Dating Back to 4th millennium BC Unearthed in Syria) By R. Raslan - Friday, 03 December 2010 17:20 ]
3,000 B. C. - Ship Transport / Byblos to Egypt - "Ships transported timber from Byblos to Egypt."
*Trivia: "A fleet of twelve 5,000 year old royal wooden ships were found buried under the sand at Abydos, approximately eight miles from the Nile river."
*Trivia: "At least two large high-prowed sea-going vessels were discovered buried [in pits] beside the Great Pyramid in Egypt. One of the pits, although still sealed, had been investigated with fiber-optic cameras and was found to contain a vessel more than 100 feet long. In the other pit was an even larger vessel, a full 141 feet in length. Made of cedarwood, the ship was still in perfect condition 4,500 years after it had been built. With a displacement of around 40 tons, it's design was particularly thought-provoking, with a prow and stern soaring higher than in a Viking ship."
2,953 B.C. - Trivia / I Ching - "The I Ching, or Book of Changes, is the most widely read of the five Chinese Classics. The book was traditionally written by the legendary Chinese Emperor Fu Hsi [2,953-2,838 B.C.]. It is possible that the the I Ching originated from a prehistoric divination technique which dates back as far as 5,000 B.C. Futher commentaries were added by King Wen and the Duke of Chou in the eleventh century B.C."
2,900 B.C. - Trivia / Sumerian King Lists - "On Sumerian clay tablets dated around 2,900-2,800 B.C. found in Fara, Semitic [Akkadian] names are attested for the first time. It concerns the names of kings in the city of Kish. Kish is in the north of Babylonia where according to the Sumerian King Lists 'kingship descended again from heaven' after the great flood." [Link: 1]
2,890 B.C. - Trivia / Second Egyptian Dynasty - "A traditional date for the beginning of the Second Egyptian Dynasty [2,890 B.C.-2,650 B.C.]. The fifth king of the 2nd Dynasty, Khasekhemwy ['The Two Powerful Ones Appear'], was probably responsible for the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt. As he ascended the throne he had to put down a Northern rebellion. The rebels reached as far south as Nekheb and Nekhen, the ancient southern capital. His victory is described on two statues. Both portraits show the king with northerners cringing at his feet wearing the White Crown symbolizing the South. It is recorded that there were more than 47,000 casualties. A statue of him, which resides in the Cairo Museum, is the first example of the use of hard stone. He married Nemathap, a woman of royal Northern lineage. The marriage consolidated the kings rule in both regions. Nemathap is documented as being a 'King Bearing Mother'. She is also credited with being the ancestor of the 3rd Dynasty." [Links: 1, 2]
2,863 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -
2,800 B.C. - Trivia / Avebury - "Avebury, constructed between 2,800 and 2,700 B.C., includes the world's largest stone circle [1,401 feet in diameter], numerous barrows, and the 130-foot-tall Silbury Hill, the largest man-made mound in Europe. Silbury Hill, located just south of the village of Avebury in Wiltshire, is a massive artificial mound with a flat top. Silbury Hill is the tallest man-made prehistoric mound in Europe. It was built in three stages, the first believed to have begun around 2,660 B.C." [Links: 1, 2]
*Trivia: "Stonehenge was for a long while thought to have been built slowly - over about 1000 years between 2,100 and 1,100 BC. This chronology was called into question in 1996 by new archaeological evidence. Following a two-year study commisioned by the English Heritage Foundation, researchers concluded that the great circles of blustones and sarsens had in fact been put up between 2,600 BC and 2,030 BC. Less than a year after these results were published another study showed that the stone circles had been preceded by wooden circles of 6-metre pine 'totem poles' dated to 8,000 B.C. [Based on: by Graham Hancock and Santha Faiia, Heaven's Mirror, Quest For The Lost Civilization, p. xiii]
2,800 B.C. - Archaeology Trivia / Greece - "The secrets of a lost city that may have inspired one of the world's most enduring myths the fable of Atlantis have been brought to light from beneath the waters off southern Greece. [NP] Explored by an Anglo-Greek team of archaeologists and marine geologists and known as Pavlopetri, the sunken settlement dates back some 5,000 years to the time of Homer's heroes and in terms of size and wealth of detail is unprecedented, experts say. [NP] 'There is now no doubt that this is the oldest submerged town in the world,' said Dr Jon Henderson, associate professor of underwater archaeology at the University of Nottingham. 'It has remains dating from 2800 to 1200 BC, long before the glory days of classical Greece. There are older sunken sites in the world but none can be considered to be planned towns such as this, which is why it is unique.' [....]"
[Based on: Guardian News article (Lost Greek city that may have inspired Atlantis myth gives up secrets) by Helena Smith in Athens guardian.co.uk, Friday 16 October 2009 19.49 BST]
*Link: http://www.archaeologynews.org/story.asp?ID=513760&Title=Lost Greek city may have inspired Atlantis myth
2,799 B.C. - Configuration - "Uranus-Neptune Conjunction - Note: "This date represents a progressive estimation arrived at by subtracting multiples of 171 years from the date 576 B.C." [- E.M.]
2,772 B.C. - Egyptian Calendar - Reportedly, the date in Egypt when the 365 day calendar was introduced.
2,752 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -
2. Baktun 1. Baktun of the Pyramid. 3718-2324 B.C. 188.8.131.52.0
Construction/activation of Great Pyramid at Giza, Egypt, 2700-2600 B.C., marks anchoring of planet light body. Spread of Sumerian civilization, Akkad and Ur, and development of bronze. Beginning of Harappa, Indus civilization. Beginning of settled agricultural life, China, Mesoamerica, Andes.
[Based on: The Mayan Factor / Path Beyond Technology, by Jose Arguelles, Copyright 1939-, 1987, p. 114]
2,700 B.C. - Alpha Draconis - "The star Thuban (a Draconis) was the northern pole star around 2700 BC, during the time of the ancient Egyptians. Due to the effects of precession, it will once again be the pole star around the year 21000 AD." [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Draco_%28constellation%29]
*Trivia: "[....] Alpha Draconis was 0.6 degree away from the heavenly pole in 2780 B.C. and this period corresponds to the Indus valley civilization. Approximately the time period from 10500 B.C. to 2500 B.C. can be understood as the Draco phase of the Indus valley civilization and possibly the Ursa Major phase followed the Draco phase. 2.6 [....]" [Based on: http://murugan.org/research/valluvan3.htm]
2,700 B.C. - Gilgamesh Rules Uruk - A reported date when the Sumerian King, Gilgamesh, ruled the city of Uruk.
2,698 B.C. - Chinese Calendar - Reported date for the beginning of the Chinese calendar. Other dates associated with the beginning of the Chinese calendar include: 2,637 B.C. [Link: 1]
2,686 B.C. - Third Egyptian Dynasty - "A Traditional date for the beginning of the Third Egyptian Dynasty [2,686 B.C.-2,575 B.C.]. According to popular history, the Pharaohs of the Third Dynasty were the first to have actual pyramids constructed as shrines to their deaths. Although crude, these step pyramids were the predecessors to the later Pyramids of Giza and others. The first of these pyramids was designed by Imhotep for Dzoser. Prior to, and during the construction of the step pyramids, rulers were buried in a structure called Mastaba. The Mastaba were non-pyramidal shaped structures which did not contain walls or stone art and closely resembled burial mounds, with long shafts leading down into the tomb area. Sanakhte and Dzoser, the first two Pharaohs of this Dynasty, began exploitation of the Sinai Peninsula, which was rich in turquoise and copper. Little else was done by the kings during this dynasty." [Link: 1]
2,650 B.C. - Trivia / Step Pyramid, Egypt - "According to some reports, the Step Pyramid [reportedly built as a tribute to Zoser's greatness] is the oldest human-made structure in the world today. Zoser's Step Pyramid at Saqqara was an imposing edifice [200 feet tall], but it was built with relatively small, manageable blocks that five or six men working together could carry, and its internal chambers were structurally unsound." [Note: Since Carbon 14 dating measures the age of organic materials only, nearly all of the stone ruins [composed of inorganic rock] have not been Carbon 14 dated. Rather, what have been Carbon 14 dated are so many organic materials lying with, next to, or around those stone ruins." [Link: 1]
2,649 B.C. - Died / Zoser - "Reportedly died this date in history: Egyptian pharaoh Zoser [Dzoser]." [Based on: A&E Channel program, 10/31/04]."
2,609 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -
2,600 B.C. - Giza Pyramids - "There is no doubt that the Pyramids of Giza, the best known of all the Egyptian monuments, have a strong connection to the epoch 2,600 to 2,300 BC, the same dates as Stonehenge. There is also no doubt that they show many signs of a far earlier genesis - again like Stonehenge. Indeed, the same geometrical and astronomical concerns that the megaliths express, linked to the same quest for immortality [and frequently to the number 72], are found not only in Egypt but in a great band of cultures encircling the globe and extending back in time to the remotest antiquity." [Based on: Heaven's Mirror, Quest For The Lost Civilization, Graham Hancock and Santha Faiia, p. xvi]
2,600 B.C. - Trivia / Indus Valley Script - Reportedly, the Indus Valley Civilization was the first major urban culture of South Asia. It reached its peak from 2,600 B.C. to 1,900 B.C. [Link: 1]
2,600 B.C. - Indus Valley Civilization - "The Indus Valley Civilization (Mature period 26001900 BCE), abbreviated IVC, was an ancient civilization that flourished in the Indus River basin. Primarily centred in Pakistan (Sindh and Punjab provinces) and India (Gujarat and Rajasthan), it extends westward into the Balochistan province of Pakistan. Remains have been excavated from Afghanistan, Turkmenistan and Iran, as well. The mature phase of this civilization is technically known as the Harappan Civilization, after the first of its cities to be unearthed: Harappa in Pakistan. Excavation of IVC sites have been ongoing since 1920, with important breakthroughs occurring as recently as 1999. [NP] The civilization is sometimes referred to as the Indus Ghaggar-Hakra civilization or the Indus-Sarasvati civilization. The appellation Indus-Sarasvati is based on the possible identification of the Ghaggar-Hakra River with the Sarasvati River mentioned in the Rig Veda, but this usage is disputed on linguistic and geographical grounds. [....]"
[Based on: Wikipedia article: Indus Valley Civilization - See link]
*Trivia: "[....] By 2600 BCE, the Early Harappan communities had been turned into large urban centers. Such urban centers include Harappa and Mohenjo Daro in Pakistan and Lothal in India. In total, over 1,052 cities and settlements have been found, mainly in the general region of the Indus Rivers and their tributaries. [....]" [Based on: Wikipedia article: Mature Harappan - See link]
*Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indus_Valley_Civilization - [T.D. - 10/26/08]
2,600 B.C. - Stone Structures / Caral Peru - "The ancient Peruvian site of Caral may have been one of the first urban centers in the Americas, thriving more than a thousand years before other known cities, according to a study in the April 27, 2001 issue of the international journal Science. New radiocarbon dating analysis indicates that Caral's immense stone structures were built between 2,600 and 2,000 B.C."
*Trivia: "Six earth-and-rock mounds rise out of the windswept desert of the Supe Valley near the coast of Peru. Dunelike and immense, they appear to be nature's handiwork, forlorn outposts in an arid region squeezed between the Pacific Ocean and the folds of the Andean Cordillera. But looks deceive. These are human-made pyramids, and compelling new evidence indicates they are the remains of a city that flourished nearly 5,000 years ago. If true, it would be the oldest urban center in the Americas and among the most ancient in all the world. [....]" [Based on: Smithsonian Magazine, August, 2004]
2,600 B.C. - Trivia / Neolithic Village, Britain - January 31st, 2007: "Ancient town [at the site known as Durrington Walls] found [summer 2006] at Stonehenge [The archaeologists announced Tuesday (01/30/07) that the 4,600-year-old ruins appear to form the largest Neolithic village ever found in Britain.]" [Based on: Title for New York Times article, p. A8, S.L.P.D., 01/31/07]
2,600 B.C. - Earliest Known Nuclear Family / Central Germany - "A stone-age burial in central Germany has yielded the earliest evidence of people living together as a family. [NP] The 4,600-year-old grave, contained the remains of a man, woman and two youngsters, and DNA analysis shows they were a mother, father and children. [NP] 'Their unity in death suggests unity in life,' researchers said." [Based on: News Services article (EULAY, SAXONY-ANHALT, Germany), p. A5, S.L.P.D., 11/18/08]
2,575 B.C. - Fourth Egyptian Dynasty - "A traditional date for the beginning of the Egyptian Old Kingdom [2,575 B.C.- 2,134 B.C.] period, or the Fourth Egyptian Dynasty [2,575 B.C.- 2,551 B.C.]. Unlike the pyramids before [3rd Dynasty] and after [5th and 6th Dynasties], the pyramids at Giza [attributed to the 4th Dynasty] were wonderfully well made and have endured the passage of thousands of years more or less intact. For this very reason scholars are beginning to see the light - that these structures may in fact be tens of thousands of years older than previously expected." [Link: 1]
2,551 B.C. - Pharoah Khufu / Egypt - Reported date when Khufu succeeded his father Sneferu. Khufu was believed to have built the Great Pyramid in Egypt. [Based on: A&E Movie, 10/31/04]
2,550 B.C. - Neptune-Pluto Conjunction -
2,540 B.C. - Trivia / Egyptian Sphinx - "The Sphinx is supposed to have been built by Khafre around 2,500 B.C., but since the beginning of dynastic times - say 3,000 B.C. onwards - there just hasn't been enough rain on the Giza plateau to have caused the very extensive erosion that we see all overe the Sphinx's body. You really have to go back to before 10,000 B.C. to find a wet enough climate in Egypt to account for weathering of this type and on this scale. It therefore follows that the Sphinx must have been built before 10,000 B.C. and since it's a massive, sophisticated work of art it also follows that it must have been built by a high civilization."
[Links: 1, 2]
2,530 B.C. - Trivia / Great Pyramid, Egypt - "According to popular history, this was the date when King Khufu [Cheops] completed construction of the Great Pyramid at Giza. At its uppermost point the whole structure reached a height of 481 feet. According to another report, the Giza pyramids were already ancient at the time of Khufu's restoration. On a scale of 1:43,200 the Great Pyramid serves as a model, and map projection, of the northern hemisphere of the earth. During all the centuries of darkness experienced by Western civilization when knowledge of our planet's dimensions was lost to us, all we ever needed to do to rediscover that knowledge was to measure the height and base perimeter of the great Pyramid and multiply by 43,200." [Link: 1]
*Trivia: "There is little history at all describing the builder of the Great Pyramid in Egypt." [Based on: A&E Movie, 10/31/04]
*Trivia: "CAIRO (AP) - Egypt displayed on Monday [01/11/10] newly discovered tombs more than 4,000 years old and said they belonged to people who worked on the Great Pyramids of Giza, presenting the discovery as more evidence that slaves did not build the ancient monuments. [....] The mud-brick tombs were uncovered last week in the backyard of the Giza pyramids, stretching beyond a burial site first discovered in the 1990s and dating to the 4th Dynasty (2575 B.C. to 2467 B.C.), when the great pyramids were built on the fringes of present-day Cairo. [NP] The ancient Greek historian Herodotus once described the pyramid builders as slaves, creating what Egyptologists say is a myth later propagated by Hollywood films. [....]"
[Based on: A.P. article (Egypt: New Find Shows Slaves Didn't Build Pyramids), published 01/11/10 - Associated Press Writer Ian Deitch contributed to this report from Jerusalem.]
2,500 B.C. - Destruction / Gezer - "The site was destroyed approximately in the 25th century, based on finds of Khirbet Kerak ware." [Link: 1]
2,500 B.C. - Walled City? / India - "In India excavations in 2,000 A.D. revealed a walled city of the middle 3rd millennium at the Dholavira site in Gujarat state."
2,500 B.C. - Bronze Age / Canaan - A traditional date when the Bronze age reached Canaan.
2,500 BC - Clava Cairns / Scotland - "Neolithic tombs in Northern Scotland." [Link: 1]
2,500 B.C. - Troy II Settlement / Turkey - "Troy II, the second oldest discernible settlement on the site of the mound of Hissarlik in northwest Turkey, a good 1,200 years before the estimated date of the Trojan War."
2,500 B.C. - Established Cities / Assyria - "In 1932, Sir Max Mallowan, the eminent British archaeologist, dug a deep sounding which reached virgin soil ninety feet below the top of the mound of Nineveh; this gave a pottery sequence back to prehistoric times and showed that the site was already inhabited by 5,000 B.C. Very soon after that, the two other great Assyrian cities were settled, Ashur and Arbel, although an exact date has yet to be determined. Arbel is the oldest extant city, and remains largely unexcavated, its archaeological treasures waiting to be discovered. The same holds for Ashur. It is clear that by 2,500 B.C., these three cities were well established and were thriving metropoli." [Links: 1, 2, 3]
2,500 B.C. - Trivia / Chinese Pyramids - "Hartwig Hausdorf, a researcher in Germany, sent over these photographs from his collection, taken during his 1994 trip to the Forbidden Zone in The Shensi Province in China. Estimates for an age are 4,500 years old, but Hausdorf mentions the diaries of two Australian traders who, in 1912, met an old Buddhist monk who told them these pyramids are mentioned in the 5,000 year old records of his monastery as being 'very old'." [Link: 1]
2,496 B.C. - Trivia / Utah Villiages - "Archaeologists led reporters into a remote canyon Wednesday [06/30/04] to reveal an almost perfectly preserved picture of ancient life: stone pit houses, granaries and a bounty of artifacts kept secret for more than a half century [since about 1950]. [....] Archaeologists said the villiages were occupied more than 1,000 years ago and may be as old as 4,500 years. [....] Hundreds of granaries, ranging from cupboard-sized to several yards across, are in some cases hundreds of feet up nearly inaccessible cliffs. [....] Waldo Wilcox, the rancher who sold the land and returned Wednesday [06/30/04], kept the archaeological sites a closely guarded secret for more than 50 years." [Based on: article by Paul Foy, A.P., 07/01/04]
*Trivia: "Hidden deep inside Utah's nearly inaccessible Book Cliffs region, 130 miles from Salt Lake City, the prehistoric villages run for 12 miles and include hundreds of rock art panels, cliffside granaries, stone houses built halfway underground, rock shelters, and the mummified remains of long-ago inhabitants. The site was occupied for at least 3,000 years until it was abandoned more than 1,000 years ago, when the Fremont people mysteriously vanished. [....] The secret is coming to light after the federal and state governments paid Wilcox $2.5 million for the 4,200-acre ranch, which is surrounded by wilderness study lands. The state took ownership this year but has not decided how to control public access. [....] Metcalfe said a team of researchers has documented about 200 pristine sites occupied as long as 4,500 years ago, 'and we've only looked in a few places.' [....] Archaeologists think the sites may have been occupied as long as 7,000 years ago; they could shed light on the earliest inhabitants of North America, who are believed to have arrived by way of the Bering Strait 10,000 years ago. [....] 'I didn't let people go in there to destroy it,' said Wilcox, whose parents bought the ranch in 1951 and threw up a gate to the rugged canyon. 'The less people know about this, the better.' Over the years, Wilcox occasionally welcomed archaeologists to inspect part of the canyon, 'but we'd watch 'em.' When one Kent State researcher used a pick ax to take a pigment sample from a pictograph, Wilcox 'took the pick from him and took him out of the gate.' [....] He [Wilcox] said he gave up the land after the San Francisco-based Trust for Public Land, which transferred the ranch to public ownership, promised to protect it. [....] Archaeologists didn't realize the full significance of Range Creek until 2002. While many structures are standing or visible, others could be buried. Archaeologists have not done any excavations, simply because 'we have too big a task just to document' sites in plain view, Jones said. After The Associated Press started inquiring, Metcalfe decided to hasten an announcement. Next week, he plans to take news organizations to the ranch, 30 miles off the nearest paved highway over rough, mountainous terrain. A gate inside Range Creek Canyon blocks access; a dirt road continues from there about 14 miles down the canyon to a ranch house, now a hub of archaeological activity." [Based on: article by Paul Foy, A.P., 06/25/2004]
2,465 B.C. - Fifth Egyptian Dynasty - "Traditional date for the beginning of the Fifth Egyptian Dynasty [2,465 B.C.- 2,325 B.C.]. [Link: 1]
2,450 B.C. - Akkadian Inscriptions - Reportedly, "The earliest Akkadian cuneiform inscriptions date from the Old Akkadian or Early Akkadian period [2,450 to 1,850 B.C.], during which the inscriptions of Sargon were written. Since the Akkadian records start around the middle of the third millennium B.C., the formation of the Akkadian language in linguistic alliance with Indo-Europeans in Anatolia must have taken place still earlier. The western connections of the Akkad Dynasty are indicated in yet other ways. Only one western God, Dagan, obtained an important place in the old Mesopotamian pantheon, and he significantly is the patron god of the Akkad dynasty. This western god appears in the Linear A tablets of Hagia Triada; he is Baal's father according to the Epic of Kret from Ugarit; and he is chief god of the Biblical Plilistines.' Dagan was popularly depicted with the head and hands of a man, and the body and tail of a fish."
2,400 B.C. - Amorites - "In the earliest Sumerian sources, beginning about 2400 BC, the land of the Amorites ("the Mar.tu land") is associated with the West, including Syria and Canaan, although their ultimate origin may have been Arabia. They appear as nomadic people in the Mesopotamian sources, and they are especially connected with the mountainous region of Jebel Bishri in Syria called as the 'mountain of the Amorites'. The ethnic terms Amurru and Amar were used for them in Assyria and Egypt respectively. [NP] From the 21st century BC and likely triggered by the 22nd century BC drought, a large-scale migration of Amorite tribes infiltrated Mesopotamia, precipitating the downfall of the Neo-Sumerian Third Dynasty of Ur, and acquiring a series of powerful kingdoms, culminating in the triumph under Hammurabi of one of them, that of Babylon. [NP] Known Amorites (mostly those of Mari) wrote in a dialect of Akkadian found on tablets dating from 18001750 BC showing many northwest Semitic forms and constructions. The Amorite language was presumably a northwest Semitic dialect. The main sources for our extremely limited knowledge about the language are proper names, not Akkadian in style, that are preserved in such texts.
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amorite] - [T.D. - 07/16/09]
*Trivia: "Amurru (or Martu) are names given in Akkadian and Sumerian texts to the god of the Amorite/Amurru people, often forming part of personal names. He is sometimes called Ilu Amurru (DMAR.TU).
This god Amurru/Martu is sometimes described as a 'shepherd', and as a son of the sky-god Anu. He is sometimes called bêlu adi or bêl adê, 'lord of the mountain'; dúr-hur-sag-gá sikil-a-ke, 'He who dwells on the pure mountain'; and kur-za-gan ti-[la], 'who inhabits the shining mountain'. In Cappadocian Zincirli inscriptions he is called ì-li a-bi-a, 'the god of my father'. [NP] Accordingly, it has been suggested by L. R. Bailey (1968) and Jean Ouelette (1969), that this Bêl adê might be the same as the Biblical El addai who is the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob in the 'Priestly source' of narrative, according to the documentary hypothesis. It is possible that addai means 'He of the mountains' or even 'the breasted God' as early iconography of Yahweh at Kuntilet Arjud shows him to have been hermaphroditic (possessing both breasts and male genitals). Alternately, Bêl adê could have been the fertility-god 'Ba'al', possibly adopted by the Canaanites, a rival and enemy of the Hebrew God YHWH, and famously combatted by the Hebrew prophet Elijah. [NP] Amurru also has storm-god features. Like Adad, Amurru bears the epithet raman 'thunderer', and he is even called bariqu 'hurler of the thunderbolt' and Adad a a-bu-be 'Adad of the deluge'. Yet his iconography is distinct from that of Adad, and he sometimes appears alongside Adad with a baton of power or throwstick, while Adad bears a conventional thunderbolt.
Amurru's wife is sometimes the goddess Aratum (see Asherah) who in northwest Semitic tradition and Hittite tradition appears as wife of the god El which suggests that Amurru may indeed have been a variation of that god. If Amurru was identical with El, it would explain why so few Amorite names are compounded with the name Amurru, but so many are compounded with Il; that is, with El. [NP] Another tradition about Amurru's wife (or one of Amurru's wives) gives her name as Belit-Seri, 'Lady of the Desert'. [NP] A third tradition appears in a Sumerian poem in pastoral style, which relates how the god Martu came to marry Adg~ar-kidug the daughter of the god Numushda of the city of Inab. It contains a speech expressing urbanite Sumerian disgust at uncivilized, nomadic Amurru life which Adg~ar-kidug ignores, responding only: "I will marry Martu!". [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amurru] - [T.D. - 07/16/09]
2,400 B.C. - Walled City / Gezer - "The site was a Canaanite walled city. A 6 foot high wall, made of small uncarved stones was found from this time." [Link: 1]
2,375 B.C. - Lugalzaggisi / Sumeria - "Reportedly, after 2,375 B.C., Lugalzaggisi took over the cities of Kish and Lagash."
2,355 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -
2,350 B.C. - Akkad Dynasty - According to popular belief: "In the 24th century B.C., a new dynasty got hold of Mesopotamia. Sargon, of the city of Akkad, established a Semitic Empire that reached out into the Mediterranian. From his time on, southern Mesopotamia came to be known as Sumer and Akkad; Sumer designating the more Sumerian south, and Akkad the more Semitic north. His success marked a turning point in history. From his time down to the present, Mesopotamia became a predominately Semitic land. Sargon claimed dominion over the entire world; a concept that has plagued mankind ever since." [Links: 1]
*Trivia: Reportedly, "By 2,350 B.C. all of Sumeria was under the control of Lugalzaggasi."
2,350 B.C. - Trivia / Cythera - According to one report: "Cythera began to attract foreigners as early as the Pyramid age. A stone cup, with the name of a Fifth Dynasty solar temple [sp-r] inscribed in Egyptian hieroglyphs, has been found on Cythera. Early in the second quarter of the second millennium, a Babylonian inscription of Naram-Sin, King of Eshnunna, was dedicated on Cythera 'for the life' of that Mesopotamian monarch. The interesting thing is that both of these texts found on Cythera are religious in character. Herodotus [1:105] relates that the Phoenicians erected a temple on Cythera to the goddess of the heavens. Finally in classical times, Cythera was a great center of the cult of Aphrodite. The ancient temples were built in the vicinity of Palaiopolis around the middle of the eastern shore.' Today, Cythera is a small island situated at the northeastern edge of the Mediterranian Sea. "
2,348 B.C. - Noah's Flood? - "As mentioned, the standard reckoning for the Flood is 2,348 BC, as given by Archbishop Ussher. But the fact is that there was no possible way prior to the 1920's for Ussher or anyone else to have known the date of the Flood - nor even if there actually was a flood in the region. Not for nearly three centuries after Ussher's lifetime did any noteworthy archaeological excavations begin in Mesopotamia." [Based on: Laurence Gardner, Genesis Of The Grail Kings]
*Trivia: "The Flood was chronologically moved in Genesis to the time of Noah, whereas it actually occured before the time of Adam." [Based on: Laurence Gardner, Genesis Of The Grail Kings, p. 60]
2,340 B.C. - United / Sumer & Akkad - Sargon of Agade (the leading city of Akkad) defeats Lugalzaggisi and gains control of Kish and later unites all of Sumer and Akkad. Sargon of Agade has been called the first great conqueror of history. [See: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov, Copyright 1991, p. 37]
3. Baktun 2. Baktun of the Wheel. 2324-1930 B.C. 184.108.40.206.0
Full establishment of wheel, initiation of transport technology and cyclical thought, written codes of law, and metallurgical technology in Mesopotamia. Sargon and first Babylonian empire. Beginnings of chariot warfare, territorial imperialism. Era of legendary emperors, China. Establishment of Minoan civilization, Crete.
[Based on: The Mayan Factor / Path Beyond Technology, by Jose Arguelles, Copyright 1939-, 1987, p. 114]
2,323 B.C. - Sixth Egyptian Dynasty - "Traditional date for the beginning of the Sixth Egyptian Dynasty [2,323 B.C.-2,152 B.C.]. Manetho considered Teti as the founder of a new dynasty, a tradition which may go back at least as far as the composition of the Turin King-list, where Teti is listed as the first of a new group of kings. His wife, Queen Ipwet, is the daughter of King Unas who was the last king of the 5th Dynasty. She was the mother of Teti's heir, King Pepi I. Historians believe that she is the one that gave him the royal power. Almost all the major court officials of King Wenis remained in power during Teti's reign." [Link: 1]
2,320 B.C. - Sargon Rules Sumeria - Sargon conquered the independent city-states of Sumer and instituted a central government.
2,308 B.C. - Sumerian Sky Chart - Reportedly, "In 2,308 B.C. the Sumerians developed their equivalent of the 11:57 pm July 3rd 14,000 B.C. sky chart and Narmer Plate combined. It comes in the form of a royal cylinder-seal depicting 'The Sun is Risen'. The purpose of the seal is to celebrate the Dawn of the Age of Aries." [Link: 1]
2,300 B.C. - Babylon - "The earliest mention of the city of Babylon can be found in a tablet from the reign of Sargon of Akkad, dating back to the 23rd century BC."
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sack_of_Babylon] - [T.D. - 07/16/09]
2,300 B.C. - British Archer / Stonehenge - "A 4,000-year-old grave found near Stonehenge contains the remains of an archer and a trove of artifacts that make it one of the richest early Bronze Age sites in Europe. The burial, in about 2,300 B.C., occurred at 'the very brink of the Bronze Age,' where Neolithic and metal-using societies met, said one report. About 100 objects were found in the grave three miles east of Stonehenge, which is about 75 miles southwest of London. The grave was found May 3, 2002 A.D."
2,300 B.C. - Phoenicians / Levantine Coast - Phoenicians, a seafaring people, begin living along the Levantine coast.
2,300 B.C. - Cultural Exchange / Indus Valley & Mesopotamia - "Cultural exchange between the Indus Valley civilization and Mesopotamia (present day Iraq) is especially prominent."
2,289 B.C. - Pepi I Rules Egypt - A traditional date when Pepi I ruled in Egypt 2,289 - 2255 B.C.
2,279 B.C. - Fatality / Sargon of Agade - According to popular history, Sargon of Agade died in 2,279 B.C.
2,254 B.C. - Naramsin Rules Akkad - Traditional date when Sargon's grandson, Naramsin, reigned 2,254 - 2,218 B.C. Reportedly: "Kings of the Akkad Dynasty, notably Naram-Sin, often place the sign for divinity before their names, and are depicted in art as wearing the horned crown of godhood."
2,244 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -
2,220 B.C. - Temple of the Fox / Peru - "[....] Benfer [Robert Benfer] and his team uncovered the 33-foot stepped pyramid temple, the temple of the Fox, in a 20-acre excavation site at Buena Vista, Peru. He says the temple dates to 2220 B.C. - which makes it 1,000 years older than anything of its kind previously found, he said. [....] Benfer worked with a team of Peruvian archaeologists, including Bernardino Ojeda, and students from Peruvian universities and from the University of Missouri. [....] The physical orientation of the temple's offering chamber is slightly different from the rest of the temple, so that it is directly aligned with the rising sun on December 21, the date of the Southern Hemisphere's summer solstice. That's when floodwater rose from the nearby Chillon River and crops should have been planted. Looking to the west, the chamber directly aligns with a natural platform over which the sun sets on June 21, marking the beginning of the harvest. At the same point in the west, people living 4,000 years ago would have observed the rising of the star constellation the Fox on March 21, when floodwater receded. [....] The Temple of the Fox is named for the etching of a fox found at the temple's entrance. In Andean cultures, the fox is associated with water. [....] It almost never rains at Buena Vista, Benfer said, so the remains found in the excavation site are in fairly good shape. They found twigs and pieces of cotton that they radio carbon-dated and found to be 4,000 years old, he said. Benfer began teaching at the University of Missouri in 1969. He retired in 2003 but continues to work with graduate students. He has been working in Peru since the 1970s, traveling there nearly every year - sometimes more than once. He has been working at the Buena Vista site for four years and discovered the Temple of the Fox in June 2004. [....]" [Based on: Article (Temple may be oldest to date / Retired UM prof says alignments suggest astronomical signs guided early Andeans farming.), p. A1 & A6, S.L.P.D., 04/25/06]
2,200 B.C. - Equinox at Aries - "The advent of the Age of Aries, shortly before the beginning of the second millennium B.C., was accompanied in Ancient Egypt by an upsurge in the worship of the god Amon whose symbol was a ram with curled horns. Work on the principal sanctuary of Amon - the Temple of Karnak at Luxor in upper Egypt - was begun at around 2,000 B.C. and, as those who have visited the temple will recall, its principal icons are rams, long rows of which guard its entrances. The period of a complete cycle of the vernal point around the celestial sphere is approximately 25,800 years. In other words, after 25,800 years, the vernal point is back at the starting point or fiduciary vernal point [zero degrees sidereal Aries]. For the same reason that astrologers have allowed for twelve signs as the sun passes through its annual orbit, this 25,800 years cycle is also divided into twelve signs, with each of these twelve signs averaging some 2,150 years each."
2,200 B.C. - Destruction of AI? / "West Bank" - See link section beginning at 29:20.
2,200 B.C. - Indo-European Invaders? / Greece - Reportedly, "In Greece Indo-European invaders, speaking the earliest form of Greek, entered the mainland."
*Trivia: "The country of Greece has been inhabited since 70,000 B.C." [Based on: The History Channel , 2004]
2,194 B.C. - Tropical "Stonehenge" / Lima, Peru - [....] Last month [May 2006], archaeologists working on a hillside north of Lima, Peru, announced the discovery of the oldest astronomical observatory in the Western Hemisphere - giant stone carvings, apparently 4,200 years old, that align with sunrise and sunset on Dec. 21. [....]" [Based on: A.P. article (Amazon stones hint at lost civilization), p. A11, S.L.P.D., 06/28/06]
2,180 B.C. - End / Akkad Empire - According to popular history, the Akkadian empire came to an end about this time, less than 40 years after the death of Naramsin. [Link: 1]
2,152 B.C. - 7th & 8th Egyptian Dynasties - Traditional date for the Seventh and Eighth Egyptian Dynasties [2,152 B.C.-2,130 B.C.]. [Link: 1]
2,144 B.C. - Gudea Rules Sumeria - Gudea of Lagash, a prominent Sumerian leader, reportedly ruled from 2,144 -2,124 B.C. [See: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov, Copyright 1991, p. 39]
2,137 B.C. - Eclipse - Reported date [October 22nd, 2,137 B.C.] for the earliest recorded eclipse according to the Shu King, the book of historical documents of ancient China.
2,135 B.C. - 9th & 10th Egyptian Dynasties - A traditional date for the Ninth and Tenth Egyptian Dynasties [2,135 B.C.-2,074 B.C.].
2,125 B.C. - Trivia / Sumerian King Lists - Reportedly, "From the Sumerian King Lists an important caesure becomes apparent, the great Flood or Deluge. Names and events are either antediluvial or post diluvial. In later epics the flood signals the end of mythological times, when things were formed, and inaugerates the beginning of historical times. About eight [in other versions ten] antediluvial kings are mentioned with their periods of government. Extremely large areas were attributed to the kings before the flood. Added together they would have ruled for 241,200 years. Composed centuries after the times they refer to, the Sumerian King Lists were copied by generations of scribes and standardized in the process until the cononical version appeared in Old Babylonian times with kings extending up to that period. Reportedly, the surviving clay tablet was dated by the scribe who wrote it in the reign of King Utukhegal of Erech [Uruk], which places it around 2,125 B.C. After kingship had descended from heaven, Eridu became the seat of kingship. In Eridu Aululim reigned 28,800 years as king. Alalgar reigned 36,000 years. Two kings, reigned 64,800 years. Eridu was abandoned and its kingship was carried off to Bad-tabira. . . . Total: Five Cities, eight kings, reigned 241,200 years. The FLOOD then swept over. After the Flood had swept over, and kingship had descended from heaven, Kish became the seat of Kingship. In Kish. [....] Total: twenty-three kings, reigned 24,510 years, 3 months, 3 1/2 days. Kish was defeated; its kingship was carried off to Eanna. In Eanna, Meskiaggasher, the son of [the sun god] Utu reigned as En [Priest] and Lugal [King] 324 years - Meskiaggasher entered the sea, ascended the mountains. Enmerkar, the son of Meskiaggasher, the king of erech who had built Erech, reigned 420 years as king. Lugalbanda, the shepherd, reigned 1,200 years. Dumuzi the fisherman, whose city was Kua, reigned 100 years. Gilgamesh, whose father was a nomad (?) reigned 126 years. Urnungal, the son of Gilgamesh, reigned 30 years. Labasher reigned 9 years. Ennundaranna reigned 8 years. Meshede reigned 36 years. Melamanna reigned 6 years. Lugalkidul reigned 36 years. Total: twelve kings, reigned 2,130 years. Erech was defeated, its kingship was carried off to Ur. [....]" [Link: 1]
2,115 B.C. - Uranus-Neptune Conjunction -
2,101 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjuction -
2,100 B.C. - Egyptian Palestine - Reportedly: "During The Middle Bronze Age, Palestine became a part of the Egyptian empire. This was around 2100 B.C."
2,100 B.C. - Amorites / Damascus - According to one report, Amorites came from the Arabian peninsula and were the first important Semitic settlers in the area of Damascus. They established many small states. [Links: 1, 2, 3]
2,100 B.C. - Amorite Migration / Mesopotamia - "[....] From the 21st century BC and likely triggered by the 22nd century BC drought, a large-scale migration of Amorite tribes infiltrated Mesopotamia, precipitating the downfall of the Neo-Sumerian Third Dynasty of Ur, and acquiring a series of powerful kingdoms, culminating in the triumph under Hammurabi of one of them, that of Babylon. [....]"
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amorite] - [T.D. - 07/16/09]
2,095 B.C. - Golden Ornaments / Bulgaria - "Bulgarian archaeologists have unearthed [2005?] about 15,000 tiny golden pieces about 4,100 years old. Who made them isn't exactly known. The golden ornaments have been dug up during the past year from a tomb near the village of Dabene, about 75 miles east of the capital, Sofia, said Vasil Nikolov, an academic consultant on the excavations. He said the find rivaled that of the gold from Troy, the ancient city that was the scene of the Trojan War. 'This treasure is a bit older than Schliemann's finds in Troy, and contains much more golden ornaments,' Nikolov said. Heinrich Schliemann, an amateur German archaeologist, found the site of ancient Troy in 1868. He led ambitious excavations that proved he was right. The treasure from Bulgaria consists of miniature golden rings. Some are so finely crafted that the point where the ring is welded is invisible with an ordinary microscope. 'We don't know who these people were, but we call them proto-Thracians,' Nikolov said. [....] Bozhidar Dimitrov, director of the National History Museaum of Bulgaria, said the site consisted of a settlement and three mounds, and that excavations would continue. 'This is the oldest golden treasure ever found in Bulgaria after the Varna necropolis,' Dimitrov said. The golden artifacts from a vast burial complex discovered in the 1970s near the Black Sea port of Varna date back to the end of the fifth millennium B.C. and are internationally renowned as the world's oldest golden treasure." [Based on: A.P. article, p. A12, S.L.P.D., 08/18/05] - [Paragraph indents removed to save space - E.M.]
2,074 B.C. - 11th Egyptian Dynasty - A traditional date for the Eleventh Egyptian Dynasty [2074 B.C.-2064 B.C.]. [Link: 1]
2,057 B.C. - Neptune-Pluto Conjunction - "Neptune-Pluto cycles last about 495 years - half a millennium. They characterise an underlying driving-force behind history, an undertow of reality which marries the inevitable ram-force of Pluto with the imaginal, ideational power of Neptune."
Note: "Neptune-Pluto configurations later than 600 B.C. represent estimated projections only - caluclated by subtracting alternating multiples of 493 years." [- E.M.]
2,040 B.C. - Egyptian Middle Kingdom - Traditional date for the beginning of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom period 2,040 B.C.-1,640 B.C.
2,010 B.C. - Ur-nammu / Ur - "In the early 1900's, the builders of the Baghdad railway placed a station about 120 miles north of Basra because the landmarked site was a recognized travellers' rest. Here, an enormous solitary hill rose above the desert - a hill known to the Bedouins as Tell al Muqayyar [Mound of Pitch]. But some thousands of years ago this desert waste was a lush, fertile valley with cornfields and date groves. As was soon to be discovered, within this great mound was the towering multi-levelled Temple of Ur, along with the rest of the ancient city.
"In 1923 , the archaeologist Sir Charles Leonard Wooley, with a joint team from the British Museum and the University of Pennsylvania, set out to excavate the mound because some years earlier a collection of very old texts, engraved on stone cylinders, had been unearthed near the summit. One of these cylinder-seals [as they became known] had revealed the name of Ur-nammu, King of Ur in about 2,010 BC, and so it was determined that this was probably the location of Abraham's home." [Based on: Laurence Gardner, Genesis Of The Grail Kings]
2,000 B.C. - Chariots - "[....] The earliest fully developed chariots known are from the chariot burials of the Andronovo (Timber-Grave) sites of the Sintashta-Petrovka culture in modern Russia and Kazakhstan from around 2000 BC. This culture is at least partially derived from the earlier Yamna culture. It built heavily fortified settlements, engaged in bronze metallurgy on a scale hitherto unprecedented and practiced complex burial rituals reminiscent of Aryan rituals known from the Rigveda. The Sintashta-Petrovka chariot burials yield spoke-wheeled chariots. The Andronovo culture over the next few centuries spread across the steppes from the Urals to the Tien Shan, likely corresponding to early Indo-Iranian cultures which eventually spread to Iran, Pakistan and parts of India in the course of the 2nd millennium BC. [....]"
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chariot]
2,000 B.C. - Aryan City / Russia-Kazakhstan Border - "4,000-Year-Old Aryan City Discovered Near Russia-Kazakhstan Border "
[Based on: Title for AHN News Staff article (4,000-Year-Old Aryan City Discovered Near Russia-Kazakhstan Border), October 5, 2010 1:49 p.m. EST]
*Trivia: "[....] Although the settlement was burned and abandoned, much detail is preserved. Arkaim is similar in form but much better preserved than neighbouring Sintashta, where the earliest chariot was unearthed. The site was protected by two circular walls. There was a central square, surrounded by two circles of dwellings separated by a street. The settlement covered ca. 20,000 m2 (220,000 sq ft). The diameter of the enclosing wall was 160 m (520 ft). It was built from earth packed into timber frames, and reinforced with unburned clay brick, with a thickness of 45 m (1316 ft). and a height of 5.5 m (18 ft). The settlement was surrounded with a 2 m (6 ft 7 in)-deep moat. [....] The 17th century date suggests that the settlement was about co-eval to, or just post-dating, the Indo-Aryan migration into South Asia and Mesopotamia (the Gandhara grave culture appearing in the Northern Pakistan from ca. 1600 BC, the Indo-European Mitanni rulers reached Anatolia before 1500 BC, both roughly 3,000 kilometres (1,900 mi) removed from the Sintashta-Petrovka area), and that it was either an early Iranian culture, or an unknown branch of Indo-Iranian that did not survive into historical times. [....]"
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arkaim]
2,000 B.C. - Incas / Peru - "Archaeologists have found evidence to show that the Incan culture grew out of a long slow development of civilization in the valley of Cusco and neighboring areas. The ancestors of the Incans lived in Peru as early as 2,000 B.C." [Links: 1, 2]
2,000 B.C. - Trivia / Baalbek - "Situated in the Bekaa Valley, it was dedicated to Baal, the Phoenician god of rain and sun. During the period of Roman rule, Alexander the Great, Pompey, Julius Caesar, Hadrian and Caracalla all had a hand at restoring Baalbeks temples, which dated to the 2nd millennium B.C., and building new ones. In 748 the Arabs came and in 1,400, the Mongol chieftain, Tamerlane."
2,000 B.C. - Trivia / Mithraism - According to Persian mythology, Mithras was born of a virgin given the title 'Mother of God'. The name Mithras was the Persian word for 'contract.' Mithras was also known throughout Europe and Asia by the names Mithra, Mitra, Meitros, Mihr, Mehr, and Meher. The veneration of this God began about 4,000 years ago [2,000 B.C.] in Persia, where it was soon imbedded with Babylonian doctrines. [NP] Mithraism apparently originated in the Eastern Mediterranean around the first or second centuries BC. It was practiced in the Roman Empire since the first century BC, and reached its apogee around the third through fourth centuries AD, when it was very popular among the Roman soldiers. Mithraism disappeared from overt practice after the Theodosian decree of AD 391 banned all pagan rites, and it apparently became extinct thereafter. [....] Roman worship of Mithras began sometime during the early Roman empire, perhaps during the late first century of the Common Era (hereafter CE), and flourished from the second through the fourth century BCE. during which it came under the influence of Greek and Roman mythologies. The Mithraic cult maintained secrecy. Its teaching were only reveled to initiates. [....] In every Mithraic temple, the place of honor was occupied by a representation of Mithras killing a sacred bull, called a tauroctony. It has been more recently proposed that the tauroctony is a symbolic representation of the constellations rather than an originally Iranian animal sacrifice scene (Ulansey, 1991). [....] The identification of an "age" with a particular zodiac constellation is based on the sun's position during the vernal equinox. Before 2000 BC, the Sun could have been seen against the stars of the constellation of Taurus at the time of vernal equinox [had there been an eclipse]. Due to the precession of the equinoxes, on average every 2,160 years the Sun appears against the stars of a new constellation at vernal equinox. The current astrological age started when the equinox precessed into the constellation of Pisces, in about the year 150 BC, with the "Age of Aquarius" starting in AD 2600. [....]
[Based on: http://www.crystalinks.com/mithra.html]
2,000 B.C. - Trivia / Cappadocia - "The Hittites lived around what is now Cappadocia. They mixed with the already-settled Hatti and were followed by the Lydians, Phrygians, Byzantines, Romans and Greeks. The name Cappadocia comes from the Hittite for 'land of pretty horses'."
2,000 B.C. - Xia Dynasty / China - According to popular history, the Xia dynasty [2,000-1,500 B.C.] is believed to be the first prehistoric Chinese dynasty. [Link: 1]
2,000 B.C. - Trivia / Gawra, Assyria - "At Gawra, Assyria, a prehistoric seal was found bearing the figure of a man, a woman, a tree and a serpent, and this city had ceased to exist by 2000 B.C." [Based on: Deceptions And Myths Of The Bible, Lloyd M. Grahm]
2,000 B.C. - End / Sumerian Dynasty - "After the last Sumerian dynasty fell around 2,000 B.C., Mesopotamia drifted into conflict and chaos for almost a century. It is quite likely that the Third Dynasty of Ur, in Sumer, established around 2,000 B.C. a number of colonies called Ur in tablets from Nuzu, Alalakh and Hattusa. The Ur of the Chaldees, where Abraham was born, seems to have been one of the northern Urs. After the collapse of the Ur Dynasty, the colony continued its commercial way of life under the new masters who took over." [Links: 1]
*Trivia: "Abraham's home, Ur of the Chaldees, was a prominent city of the Sumerian Empire, and contemporary texts record that Ur was sacked by the king of nearby Elam soon after 2,000 BC. Although the city was rebuilt, the center of power then moved north to Haran in the kingdom of Mari. This was the very city to which Terah took Abraham and the others. But Haran was not just the name of a flourishing city: it was also the name of Abraham's brother [the father of Lot], who had died before the family left Ur of the Chaldees [Genesis 11:27-28]. Other cities in northern Mesopotamia were also named in accordance with Abraham's forefathers, as discovered by archaeologists excavating the region from 1934. In studying the clay tablets of reports from governors and commissioners of the era, they found the names of Terah [Abraham's father], Nahor [Terah's father], Serug [Nahor's father], and Peleg [Serug's grandfather].
"Clearly the patriarchs represented no ordinary family, but constituted a very powerful dynasty. But why would such a long-standing heritage of prominence and renown come to an abrupt end and force Abraham out of Mesopotamia into Canaan? A Sumerian text from 1960 BC [at about the time Terah moved his family from Ur to Haran] could well hold the initial key, for it states, 'The gods have abandoned us like migrating birds. Smoke lies on our cities like a shroud'."
*Trivia: "The family of the Hebrew patriarchs [Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob] is depicted in the Bible as having had its chief seat in the northern Mesopotamian town of Harran - then [mid-2nd millennium B.C.] belonging to the Hurrian kingdom of Mitanni. From there Abraham, the founder of the Hebrew people, is said to have migrated to Canaan [comprising roughly the region of modern Israel and Lebanon]. In Genesis 14, Abram [Abraham] is called a Hebrew [abrv] and is portrayed as a fighting prince. Reportedly, the initial level of Israelite culture resembled that of its surroundings; it was neither wholly original nor primitive. The tribal structure resembled that of West Semitic steppe dwellers known from the 18th-century-B.C. tablets excavated at the north central Mesopotamian city of Mari; their family customs and law have parallels in Old Babylonian and Hurro-Semite law of the early and middle 2nd millennium."
*Trivia: "Legends from Mecca indicate that the prophet Abraham built the Kaaba about this time. The Kaaba is a shrine meaning cube in Arabic, that enclosed the idols of their gods. Religious rituals were performed around the Kaaba which had a black stone embedded into a corner, said to be a gift to Abraham from the angel Gabriel for his belief in one god. By AD 500 more than 360 idols were housed within the Kaaba."
2,000 B.C. - Middle Kingdom / Egypt - "[....] ... by the year 2,000 B.C., Egypt was just beginning to recover from a period of feudalism in which both the economy and military power declined. [....] At the opening of this period [2000 B.C. to 1500 B.C.], Egypt had established a centralized government once again. This was the 'Middle Kingdom' under the rulers of the 12th Dynasty (as opposed to the 'Old Kingdom' of the pyramid-builders). [....]"
[Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov, Copyright 1991, pp. 38&39]
2,000 B.C. - Trivia / Chinese Pyramids - "According to Childress [Lost Cities of China..., Adventures Unlimited 1991], China's Great Pyramid is said to be at least 4,000 years old, and likely much older. It is said that its sides were originally painted black on the North, blue-gray [or faded green] on the East, red on the South, white on the West, and yellow on the top Center platform." [Link: 1]
2,000 B.C. - Trivia / Minoan Civilization - "Reportedly, "Crete was the cradle of the Minoan Civilization, which spanned roughly from 2,000 B.C to 1,200 B.C. In addition to incredible frescoes, indoor plumbing (!), the Minoans also developed the first written system of Europe. " [Links: 1]
2,000 B.C. - Caucasian Mummies / China - "Cherchen Man [a six-foot tall male Caucasian dead for about 3,000 years and buried in non-native garments made of wool], along with dozens of other perfectly preserved mummies found in Turkestan, in western China, has stood archaeology on its ears. When the earliest of these Central Asian corpses, nestled into the sands of tarim basin, about 2,000 B.C. or a little after, the pyramids of Egypt had already stood for half a millennium, but the best known pharaohs, Ramesses II and King Tut were rather more than five hundred years into the future. Next door in Mesopotamia, the Sumerians were already dying out and Hammurabi was soon to set up his famous law code; the Greeks and Romans had not yet even arrived in Greece and Italy from the northeast. On the other hand, 'Ice Man,' the late Stone Age body found in 1991 by hikers in the Alps, had died well over a thousand years before."
2,000 B.C. - Trivia / Ancient Temple, Peru - "A 4,000-year-old temple filled with murals has been unearthed on the northern coast of Peru, making it one of the oldest finds in the Americas, a leading archaeologist said on Saturday. [....]" It sits in the Lambayeque valley, near the ancient Sipan complex that Alva unearthed in the 1980s. Ventarron was built long before Sipan, about 2,000 years before Christ, he said. [NP] 'It's a temple that is about 4,000 years old,' Alva, director of the Museum Tumbas Reales (Royal Tombs) of Sipan, told Reuters by telephone after announcing the results of carbon dating at a ceremony north of Lima sponsored by Peru's government. [....]" [Based on: Reuters article (Temple built 4,000 years ago unearthed in Peru) by By Marco Aquino, 11/10/07]
2,000 B.C. - Prehistoric Paintings / West Texas - "COMSTOCK, Texas (AP) - A complex colorful mural painted on canyon walls some 4,000 years ago in West Texas is getting modern laser treatment as researchers try to unlock its mysteries and protect it from the unintended consequences of a nearby reservoir. [....] Carbon dating shows the Panther Cave paintings - a combined 150 feet wide and 13 feet high - were made by prehistoric Native Americans at the same time the Egyptians were constructing the pyramids. Some images have human characteristics, some are unknown and some are animal figures, including the cave's unmistakable signature 12-foot-long leaping red panther. The animal guards the hollowed out cavern overlooking the Rio Grande about 50 miles west of Del Rio. [....]"
[Based on: A.P. article (West Texas prehistoric paintings get laser study) by MICHAEL GRACZYK, 05/29/11]
2,000 B.C. - Agriculture-Based Settlements? / Cyprus - "[....] Archaeologists in Cyprus found evidence that inhabitants of the Mediterranean island may have abandoned a nomadic lifestyle for agriculture-based settlements earlier than previously believed. [NP] The excavations at the Politiko-Troullia site, near the capital Nicosia, unearthed a series of households around a communal courtyard, and proof of intensive animal husbandry and crop-processing, according to a statement today on the Web site of the Cypriot Interior Ministrys Public Information Office. [NP] The dig revealed copper metallurgy and sophisticated ceramic technology during the middle part of the Bronze Age, or between 4,000 and 3,500 years ago, the statement said. Archaeologists had previously believed that such settlements, which went on to evolve into cities, only began developing toward the end of the middle Bronze Age. [....]" [My brackets. NP = new paragraph. - E.M.]
[Based on: Archaeologynews.org article: (Cyprus Digs Reveal First Settlements May Be Older Than Thought) by Paul Tugwell - Last Updated: July 22, 2009 07:33 EDT] *Link:
http://www.archaeologynews.org/story.asp?ID=472030&Title=Cyprus Digs Reveal First Settlements May Be Older Than Thought
1,971 B.C. - Sesostris I Rules Egypt - Reportedly, Sesostris I ruled in Egypt.
1,958 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -
1,953 B.C. - Planetary Conjunction - "The five visible planets - Saturn, Venus, Mercury, Mars, and Jupiter - were believed to be the ministers of Shangdi, the Lord on High. Their conjunction in the predawn sky of February 1,953 B.C. was thought to indicate Shangdi's conferral of the right to rule on the Xia Dynasty."
1,944 B.C. - Uranus-Neptune Conjunction -
1,937 B.C. - 12th Egyptian Dynasty - A traditional date for the 12th Egyptian Dynasty [1937 B.C.-1908 B.C.]. [Link: 1]
4. Baktun 3. Baktun of the Sacred Mountain. 1930-1536 B.C. 220.127.116.11.0
Middle and New Kingdom in Egypt; relocation of center to Sacred Mountain of the West, Valley of the Kings, marks decision of Egyptians to perpetuate dynastic rule, consolidates pattern of defensive territorialism as norm for civilized life. Waves of invaders - Hittites, Aryans; destruction of Minoan, Indus civilizations.
[Based on: The Mayan Factor / Path Beyond Technology, by Jose Arguelles, Copyright 1939-, 1987, p. 114]
1,900 B.C. - Enuma Elish - A reported date for the writing of the Enuma Elish, the Babylonian Creation Myth. The 19th century was believed to be the time when Babylonia began compiling Old Sumerian history into epic form. [Link: 1]
1,900 B.C. - Amorites / Palestine - "Palestine was invaded by North Western Semites who came from Asia Minor, these Indo-Aryans nomadic desert tribes destroyed most of the cities in Palestine by 1900 B.C., they were a tall fair race they were called the Amorite [from the Babylonian word Amurru 'westerner']. The Amorites settled first in the Northern and the Eastern parts of Palestine then settled as Hill tribes in the South West of Palestine. Egypt was invaded also by the desert nomadic tribes the Amorites who destroyed Palestine [Hyksos kingdom in Egypt]." [Link: 1]
1,900 B.C. - Melchizedek? / Salem - Reportedly, "King Melchizedek ruled Salem before it became Jerusalem. He charged everybody in his domain a flat 10% tax."
1,900 B.C. - Amorites / Mesopotamia - Reportedly: "Around 1,900 B.C., a group of Semites - Canaanites - called the Amorites - had managed to gain control of most of the Mesopotamian region." Reportedly: the Amorite name means 'the high one.' " [Links: 1, 2]
1,890 B.C. - Babylonian Era - "In its very oldest form, Marduk's story might be 1000 years older than the Genesis account, but it is distinctly Babylonian and the Babylonian era began in about 1890 BC. Prior to that was the Sumerian era from about 3800 BC to 1960 BC - the era of the kings of Eridu, Kish, Shuruppak, Larsa and Ur. It is within the records of ancient Sumer that Marduk's original prototype appears, and it is from these that we find the first account of Adam." [Based on: Genesis Of The Grail Kings, Laurence Gardner] [Link: 1]
*Trivia: "(CNN) - Over 1,000 years before Pythagoras was calculating the length of a hypotenuse (6th century B.C.?), sophisticated scribes in Mesopotamia were working with the same theory to calculate the area of their farmland. [....] 'This is nearly 4,000 years ago and there's no other ancient culture at that time that we know of that is doing anything like that level of work. It seems to be going beyond anything that daily life needs,' he [Alexander Jones, a Professor of the History of the Exact Sciences in Antiquity at New York University.] said. [....]" [Based on: CNN World article (Pythagoras, a math genius? Not by Babylonian standards) By Laura Allsop for CNN - December 17, 2010 9:34 a.m. EST]
1,878 B.C. - Sesostris III Rules Egypt - Sesostris III rules [1878- 843 B.C.] in Egypt during the 12th Dynasty.
1,850 B.C. - Hebrew Settlement? / Canaan - "The Genesis account of Abraham and his immediate descendants may indicate that there were three main waves of early Hebrew settlement in Canaan, the modern Israel. One was associated with Abraham and Hebron and took place in about 1850 BCE. A second wave of immigration was linked with Abraham's grandson Jacob, who was renamed Israel ['May God show his strength!']; he settled in Shechem, which is now the Arab town of Nablus on the West bank. The Bible tells us that Jacob's sons, who became the ancestors of the twelve tribes of Israel, emigrated to Egypt during a sever famine in Canaan. The third wave of Hebrew settlement occured in about 1200 BCE when tribes who claimed to be descendants of Abraham arrived in Canaan from Egypt. They said that they had been enslaved by the Egyptians but had been liberated by a deity called Yahweh, who was the god of their leader Moses. After they had forced their way into Canaan, they allied themselves with the Hebrews there and became known as the people of Israel. The Bible makes it clear that the people we know as the ancient Israelites were a confederation of various ethnic groups, bound together principally by their loyalty to Yahweh, the God of Moses. The biblical account was written down centuries later, however, in about the eigth century BCE, though it certainly drew on earlier narrative sources." [Based on: A History of God, Karen Armstrong, pp. 11-12]
1,847 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -
18th Century B.C. Links:
1,800 B.C. - Buddha? - "[....] So if we arrive at the date of 1500 BC for the Buddhist Mauryan emperor Ashoka, as per the Buddhist scriptures, we can easily arrive at the date of the Buddha. Buddha precedes Ashoka by two hundred and eighteen years. So this would put Buddha at anywhere between 1700 BC and 1800 BC. This roughly tallies with the Puranic calculations as well, which put Buddhas date to around 18001900 BC." [Based on: Boloji.com article (Buddha has to be Dated to 1800 BC), by Prithviraj R - Source: Excepts from author's forthcoming book on history - 19000 Years of World History: The Story of Religion. He can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org] *Link: http://www.boloji.com/history/047.htm - [T.D. - 06/21/09]
1,800 B.C. - Amorites / Babylon - "[....] A tribe known as the 'Amorites,' speaking a Semitic language, took over a small Akkadian town called Bab-ilum (Akkadian for 'Gate of God') about 1,800 B.C., and made it their capital. It then entered a 1500-year period of greatness. The later Greeks called it Babylon, and the region that had been thought of as Sumeria for 3000 years came to be called Babylonia. [....]"
[Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov, Copyright 1991, p. 40]
1,800 B.C. - Hyksos / Nile Delta - "c. 1800 BC: Hyksos start to settle in the Nile Delta. They had the capital at Avaris in northeastern Nile Delta."
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/18th_century_BC]
*Trivia: "An archaeological dig was undertaken by Manfred Bietak, of the University of Vienna at Tell ed-Daba, at a site in the eastern Nile delta identified as Avaris, the reported Hyksos capital. Excavations there show a gradual increase of Canaanite influence in the styles of pottery, architeture and tombs from around 1800 BCE."
1,792 B.C. - Hammurabi rules Babylon - "(middle chronology) Hammurabi rules Babylonia and has to deal with Mari, which he conquers late in his career."
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/18th_century_BC]
1,785 B.C. - Rise of Nubian Empire / Egypt - "[....] This powerful dynasty [Nubian] rose just as Egypt's Middle Kingdom declined around 1785 B.C. By 1500 B.C. the Nubian empire stretched between the Second and Fifth Cataracts [Nile River]. [....]" [Based on: Article (AN IGNORED CHAPTER OF HISTORY TELLS OF A TIME WHEN KINGS FROM DEEP IN AFRICA CONQURED ANCIENT EGYPT / Black Pharaohs, by Robert Draper, N.G.M. (February 2008), p. 40]
1,783 B.C. - 13th Egyptian Dynasty - A traditionaldate for the 13th Egyptian Dynasty [1783 B.C.-1640 B.C.]. [Link: 1]
1,773 B.C. - Uranus-Neptune Conjunction -
1,770 B.C. - Babylon - "Babylon, capital of Babylonia becomes the largest city of the world, taking the lead from Thebes, capital of Egypt."
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/18th_century_BC]
1,760 B.C. - Gilgamesh Epic? - A reported date for the writing of the Gilgamesh Epic. Other dates associated with the writing of this epic include: 1,600 B.C. According to one translation, the Babylonian name for the Epic of Gilgamesh is "He who Saw Everything." [Link: 1]
1,760 B.C. - Kassites / Babylon - "In Babylonia, about 1,760 B.C., the Kassites who conquered the land from western Iran, had a god written down as 'Suriias' - the Indo-Iranian, Suryas."
1,749 B.C. - Shamshi-Adad I Rules Assyria - Shamshi-Adad I rules [1749-1717 B.C.] in Assyria.
1,728 B.C. - Hammurabi Rules Babylon - "[....] In 1728 B.C., Hammurabi (d. 1686 B.C.) became king in Babylon and spread his rule over all of Babylonia. He is rememberd, in history, chiefly because of a stone pillar, dating back to his reign, still exists. It is inscribed with a law-code. [....]"
[Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov, Copyright 1991, p. 40]
1,720 B.C. - Joseph / Egypt? - "It is traditionally presumed that Joseph was sold into slavery in Egypt in the 1720's BC and was made Governor by the Pharaoh a decade or so later. Afterwards, his father Jacob [whose name was later changed to Israel] and seventy family members followed him into Goshen to escape the famine in Canaan. Notwithstanding this, Genesis 47:11, Exodus 1:11 and Numbers 33:30 all refer to 'the land of Ramesses' [Egyptian: 'the house of Ramesses'] - but this was a complex of grain storehouses built by the Israelites for Ramesses II in Goshen some 300 years after they were supposedly there!" [Based on: The Bible Unearthed, Israel Finkelstein & Neil Asher Silberman]
1,704 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -
17th Century B.C. Links:
1,700 B.C. - Rig Veda - "It is one of the oldest extant texts of any Indo-European language. Philological and linguistic evidence indicate that the Rigveda was composed in the north-western region of the Indian subcontinent, roughly between 17001100 BC (the early Vedic period). There are strong linguistic and cultural similarities with the early Iranian Avesta, deriving from the Proto-Indo-Iranian times, often associated with the early Andronovo (Sintashta-Petrovka) culture of ca. 2200-1600 BC. [....]"
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rig_Veda] - [T.D. - 01/27/10]
1,700 B.C. - Cities / Nubia - "Nubia, known as the Kingdom of Kush in the Bible. By this time the Nubians have established sizable cities with a class society of workers, farmers, priests, soldiers bureaucrats and an aristocracy with technological and cultural skills on a level with other advanced civilizations of their day."
1,700 B.C. - Proto-Canaanite - According to reports: "Proto-Canaanite, also known as Proto-Sinaitic, was the first consonantal alphabet. Even a quick and cursory glance at its inventory of signs makes it very apparent of this script's Egyptian origin. It is thought that at around 1,700 BCE, Sinai was conquered by Egypt (for its turquoise mines and trade routes). Egyptian influence must have poured into the local West-Semitic speaking population, who, among other things, adopted a small number of hieroglyphic signs (probably no more than 22) to write down their language. In the Old Testament, the Hebrews never call their language 'Hebrew' or 'Israelite,' but quite correctly 'the language of Canaan.' " [Link: 1]
1,700 B.C. - Earthquakes / Crete - "Knossos (Crete) was first destroyed by an earthquake. Mycenae, the great city of the Peloponnesus, was another earthquake victim about this time."
1,700 B.C. - Shang Dynasty / China - "The Shang dynasty (1700-1027 B.C.) [also called the Yin dynasty in its later stages] is believed to have been founded by a rebel leader who overthrew the last Xia ruler."
1,700 B.C. - Aryan Invasion? / Indus Valley - "In the seventeenth century BCE, Aryans from what is now Iran had invaded the Indus valley and subdued the indigenous population. They had imposed their religious ideas, which we find expressed in the collection of odes known as the Rig-Veda. There we find a multitude of Gods, expressing many of the same values as the deities of the Middle East presenting the forces of nature as instinct with power, life and personality." [Based on: A History of God, Karen Armstrong, p. 28]
1,700 B.C. - Massive Fortification / Canaan - "Archaeologists in east Jerusalem have uncovered a 3,700-year-old wall, which is the oldest example of massive fortifications to ever be discovered in the city, according to a statement made by the Israel Antiquities Authority on Wednesday [09/02/09]. [....] The wall dates to the 17th century BC, when Jerusalem was a small yet strong isolated group controlled by the Canaanites, which is one of the groups that the Bible refers to as living in the Holy Land before being conquered by the Hebrew conquest. [....]" [Based on: Archaeology News article (Oldest Wall In Jerusalem Found) - Posted on: Friday, 4 September 2009, 06:37 CDT]
1,700 B.C. - Trivia / New Year Festival, Babylon - "Like other people in the ancient world, the Babylonians attributed their cultural achievements to the gods, who had revealed their own lifestyle to their mythical ancestors. Thus Babylon itself was supposed to be an image of heaven, with each of its temples a replica of a celestial palace. This link with the divine world was celebrated and perpetuated annually in the great New Year Festival, which had been firmly established by the seventeenth century BCE. Celebrated in the holy city of Babylon during the month of Nisan - our April - the Festival solemnly enthroned the king and established his reign for another year. Yet this political stability could only endure insofar as it participated in the more enduring and effective government of the gods, who had brought order out of chaos when they had created the world. The eleven sacred days of the Festival thus projected the participants outside profane time and into the sacred eternal world of the gods by means of ritual gestures. A scapegoat was killed to cancel the old, dying year; the public humiliation of the king and the enthronement of a carnival king in his place reproduced the original chaos; a mock battle reenacted the struggle of the gods against the forces of destruction.
"These symbolic actions thus had a sacramental value; they enabled the people of Babylon to immerse themselves in the sacred power of mana on which their own great civilization depended. Culture was felt to be a fragile achievement, which could always fall pray to the forces of disorder and disintegration. On the afternoon of the fourth day of the Festival, priests and choristers filed into the Holy of Holies to recite the Enuma Elish, the epic poem whic celebrated the victory of the gods over chaos. The story was not a factual account of the physical origins of life upon earth, but was a deliberately symbolic attempt to suggest a great mystery and to release its sacred power." [Based on: A History of God, Karen Armstrong, pp. 6-7]
1,700 B.C. - Ancient England: Wayland's Smithy - "[....] As a mortuary site, Waylands Smithy was originally a timber mortuary house. About 3700 BCE, Neolithic farmers constructed a large house with two large posts at each end to hold up the roof. [....]"
[Based on: DAILY KOS article (Ancient England: Wayland's Smithy) Sun Oct 02, 2011 at 08:11 AM PDT, by Ojibwa - Originally posted to Ojibwa on Sun Oct 02, 2011 at 08:11 AM PDT.]
1,680 B.C. - Labarnas I Rules Hatti - Labarnas I rules the kingdom of Hatti from 1,680-1,650 B.C. [Link: 1]
1,670 B.C. - Hyksos Invasion? / Egypt - "Manetho described a massive, brutal invasion of Egypt by foreigners from the east, whom he called Hyksos, an enigmatic Greek form of an Egyptian word that he translated as 'shepard kings' but that actually means 'rulers of foreign lands.' Manetho reported that the Hyksos established themselves in the delta at a city named Avaris. And they founded a dynasty there that ruled Egypt with great cruelty for more than 500 years. In the early years of modern research, scholars identified the Hyksos with the kings of the Fifteenth Dynasty of Egypt, who ruled from about 1670 to 1570 BCE. The early scholars accepted Mantheo's report quite literally and sought evidence for a powerful foreign nation or ethnic group that came from afar to invade and conquer Egypt. Subsequent studies showed that inscriptions and seals bearing the names of Hyksos rulers were West Semitic - in other words, Canaanite. Recent archaeological excavations in the eastern Nile delta have confirmed that conclusion and indicate that the Hyksos 'invasion' was a gradual process of immigration from Canaan to Egypt, rather than a lightning military campaign." [Based on: Israel Finkelstein & Neil Asher Silberman, The Bible Unearthedpp. 54-55.] [Link: 1]
1,650 B.C. - Israelites? / Egypt - According to one report, this was the time when the Israelites were in Egypt [Jacob, Joseph].
1,640 B.C. - 14th Egyptian Dynasty - 1640 B.C. - 1540 B.C. encompasses the 14th, 15th, 16th, and 17th Egyptian Dynasties. [Link: 1]
1,634 B.C. - Senakht-en-Re / Egypt - "A new king has been added to the long list of ancient pharaohs, the Egyptian Minister of State for Antiquities, Mohamed Ibrahim, announced this week. [NP] The king's name, Senakht-en-Re, emerged from the engraved remains of a limestone door found by a French-Egyptian team in the Temple of Karnak complex on Luxors east bank. [...] Belonging to an administrative structure dating to the enigmatic 17th Dynasty (about 1634-1543 BC) the limestone remains featured hieroglyphics which indicated that the door was dedicated to Amun-Re. [...] At that time, the town was under the rule of the Hyksos. Known as the "rulers of foreign countries" (probably of Asiatic roots), they infiltrated Egypt and came to dominate the Nile valley for over a century during the Second Intermediate Period (1664-1569 B.C.). [....]"
[Based on: FoxNews article (All hail the new king: New ancient Egyptian pharaoh discovered) Written By Rossella Lorenzi, Published March 08, 2012 - Discovery News
1,628 B.C. - Volcanic Eruption / Thera - "New data about climatically-effective volcanic eruptions during the past several thousand years may be contained in frost-damage zones in the annual rings of [pine] trees. There is good agreement in the timing of frost events and recent eruptions, and the damage can be plausibly linked to climatic effects of stratospheric aerosol veils on hemispheric and global scales. The cataclysmic proto-historic eruption of Santorini [Thera], in the Aegean, is tentatively dated to 1,628-1,626 B.C. from frost-ring evidence. Other dates attributed to the eruption of Thera include: 1,645, 1,503, and 1,470 B.C."
*Trivia: 1630-1600 B.C. and 1628 B.C. dates are mentioned in National Geographic Channel program [04/23/11] entitled: Biblical Plagues: The Final Torments.
*Trivia: "Recent examinations of the eruption of the Santorini volcano suggest that it occurred very close (estimated between 1660-1613 BC) to the first appearances of the Sea People in Egypt. The eruption and its aftermath (fires, tsunami, weather changes and famines) would have had wide-ranging effects across the Mediterranean, the Levant and particularly Greece, and could have provided the impetus for invasions of other regions of the Mediterranean."
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sea_Peoples]
1,602 B.C. - Uranus-Neptune Conjunction -
16th Century B.C. Links:
1,600 B.C. - Hellens / Greece - "[....] By 1600 B.C., invading tribes from the north entered the land we now call Greece, and they were the people we call Greeks (They themselves called the land Hellas, and themselves Hellenes. The name 'Greece' was first used by the Romans). [....]"
[Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov, Copyright 1991, p. 41]
*Trivia: "The country of Greece has been inhabited since 70,000 B.C." [Based on: The History Channel, 2004]
1,600 B.C. - Early Vedic Period - "Reportedly, according to one version of popular history, this was the beginning of the Early Vedic period [1,600-1,000 B.C.] of Indian civilization. Reportedly, the Vedas have been passed down through oral tradition for over 10,000 years, appearing in written form between 2,000 - 4,000 B.C."
*Trivia: "The Vedic Period (or Vedic Age) is the period in the history of India during which the Vedas, the oldest sacred texts of Hinduism, were being composed. Scholars place the Vedic period in the second and first millennia BCE continuing up to the 6th century BCE based on literary evidence. [NP] The associated culture, sometimes referred to as Vedic civilization, was centered in northern and northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent. Its early phase saw the formation of various kingdoms of ancient India. In its late phase (from ca. 600 BCE), it saw the rise of the Mahajanapadas, and was succeeded by the Maurya Empire (from ca. 320 BCE), the golden age, classical age of Sanskrit literature, and the Middle kingdoms of India. [....]" [Based on: Wikipedia Article: Vedic period - see link]
*Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vedic_period - [T.D. - 10/26/08]
1,600 B.C. - Astrology Text / Babylon - "The earliest extant Babylonian astrology text is the Enuma Anu Enlil (literally meaning 'When the gods Anu and Enlil...'), dating back to 1600 B.C. This text describes various astronomical omens and their application to national and political affairs. For example, a segment of the text says: 'If in Nisannu the sunrise appears sprinkled with blood, battles [follow].' Nisannu is the Babylonian month corresponding to March/April in the Western calendar. [....]"
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_astrology] - [T.D. - 08/02/08]
1,600 B.C. - Hittite Civilization / Mesopotamia - "The Hittites Empire stretched from Mesopotamia to Syria and Palestine. Their invasion spelled the end of the Old Babylonian Empire in Mesopotamia. The Hittite civilization dominated Mesopotamia from 1,600 B.C. to 1,200 B.C. The Bible mentions the Hittites among the early inhabitants of Palestine, and that intermarriage between Hebrews and Hittites took place. Ezekiel 16:3 goes so far as to tell the Jerusalemites that they are a hybrid people; their father, so to speak, is Amorite, and their mother, Hittite." *Links: http://www.crystalinks.com/hittites.html
1,600 B.C. - Nebra Sky Disk / Mittelberg Germany - "The recent discovery of an astronomical artifact that is probably about 3600 years old just goes to show how little we really know about our ancestors. The location? Atop the Mittelberg, a 252m hill in the Ziegelroda Forest, 180km south-west of Berlin, in the German state of Saxony-Anhalt. The place of discovery, on the mountain's summit, has been compared to the Stonehenge ritual site in Britain. The artifact? Archaeologists are investigating a 32cm bronze-and-gold disc that maps 32 stars, including the Pleiades. The stars are shown as they appear in reference to a local mountain on the horizon, the Brocken. The Brocken is fabled in northern European mythology as the place where witches gather for a coven every April 3. The artifact was discovered within a pit inside a Bronze Age ringwall. The ringwall was built in such a way that the sun seemed to disappear every equinox behind the Brocken. Since the Mittelberg is near the German town of Nebra, the star map has been dubbed the 'Nebra Disc.' Experts believe the map and site formed an observatory, which was used to set the calendar for planting and harvesting crops. The nearby forest contains 1000 barrows or princely graves from the period. The identity of the Bronze Age people of Europe has been lost in the mists of time. They are not mentioned in ancient Greek or other Mediterranean sources. Only their hut sites, graves and treasures are left. It is impossible to guess the language they spoke." [Links: 1, 2]
1,595 B.C. - Kassite Domination / Babylon - "The Hittites captured Babylon and retreated. They left the city open to Kassite domination which lasted about 300 years. The Kassites maintained the Sumerian/Babylonian culture without innovations of their own."
1,593 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -
1,570 B.C. - Hyksos Expulsion? / Egypt - "By 1,570 B.C., a century and a half after the Hyksos had made their appearance, the Egyptians, under Ahmose, who ruled from 1,570 - 1,546 B.C., drove them out of the land. The Egyptians followed them across the Sinai Peninsula and annexed Canaan, hoping it would serve as a buffer against future invasions." [Based on: Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 40]
*Trivia: "Manetho suggested that after the Hyksos were driven from Egypt, they founded the city of Jerusalem and constructed a temple there. Far more trustworthy is an Egyptian source of the sixteenth century B.C.E. that recounts the exploits of Pharoah Ahmose, of the Eighteenth Dynasty, who sacked Avaris and chased the remnants of the Hyksos to their main citadel in southern Canaan - Sharuhen, near Gaza - which he stormed after a long siege. And indeed, around the middle of the sixteenth century BCE, Tell ed-Daba was abandoned, marking the sudden end of the Canaanite influence there." [Israel Finkelstein & Neil Asher Silberman, The Bible Unearthed, pp. 55-56]
*Trivia: "Beginning after the expulsion of the Hyksos, the Egyptians tightened their control over the flow of immigrants from Canaan into the delta. They established a system of forts along the delta's eastern border and manned them with garrison troops and administrators. Incidentally, no mention of the name Israel has been found in any of the inscriptions or documents connected with the Hyksos period." [Israel Finkelstein & Neil Asher Silberman, The Bible Unearthed]
1,564 B.C. - Neptune-Pluto Conjunction - "Neptune-Pluto cycles last about 495 years - half a millennium. They characterise an underlying driving-force behind history, an undertow of reality which marries the inevitable ram-force of Pluto with the imaginal, ideational power of Neptune. This combined force helps us define our underlying historical reality on a collective-unconscious level - this world-view and body of collective experience being a combination of actualities and perceptions."
Note: "Configuration dates on this timeline prior to the 6th century B.C. represent estimated projections only. In some cases they are off by several years." [- E.M.]
1,550 - Trivia / Palestine - "The Canaanites lived in small cities on the costal plains of Palestine and Syria under the rule of the Semites Hyksos until Amasis I [Ahmose] about 1550 B.C. liberated Egypt from the Hyksos and formed the New Kingdom." [Link: 1]
1,550 B.C. - 18th Egyptian Dynasty - Beginning of Egyptian New Kingdom [1550 B.C.-1070 B.C.] period. This was also the "Egyptian Empire," because it ruled over Asians as well as Egyptians. 1,540 B.C. represents a traditional date for the 18th Egyptian Dynasty [1540 B.C.-1514 B.C.]." [Link: 1]
1,550 B.C. - Destruction? / Indus Valley Civilization - "In India writing disappeared for a time with the destruction of the Indus Valley civilization."
1,550 B.C. - Stonehenge skeleton came from Mediterranean - "LONDON A wealthy young teenager buried near Britain's mysterious Stonehenge monument came from the Mediterranean hundreds of miles away, scientists said Wednesday [09/29/10], proof of the site's importance as a travel destination in prehistoric times. [....] The British Geological Survey's Jane Evans said that the find, radiocarbon dated to 1,550 B.C., 'highlights the diversity of people who came to Stonehenge from across Europe,' a statement backed by Bournemouth University's Timothy Darvill, a Stonehenge scholar uninvolved with the discovery. [....]" [Based on A.P. article (Stonehenge skeleton came from Mediterranean / Discovery provides proof of site's importance as travel destination in prehistoric times), by Raphael G. Satter - updated 9/30/2010 12:21:44 PM ET]
5. Baktun 4. Baktun of the House of Shang. 1536-1141 B.C. 18.104.22.168.0
Establishment of Shang Dynasty, China, enunciation of yin/yang doctrine, advanced bronze metallurgy and pattern of Chinese civilization. Beginnings of Vedic civilization, India. Emergence of Chavin civilization, Andes, and Olmecs, Mesoamerica. Akhenaton, Egypt; Abraham and Moses, Israel; Hittite consolidation, Mesopotamia.
1,530 B.C. - Kassite Domination / Mesopotamia - "About 1,530 B.C., a century and a half after the death of Hammurabi, Babylonia and Assyria alike were conquered by charioteers from the north, a group called 'Kassites' by the later histories. Under the Assyrian king, Ashur-Dan, the last Kassite king was driven from the Babylonian throne in the twelfth century B.C." [Link: 1]
1,525 B.C. - Birth / Hatshepsut - "In Egypt Queen Hatshepsut, one of the XVIII Dynasty rulers, was born. Her name translates as 'The Foremost of Noble Ladies'."
1,505 B.C. - Thutmose III / Egypt - "[....] Thutmose III reigned from 1479 BC to 1425 BC according to the Low Chronology of Ancient Egypt. This has been the conventional Egyptian chronology in academic circles since the 1960s, though in some circles the older dates 1504 BC to 1450 BC are preferred from the High Chronology of Egypt. These dates, just as all the dates of the Eighteenth Dynasty, are open to dispute because of uncertainty about the circumstances surrounding the recording of a Heliacal Rise of Sothis in the reign of Amenhotep I. [....]"
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thutmose_III]
1,504 B.C. - Egyptian Campaign / Nubia & Levant - Egypt conquers Nubia and the Levant (1504 BC1492 BC). [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1500_BC]
1,503 B.C. - Trivia / Deluge of Deucalion - "A traditional date for the deluge of Deucalion in Thessaly, a country of Greece. Reportedly, the island of Thera [actually the top of a volcano sticking out of the sea] exploded. A rain of ashes fell on Crete, and tidal waves struck its shores, and also the shores of Greece, which may have given rise to Greek legends concerning a great flood. Crete was greatly weakened by this explosion and the Minoan civilization tottered to its end, thereafter. Other dates attributed to the Thera eruption include: 1,628 B.C."
15th Century B.C. Links:
1,500 B.C. - Heroic Age - "A traditional date for the 'Heroic Age' [1,500 B.C. - 1,000 B.C.] of Greece and Israel. Reportedly, the customs of both Greeks and Hebrews in the 'Heroic Age' were often alien to their descendants in the classical periods."
1,500 B.C. - Trivia / Olmecs - "According to popular belief, the Olmecs were a culture of ancient peoples of the East Mexico lowlands. Other reports suggest a much older culture was responsible for the ancient sites which the Olmecs ['their descendants'] later inherited. It was at San Lorenzo that the earliest carbon-dates for an Olmec site [around 1,500 B.C.] had been recorded by archaeologists. However, Olmec culture appeared to have been fully evolved by that epoch and there was no evidence that the evolution had taken place in the vicinity of San Lorenzo. Not a single, solitary sign of anything that could be described as the 'developmental phase' of Olmec society had been unearthed anywhere in Mexico [or, for that matter, anywhere in the New World]." [Links: 1, 2 [see number 12]
*Trivia: "A four-tonne 'Olmec' head bearing African features located in La Venta, Gulf of Mexico, has been approximately dated to 1,500 BC.
*Trivia: "The roots of the Mayan civilization can be traced back thousands of years to the Olmecs, an earlier civilization that inhabited an area along the Gulf of Mexico. The Olmec, which means 'rubber people,' date back to at least 4000 BC. They began their rise to civilization around 1500 BC, and are considered to have reached the first advanced stages of high civilization around 550 BC."
*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olmec_civilization - [T.D. - 11/29/08]
1,500 B.C. - Chinese Writing - "[....] The first recognizable form of Chinese writing dates from 3,500 years ago, but many argue that its origins lie much deeper in the past. Regardless of its actual age, Chinese has evolved substantially over time yet has retained its ancient core, making it one of the longest continuously used writing system in the world. [NP] The common consensus is that writing in China evolved from earlier non-linguistic symbolic systems. During the Late Neolithic period, at the latter half of the 3rd millenum BCE, many symbols or "pictograms" started to be incised on pottery and jades. These symbols are thought to be family or clan emblems that identify the ownership or provenance of the pottery or jades. [....]"
[Based on: http://www.ancientscripts.com/chinese.html]
1,500 B.C. - Trivia / Shekhem - "[....] The city of Shekhem, positioned in a pass between the mountains of Gerizim and Eibal and controlling the Askar Plains to the east, was an important regional center more than 3,500 years ago. As the existing remains show, it lay within fortifications of massive stones, was entered through monumental gates and centered on a temple with walls five yards (meters) thick. [NP] The king of Shekhem, Labaya, is mentioned in the cuneiform tablets of the Pharaonic archive found at Tel al-Amarna in Egypt, which are dated to the 14th century B.C. The king had rebelled against Egyptian domination, and soldiers were dispatched north to subdue him. They failed. [....]"
[Based on: FoxNews.com article (Archaeologists Uncover Ruins of Biblical City Shekem in War-Torn Palestine) - The Associated Press contributed to this report - 07/22/11]
1,500 B.C. - Trivia / Linear B - "With such a non-descriptive name, Linear B proved to be the oldest surviving record of a Greek dialect, known as Mycenaean, named after the great site of Mycenae where the legendary Agamemnon ruled. Its usage spanned the time period between 1,500 B.C. and 1,200 B.C. approximately, and geographically covered the island of Crete as well as the southern part of the Greek Mainland." [Link: 1]
1,500 B.C. - Trivia / Byblos Script - "Byblos is an ancient Phoenician city along the coast of modern day Lebanon. Its name was the origin of the Greek word 'biblion' which means 'book', hence 'bibliography' and 'Bible'. In short Byblos is nearly synonymous with writing. Ironically, Byblos was also home to a still poorly understood script during roughly the middle of the second millenium BCE. There are only a few short examples of this script, mainly on stone or metal. This script contains roughly 100 signs, which fits with the number of signs necessary for a syllabary." [Link: 1]
1,500 B.C. - Destruction of Jericho? - See link section beginning at 30:20.
1,500 B.C. - Kush / Southern Egypt - "By this time the kingdom of Kush was established south of Egypt. The Kushites were dark-complexioned Negroids."
1,500 B.C. - Nubian Empire / Egypt - "[....] This powerful dynasty [Nubian] rose just as Egypt's Middle Kingdom declined around 1785 B.C. By 1500 B.C. the Nubian empire stretched between the Second and Fifth Cataracts [Nile River]. [....]" [Based on: Article (AN IGNORED CHAPTER OF HISTORY TELLS OF A TIME WHEN KINGS FROM DEEP IN AFRICA CONQURED ANCIENT EGYPT / Black Pharaohs, by Robert Draper, N.G.M. (February 2008), p. 40]
1,500 B.C. - Independence / Assyria - According to popular history, Assyria becomes an independant kingdom.
1,500 B.C. - Aryan Invasion? / India - According to popular history, by 1,500 B.C. "[...] charioteers invaded Asia by 1500 B.C., and put an end to the Indus civilization, which may have had a population of 1 million at its peak. The invaders of India called themselves 'Aryans,' from their word for 'noble.' They spoke an Indo-European language known as 'Sanskrit.' It is because they brought this language into India, while other charioteers spread related languages westward into Europe, that we call the language-family 'Indo European.' [....]" [See: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov, Copyright 1991, p. 41]
*Trivia: "In 1999 researchers reported that gene patterns confirmed that Caucasoid invaders entered India between 1,000 and 2,000 BC."
*Trivia: "Vedism was the sacrificial religion of the early Indo-European-speaking peoples who entered India from about 1500 BC from the Iranian plateau via the Hindukush and mixed up with the local populations.  [NP] The earliest literature of Hinduism is made up of the four Vedas: the Rig-Veda, Sama-Veda, Yajur-Veda and the Atharva-Veda. Of these, the Rig-Veda is the oldest surviving work. These texts were composed between ca. 1500 and 800 BC, and were transmitted by oral tradition alone until the advent of the Pallava and Gupta period and by a combination of written and oral tradition since then. [....]" [Based on: Wikipedia article: Vedic period - See link]
1,500 B.C. - Tsunami Event? / Caesarea - "[....] Geological drilling - in areas of 1-3 meters in length and at various depths - enabled Dr. Goodman [Beverly Goodman of the Leon H. Charney School of Marine Sciences at the University of Haifa] to date the underwater layers using two methods: carbon-14 dating and OSL (optically stimulated luminescence). She found evidence of four tsunami events at Caesarea: in 1500 BC, 100-200 CE, 500-600 CE, and 1100-1200 CE. [NP] In an article published by the Geological Society of America, Dr. Goodman explains that the earliest of these tsunamis resulted from the eruption of the Santorini volcano, which affected the entire Mediterranean region. The later, more local tsunami waves, Dr. Goodman assumes, were generated by underwater landslides caused by earthquakes. 'Local' does not necessarily imply "small". These could have been waves reaching 5 meters high and as far as 2 km onshore. Coastal communities within this range would have undoubtedly been severely damaged from such a tsunami. While communities onshore clear the ground after such an event and return to civilization, tsunami evidence is preserved under the water,' she explains."
[Based on: ScienceDaily article (Tsunami Waves Reasonably Likely To Strike Israel, Geo-archaeological Research Suggests) - Journal reference: Beverly N. Goodman-Tchernov, Hendrik W. Dey, Eduard G. Reinhardt, Floyd McCoy, and Yossi Mart. Tsunami waves generated by the Santorini eruption reached Eastern Mediterranean shores. Geology, 2009; 37 (10): 943 DOI: 10.1130/G25704A.1]
*Link: http://www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2009/10/091026093728.htm
1,491 - Biblical Exodus? - "According to standard Bible chronology, the Hebrews went to Egypt some three centuries before the time of Ramesses and made their exodus in about 1,491 BC, long before he came to the throne."
1,483 B.C. - Tuthmosis III / Canaan - "[....] Tuthmosis III, who reigned from 1504 to 1450 B.C., led Egyptian armies into Asia in 1483 B.C., and conquered Canaan. He then marched farther northward and defeated Mitanni. [....]" [See: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov, Copyright 1991, p. 42]
1,480 B.C. - Military Expansion / Egypt - "Following Queen Hatsheput's death, Thothmes III [her brother] began a campaign of military expansion which transformed Egypt into a world power."
1,479 B.C. - Canaanite Defeat / Megiddo - "Thutmose III defeats Canaanites at Megiddo."
1479 B.C. - Hatshepsut rules Egypt - "Recently the Public Radio Station in Boston had a one hour discussion on one of the rare female pharoahs of Egypt Hatshepsut (1479 to 1458 B.C.E.) who ruled 150 years before Akhenaten, the monotheist pharoah. National Geographic had a cover story as well. [....]"
[Based on: Varnam article (Hatshepsut and Mistress of the Lioness) By jk April 22, 2009]
*Trivia: [....] Exactly who was the intended audience for such propaganda is still disputed. It's hard to imagine Hatshepsut needed to shore up her legitimacy with powerful allies like the high priests of Amun or members of the elite such as Senenmut. Who, then, was she pitching her story to? The gods? The future? National Geographic? [NP] One answer may be found in Hatshepsut's references to the lapwing, a common Nile marsh bird known to ancient Egyptians as rekhyt. In hieroglyphic texts the word "rekhyt" is usually translated as "the common people." It occurs frequently in New Kingdom inscriptions, but a few years ago Kenneth Griffin, now at Swansea University in Wales, noticed that Hatshepsut made greater use of the phrase than other 18th-dynasty pharaohs. "Her inscriptions seemed to show a personal association with the rekhyt which at this stage is unrivaled," he says. Hatshepsut often spoke possessively of "my rekhyt" and asked for the approval of the rekhytas if the unusual ruler were a closet populist. When Hatshepsut's heart flutters this way and that as she wonders what "the people" will say, the people she may have had in mind were the ones as common as lapwings on the Nile, the rekhyt. [....] When archaeologists discovered evidence in the 1960s indicating that the banishment of King Hatshepsut had begun at least 20 years after her death, the soap opera of a hotheaded stepson wreaking vengeance on his unscrupulous stepmother fell apart. A more logical scenario was devised around the possibility that Thutmose III needed to reinforce the legitimacy of his son Amenhotep II's succession in the face of rival claims from other family members. And Hatshepsut, once disparaged for ruthless ambition, is now admired for her political skill. [....]"
[Based on: NGM article (The King Herself / What motivated Hatshepsut to rule ancient Egypt as a man while her stepson stood in the shadows? Her mummy, and her true story, have come to light.) by Chip Brown, April 2009]
*Trivia: "[....] In comparison with other female pharaohs, Hatshepsut's reign was much longer and prosperous. She was successful in warfare early in her reign, but generally is considered to be a pharaoh who inaugurated a long peaceful era. She re-established trading relationships lost during a foreign occupation and brought great wealth to Egypt. That wealth enabled Hatshepsut to initiate building projects that raised the calibre of Ancient Egyptian architecture to a standard, comparable to classical architecture, that would not be rivaled by any other culture for a thousand years. [....]"
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hatshepsut]
1,475 B.C. - Egyptian Palestine - "During the early period of The New Kingdom the Egyptian armies liberated Palestine Around 1475 B.C. Palestine revolted against the rule of the Egyptian Queen Hatshepsut. The next Egyptian Pharaoh Tuthmosis III reoccupied Palestine." [Link: 1]
*Trivia: "Palestine stayed as an Egyptian province during The Amarna Period 1450-1350 B.C." [Link: 1]
1,450 B.C. - Tyre Founded - "Tyre founded by colonists from Sidon."
1,450 B.C. - Trivia / Ugarit Culture - "The conception of a messenger of God that underlies Biblical prophecy was reportedly Amorite [West Semitic] and found in the tablets at Mari. Mesopotamian religious and cultural conceptions are reflected in Biblical cosmogony, primeval history [including the Flood story in Gen. 6:9-8:22], and law collections. The Canaanite component of Israelite culture consisted of the Hebrew language and a rich literary heritage - whose Ugaritic form [which flourished in the northern Syrian city of Ugarit from the mid-15th century to about 1200 B.C.] illuminates the Bible's poetry, style, mythological allusions, and religiocultic terms. Though plainer when compared with some of the learned literary creations of Mesopotamia, Canaan, and Egypt, the earliest Biblical writings are so imbued with contemporary ancient Middle Eastern elements that the once-held assumption that Israelite religion began on a primitive level must be rejected. Late-born amid high civilizations, the Israelite religion had from the start that admixture of high and low features characteristic of all the known religions of the area. Implanted on the land bridge between Africa and Asia, it was exposed to crosscurrents of foreign thought throughout its history."
1,450 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -
1,450 B.C. - Amenophis II Rules Egypt - Amenophis II [son of Thutmosis III] rules [1450-1425 B.C.] Egypt. By 1,450 B.C. Egypt had reached its maximum expansion.
[See: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov, Copyright 1991, p. 42]
1,440 B.C. - Biblical Exodus? - "I Kings 6:1 tells us that the start of the construction of the Temple in the fourth year of Solomon's reign took place 480 years after the Exodus. According to a correlation of the regnal dates of Israelite kings with outside Egyptian and Assyrian sources, this would roughly place the Exodus in 1,440 B.C. That is more than a hundred years after the date of the Egyptian expulsion of the Hyksos, around 1,570 B.C." [Based on: The Bible Unearthed, Israel Finkelstein & Neil Asher Silberman, p. 56]
*Trivia: "The basic situation described in the Exodus saga - the phenomenon of immigrants coming down to Egypt from Canaan and settling in the eastern border regions of the delta - is abundantly verified in the archaeological finds and historical texts. From earliest recorded times throughout antiquity, Egypt beckoned as a place of shelter and security for the people of Canaan at times when drought, famine, or warfare made life unbearable or even difficult." [Based on: Israel Finkelstein, The Bible Unearthed, pp. 52-53.]
*Trivia: 'THE SHASU OF YAHWEH AND THE DATE OF THE EXODUS
There are two indisputable facts that Old Testament scholars must face when dealing with these hieroglyphic references to the Shasu of Yahweh. First, there is no doubt that the name of the Israelite God Yahweh appears in these hieroglyphic texts at Soleb and Amarah-West. And second, at Soleb the reference to Yahweh dates to 1400 BC, during the reign of Pharaoh Amenhotep III. In other words Pharaoh Amenhotep III, or his scribes, knew about the Hebrew God Yahweh in 1400 BC. This fact is highly significant when trying to date the exodus of the Israelites from Egypt under Moses.
In Exodus 5:2 Pharaoh answers the first request of Moses to allow the Israelites to go into the desert to worship Yahweh by saying: Who is Yahweh that I should obey His voice to let Israel go? I do not know Yahweh, and besides I will not let the Israelites go. Pharaoh appears here to be saying that he had never heard of the God Yahweh. This interpretation of Pharaohs statement is reinforced by Exodus 7:17 where God responds to Pharaoh: Thus says Yahweh, by this you will know that I am Yahweh, behold I will strike the water that is in the Nile with the staff that is in my hand, and it will become blood. (NASV)
In his third meeting with Moses and Aaron after the second plague, Pharaoh clearly recognized Yahweh as some sort of deity and asked Moses and Aaron to pray to Yahweh to remove the plague of frogs (see Exodus 8:8). If the Pharaoh of the Exodus had never before heard of the God Yahweh, this strongly suggests that the Exodus should be dated no later than 1400 BC because Pharaoh Amenhotep III had clearly heard about Yahweh by that time.
1,431 B.C. - Uranus-Neptune Conjunction -
1,417 B.C. - Amenophis III Rules Egypt - "Amenophis III, the grandson of Thutmosis III, rules Egypt form 1417- 1379 B.C." [See: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov, Copyright 1991, p. 42]
1,413 B.C. - Joseph In Egypt? - "Reportedly, Joseph was in Egypt not in the early 18th century BC, but in the early 15th century BC. There he was appointed Chief Minister to Tuthmosis IV [1413-1405]. To the Egyptians, however, Joseph [Yusuf the viser] was known as Yuya and his story is particularly revealing - not just in the biblical account of Joseph, but also in respect to Moses." [Based on: Laurence Gardner]
14th Century B.C. Links:
1,400 B.C. - Linear A - "Linear A reaches its peak of popularity."
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1400_BC]
1,400 B.C. - Amarna Age - "Reportedly, prior to the Amarna Age [i.e., before 1,400 B.C.] Egyptian, Canaanite, Mesopotamian, Anatolian, Aegean and other influences met around the East Mediterranean to form an international order, by which each in turn was effected. Out of the Amarna Age order emerged the earliest traditions of Israel and Greece."
1,400 B.C. - Thebes / Egypt - "Estimation: Thebes, capital of Egypt becomes the largest city of the world, taking the lead from Memphis in Egypt."
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1400_BC]
1,400 B.C. - Ugarit / Canaan - "The height of the Canaanite town of Ugarit."
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1400_BC]
1,400 B.C. - Surya / Middle East - "Clay tablets from about 1,400 B.C. Egypt testify to gods with Iranian names in Syria and Palestine, and plainly enough, Syria and Assyria contain the name, Surya, itself, 'sura' being a common adjective in Persian scriptures meaning 'strong' or 'mighty,' evidently derived from the word 'surya.' "
1,400 B.C. - Mycenaean Greeks - "After the destruction of Knossos the Mycenaean civilization replaced the Minoan. Bronze weapons, war scenes on art, Cyclopean defense walls and the burial of male warriors with their weapons indicates that the Mycenaeans were militaristic. The horse drawn chariot emerged about this time. The Mycenaeans dominated the Aegean world for about 200 years."
1,400 B.C. - Ball-Habad, Canaan - "The myth of Marduk and Tiamat seems to have influenced the people of Canaan, who told a very similar story about Baal-Habad, the god of storm and fertility, who is often mentioned in extremely unflattering terms in the Bible. The story of Baal's battle with Yam-Nahar, the god of the seas and rivers, is told on tablets that date to the fourteenth century BCE. Baal and Yam both lived with El, the Canaanite High God. At the council of El, Yam demands that Baal be delivered up to him. With two magic weapons, Baal defeats Yam and is about to kill him when Asherah [El's wife and mother of the gods] pleads that it is dishonorable to slay a prisoner. Baal is ashamed and spares Yam, who represents the hostile aspect of the seas and rivers which constantly threaten to flood the earth, while Baal, the Storm God, makes the earth fertile. In another version of the myth, Baal slays the seven-headed dragon Lotan, who is called Leviathan in Hebrew. In almost all cultures the dragon symbolizes the latent, the unformed and the undifferentiated. Baal has thus halted the slide back to primal formlessness in a truly creative act and is rewarded by a beautiful palace built by the gods in his honor. In very early religion, therefore, creativity was seen as divine: we still use religious language to speak of creative 'inspiration' which shapes reality anew and brings fresh meaning to the world.
"But Baal undergoes a reverse: he dies and has to descend to the world of Mot, the god of death and sterility. When he hears of his son's fate, the High God El comes down from his throne, puts on sackcloth and gashes his cheeks, but he cannot redeem his son. It is Anat, Baal's lover and sister, who leaves the divine realm and goes in search of her twin soul, 'desiring him as a cow her calf or a ewe her lamb.' When she finds his body, she makes a funeral feast in his honor, seizes Mot, cleaves him with her sword, winnows, burns and grinds him like corn before sowing him in the ground. Similar stories are told about the other great goddesses - Inana, Ishtar, and Isis - who search for the dead god and bring new life to the soil. The victory of Anat, however must be perpetuated year after year in ritual celebration. Later - we are not sure how, since our sources are incomplete - Baal is brought back to life and restored to Anat. This apotheosis of wholeness and harmony, symbolized by the union of the sexes, was celebrated by means of ritual sex in ancient Canaan. By imitating the gods in this way, men and women would share their struggle against sterility and ensure creativity and fertility of the world. The death of a god, the quest of the goddess and the triumphant return to the divine sphere were constant religious themes in many cultures and would recur in the very different religion of the One God worshipped by Jews, Christians and Muslims." [Based on: Karen Armstrong, A History of God, pp. 10-11]
1,400 B.C. - Ivory Pomegranate? - "An ivory pomegranate long touted by scholars as the only relic from Solomon's Temple is a forgery, the Israeli Museum said Friday [12/24/04], as investigators said they had broken up several fake antiquity rings in a wide-ranging investigation. Indictments in that investigation are to be handed down next week, the officials said. Among those to be indicted is Israeli collector Oded Golan, the Justice Ministry confirmed. Golan, who denied wrongdoing, owns the two most spectacular artifacts declared fakes last year : a burial chest purported to be that of James, the brother of Jesus, and a stone tablet with inscriptions on how to maintain the Jewish Temple. The pomegranate was examined by the museum independently of the investigation by the Israeli authorities, said the director of the Israel Museum, James Snyder. A team of experts reported the thumb-sized pomegranate dates to the Bronze period, or about 3,400 years ago, meaning it is considerably older than the first Jewish Temple, and the inscription was added recently, the museum said in a statement." [Based on: News Services article, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p. A10, 12/25/04]
1,400 B.C. - Trivia / Hsiung-nu - "From 1,400 B.C., but particularly around 200 B.C., Chinese chroniclers mention the existence of war-like tribes of nomads which they refer to as the 'Hiung-nu' or 'Hsiung-nu' who were posing a threat to the empire. These were some of the earliest reference to the evolving and growing race of nomadic warriors who were to become the Turks."
1,400 B.C. - The Eleusinian Mysteries - "The most famous of the ancient religious Mysteries were the Eleusinian, whose rites were celebrated every five years in the city of Eleusis to honor Ceres (Demeter, Rhea, or Isis) and her daughter, Persephone. The initiates of the Eleusinian School were famous throughout Greece for the beauty of their philosophic concepts and the high standards of morality which they demonstrated in their daily lives. Because of their excellence, these Mysteries spread to Rome and Britain, and later the initiations were given in both these countries. The Eleusinian Mysteries, named for the community in Attica where the sacred dramas were first presented, are generally believed to have been founded by Eumolpos about fourteen hundred years before the birth of Christ, and through the Platonic system of philosophy their principles have been preserved to modern times.
"The rites of Eleusis, with their Mystic interpretations of Nature's most precious secrets, overshadowed the civilizations of their time and gradually absorbed many smaller schools, incorporating into their own system whatever valuable information these lesser institutions possessed. Heckethorn sees in the Mysteries of Ceres and Bacchus a metamorphosis of the rites of Isis and Osiris, and there is every reason to believe that all so-called secret schools of the ancient world were branches from one philosophic tree which, with its root in heaven and its branches on the earth, is - like the spirit of man - an invisible but ever-present cause of the objectified vehicles that give it expression. The Mysteries were the channels through which this one philosophic light was disseminated, and their initiates, resplendent with intellectual and spiritual understanding, were the perfect fruitage of the divine tree, bearing witness before the material world of the recondite source of all Light and Truth. [....]" [Based on: The Secret Teachings Of All Ages, Manly P. Hall]
1,400 B.C. - Palace of Minos Destroyed - "Palace of Minos destroyed by fire."
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1400_BC]
1,400 B.C. - Trivia / Phoenician Language - The Phoenicians, located between Babylonia and Egypt, could not trade easily unless they could handle both languages. Attempts to work out a simpler writing code had begun as early as 1400 B.C., but without total success. [See: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov, Copyright 1991, p. 45]
1,400 B.C. - Trivia / Sea People & Philistines - "[....] There is no clue for the settlement of the Sea People, Philistines included, before the 1140s or 1130s BCE. The early phase of Philistine settlement started approximately at that time and lasted until the end of the 12th century BCE. The Bichrome phase should be dated, accordingly, to the 11th and much of the 10th centuries BCE. The Iron I/Iron IIA transition could not have taken place before the late 10th century BCE. [....]" [Based on: Article (Low Chronology Update / Archaeology, history and bible), Israel Finkelstein]
*Trivia: "[....] In the 1140s or 1130s BCE, Egyptian domination in Canaan collapsed and many of the cities there were devastated, or partially destroyed, probably by groups of Sea Peoples and other, local, unstable elements. Many of the main cities recovered after a while and were resettled by a mixed population of local Canaanites and Aegean immigrants. The share of the new settlers in the population of Philistia was limited probably a few thousands. But constituting an elite group, their material culture developed to dominate the scene. The Iron I cities in Philistia did not conduct a lively maritime trade; they were not equal in size, power and prosperity and they were not fortified. Dramatic changes in the size and power of these cities can be traced from the 9th century and mainly in the 8th century BCE. Philistia reached its peak power and prosperity only with the Assyrian conquest and the transformation of its cities into agents of Assyrian economic and political interests. Then, and only then, do the Philistines of archaeology become the Philistines of the Bible." [Based on: Article (IS THE PHILISTINE PARADIGM STILL VIABLE?), Israel Finkelstein]
1,394 B.C. - Birth? / Aminadab [Moses] - "Reportedly, Aminadab was born the son of Tiye and Joseph [Yuya]. He was subsequently set afloat downstream in a basket of reeds in order to save his life. Other words associated with Aminadab include: Moses."
1,390 B.C. - Height of Power / Hittites - "Hittites at height of power."
1,380 B.C. - Fruit Seeds / China - "Chinese archaeologists find [2002?] 3,000-year-old fruit seeds [Shaanxi Province]" [Based on: news.xinhuanet.com article (Chinese archaeologists find 3,000-year-old fruit seeds), 11/24/10]
1,379 B.C. - Amenophis IV [Akhenaton] Rules Egypt - "According to popular history, "[....] ... Amenophis IV, who reigned from 1379-1362 B.C. [....] He is the first person we know (as a historic figure and not as a legend) who was a 'monotheist' and believed in a single God - in his case, the Sun-God, or 'Aton.' He renamed himself 'Akhenaton' ('servent of Aton') and founded a new capital between Memphis and Thebes which is called Akhetaton ) 'place of power of Aton'). [....]" [See: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov, Copyright 1991, p. 42]
1,375 B.C. - Trivia / Palestine - "North Palestine was invaded by the Phoenicians and then the Hittite around 1375 B.C. The rest of Palestine stayed under the Egyptian control. The Egyptian Pharaohs Siti I then Rameses II managed to expel the Hittites from Palestine." [Link: 1]
1,375 B.C. - Suppiluliumas I Rules Hittites - Suppiluliumas I rules [1375-1334 B.C.] the Hittites.
1,362 B.C. - Tutankhamen Rules Egypt - "Akhenaton was succeeded by his sun-in-law, Tutankhamen, who reigned 1362-1352 B.C. Under him, the old religion was restored. His tomb ... was discovered, intact, in 1922." [See: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov, Copyright 1991, p. 42]
*Trivia: "King Tut ruled about 3,300 years ago. He ascended to the throne at about age 8 and died around 1323 B.C. at 17." [Based on: News Services article, S.L.P.D., 11/15/04]
1,359 B.C. - Sacred Almanac? / Izapa - "The exact origin of the Tzolk'in is not known, but there are several theories. One theory is that the calendar came from mathematical operations based on the numbers thirteen and twenty, which were important numbers to the Maya. The numbers multiplied together equal 260. Another theory is that the 260-day period came from the length of human pregnancy. This is close to the average number of days between the first missed menstrual period and birth, unlike Naegele's rule which is 40 weeks (280 days) between the last menstrual period and birth. It is postulated that midwives originally developed the calendar to predict babies' expected birth dates. [NP] A third theory comes from understanding of astronomy, geography and paleontology. The mesoamerican calendar probably originated with the Olmecs, and a settlement existed at Izapa, in southeast Chiapas Mexico, before 1200 BCE. There, at a latitude of about 15° N, the Sun passes through zenith twice a year, and there are 260 days between zenithal passages, and gnomons (used generally for observing the path of the Sun and in particular zenithal passages), were found at this and other sites. The sacred almanac may well have been set in motion on August 13, 1359 BCE, in Izapa. [....]" [Based on: wikipedia article (Origin of the Tzolk'in)]
*Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maya_calendar - [T.D. - 11/29/08]
1,353 B.C. - Pharoah - "[...] The earliest instance where pr-`3 is used specifically to address the ruler is in a letter to Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten), who reigned c. 1353 - 1336 BC, which is addressed to 'Pharaoh, all life, prosperity, and health!. During the eighteenth dynasty (sixteenth to fourteenth centuries BC) the title pharaoh was employed as a reverential designation of the ruler. About the late twenty-first dynasty (tenth century BC), however, instead of being used alone as before, it began to be added to the other titles before the ruler's name, and from the twenty-fifth dynasty (eighth to seventh centuries BC) it was, at least in ordinary usage, the only epithet prefixed to the royal appellative. [....]"
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pharaoh]
1,350 B.C. - 'Mistress Of The Lionesses' - "[....] Around 1350 BCE, there was unrest in the region. Canaanite kings conveyed their fears via clay tablet letters to the Pharaoh in Egypt, requesting military help. But among all the correspondence by kings were two rare letters that stuck out among the 382 el-Amarna tablets uncovered a few decades ago by Egyptian farmers. The two letters came from a Mistress of the Lionesses in Canaan. She wrote that bands of rough people and rebels had entered the region, and that her city might not be safe. Because the el-Amarna tablets were found in Egypt rather than Canaan, historians have tried to trace the origin of the tablets. [....]"
[Based on: ScienceDaily article (Was A 'Mistress Of The Lionesses' A King In Ancient Canaan?) 04/11/09]
1,339 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -
1,334 B.C. - Mussilish II Rules Hittites - "The Hittites had become a great power under Suppiluliumas I, who reigned from 1375 to 1334 B.C. Under his son, Mussilish II, who reigned from 1334 to 1306 B.C., the Hittites raided Babylon and were then at the peak of their power. the Hittites."
[Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov, Copyright 1991, p. 43]
1,320 B.C. - Ramesses Rules Egypt - "The first pharaoh named Ramesses came to the throne only in 1,320 BCE - more than a century after the traditional Biblical date. As a result, many scholars have tended to dismiss the literal value of the Biblical dating." [Based on: The Bible Unearthed, Israel Finkelstein & Neil Asher Silberman, p. 56]
1,306 B.C. - Muwatallish Rules Hittites - "Under Muwatallish, who reigned from 1306 to to 1282 B.C., the Hittites fought the battle of Kadesh against Rameses II, and won, but the victory was a costly one. They recovered and continued to rule over most of Asia Minor, destroying and absorbing Mitanni, but they had been crucially weakened." [Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov, Copyright 1991, p. 43]
1,304 B.C. - Semitic People / Goshen - "The annals of Ramesses II [1304-1237 BC] specify that Semitic people were settled in the land of Goshen and it is further explained that they went there from Canaan for want of food."
1,301 B.C. - Solar Eclipse - "Early Chinese Eclipse [June 5th]."
13th Century B.C. Links:
1,300 B.C. - Trivia / Ur - Reportedly: "As late as the 13th century B.C., one of the northern Urs [Ur colonies] was an active community of merchants in the service of the Hittite kings."
1,300 B.C. - Israelite & Philistine Invaders? / Canaan -
[....] The story of Samson (that redoubtable giant of a Judge) is well known, but the important aspect of his legend is that it is our first introduction to the most intimidating of all Israel's enemies; the Philistines. Heavily armed, they had arrived by sea, like plundering Vikings, in about 1300 B.C., with a trail of death and destruction behind them in Crete, Cyprus, Asia Minor, and Phoenicia. They had completely obliterated the Hittite empire, and the Egyptians called them the Pelestia, which in Hebrew was Peleshti. In all their years of wreaking havoc through the Medterranean, only pharaoh Rameses III ever defeated them on both land and sea. Claiming a stretch of coast in southern Canaan, these maritime warriors established the five city kingdoms of Askelon, Ashdod, Ekron, Gaza, and Gath, which together became known as Palestine. At the same time, The Israelite invaders held the north of Canaan, and they each had their sights set towards the occupation of the whole.
Notwithstanding the continued struggle which persists between the Israelites and Palestinians over the same land today, the fact is that, in that era, they were both unwelcome invaders of Canaan. The Israelites had evolved through some four centuries in Egypt, prior to which their patriarch Abraham and his forebears were from Ur of the Chaldees in Mesopotamia (modern Iraq). Meanwhile, the Hebrews (from eber, meaning "other side") were the people from eber han-nahor: the "other side of the river" (the Euphrates), as explained in Joshua 24:3. These were the trading descendants of Abraham's sixth generational ancestor Eber (Heber), and the Egyptians called them Apiru or Habiru. As described in Genesis 11:28-32, the "other side of the river" was the land of Haran in the kingdom of Mari in Mesopotamia.
The newly dubbed Palestinians (Philistines) hailed from Caphtor (called Kafto in the Ramesside inscriptions), a coastal region of southern Anatolia (modern Turkey), whose capital was Tarsus. This was the land of the Luwians, who had arrived in about 2000 B.C., bringing an Akkadian language and script from Mesopotamia. The chances are that, in more distant times, the Israelites and Philistines had related Mesopotamian origins. [....]
[Based on: Laurence Gardner, Lost Secrets of the Sacred Ark, pp. 132-133]
1,300 B.C. - Abecedary Ugarit - "The earliest example of an abecedary [a list of the letters in an alphabet in the some kind of order] was found in the city of Ugarit. This abecedary shows a total of 30 symbols used in the Ugaritic script." [Link: 1]
1,300 B.C. - South Arabian Script - "At around 1,300 BC, a branch of the evolving Proto-Canaanite broke off and spread into the southern part of the Arabian Peninsula. This Proto-Arabian script eventually evolved by the 5th century B.C. into the highly elegant South Arabian script." [Links: 1]
*Trivia: "The South Arabian alphabet was used primarily in the Sabaean and Minaean kingoms in the Southern edge of the Arabian Peninsula. It is thought to have diverged from the Proto-Canaanite alphabet as early as 1,300 BCE, and a developing form appeared in Babylonia and near Elath of the Gulf of Aqaba around the 8th/7th centuries BCE." [Links: 1, 2]
1,300 B.C. - Iron Age / Caucasian Foothills - "About 1300 B.C., the technique for smelting and carbonizing iron was developed in the Caucasian foothills. This was under control of the Hittites, who picked up the technique. [....] This marked the beginning of the 'Iron Age' and, once the Hittite Empire was destroyed, their monopoly was broken and the use of iron, beginning in 1200 B.C., started to spread." [Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov, Copyright 1991, p. 43]
1,295 B.C. - 19th Egyptian Dynasty - The 19th Egyptian Dynasty [1295 B.C.- 1294 B.C.]. [Link: 1]
1,294 B.C. - Egyptian Influence / Canaan - "An Egyptian stronghold was excavated at the site of Beth-shean to the south of the sea of Galilee in the 1920's. Its various structures and courtyards contained statues and enscribed heiroglyphic monuments from the days of the pharaohs Seti I [1294-1279 BCE], Ramesses II [1279-1213 BCE], and Ramsees III [1184-1153 BCE]. The ancient Canaanite city of Megiddo disclosed evidence of strong Egyptian influence as late as the days of Ramesses VI, who ruled toward the end of the twelfh century BCE. This was long after the supposed conquest of Canaan by the Israelites. Other indications - both literary and archaeological - seem to show that in the 13th century BCE, the grip of Egypt on Canaan was stronger than ever."
1,279 B.C. - Ramesses II Rules Egypt - "Egyptian sources report that the city of Pi-Ramesses ['The House of Ramesses'] was built in the delta in the days of the great Egyptian king Ramesses II, who ruled 1,279-1,213 BCE, and that Semites were apparently employed in its construction." [Based on: Israel Finkelstein & Neil Asher Silberman, The Bible Unearthed, p. 57]
*Trivia: "The identification of Ramesses II as the pharaoh of the Exodus came as the result of modern scholarly assumptions based on the identification of the place-name Pi-Ramesses with Raamses [Exodus 1:11; 12:37]. In regard to the Biblical Exodus, beyond a vague reference to the Israelites' fear of taking the coastal route, there is no mention of the Egyptian forts in northern Sinai or their strongholds in Canaan."
*Trivia: "By tradition, Rameses II is the Pharaoh under whom the Israelites were enslaved and in whose court Moses grew to manhood. However there is nothing outside the Bible to support this." [Based on: Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 42]
1,275 B.C. - Assyrian Victory / Mitanni - "Assyria conquers the Mitanni kingdom, as Assyria enters its first period of strength."
1,274 B.C. - Shalmaneser I Rules Assyria - Shalmaneser I rules [1274-1245 B.C.] in Assyria.
1,260 B.C. - Uranus-Neptune Conjunction -
1,250 B.C. - Plenard Period? - "[....] British anthropologist, Richard Desborough, said of the Plenard Period [from 1250 to 1000 B.C.?], 'the changes that came about were little short of fantastic. The craftsmen and artists seem to have vanished almost without a trace: there is little new stone construction of any sort, far less any massive edifices; the metal workers' techniques revert to primitive, and the potter, except in the early stages, loses his purpose and inspiration; and the art of writing is forgotten. But the outstanding feature is that by the end of the 12th Century B.C., the population appears to have dwindled to about one-tenth of what it had been little over a century before. This is no normal decline, and the circumstances and events obviously have a considerable bearing on the nature of the subsequent Dark ages, and must be in part at least a cause of its existence'. Franzen and Larsson locate the focus of the Bronze Age catastrophe in the the vicinity of Atlantis itself. 'We even suggest that relatively large asteroids or comets (c. 0.5 km diameter) hit somewhere in the eastern Atlantic, possibly at the shelf of the Atlantic west coast of Africa/Europe ... mainly affecting the Mediterranean parts of Africa and Europe, but also globally'. As our planet turned on its axis, the proto-Encke Comet, Oljato, bombarded every region in a world-wide swath from above the Equator to below the Arctic Circle, according to the comet's inclining angle to the Earth. [....]"
[Based on: World-Mysteries.com article (The Destruction of Atlantis, By Frank Joseph, An essay regarding "The Destruction of Atlantis" (by the author).]
*Link: http://www.world-mysteries.com/newgw/atlantis_fj.htm - [T.D. - 04/04/10]
*Related Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2201_Oljato
1,250 B.C. - Destruction of Hazor? - See link section beginning at 30:20.
1,250 B.C. - Inca Empire, South America - According to popular history, beginning about 1,250 B.C., several advanced cultures, such as the Chavin, Chimu, Nazca, and Tiahuanaco, developed in different parts of Peru. [Links: 1, 2]
1,245 B.C. - Tukultininurta I Rules Assyria - Tukultininurta I rules [1245-1208 B.C.] in Assyria.
1,235 B.C. - Nimrod Rules Assyria - According to popular history, Tukulti-Ninurta I [Nimrod] rules in Assyria.
1,230 B.C. - Israelite Conquest? / Canaan - A suggested date for the Israeli conquest of Canaan.
1,220 B.C. - Palestinian Control / Palestine - "Around 1200 B.C. Egypt lost control over Palestine and the Palestinian Canaanites controlled Palestine. During the Late Bronze Age c. 1220 or c. 1190 B.C. the Egyptian Hebrew [Israelite] tribes left Egypt with Moses through Sinai to the area south of Jordan and North West of Saudi Arabia [Mizraim] where they became by time powerful enough to group and invade some parts of Palestine which was inhabited by several groups of people. In this process the Egyptian Hebrews had to fight the Hill tribes of the Amorites and to conquer the Amorites kings Sihon and Og. During the Early Iron Age as Egypt lost control over Palestine, Palestine was invaded by Hebrew tribes from the north then by the Aegean [the Sea People] Philistines who by time controlled all Palestine. By that time, The Early Iron Age, several different people were living in Palestine: - Ammonites [the descendants of Amon, the son of the younger daughter of Lot, the son of Haran and nephew of Abraham; they were a transjordanic tribe] - Amorites - Canaanites [the Gibeonites] Hill people from Gibeon one of the four cities of the Hivites] - Edomites, Idumeans [The descendants of Esau] who were forcibly converted to Judaism by John Hyrcanus c. 125 B.C. and incorporated with the Jewish nation] - Hebrews [other than the Egyptian Hebrews] - Hittite [the descendants of Hath, the second son of Canaan, who were called the Hyksos by the Egyptians] - Hivites [a Canaanite nation that lived in four cities in Palestine: Gibeon, Chephirah, Beeroth and Kirjath-Jearim] - Horites, Horimes [cave-dwellers of Mount Seir] - Hurries - Khabiri - Jebusites [a Canaanite tribe that lived in the mountain; Jerusalem was their capital] - Leahhites [Mountain people from Mount Lebanon. They were descendants of Leah, the elder daughter of Laban, the son of Bethuel, and grand-nephew of Abraham] - Mitannies, Moabites [descendants of Moab, the eldest son of the eldest daughter of Lot, the son of Haran and nephew of Abraham. The Moabites spoke a dialect of Hebrew and gave a kindly reception to the Egyptian Israelites in the East of The Dead Sea] and - Philistines [the Sea People]. Some of these different people were Semites and the others were Hemites." [Link: 1]
1,213 B.C. - Merneptah Rules Egypt - "Merneptah (or Merenptah) was the fourth ruler of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt. He ruled Egypt for almost ten years between late July or early August 1213 and May 2, 1203 BC, according to contemporary historical records. [....]"
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Merneptah]
1,208 B.C. - Victory Stele of Merneptah - "The Merneptah Stele also known as the Israel Stele or Victory Stele of Merneptah is an inscription by the Ancient Egyptian king Merneptah (reign:1213 to 1203 BC), which appears on the reverse side of a granite stele erected by the king Amenhotep III. It was discovered by Flinders Petrie in 1896 at Thebes. [....]"
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Merneptah_Stele]
*Trivia: "The earliest mention of Israel in an extrabiblical text was found in Egypt in the stele describing the campaign of Pharaoh Merneptah - the son of Ramesses II - in Canaan at the very end of the thirteenth century BCE. The inscription tells of a destructive Egyptian campaign into Canaan, in the course of which a people named Israel were decimated to the extent that the pharoah boasted that Israel's 'seed is not!' The boast was clearly an empty one, but it did indicate that some group known as Israel was already in Canaan by that time. In fact, dozens of settlements that were linked with the early Israelites appeared in the hill country of Canaan around that time. So if a historical Exodus took place, scholars have argued, it must have occurred in the late thirteenth century BCE." [Based on: The Bible Unearthed, Israel Finkelstein & Neil Asher Silberman, p. 57]
12th Century B.C. Links:
1,200 B.C. - Ugarit - Reportedly: "Ugarit provides us with the clearest picture of what was happening in the Near East during the Amarna Age. The community might be called Semitic, because the official language [Ugaritic] is clearly Semitic. However, there was an influencial Aegean enclave there, attested by Cypro-Minoan texts, Mycenaean art objects, and the presence of a Caphtorian god in the Ugaritic pantheon. Hittites, Hurrians, Alashiyans and other segments of the community are mentioned in the tablets. Assyrian and Egyptian enclaves are recorded side by side, though Ugarit certainly did not belong to either the Assyrian or Egyptian kings. What we see at Ugarit is the interpenetration of commercial empires. At that important city, at the crossroads of east-west and north-south traffic, representatives of the Aegean, Hittite, Hurrian, Mesopotamian, Canaanite, Egyptian and other populations met to conduct their affairs in an international order. The ancient Canaanite city-state of Ugarit is of utmost importance for those who study the Old Testament. The literature of the city and the theology contained therein go a very long way in helping us to understand the meaning of various Biblical passages as well as aiding us in deciphering difficult Hebrew words. Ugarit was at its political, religious and economic height around the 12th century B.C. and thus its period of greatness corresponds with the entry of Israel into Canaan." [Link: 1]
1,200 B.C. - Tarshish Founded - Tarshish founded by colonists from Tyre.
1,200 B.C. - Jericho Destroyed - "By 1200 B.C., Canaan was virtually in anarchy, and Jericho, which had existed for nearly 7,000 years, was temporarily destroyed." [Based on: Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 44]
1,200 B.C. - Change in Climate? - "[....] Swedish physicist, Lars Franzen (University of Goeteborg) and archaeologist Thomas B. Larsson (University of Umea) pointed out that general cooling, extreme precipitation, followed by catastrophic flooding before 1000 B.C. were earmarks of a celestial cataclysm. They concluded, 'it is obvious that these events were sudden and occurred world-wide'. They mentioned a particularly sharp change in climate, a steep drop in temperatures and simultaneous rise in wet conditions, noticeable in Europe, the Americas, the Near East, as far north as Alaska and south to the Antarctic, circa 1,200 B.C. [....]"
[Based on: World-Mysteries.com article (The Destruction of Atlantis, By Frank Joseph, An essay regarding "The Destruction of Atlantis" (by the author).]
*Link: http://www.world-mysteries.com/newgw/atlantis_fj.htm - [T.D. - 04/04/10]
1,200 B.C. - Trivia / Hebrew Alphabet - According to reports: "The Hebrews adopted the alphabet in the twelfth or eleventh century B.C., but only one Hebrew inscription - the Gezer Calendar [which may, in fact, be Phoenician] - is known to be older than the eighth century B.C. Although it is likely that the Hebrew script was widely used in the ninth century, even by Israel's eastern neighbors [Mesha Stone], virtually no ninth-century Hebrew incriptions are known to date. In the Old Testament, the Hebrews never call their language 'Hebrew' or 'Israelite,' but quite correctly 'the language of Canaan.' " [Links: 1, 2]
*Trivia: "Hebrew is a Semitic dialect or language which developed in the northwestern part of the Near East between the River Jordan and the Mediterranean Sea during the latter half of the second millenium BCE. The country comprising this area was known as Canaan, a name that is also associated with the language in its earliest written sources: spt knan 'the language of Canaan' (Is 19:18). Elsewhere, the language is called yhvdyt (yehudit) 'Judaean, Judahite' (2 K 18:26,28, etc.). In the Hellenistic period, writers refer to it by the Greek term Hebraios, Hebraisti (Josephus, Antiquities I, 1:2 etc.), and under the Roman Empire it was known as abryt ('ibrit) 'Hebrew' or lsvn abry(t) ' Hebrew language' (Mishnah, Gittin 9:8, etc.), terms that recalled Eber (Gn 11:14), ancestor of the people that would become known, like Abraham (Gn 14:13), by the name 'Hebrew'. [....]" [See: A History of the Hebrew Language, Angel Saenz-Badillos, 2000 edition, p. 1]
1,200 B.C. - Trivia / Phoenician Alphabet - "The Phoenician alphabet evolved from the more 'naturalistic' sytle of Proto-Canaanite into a more linear form during the 12th century B.C. or so. Most of the alphabets used today are descended from Phoenician. The immediate offspring of Phoenician were the old Hebrew alphabet, and Aramaic, as well as Archaic Greek according to tradition. The Hebrew alphabet was also used by Moabites as well as Israelites. This alphabet, though, eventually disappeared from the mainstream, and survived as the Samaritan script. Aramaic, on the other hand, became extremely popular, and many people adopted it." [Link: 1]
1,196 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -
1,190 B.C. - Rameses III Rules Egypt - Rameses III rules [1188-1156 B.C.] Egypt and defeats the Philistines.
1,186 B.C. - 20th Egyptian Dynasty - Traditional date for the 20th Egyptian Dynasty [1186 B.C.-1069 B.C.]. [Link: 1]
1,180 B.C. - Trojan War? - "[...] Troy appears to have been destroyed around 1180 B.C. (this date corresponds to the end of our excavation of levels Troy VIi or VIIa), probably by a war the city lost. [... .]"
[Based on: http://www.archaeology.org/0405/etc/troy.html]
1,175 B.C. - Civilizations collapse - "The fact that several civilizations around 1175 BCE collapsed has led suggestion that the Sea Peoples may have been involved in the end of the Hittite, Mycenaean and Mitanni kingdoms. The American Hittitologist, Gary Beckman, writes on page 23 of Akkadica 120 (2000):
A terminus ante quem for the destruction of the Hittite empire has been recognised in an inscription carved at Medinet Habu in Egypt in the eighth year of Ramesses III (1175 BC). This text narrates a contemporary great movement of peoples in the eastern Mediterranean, as a result of which "the lands were removed and scattered to the fray. No land could stand before their arms, from Hatti, Kode, Carchemish, Arzawa, Alashiya on being cut off. [ie: cut down]"
Ramesses' comments about the scale of the Sea Peoples' onslaught in the eastern Mediterranean are confirmed by the destruction of the states of Hatti, Ugarit, Ashkelon and Hazor around this time. As the Hittitologist Trevor Bryce observes:
It should be stressed that the invasions were not merely military operations, but involved the movements of large populations, by land and sea, seeking new lands to settle.
This situation is confirmed by the Medinet Habu temple reliefs of Ramesses III which show that:
the Peleset and Tjekker warriors who fought in the land battle [against Ramesses III] are accompanied in the reliefs by women and children loaded in ox-carts.
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sea_Peoples]
1,170 B.C. - Israelites Enter Canaan? - A traditional date when the Israelites entered Canaan. Also, a time when the Philistines were thought to have settled the coast [Joshua].
*Trivia: "[...] Ramesses III claims that he incorporated the Sea Peoples as subject peoples and settled them in Southern Canaan, although there is no clear evidence to this effect; the pharaoh, unable to prevent their gradual arrival in Canaan, may have claimed that it was his idea to let them reside in this territory. Their presence in Canaan may have contributed to the formation of new states in this region such as Philistia after the collapse of the Egyptian Empire in Asia. Ramesses III was also compelled to fight invading Libyan tribesmen in two major campaigns in Egypt's Western Delta in his Year 6 and Year 11 respectively. [....]"
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ramesses_III]
1,167 - Solar Eclipse - "Total solar eclipse - 9 September 1167 BC"
1,167 B.C. - Uranus Pluto Square - "The last time Uranus was in Aries and Pluto in Capricorn was in 1167 BC, but they were not at the same degrees [as in 2012] , so the situation was slightly different."
*Reference Links: http://www.astro.com/swisseph/ae/m1100/ae_m1167.pdf
1,159 B.C. - Hekla 3 Eruption - "The Hekla 3 eruption triggers an 18-year period of climatic worsening. (estimated date, disputed)"
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1150s_BC]
1,157 B.C. - Labor Strike / Egypt - "[...] The heavy cost of these battles [with "Sea Peoples"] slowly exhausted Egypt's treasury and contributed to the gradual decline of the Egyptian Empire in Asia. The severity of these difficulties is stressed by the fact that the first known labor strike in recorded history occurred during Year 29 of Ramesses III's reign, when the food rations for the Egypt's favoured and elite royal tomb-builders and artisans in the village of Set Maat her imenty Waset (now known as Deir el Medina), could not be provisioned. Something in the air (but not necessarily Hekla 3) prevented much sunlight from reaching the ground and also arrested global tree growth for almost two full decades until 1140 BC. The result in Egypt was a substantial inflation in grain prices under the later reigns of Ramesses VI-VII whereas the prices for fowl and slaves remained constant. The cooldown, hence, affected Ramesses III's final years and impaired his ability to provide a constant supply of grain rations to the workman of the Deir el-Medina community. [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ramesses_III]
1,154 B.C. - Died / King Menelaus of Sparta - "Death of King Menelaus of Sparta (estimated date)."
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1150s_BC]
1,154 B.C. - Suicide / Queen Helen of Sparta - "Suicide of exiled Queen Helen of Sparta at Rhodes. (estimated date)."
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1150s_BC]
1,153 B.C. - Died / Ramsees III - "Death of pharaoh Ramesses III of Egypt"
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1150s_BC]
1,150 B.C. - Period of Judges? - According to popular history, Barak and Deborah defeat Sisera; period of Judges.
6. Baktun 5. Baktun of the Imperial Seal. 1141-747 B.C. 22.214.171.124.0
Babylonian-Assyrian empires. Iron weaponry and war machines. Rise of Mycenean Greeks in Mediterranean, sack of Troy. Chou Dynasty, China, emergence of I Ching. Spread of Olmec culture throughout Mesoamerica. Horse used for warfare, pattern of militaristic imperial rule and dynastic succession established as norm for civilized life on planet.
1,116 B.C. - Tiglath-Pilesar I Rules Assyria - Tiglath-Pilesar I rules in Assyria.
11th Century B.C. Links:
1,100 B.C. - Greeks Settle Asia Minor Coast - Gideon defeats Midianites; Greeks begin to settle Asia Minor coast.
1,093 B.C. - Assyrian Decline - Death of Tiglath-Pilesar I; Assyria in decline.
1089 B.C. - Uranus-Neptune Conjunction -
1,085 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -
1,080 B.C. - Philistine Victory / Shiloh - "Philistines defeat Israelites at Aphek; Shiloh destroyed."
1,070 B.C. - 21st Egyptian Dynasty - A traditional date for the 21st Egyptian Dynasty [1070 B.C.- 945 B.C.]. [Link: 1]
1,071 B.C. - Neptune-Pluto Conjunction - "Neptune-Pluto cycles last about 495 years - half a millennium. They characterise an underlying driving-force behind history, an undertow of reality which marries the inevitable ram-force of Pluto with the imaginal, ideational power of Neptune."
Note: "Neptune-Pluto configurations on this site later than 600 B.C. represent estimated projections only. They were caluclated by subtracting alternating multiples of 493 years. For verification regarding planetary positions for 1,071 B.C, use the following pdf. file link below. [- E.M.]
1,050 B.C. - Jewish Monarchy - "The Gezer calendar was most probably derived from the Canaanite cycle before the establishment of the Jewish monarchy in 1,050 B.C. Evidence of the calendar's Canaanite origins is found in the Old Testament, which indicates that Hebrews were using Canaanite month names."
1,048 B.C. - King Saul? Rules Israel - "A reported date when the Israelite tribes united under their first king, Saul." [Link: l]
*Trivia: "The Israelite [Hebrew] tribes came under one king [Saul] around 1,020 B.C. Saul ruled from 1,020 to 1,000 B.C."
1,040 B.C. - Samuel Judges Israeli Tribes - "According to popular history, Samuel judges the tribes."
1,031 B.C. - Ancient Alexandria? - "[....] A Smithsonian team has uncovered underwater evidence pointing to an urban settlement at the site dating back seven centuries before Alexander showed up in 331 B.C. [....] The discoveries are reported in the August issue of GSA Today, the journal of the Geological Society of America." [Based on: A.P. article (Team finds signs of city under Alexandria), p. A14, S.L.P.D., 07/27/07]
1,013 B.C. - Philistine Victory / Mt. Gilboa - "Philistines defeat Israelites at mount Gilboa: Saul and Jonathan killed; David rules Judah."
1,008 B.C. - King David? Rules Israel - "David of Bethlehem married Saul's daughter to become King of Judah [corresponding to half of the Palestinian territory] in around 1,008 B.C. Subsequently, he also acquired Israel [the balance of the territory] to become overall King of the Jews."
*Trivia: "From the time of King David, the dynasty of Abiathar [2 Samuel 20:25] was established in the hierarchy of senior priests. The line of Zadok was the primary priestly heritage and the line of Abiathar was second in authority. In addition to the traditional priestly styles, the Essenes also preserved the names of the Old Testament archangels within their governing structure. Hence, the Zadok priest was also the archangel Michael, while the Abiathar priest [whatever his personal name] was also the angel Gabriel. Being subordinate to the Zadok/Michael [the Lord - 'like unto God'], the Abiathar/Gabriel was designated Angel of the Lord [the ambassador of the Michael-Zadok]. This angelic system is detailed in the Book of 1 Enoch 4:9, wilst the War Scroll 9:15-17 identifies the angels' order of priestly ranking during the Gospel era." [Based on: Laurence Gardner]
*Trivia: "According to the Bible, Joshua led the Israelites into lands west of the Jordan river, where they routed the Canaanites but failed to win Gaza from the Philistines. Kind David expanded Israel and built his capitol around the ancient sacrificial altar at Mount Moriah in Jerusalem. There his son Solomon built a grand Temple of God. Later Israel split, and its pieces fell: to Assyria in 722 B.C. and to Babylon in 586 B.C., when the Temple was razed and the Israelites sold into slavery." [National Geographic Magazine / October 2002 / page 106]
10th Century B.C. Links:
1,000 B.C. - Gathas - "Accoring to one report, before anyone other than the Pharaoh Akhenaton, Zoroaster introduced a practical monotheism equivalent to that the Jews and Christians think is unique to them. Zoroaster founded his religious system in the time when the Persians were migrating south of the Caucasus, from 1,000 B.C. onwards towards their eventual homeland. The date of Zoroaster's life is uncertain, no reference being made to him by the Persian kings or indeed until Xanthos of Lydia in 470 B.C., but the Gathas of Zoroaster have elements in common with the Vedas of India which date to the start of the first millennium B.C., suggesting that the religion that Zoroaster was reforming was similar to Brahminism."
1,000 B.C. - Rig Veda - "During this period [1,000-600 BCE] of Indian civilization, the Late Vedic period, the Aryans are integrated into Indian culture, and the Rig Veda is written."
1,000 B.C. - Luwian Script - "This script was originally mislabeled as Hieroglyphic Hittite, but the decipherment of the signs eventually led to the conclusion that the language recorded was not Hittite, but a related language called Luwian. Hittite and Luwian both belong to Anatolian subgroup of the Indo-European language family. Hieroglyphic Luwian was used in city-states of Southern Anatolia and Northern Syria, from 1000 BCE (?) to 700 BCE." [Link: 1]
1,000 B.C. - Old Testament - "More than two hundred years of detailed study of the Hebrew text of the Bible and ever more wide-ranging exploration in all the lands between the Nile and the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers have enabled us to begin to understand when, why, and how the Bible came to be. Detailed analysis of the language and literary geners of the Bible has led scholars to identify oral and written sources on which the present biblical text was based. At the same time, archaeology has produced a stunning, almost encyclopedic knowledge of the material conditions, languages, societies, and historical developments of the centuries during which the traditions of ancient Israel gradually crystalized, spanning roughly six hundred years - from about 1000 to 400 BCE. Most important of all, the textual insights and the archeological evidence has combined to help us to distinguish between the power and poetry of biblical saga and the more down-to-earth events and processes of ancient Near Eastern history." [Based on: The Bible Unearthed, Israel Finkelstein & Neil Asher Silberman, p. 5]
*Trivia: "[....] It is also clear that the interdentals / t, d / underwent a particularly large number of modifications, especially from the first millennium BCE - thus, in Hebrew / t / shifts to / s / (cf. Ugaritic tr, Hebrew sor), / d / to / z / (Ugaritic ' hd, Hebrew ' hz [chz]), / t / to / s [ts] / (Ugaritic tl [tsl], Hebrew sel [tsel]), and, similarly, / d / shifts to / s [ts] / (South Arabian ' rd, Hebrew ' eres [erets]). [....]" [Based on: A History of the Hebrew Language, Angel Saenz-Badillos, 2000 edition, p. 20]
1,000 B.C. - Trivia / I Ching - "The I Ching, or Book of Changes, is the most widely read of the five Chinese Classics. The book was traditionally written by the legendary Chinese Emperor Fu Hsi [2953-2838 B.C.]. It is possible that the the I Ching originated from a prehistoric divination technique which dates back as far as 5,000 B.C. Futher commentaries were added by King Wen and the Duke of Chou in the eleventh century B.C."
1,000 B.C. - Aramaic Script - "While Aramaic was displacing Akkadian in the course of the first millennium B.C., it absorbed a host of Sumerian words from Akkadian and transmitted them to the rest of the Near East. Some got into Arabic and have been carried to the ends of the eastern hemisphere by Islam. Of older date are the Sumerian loanwords in biblical Hebrew. According to popular belief: Originally Aramaic was spoken [and written] only in the region whose modern name is Syria. However, during the late Assyrian empire, and subsequently during the Babylonian and Persian empires, Aramaic became an international language, written and spoken in Anatolia, the Levantine coast, Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Persia where it was adopted by many local groups. In Israel, it became the 'Jewish' alphabet, the direct descendant of which is the modern Hebrew alphabet. It also became much more cursive as time goes on, such as the Nabatean alphabet, which eventually became Arabic." [Link: 1]
1,000 B.C. - Aramaeans / Syria - "A traditional date when the Aramaeans began infiltrating Syria."
1,000 B.C. - Trivia / King David - Reportedly: "David ruled from 1,000 to 961 B.C."
1,000 B.C. - Minor Power / Egypt - "Weakened by the invading 'Sea People' [the Phrygians, or Philistines], by 1,000 B.C. the Egyptian empire was no more, and Egypt remained a minor power thereafter."
1,000 B.C. - King Midas / Phrygia - "By 1,000 B.C. the Phoenicians had an alphabet, each letter representing a consonantal sound, and, using that alphabet, any language could be written down simply. King Midas ruled Phrygia around this time."
1,000 B.C. - Trivia / Jewish Calendar - "Present knowledge of the Jewish calendar in use before the period of the Babylonian Exile is both limited and uncertain. The Bible refers to calendar matters only incidentally, and the dating of components of Mosaic Law remains doubtful. The earliest datable source for the Hebrew calendar is the Gezer Calendar, written probably in the age of Solomon, in the late 10th century B.C. The inscription indicates the length of main agricultural tasks within the cycle of 12 lunations. The calendar term here is yereah, which in Hebrew denotes both 'moon' and 'month.' Thus, the Hebrew months were lunar. They are not named in pre-exilic sources except in the Biblical report of the building of Solomon's Temple in I Kings, where the names of three months, two of them also attested in the Phoenician calendar, are given; the months are usually numbered rather than named."
1,000 B.C. - Greek Colonies / Cyprus - "Reportedly, 'Cyprus may never have belonged to Greece, although Greek colonies have been on the island for over 3,000 years.' "
1,000 B.C. - Early Greek Inscriptions - "The earliest Greek inscriptions known today belong to the eigth century B.C. Although we cannot demonstrate that Greek inscriptions existed earlier than the eigth century B.C., a comparative analysis of the characteristic traits of the West Semitic script and those of Archaic Greek writing, leads to the assumption that the Greek borrowing of the alphabet should be dated some three hundred years earlier than the earliest known Greek inscriptions."
1,000 B.C. - Trivia / Etruscan Civilization - "Etruscan civilization existing by this time." [Link: 1]
980 B.C. - Height of Power / Israel - "A traditional date when King David's empire was at its peak"
976 B.C. - Jeroboam I Rules Israel - "Reportedly, the son of Nebat (1Ki 11:26-39), 'an Ephrathite,' the first king of the ten tribes, over whom he reigned twenty-two years (B.C. 976-945). He was the son of a widow of Zereda, and while still young was promoted by Solomon to be chief superintendent of the 'burnden', i.e., of the bands of forced labourers. Influenced by the words of the prophet Ahijah, he began to form conspiracies with the view of becoming king of the ten tribes; but these having been discovered, he fled to Egypt (1Ki 11:29-40), where he remained for a length of time under the protection of Shishak I. Other traditional dates attributed to Jeroboam I include: 931-909 B.C."
973 B.C. - Solomon Rules Israel & Judah - "A traditional date when Solomon ruled [962-922 B.C.] united Israel-Judah. Other traditional dates attributed to Solomon include: 970-931 B.C."
969 B.C. - Hiram Rules Tyre - "A traditional date when Hiram ruled Tyre."
962 B.C. - Jewish Temple Completed? - "A Traditional date for the completion of the First Jewish Temple by Solomon. Reportedly, this building was regarded as the repository of ancient occult wisdom and symbolism by both the Freemasons and the Knights Templar. King David initiated the building of the temple at Jerusalem and after his death his son Solomon completed the task. To build the edifice Solomon imported masons, artists and craftsmen from neighboring countries. Specifically he sent a message to the king of Tyre asking if he could hire the services of the king's master builder, Hiram Abiff, who was skilled in geometry. Solomon appointed Hiram as the chief architect and master mason of the temple to be built in Jerusalem. In the Old Testament it is said of Solomon that 'he sacrificed and burnt incense in high places', [I Kings 3:3] which were the sites of shrines dedicated to the worship of the Great Goddess. The available evidence suggests that during the 370-year history of the original temple at Jerusalem it was wholly or partly used for Goddess worship for 200 years of that period. When one of Yahweh's prophets denounced Solomon's waywardness in favor of a young man called Jeroboam who became the new king [I Kings 11:29-40], the worship of pagan gods briefly abated. In I Kings 23: 4-7 it is recorded that the high priest Hilkaih destroyed the shrines to the goddess Ashtoreth which Solomon had erected all over Israel."
*Trivia: "An ivory pomegranate long touted by scholars as the only relic from Solomon's Temple is a forgery, the Israeli Museum said Friday [12/24/04], as investigators said they had broken up several fake antiquity rings in a wide-ranging investigation. Indictments in that investigation are to be handed down next week, the officials said. Among those to be indicted is Israeli collector Oded Golan, the Justice Ministry confirmed. Golan, who denied wrongdoing, owns the two most spectacular artifacts declared fakes last year : a burial chest purported to be that of James, the brother of Jesus, and a stone tablet with inscriptions on how to maintain the Jewish Temple. The pomegranate was examined by the museum independently of the investigation by the Israeli authorities, said the director of the Israel Museum, James Snyder. A team of experts reported the thumb-sized pomegranate dates to the Bronze period, or about 3,400 years ago, meaning it is considerably older than the first Jewish Temple, and the inscription was added recently, the museum said in a statement." [Based on: News Services article, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p. A10, 12/25/04]
*Commentary: "Not one relic from Solomon's Temple?" [- E.M.]
961 B.C. - Arabian Trade / King Solomon - Reportedly: "Solomon ruled from 961 to 922 B.C. and he started to trade with the Arabs who were in Arabia."
950 B.C. - Rezin Rules Syria - "A traditional date when Rezin founded the kingdom of Damascus [Syria]."
945 B.C. - 22nd Egyptian Dynasty - "traditional date for the 22nd Egyptian Dynasty [945 B.C.- 712 B.C.]." [Link: 1]
942 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -
933 B.C. - Fatality / Solomon - "A traditional date when Solomon died."
933 B.C. - Jeroboam I Rules Israel - "On the death of Solomon, the ten tribes, having revolted, sent to invite Jeroboam I to become their king. The conduct of Rehoboam favoured the designs of Jeroboam, and he was accordingly proclaimed 'king of Israel' (1Ki 12:1; 1:1-20). He rebuilt and fortified Shechem as the capital of his kingdom. He at once adopted means to perpetuate the division thus made between the two parts of the kingdom, and erected at Dan and Bethel, the two extremities of his kingdom, 'golden calves,' which he set up as symbols of Jehovah, enjoining the people not any more to go up to worship at Jerusalem, but to bring their offerings to the shrines he had erected. Thus he became distinguished as the man 'who made Israel to sin.' This policy was followed by all the succeeding kings of Israel. Other traditional dates attributed to Jeroboam I include: 931-909 B.C."
931 B.C. - Rehoboam Rules Judah - "A traditional date when Rehoboam ruled in Judah 931-914 B.C."
922 B.C. - Secession / Israel from Judah - "The Bible describes how, soon after the death of Solomon, the ten northern tribes, resenting their subjugation to Davidic kings in Jerusalem, unilaterally seceded from the united monarchy, thus forcing the creation of two rival kingdoms: the kingdom of Israel, in the north, and the kingdom of Judah, in the south. For the next two hundred years, the people of Israel lived in two separate kingdoms, reportedly succumbing again and again to the lure of foreign deities."
918 B.C. - Uranus-Neptune Conjunction -
918 B.C. - Sacked / Jewish Temple - "About 918 B.C., an Egyptian army, under Sheshonk ['Shishak' in the Bible] of the 22nd Dynasty, who reigned from 935-914 B.C., sacked Jerusalem and the Temple."
914 B.C. - Abijam Rules Judah - "A traditional date when Abijam ruled in Judah 914-911 B.C."
911 B.C. - Asa Rules Judah - "A traditional date when Asa ruled in Judah 911-870 B.C."
909 B.C. - Nadab Rules Israel - "A traditional date when Nadab ruled in Israel 909-908 B.C."
908 B.C. - Baasha Rules Israel - "A traditional date when Baasha ruled in Israel 908-885 B.C."
900 B.C. - Demotic Invented - "A modified form of heratic writing invented."
898 B.C. - Solar Eclipse - "China's Double-Dawn Eclipse [April 21st]"
900 B.C. - European trade - "The vessel, carrying copper and tin ingots used to make weapons and jewellery, sank off the coast near Salcombe in Devon and is thought to date from 900BC. [....]" [Based on: The Telegraph article (3,000-year-old shipwreck shows European trade was thriving in Bronze Age / The discovery of one of the world's oldest shipwrecks shows that European trade was thriving even in the Bronze Age, according to experts.) 7:30AM GMT 15 Feb 2010]
8th or 9th Century B.C. - Kapila? - "[....] One such sage, named Kapila, who lived around the 8th or 9th century B.C.E. in the northeastern part of India, after realizing in himself the Truth of existence, made a valiant and brilliant attempt to explain the mysterious Unity-in-duality to the satisfaction of those who had not known It. [....] Kapila's explanation of Reality came to be known as the philosophy of Samkhya, a word which, like Veda, means 'knowledge' or 'wisdom.' To designate the Eternal, Kapila used the word, Purusha; it is a word which had appeared previously in the Vedas to mean the universal Self, or 'Person.' And to designate the creative Energy which manifests as the phenomenal world, he used the word, Prakrti. Prakrti is identical with Prthivi, the earth-Mother of the Vedas. It is Prakrti which appears as atoms, molecules, and all the sentient and insentient world composed of the elements. These two, Purusha and Prakrti, are what we today might call 'spirit' and 'matter,' except that Prakrti is more than what we regard as matter; it is the substance of all forms, dream images, and the individual psyche. It is everything that is experienced as 'the world' - on both the subtle and gross levels. Purusha, on the other hand, is the Eternal, the unmanifested Essence, the unstained and unchanging Consciousness. It is the light of conscious Awareness which not only illumes but allows us to perceive the world of Prakrti. [....]" [Based on: History of Mysticism, by S. Abhayananda, third revised edition, 1996, p. 45] - [Paragraph indents removed - E.M.]
900 B.C. - Bible Writing / Song of Deborah - "By 900 B.C., some Israelite writing had appeared that was later to be incorporated into the Bible. The Song of Deborah is an example of this."
900 B.C. - Height of Power / Olmec Civilization - "Olmec civilization [in southern Mexico] at its peak."
*Trivia: "The Olmec, which means 'rubber people,' date back to at least 4000 BC. They began their rise to civilization around 1500 BC, and are considered to have reached the first advanced stages of high civilization around 550 BC."
885 B.C. - Elah Rules Israel - "A traditional date when Elah ruled in Israel 885-884 B.C."
884 B.C. - Samaria Founded - "Date for the foundation of Samaria, mentioned in the Mesha stela from Moab."
884 B.C. - Zimri Rules Israel - "A traditional date when Zimri ruled in Israel 884 B.C."
884 B.C. - Tibni Rules Israel - "A traditional date when Tibni ruled in Israel 884-880 B.C."
884 B.C. - Omri Rules Israel - "A traditional date when Omri ruled in Israel 884-873 B.C."
883 B.C. - Ashurnasirpal II Rules Assyria - "A traditional date when Ashurnasirpal II ruled in Assyria 883-859 B.C."
874 B.C. - Ahab Rules Israel - "A traditional date when King Ahab ruled [874-853 B.C.] in Israel. Ahab, the king who actually stopped Assyria for a while, is painted in the darkest colors in the Bible, along with his wife, Jezebel. His victory over Assyria isn't even mentioned. Under the influence of Jezebel, King Ahab built an altar to Baal and a sacred grove to the goddess [I Kings 16:30-33]. It is said that 850 priests of Baal and Astoreth were entertained at a lavish banquet organized by the new queen. Other traditional dates attributed to Ahab include 873-852 B.C."
870 B.C. - Jehoshaphat Rules Judah - "A traditional date when Jehoshaphat ruled in Judah 870-846 B.C."
859 B.C. - Shalmaneser III Rules Assyria - "A traditional date when Shalmaneser III ruled in Assyria 859-824 B.C."
854 B.C. - Israelite Coalition - "Israel, in combination with Judah [a puppet of Israel at the time] and Aram [Syria] manage to defeat Assyria in battle. Later Syria and Israel turn against eachother and Ahab dies in battle against Syria. Meanwhile, Israel and Judah were not truly monotheistic. The writers of the Bible tried to make monotheism the stern belief of Moses and David, but even if it were, the people did not follow them any more than the Egyptian people had followed Akhenaton. The Yahwists [those who believe in Yahweh as the single god of the Jews] were always a minority at this time, and were, in fact, persecuted by the kings - who found them rigid and extreme, and getting in the way of practical politics. The outstanding Yahwists of this century were Elijah and Elisha. The Bible, written in later times by Yahwists, present them as wonder-working prophets and their opponents as villians. Thus, Ahab, the king who actually stopped Assyria for a while, is painted in the darkest colors in the Bible, along with his wife Jezebel. His victory over Assyria isn't even mentioned."
852 B.C. - Ahaziah Rules Israel - "A traditional date when Ahaziah ruled in Israel 852-851 B.C."
851 B.C. - Joram Rules Israel - "A traditional date when Joram [yvrm] ruled in Israel 851-842 B.C."
851 B.C. - Jehoram Rules Judah - "A traditional date when Jehoram [yhvrm] ruled in Judah 851-843 B.C."
850 B.C. - Mesha Stone - "Reportedly, the Mesha Stone inscription dates from 850 B.C." [Link: 1]
843 B.C. - AhaziahRules Judah - "A traditional date when Ahaziah ruled in Judah 843-842 B.C."
842 B.C. - Jehu Rules Israel- "A traditional date when Jehu [yhva] ruled in Israel 842-814 B.C."
842 B.C. - Athaliah Rules Judah - "A traditional date when Athaliah ruled in Judah 842-836 B.C."
836 B.C. - Jehoash Rules Judah - "A traditional date when Jehoash [yvas] ruled in Judah 836-798 B.C."
835 B.C. - Urartu [Ararat] Established - "Urartu, the Biblical 'Ararat,' was a kingdom established about 835 B.C. in the foothills of the Caucasus, north of Assyria."
836 B.C. - Median Empire - "The Medes were an ancient Iranian people ... who lived in the northwestern portions of present-day Iran. This area was known in Greek as Media or Medea ... Old Persian Mada; ... adjective Median, antiquated also Medean). Under Assyrian rule, the Medes were known as Madayu. They entered this region with the first wave of Iranian tribes, in the late second millennium BC (the Bronze Age collapse). [NP] By the 6th century BC, after having together with the Chaldeans defeated the Neo-Assyrian Empire, the Medes were able to establish their own empire, that stretched from southern shore of the Black Sea and Aran province (the modern-day Republic of Azerbaijan) to north and Central Asia, Afghanistan, and Pakistan, and which included many tributary states, including the Persians, who eventually supplanted and absorbed the Median empire in the Achaemenid Persian Empire. [NP] The Medes are credited with the foundation of the first Iranian empire, the largest of its day until Cyrus the Great established a unified Iranian empire of the Medes and Persians, often referred to as the Achaemenid Persian Empire, by defeating his grandfather and overlord, Astyages the king of Media. [....] The Medes, people of the Mada, ... appear in history first in 836 BC. Earliest records show that Assyrian conqueror Shalmaneser III received tribute from the "Amadai" in connection with wars against the tribes of the Zagros. His successors undertook many expeditions against the Medes (Madai). [NP] At this early stage, the Medes were usually mentioned together with another steppe tribe, the Scythians, who seem to have been the dominant group. They were divided into many districts and towns, under petty local chieftains; from the names in the Assyrian inscriptions, it appears they had already adopted the religion of Zoroaster. [....] Although Herodotus credits 'Deioces son of Phraortes' (probably c. 715) with the creation of the Median kingdom and the founding of its capital city at Ecbatana (modern Hamadan), it was probably not before 625 bc that Cyaxares, grandson of Deioces, succeeded in uniting into a kingdom the many Iranian-speaking Median tribes. According to Herodotus, the conquests of Cyaxares the Medes were preceded by a Scythian invasion and domination lasting twenty-eight years (under Madius the Scythian, 653-625 BC). The Medes tribes seem to have come into immediate conflict with a settled state to the West known as Mannae, allied with Assyria. Assyrian inscriptions state that the early Medes rulers, who had attempted rebellions against the Assyrians in the time of Esarhaddon and Ashur-bani-pal, were allied with chieftains of the Ashguza (Scythians) and other tribes - who had come from the northern shore of the Black Sea and invaded Asia Minor. The state of Mannae was finally conquered and assimilated by the Medes in the year 616 BC. [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Median_Empire] - [T.D. - 09/25/08]
831 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -
825 B.C. - Jeroboam II Rules Israel? - "Reportedly, Jeroboam II, the son and successor of Jehoash, and the fourteenth king of Israel, over which he ruled for forty-one years, B.C. 825-784 (2Ki 14:23). He followed the example of the first Jeroboam in keeping up the worship of the golden calves (2Ki 14:24). His reign was contemporary with those of Amaziah (2Ki 14:23) and Uzziah (2Ki 15:1), kings of Judah. He was victorious over the Syrians (2Ki 13:4; 14:26-27), and extended Israel to its former limits, from 'the entering of Hamath to the sea of the plain' (2Ki 14:25; Am 6:14). His reign of forty-one years was the most prosperous that Israel had ever known as yet. With all this outward prosperity, however, iniquity widely prevailed in the land (Am 2:6-8; 4:1; 6:6; Ho 4:12-14). The prophets Hosea (Ho 1:1), Joel (Joe 3:16; Am 1:1-2), Amos (Am 1:1), and Jonah (2Ki 14:25) lived during his reign. He died, and was buried with his ancestors (2Ki 14:29). He was succeeded by his son Zachariah (q.v.). His name occurs in Scripture only in 2Ki 13:13; 14:16,23,27-29; 15:1,8; 1Ch 5:17; Ho 1:1; Am 1:1; 7:9-11. In all other passages it is Jeroboam the son of Nebat that is meant. Other dates attributed to Jeroboam include: 788 -747 B.C." [Based on: Traditional Old Testament]
817 B.C. - Jehoahaz Rules Israel - "A traditional date when Jehoahaz [yhvachz] ruled in Israel 817-800 B.C."
814 B.C. - Phoenicians Establish Carthage - "By 814 B.C. the Phoenicians established the city of Carthage near the site of modern Tunis." [Link: 1]
811 B.C. - Shammuramat / Assyria - "Shammuramat or Sammur-amat was Queen of Assyria 811 BC808 BC. The widow of King Shamshi-Adad V reigned for three years on the throne of Assyria. Other chronologies suggest that her regency lasted from 809 to 792 BCE. [....]"
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shammuramat]
*Trivia: "Toward 800 B.C., the Assyrian king was a minor, and his mother Sammuramat, was the effective head of the government. The Greeks built their legend of Semiramis about her."
*Reference Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King_of_Assyria
811 B.C. - Adad-nirari Rules Assyria - "A traditional date when Adad-nirari ruled in Assyria 811-783 B.C."
800 B.C. - Axial Age - "The period 800-200 BCE has been termed the Axial Age. In all the main regions of the civilized world, people created new ideologies that have continued to be crucial and formative. The new religious systems reflected the changed economic and social conditions. For reasons that we do not entirely understand, all the cheif civilizations developed along parallel lines, even when there was no commercial contact [as between China and the European area]. There was a new prosperity that led to the rise of a merchant class. Power was shifting from king and priest, temple and palace, to the marketplace. The new wealth led to intellectual and cultural florescence and also to the development of the individual conscience. Inequality and exploitation became more apparent as the pace of change accelerated in the cities and people began to realize that their own behavior could affect the fate of future generations. Each region developed a distinctive ideology to address these problems and concerns: Taoism and Confucianism in China, Hinduism and Buddhism in India and philosophical rationalism in Europe. The Middle East did not produce a uniform solution, but in Iran and Israel, Zoroaster and the Hebrew prophets respectively evolved different versions of monotheism. Strange as it may seem, the idea of 'God,' like the other great religious insights of the period, developed in a market economy in a spirit of aggressive capitalism." [Based on: A History of God, Karen Armstrong, p. 27]
*Trivia: "[....] At the dawn of Western thought, the categories of matter and spirit had not yet been constituted as opposites, religion and science had not beeen conceived of as rivals. There existed in the world only a few features that we still recognize: the enigma of nature; the questions 'What are we humans?' and 'Where do we come from?' common to both science and religion; and the intuition that some vital something, which was everywhere and nowhere in particular, was the answer to it all.The quest of the phuseos was to understand this vital something that was both substance and action, both spirit and matter, both one and many, both everywhere and nowhere. [....]" [Based on: Parabola article (In the Greek Cosmos) by David Hoffman, Vol. 28, No. 3, Fall 2003 (Chaos And Order), p. 57]
800 B.C. - J / Jahwist - "In Chapter 18 of Genesis, J tells us that God appeared to Abraham by the oak tree of Mamre, near Hebron. Abraham had looked up and and noticed three strangers approaching his tent during the hottest part of the day. With typical Middle Eastern courtesy, he insisted that they sit down and rest while he hurried to prepare food for them. In the course of conversation, it transpired, quite naturally, that one of these men was none other than his god, whom J always calls 'Yahweh.' The other two men turn out to be angels. Nobody seems particularly surprised by this revelation. By the time J was writing in the eighth century BCE, no Israelite would have expected to 'see' God in this way: most would have found it a shocking notion. J's contemporary, 'E,' finds the old stories about the patriarchs' intimacy with god unseemly: when E tells stories about Abraham's or Jacob's dealings with God, he prefers to distance the event and make the old legends less anthropomorphic. Thus he will say that god speaks to Abraham through an angel. J, however, does not share this squeamishness and preserves the ancient flavour of these primitive epiphanies in his account." [Based on: A History of God, Karen Armstrong, pp. 15-16]
800 B.C. - Bible Authors - "During the nineteenth century, some German biblical scholars developed a critical method which discerned four different sources in the first five books of the Bible: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy. These were later collated into the final text of what we know as the Pentateuch during the fifth century BCE. This form of criticism has come in for a good deal of harsh treatment, but nobody has yet come up with a satisfactory theory which explains why there are two quite different accounts of key biblical events, such as the Creation and the Flood, and why the Bible sometimes contradicts itself. The two earliest biblical authors, whose work is found in Genesis and Exodus, were probably writing during the eigth century, though some would give them an earlier date. One is known as 'J' because he calls his God 'Yahweh,' the other 'E' since he prefers to use the more formal divine title 'Elohim.' By the eighth century, the Israelites had divided Canaan into two separate kingdoms. J was writing in the southern kingdom of Judah, while E came from the northern kingdom of Israel." [Based on: A History of God, Karen Armstrong, p. 12]
800 B.C. - Joash Rules Israel - "A traditional date when Joash [yvas] ruled in Israel 800-784 B.C."
800 B.C. - Homer? / Greece - "By 800 B.C., Homer [concerning whom next to nothing is known - not even if he really existed] had written the Iliad and the Odyssey. About the same time, Hesiod was writing Theogony, which was an important guide to Greek mythology."
*Trivia: "Homer [....] was a legendary early Greek poet and rhapsode traditionally credited with the composition of the Iliad and the Odyssey, commonly assumed to have lived in the 8th century BC. [....]"
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homer]
800 B.C. - Brahmans / India - "The Brahmans, a priestly caste, begin [800-600 B.C.] to emerge around this time, along with the caste system. The Upanishads are written about this time [800-500 B.C.]."
800 B.C. - Inscriptions / Hebrew & Aramaic - From the eigth century onward, the number of Hebrew and Aramaic inscriptions gradually increases, testifying to the spread of writing. Reportedly, the progress of literacy in Greece was probably very similar to that in the East."
800 B.C. - Bronze Age Recession? / Britain - "In history lessons, the three ages of pre-history - Stone Age, Bronze Age and Iron Age - seem to flow together without a gap. [NP] But there is a 300-year period in British history between around 800 BC and 500 BC where experts still struggle to explain what happened, where bronze is in decline and iron was not widely used. [....]"
[Based on: BBC News article (What caused Britain's Bronze Age 'recession'? / A large gap in pre-history could signal that Britain underwent an economic downturn over 2,500 years ago.), 04/07/11]
798 B.C. - Amaziah Rules Judah - "A traditional date when Amaziah ruled in Judah 798-769 B.C."
788 B.C. - Jeroboam II Rules Israel - "A traditional date when Jeroboam ruled in Israel 788-747 B.C."
785 B.C. - Azariah Rules Judah - "A traditional date when Azariah ruled in Judah 785-733 B.C."
776 B.C. - Olympics / Greece - "First recorded Olympic games."
770 B.C. - Birth? / Lao Zi (Lao Tze) - "Ancient Chinese sage [770 - 476 B.C.] who authored the Tao Te Ching."
770 B.C. - Zhou Dynasty / China - "The last Shang ruler, a despot according to standard Chinese accounts, was overthrown by a chieftain of a frontier tribe called Zhou, which had settled in the Wei Valley in modern Shaanxi Province. The Zhou dynasty had its capital at hao, near the city of Xi'an, or Chang'an, as it was known in its heydey in th imperial period. Sharing the language and culture of Shang, the Zhou rulers, through conquest and colonization, gradually sinicized, that is, extended Shang culture through much of China Proper north of the Chang jiang [Yangtze river]. In 771 B.C. the Zhou court was sacked, and its king was killed by invading barbarians who were allied with rebel lords. The capital was moved eastward to Luoyang in present-day Henan Province. Because of this shift, historians divide the Zhou era into Western Zhou [1027-771 B.C.] and Eastern Zhou [770-221 B.C.]. Reportedly, the Zhou dynasty lasted longer than any other."
762 B.C. - Solar Eclipse - "Assyrian Eclipse [June 15th]"
753 B.C. - Founded / Roman Kingdom - "Legend has it that Rome was founded by Latin colonists in 753 B.C. [1 A.U.C. Anno Urbis Conditae, meaning, in Latin, 'the year of the founding of the city'], but archaeological evidence reveals settlements going back to at least 1000 B.C." [Link: 1]
The Roman Kingdom (Latin: Regnum Romanum) was the monarchal government for the city of Rome and its territories from its founding. In Roman legend this took place in 753 BC by Romulus. The kingdom ended with the expulsion of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus in 510 BC and the establishment of the Roman Republic.
In Roman legend, when the Greeks waged war against the city of Troy, the Trojan hero Aeneas sailed across the Mediterranean Sea to Italy and founded Lavinium. His son Iulus went on to found the city of Alba Longa. From Alba Longa's royal family came the twins Romulus and Remus, who went on to found the city of Rome in 753 BC.
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Kingdom]
750 B.C. - King Piye / Nubia - "[....] Piye was the first of the so-called black pharaohs - a series of Nubian kings who ruled over all of Egypt for three-quarters of a century as that country's 25th dynasty. [....] The black pharoahs reunified a tattered Egypt and filled its landscapr with glorious monuments creating an empire that stretched from the southern border at present-day Khartoum all the way noirth to the mediterranean Sea. They stood up to the bloodthirsty Assyrians, perhaps saving Jerusalem in the process." [Based on: Article (AN IGNORED CHAPTER OF HISTORY TELLS OF A TIME WHEN KINGS FROM DEEP IN AFRICA CONQURED ANCIENT EGYPT / Black Pharaohs, by Robert Draper, N.G.M. (February 2008), pp. 38-39]
750 B.C. - Trivia / Greek Mythology - "According to the History Channel, Greek Mythology was collected and written down [by Homer?] about this time."
750 B.C. - Greek Colonizing Expeditions - "First Greek colonizing expeditions." [Compact History Of The World, Geoffrey Parker, p. 32]
7. Baktun 6. Baktun of the Mind Teachings. 747-353 B.C. 126.96.36.199.0
Period of first wave of galactic Mayans in Mesoamerica. Persian Empire. Rise of philosophical individualistic thought supplanting earlier collective forms. Pythagoras, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle in Greece; six schools of Vedic thought, Mahavira and Buddha, India; Lao Tzu, Confucius, Cuang Tzu in China. Construction of Monte Alban, Mexico, beginnings of Mayan calendar systems.
747 B.C. - Uranus-Neptune Conjunction -
747 B.C. - Zechariah Rules Israel - "A traditional date when Zechariah ruled in Israel 747 B.C."
747 B.C. - Menahem Rules Israel - "A traditional date when Menahem ruled in Israel 747-737 B.C."
747 B.C. - Shallum Rules Israel - "A traditional date when Shallum ruled in Israel 747 B.C."
745 B.C. - Tiglath-Pilesar III Rules Assyria - "A traditional date when Tiglath-Pilesar III ruled in Assyria 745-727 B.C."
743 B.C. - Ahaz Rules Judah - "A traditional date when Ahaz ruled in Judah 743-727 B.C."
743 B.C. - Jotham Rules Judah - "A traditional date when Jotham ruled in Judah 743-729 B.C."
740 B.C. - 23rd Egyptian Dynasty - "A traditional date for the 23rd Egyptian Dynasty [740 B.C.- 725 B.C.]." [Link: 1]
737 B.C. - Pekahiah Rules Israel - "A traditional date when Pekahiah [pqchyh] ruled in Israel 737-735 B.C."
737 B.C. - Temple / West of Jerusalem - "Archaeologists have discovered a 2,750-year-old temple along with a cache of sacred artifacts, providing rare insight into religious practices at the time, the Israeli Antiquities Authority announced Wednesday. [NP] The temple was uncovered west of Jerusalem, at the Tel Motza archaeological site, in preparation for work on Highway 1. Among the finds are pottery figurines, fragments of chalices and decorated pedestals, which indicate the site was the stomping ground of a ritual cult. [... .]"
[Based on: FoxNews.com article (2,750-year-old temple found near Jerusalem) 12/27/12]
735 B.C. - Pekah Rules Israel - "A traditional date when Pekah [pqch] ruled in Israel 735-732 B.C."
735 B.C. - Isaiah / Jerusalem - "In 735 B.C., when Jerusalem was under threat from Syria, the prophet Isaiah proclaimed to the troubled King Ahaz, 'Hear ye now, O house of David. [....] Behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel' [Isaiah 7:13-14]."
732 B.C. - Assyrian Syria - "Traditional date when Assyria conquered Aramaic Syria."
732 B.C. - Hoshea Rules Israel - "A traditional date when Hoshea [hvsa] ruled in Israel 732-724 B.C."
730 B.C. - King Piye / Upper Egypt - "In the year 730 B.C., a man by the name of Piye decided the only way to save Egypt from itself was tio invade it. [....] The ancient world was devoid of racism. At the time of Piye's historic conquest, the fact that his skin was dark was irrelevant. Artwork from Ancient Egypt, Greece, and Rome shows a clear awareness of racial features and skin tone, but there is little evidence that darker skin was seen as a sign of inferiority. Only after the European powers colonized Africa in the 19th century did Western scholars pay attention to the color of the Nubians' skin, to uncharitable effect. [....]" [Based on: Article (AN IGNORED CHAPTER OF HISTORY TELLS OF A TIME WHEN KINGS FROM DEEP IN AFRICA CONQURED ANCIENT EGYPT / Black Pharaohs, by Robert Draper, N.G.M. (February 2008), pp. 38-39]
727 B.C. - Hezekiah Rules Judah - "A traditional date when Hezekiah ruled in Judah 727-698 B.C."
727 B.C. - Shalmaneser V Rules Assyria - "A traditional date when Shalmaneser V ruled in Assyria 727-722 B.C."
725 B.C. - 24th Egyptian Dynasty - "A traditional date for the 24th Egyptian Dynasty [725 B.C.- 715 B.C.]." [Link: 1]
722 B.C. - Assyrian Israel - "Sargon II attacked Israel and deported the aristocracy."
722 B.C. - Sargon II Rules Assyria - "A traditional date when Sargon II ruled in Assyria 722-705 B.C."
715 B.C. - Died / Piye - "[....] When Piye died at the end of his 35-year reign in 715 B.C., his subjects honored his wishes by burying him in a Egyptian-style pyramid, with four of his beloved horses nearby. He was the first pharaoh to receive such entombment in more than 500 years. [....] Under Nubian rule, Egypt became Egypt again. When Piye died in 715, his brother Shabaka solidified the 25th dynasty by taking up residence in the Egyptian capital of Memphis. Like his brother, Shabaka wed himself to the old pharaonic ways, adopting the throne name of the 6th-dynasty ruler Pepi II, just as Piye had claimed the old throne name of Thutmose III." [Based on: Article (AN IGNORED CHAPTER OF HISTORY TELLS OF A TIME WHEN KINGS FROM DEEP IN AFRICA CONQURED ANCIENT EGYPT / Black Pharaohs, by Robert Draper, N.G.M. (February 2008), pp. 38 & 44]
714 B.C. - Sargon II Conquers Urartu - "Sargon II conquers Urartu."
712 B.C. - 25th Egyptian Dynasty - "A traditional date for the 25th Egyptian Dynasty [712 B.C.- 657 B.C.]." [Link: 1]
705 B.C. - Sennacherib Rules Assyria - "A traditional date when Sennacherib ruled in Assyria 705-681 B.C."
701 B.C. - Assyrian Jerusalem - "Assyrians attack Judah and lays seige to Jerusalem. After the siege of Jerusalem, Judah remained a loyal Assyrian puppet. Under the rule of Menassah, from 692-639 B.C., Judah paid its tribute and enjoyed a half century of peace."
700 B.C. - Bible Chronology - "We now know that the early books of the Bible and their famous stories of Israelite history were first codified [and in key respects composed] at an identifiable place and time: Jerusalem in the seventh century BCE." [The Bible Unearthed, Israel Finkelstein & Neil Asher Silberman, p. 5]
700 B.C. - Theogony / Hesiod? - "According to the History Channel, Hesiod composed a history of the Greek Gods [Theogony] about this time."
*Trivia: "Hesiod [....], the early Greek poet and rhapsode, presumably lived around 700 BCE. Historians have debated the priority of Hesiod or of Homer, and some authors have even brought them together in an imagined poetic contest. Modern scholars disagree as to which was earlier; their lives very likely overlapped.
Hesiod serves as a major source for knowledge of Greek mythology, farming techniques, archaic Greek astronomy and ancient time-keeping. [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hesiod]
700 B.C. - Trivia / Assyrian Empire - "In 700 B.C., the Assyrian Empire included all the Tigris-Euphrates region and all the eastern shore of the Mediterranean. It was the most powerful political-military entity the world had yet seen. Reportedly, Assyrian records suggest that the route to the east of the plateau into India was well trodden by 700 B.C., to judge by the preponderance of Aryan names, but so many names did not appear in the west." [Link: 1]
700 B.C. - Aramaic / Lingua Franca - "With the spread of Aramaic as the lingua franca of the Near East in the 7th and 6th centuries B.C., the increasing use of the Phoenician script, and the loss of political independence in Mesopotamia with the growth of the Persian Empire, cuneiform came to be used less and less, although it continued to be written by many conservative priests and scholars for several more centuries."
700 B.C. - Assyrian Statehood / Edom - "Archaeological investigations indicate that Edom reached statehood only under Assyrian auspices in the seventh century BCE. Before that period it was a sparsely settled fringe area inhabited mainly by pastoral nomads. No less important, Edom was destroyed by the Babylonians in the sixth century BCE, and sedentary activity there recovered only in Hellenistic times." [Based on: Israel Finkelstein & Neil Asher Silberman, The Bible Unearthed, p. 68]
698 B.C. - Manasseh Rules Judah - "A traditional date when Manasseh ruled in Judah 698-642 B.C."
690 B.C. - Taharqa / Egypt - "[....] His father, Piye, had returned the true pharonic customs to Egypt. His uncle Shabaka had established a Nubian presence in Memphis and Thebes. But their ambitions paled before those of the 31-year-old military commander [Taharqa] who received the crown in Memphis in 690 and presided over the combined empires of Egypt and Nubia for the next 26 years. [....]." [Based on: Article (AN IGNORED CHAPTER OF HISTORY TELLS OF A TIME WHEN KINGS FROM DEEP IN AFRICA CONQURED ANCIENT EGYPT / Black Pharaohs, by Robert Draper, N.G.M. (February 2008), p. 53]
688 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -
683 B.C. - Athenian Oligarchy / Greece - "Athenian monarchy abolished and placed itself under an oligarchy, from which an archon ['ruler'] was chosen each year."
681 B.C. - Esarhaddon Rules Assyria - "A traditional date when Esarhaddon ruled in Assyria 681-669 B.C."
671 B.C. - Assyrian Egypt - "Assyrians occupy northern portion of Egypt, as once the Hyksos had done nearly nine centuries earlier."
670 B.C. - Source of Bible Covenant with God discovered? - "Archaeologists working in Turkey have unearthed an Assyrian tablet dating to around 670 BCE that 'could have served as a model for the biblical description of God's covenant with the Israelites.' What this fascinating discovery suggests, of course, is that the Bible tale of a divine pact does not represent 'history' or a 'factual' event, but is instead a fictional rewrite, borrowing or plagiarism of this older Assyrian treaty. [....]"
[Based on: Examiner.com article (Source of Bible Covenant with God discovered?) ,April 13, 4:20 PMFreethought ExaminerD.M. Murdock]
669 B.C. - Ashurbanipal Rules Assyria - "A traditional date when Ashurbanipal ruled in Assyria 669-627 B.C."
669 B.C. - Taharqa / Egypt - "[....] In 669 Esarhaddon [the Assyrian king] died en route to Egypt, after learning that the Nubian [Taharqa] had managed to retake Memphis. Under a new king, the Assyrians once again assaulted the city, this time with an army swollen with captured rebel troops. Taharqa stood no chance. He fled south to Napata and never saw Egypt again. [....]. How he spent his final years is a mystery - with the exception of one final innovative act. Like his father, Piye, Taharqa chose to be buried in a pyramid. But he eschewed the royal cemetary at El Kurru, where all previous Kushite pharoahs had been laid to rest. Instead, he chose a site at Nuri, on the opposite bank of the Nile. Perhaps, as archaeologist Timothy Kendall has theorized, Taharqa selected the location because, from the vista of Jebel Barkal, his pyramid precisely aligns with the sunrise on ancient Egypt's New Year's Day, linking him in perpetuity with the Egyptian concept of rebirth. [NP] Just as likely, the Nubian's motive will remain obscure, like his people's history." [Based on: Article (AN IGNORED CHAPTER OF HISTORY TELLS OF A TIME WHEN KINGS FROM DEEP IN AFRICA CONQURED ANCIENT EGYPT / Black Pharaohs, by Robert Draper, N.G.M. (February 2008), p. 58]
664 B.C. - Psammetichus Rules Egypt - "A traditional date when Psammetichus ruled in Egypt 664-610 B.C."
660 B.C. - Byzantium Founded - "Founding of Byzantium by Greeks. Building of Acropolis in Athens." 
660 B.C. - Jimmu Tenno / Japan - "Literally, Emperor Jimmu, Legendary first emperor of Japan, 660 B.C. His name before being titled Emperor was Kamu-Yamato-Ihare-Hiko-no-Mikoto."
657 B.C. - 26th Egyptian Dynasty - "A traditional date for the 26th Egyptian Dynasty [657 B.C.- 525 B.C.]." [Link: 1]
650 B.C. - Trivia / Carthage - "By 650 B.C., Carthage had its own navy and, thanks to its flourishing commerce, could hire plenty of mercenary soldiers. It dominated and protected the other Phoenician colonies. It controlled virtually all the north African coast west of Egypt, together with western Sicily and the other western-Mediterranean islands: Sardinia, Corsica, and the Balearic islands. It had bases on the coast of Spain as well."
647 B.C. - Solar Eclipse - "Archilochus Eclipse [April 6th]"
641 B.C. - Amon Rules Judah - "A traditional date when Amon ruled in Judah 641-640 B.C."
640 B.C. - Egyptian Phoenicia - "Between 640 and 630 BCE, when the Assyrians withdrew their forces from Plilistia, Phoenicia, and the area of the former kingdom of Israel, Egypt took over most of those areas, and political domination by Egypt replaced the Assyrian yoke." [Israel Finkelstein & Neil Asher Silberman, The Bible Unearthed, p. 69]
639 B.C. - Josiah Rules Judah - "A traditional date when Josiah ruled in Judah 639-609 B.C."
639 B.C. - Monotheism / Judah - "In reaction to the pace and scope of the changes brought to Judah from the outside, the seventh-century leaders in Jerusalem, headed by king Josiah - a sixteenth-generation descendant of King David - declared all traces of foreign worship to be anthema, and indeed the cause of Judah's current misfortunes." [Based on: The Bible Unearthed, Israel Finkelstein & Neil Asher Silberman, p. 2]
628 B.C. - Zoroaster's Reformation? - "Zoroaster was the greatest prophet among the ancient Iranians. He took his birth in order to establish the worship of Ahura Mazda, the Supreme Lord of the Universe and to fulfil the Divine Mission. In Old Persian he was called Zarathrustra or Zarthost. In a Greek transliteration he was known as Zoroaster. A biographical account of Zoroaster is tenuous at best or speculative at the other extreme. There are many conflicting versions as to when Zarathrustra lived. No one knows exactly the dates of his birth and death. Some researcher's date Zarathrustra's birth to anywhere between 1,500 B.C. and 1,000 B.C., or even earlier. Some say that Zoroaster lived about 6,000 B.C. Others maintain that he flourished in the middle of the seventh century B.C. Most versions date him to approximately 600 B.C. - also the time line for Buddha. According to tradition, his birth date was 628 B.C. In Persia Mithra was the protector God of the tribal society until Zoroaster's reformation of Persian polytheism [628-55B.C.]. Mithra like the rest of the gods and goddess of the Iranian Pantheon was stripped of his sovereignty, and all his powers and attributes were bestowed upon Zarathrustra. The stature of Ahura-Mazda was elevated to that of supreme god of goodness, whereas the god Ahriman became the ultimate embodiment of evil. In the same way that Ahkenaton, Abraham, Heliogabalus, and Mohammed later initiated henotheistic cults from the worship of their respective deities, Zarathustra created a henotheistic dualism with the gods Ahura-Mazda and Ahriman. As a result of the Babylonian captivity of the Jews [597 B.C.] and their later emancipation by King Cyrus the Great of Persia [538 B.C.], Zoroastrian dualism was to influence the Jewish belief in the existence of HaShatan, the malicious Adversary of the god Yahweh, and later permit the evolution of the Christian Satan-Jehovah dichotomy. Persian religious dualism became the foundation of an ethical system that has lasted until this day."
625 B.C. - Cyaxares Rules Medes - "About 625 B.C., the Medes were united under a vigorous king, Cyaxares [Uvakhshtra], who reigned from 625-585 B.C. In alliance, the Medes and Chaldaeans destroyed Assyria." [Link: 1]
609 B.C. - Jehoahaz Rules Judah - "A traditional date when Jehoahaz ruled in Judah 609 B.C."
612 B.C. - Chaldean Victory / Nineveh - "Nineveh destroyed by Chaldeans [Neo-Babylonians] and Medes."
612 B.C - Deuteronomy Rediscovered? - "As Assyria declined, Judah declared itself independent again, and, under Josiah, who reigned from 640-609 B.C., Yahwism won a temporary victory in Judah. Jerusalem was made the center of all worship, and all subsidiary cult centers were wiped out. A book of the law, our present Biblical book of Deuteronomy [Greek for - second law], centered on Yahwism, was prepared and was 'rediscovered' in the Temple with great publicity and attributed to the hand of Moses. The question arises, however, about how Moses could really have been the author of the Five Books of Moses, since the last book, Deuteronomy, describes in great detail the precise time and circumstances of Moses' own death. According to a noted archaeologist [Israel Finkelstein], we now know that the early books of the Bible and their famous stories of early Israelite history were first codified [and in key respects composed] at an identifiable place and time: Jerusalem in the seventh century BCE."
*Trivia: "Some 800 years or so after the time of Moses, Deuteronomy was purposefully shaped as if it were coming directly from the mouth of Moses. It was not so much about ancestral record (as was more the case with Exodus), but about creating a framework of lore which was to become law. Its use of history was wholly manipulative in that a primary requirement was to justify the Israelites' violent invasion of Canaan by promoting it as having been God's will. In this regard, we have Moses stating that God is going to 'destroy these nations from before thee, and thou shalt possess them' (Deuteronomy 31:3). Other similar announcements include: 'Thou shalt utterly destroy them' (20:17) and 'Thou shalt make no covenant with them, nor show mercy unto them' (7:2). There is, of course, no record that Moses ever said such things, while prior to that (in Exodus) we have him delivering the thoroughly contrasting commandment, 'Thou shalt not kill.' " [Based on: Laurence Gardner, Lost Secrets of the Sacred Ark, pp. 63-64]
610 B.C. - Necho II Rules Egypt - "A tradititional date when Necho II ruled in Egypt 610-595 B.C."
608 B.C. - Jehoiakim Rules Judah - "A traditional date when Jehoiakim ruled in Judah 608-598 B.C."
604 B.C. - Nebuchadnezzar Rules Babylon - "The Old Testament book of 2-Kings tells of how, from 606-586 BC, Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon [King Nebuchadnezzar II from 604 BC] laid seige to Jerusalem. He captured king Jechoniah of Judah and carried him off to Babylon along with 'all of Jerusalem, and the princes, and all the mighty men of valour, even ten thousand captives, and all the craftsmen and smiths; none remained save the poorest sort of people of the land' [2-Kings 24:14]."
*Trivia: "The best-known biblical ziggurat was the Tower of Babel [Genesis 11:1-9], built on the Babylonian plain of Shinar - an alternative name for Sumer. This ziggurat fell into ruin long ago, but it was replaced by another, built by Nebuchadnezzar II [604-562 BC] who also constructed the famous Hanging Gardens of Babylon, one of the Seven Wonders of the World. Although also now long gone, the ground-plan of the second Babylon ziggurat shows that it was actually a large-scale replication of the ziggurat of Ur." [Link: 1]
601 B.C. - Birth? / Lao-Tze (Lit. "Old Master") - "Taoism traces its roots in China to sages living as far back as 3000 B.C.E.; but we know of those ancients only from hearsay recorded much later. It was not until the 6th century B.C.E. that the precepts of Taoism were presented in a written form by that most famous of Taoists, Lao Tze, who is said to have been born in 601 B.C.E. We know of his life only the barest of details. It seems he served for some time as the Curator of the Imperial Libary at K'au, and was therefore a learned man. In later life, he found the burden of his duties and the decadence of city life incompatible with his spiritual needs, and he decided to withdraw from his duties and the city environs to a more peaceful existence in the countryside. [....] Lao's little book, the Tao Teh Ching, is one of the major classics of Taoism. The word, Tao, in its title, refers to the Eternal aspect of reality - what we have already spoken of as Brahman, or Purusha. Teh is Its power of manifestation, identical with Maya or Prakrti. And the word, Ching, simply means 'book.' So, we may interpret the title of the book as 'The Book of The Eternal and Its Power of Manifestation.' [....]" [Based on: History of Mysticism, by S. Abhayananda, third revised edition, 1996, pp. 62-63]
*Trivia: [....] "Says Lao:
Reach far enough toward the Void, hold fast enough
to the Unmoving, and of the ten-thousand things, none can
In the experience of Unity, one learns the nature of Reality, and at the same time, learns the nature of one's own mind; for, in an inexplicable way, the two are integrally related. The mind, one discovers, creates thoughts and ideas in a way simialr to the creation of waves on an ocean; they consist of contrary motions, so that for every wave, there's a trough; for every motion, an equal and opposite motion. For example, if we love, in that very motion is contained its opposite, hatred. Or if we experience peace, its corollary, mental agitation, is waiting to manifest. Every movement of the mind contains its opposite, just as does the movement of a pendulum; thus, all that we think and experience mentally is but a play of self-produced opposites. As Lao Tze put it:
When people recognize beauty
Ugliness is also recognized.
When people recognize good,
Evil is also recognized.
It is only when this alteration, this dual motion of the mind, is stilled, that we can experience that pure Consciousness which is the source of all thought. [....]" [Based on: History of Mysticism, by S. Abhayananda, third revised edition, 1996, pp. 67-68]
600 B.C. - Bible Saga - "The world in which the Bible was created was not a mythic realm of great cities and saintly heroes, but a tiny, down-to-earth kingdom where people struggled for their future against the all-too-human fears of war, poverty, injustice, disease, famine, and drought. The historical saga contained in the Bible - from Abraham's encounter with God and his journey to Canaan, to Moses' deliverance of the children of Israel from bondage, to the rise and fall of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah - was not a miraculous revelation, but a brilliant product of the human imagination. It was first conceived - as recent archaeological findings suggest - during the span of two or three generations, about twenty-six hundred years ago. Its birthplace was the kingdom of Judah, a sparsely settled region of shepherds and farmers, ruled from an out-of-the-way royal city precariously perched in the heart of the hill country on a narrow ridge between steep, rocky ravines. [....]" [Based on: The Bible Unearthed, Israel Finkelstein & Neil Asher Silberman, p. 1]
*Trivia: "[....] The Bible is not 'the word of God,' but stolen from pagan sources. Its Eden, Adam, and Eve were taken from the Babylonian account; its Flood or Deluge is but an epitome of some four hundred flood accounts; its Ark and Ararat have their equivalents in a score of Deluge myths; even the names of Noah's sons are copies, so also Isaac's sacrifice, Solomon's judgement, and Sampson's pillar act; its Moses is fashioned after the Syrian Mises; its laws after Hammurabi's code. Its Messiah is derived from the Egyptian Mahdi, Savior, certain verses are verbatim copies of Egyptian scriptures. Between Jesus and the Egyptian Horus, Gerald Massey found 137 similarities, and those between Christ and Krishna run into the hundreds. How then can the Bible be a revelation to the Jews? [....]" [Based on: Lloyd M. Graham, Deceptions and Myths Of The Bible, p.5]
600 B.C. - Silver Scroll - "The oldest known fragment of a Biblical text." [Link:1, 2]
600 B.C. - Israelite History - "In the 6th century BC, the exiled Israelites had written down their history in all honesty from available Babylonian records. Having also discovered the old book of the Mosaic Law, they were further enabled to cement the rules of their religious doctrine - and they returned to Jerusalem and Judaea with a comprehensive literary base. By the 2nd century BC, additional books were being compiled, not necessarily with history in mind, but with a view to adding a mythological aspect in line with the prevailing Greco-Alexandrian culture. This was certainly a romantic age, but in adding the romance a good deal of history was unfortunately veiled, so that the original Nephilim of the Sumerian era became misidentified as morally fallen angels." [Based on: Laurence Gardner, Genesis of the Grail Kings, p. 55]
600 B.C. - Birth? / Mithra - "According to popular tradition, Mithras was born of a virgin on December 25th, around 600 B.C."
600 B.C. - Homeric Hymn - "[....] In the year 1780, the long-lost text of the Homeric Hymn to Demeter was discovered among the manuscripts of the imperial library at Moscow; and, in our own generation, the tact of an eminent student of Greek art, Sir Charles Newton, has restored to the world the buried treasures of the little temple and precinct of Demeter, at Cnidus, which have many claims to rank in the central order of Greek sculpture. [....] The central expression, then, of the story of Demeter and Persephone is the Homeric hymn, to which Grote has assigned a date at least as early as six hundred years before Christ. The one survivor of a whole family of hymns on this subject, it was written, perhaps, for one of those contests which took place on the seventh day of the Eleusinian festival, and in which a bunch of  ears of corn was the prize; perhaps, for actual use in the mysteries themselves, by the Hierophantes, or Interpreter, who showed to the worshippers at Eleusis those sacred places to which the poem contains so many references. About the composition itself there are many difficult questions, with various surmises as to why it has remained only in this unique manuscript of the end of the fourteenth century. [....]"
[Based on: http://bulfinch.englishatheist.org/b/pantheon/PaterOnDemeter.html] - [T.D. - 04/12/07]
600 B.C. - Assyrian Decline - "By 600 B.C., Assyria had been thoroughly wiped out, and vanished from the pages of history."
600 B.C. - Armenians / Urartu - "After Urartu had been destroyed by the Assyrians and the Cimmerians about 700 B.C., a group of people who came to be known as Armenians moved into the area about 600 B.C. They remained subject to the Persian Empire, then to Alexander, then to the Seleucid Empire."
600 B.C. - Trivia / Demotic Script - "Demotic is a highly cursive Egyptian script that replaced hieratic as the script for everyday use from 600 BCE onward."
600 B.C. - Mahajanapadas / India - "Mahajanapadas (Sanskrit: ..., Mahajanapadas) literally 'Great Kingdoms' (from Maha, 'great', and Janapada 'foothold of a tribe', 'country'). Ancient Buddhist texts like Anguttara Nikaya  make frequent reference to sixteen great kingdoms and republics (Solas Mahajanapadas) which had evolved and flourished in the northern/north-western parts of the Indian subcontinent prior to the rise of Buddhism in India. [....]"
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahajanapadas] - [T.D. - 12/15/08]
600 B.C. - Chaldean Puppet / Judah - "By 600 B.C., Judah found itself a puppet again. Now it was the Chaldean Empire that was master."
600 B.C. - Birth / The Genesis Account - "In the 6th century B.C., when the Israelites were captives of Nebuchadnezzar, the Enuma Elish was a standard recitation at the New Year festivals in Babylon, as it had been for many centuries. This festival lasted through the first eleven days of Nisan [modern March-April] and the poem [more than 920 lines] was related in its entirety by the High Priest, with parts of the story re-enacted. There was no way that the old Creation epic could have escaped the attention of the Israelites, and they were clearly fascinated by its content. By that time they were referring to their God as Jehovah, having dispensed with the Canaanite names El Elyon and El Shaddai - but it mattered not that the Babylonians called their deity Marduk, for here was the story of universal creation being ritualistically played out before their very eyes. Thus was the biblical Genesis born, as the onlooking Israelite priests made their notes of record." [Based on: Laurence Gardner, Genesis Of The Grail Kings]
*Trivia: "The Old Testament as we have come to know it was a largely retrospective work, first compiled between the 6th and 2nd centuries B.C., but relating to the events of hundreds and even thousands of years before." [Based on: Laurence Gardner, Genesis Of The Grail Kings, p. 5]
*Trivia: "There would be no real interest in creation in Israel until the sixth century BCE, when the author whom we call 'P' wrote his majestic account in what is now the first chapter of Genesis. J is not absolutely clear that Yahweh is the sole creator of heaven and earth. Most noticeable, however, is J's perception of a certain distinction between man and the divine. Instead of being composed of the same divine stuff as his god, man [adam], as the pun indicates, belongs to the earth [adamah]." [Based on: Karen Armstrong, A History of God, p. 13]
597 B.C. - Age of Pisces? - "Theoretical beginning date for the Age of Pisces. According to this particular mathematical paradigm, the next age to dawn, the Age of Aquarius, will occur about the year 2003 A.D. [597 B.C. + 2,600 years = 2003 A.D.]." [- E.M.]
597 B.C. - Jehoiachin Rules Judah - "A traditional date when Jehoiachin ruled in Judah 597 B.C."
596 B.C. - Zedekiah Rules Judah - "A traditional date when Zedekiah ruled in Judah 596-586 B.C."
584 B.C. - Solar Eclipse - "Thales' Eclipse [May 28th]"
582 B.C. - Birth? / Pythagoras - "Pythagoras [582-507 B.C.], the Greek philosopher and mathematician, was born. Reportedly, there is no certainty regarding the exact year when Pythagoras was born. The same might be said for Buddha. One of the more popular dates for the birth of Pythagoras is 570 B.C."
Between 578 and 575 there was a pretty exact mutual conjunction of Uranus, Neptune and Pluto, at 8-10° Taurus, with Saturn in opposition. A Stellium, or Multiple Conjunction, is when three or more planets conjunct each other within close succession. It represents a tremendous ending and new beginning, a concurrence of three or more cycles. The past is lost, and a journey into a wide-open future follows."
578 B.C. - Configuration - "Neptune-Pluto [8° Taurus] conjunction. Neptune-Pluto Cycles seem to provide an underlying driving force behind history, bringing together the change-inducing ram-force of Pluto with the imaginal, belief-oriented influence of Neptune. These cycles delineate history into approximately 500-year cycles, which can be regarded as basic chapters of human culture and civilization, in which different themes and progressions are explored in different historical contexts."
577 B.C. - Configuration - "Uranus-Pluto [10-11° Taurus] conjunction [577-576 B.C.]. Uranus has a reasonably constant cycle of motion lasting 84-85 years, spending seven years in each zodiac sign. Pluto orbits eccentrically in 250ish years, spending anything from 12 to 35 years in a sign. Uranus' cycle is roughly one-third of the duration of Pluto's, and there's an elastic twang to their inter-aspects which is elegantly irregular. Their stretchy orbital antics make for a regular pattern of mutual conjunctions, alternately 111ish and 143ish years apart. Uranus-Pluto Cycles act in an action-stimulating, pushing-and-pulling way, which causes course-swings, spontaneous innovations and mutations to occur as the centuries roll on. Uranus introduces new elements into the unfolding equation, and Pluto rolls them out - or, alternatively, the relentless power of change bears down on humanity to shift its direction and the bundles of issues it works through. Critical aspects in this cycle can bring breakthroughs, outbursts and tidal-waves of change. Phases of resistance to change, or of going against what is most deeply called for, is also seen in this cycle. Uranus-Pluto conjunctions and oppositions might bring sudden and radical changes, like a cathartic diarrhoea, yet their full integration takes ages. If we take the radical teachings on love spread by Jesus, born during the Uranus-Pluto opposition of 6 B.C. to 1 A.D., we've so far taken two millennia, and we still haven't created Heaven on Earth! So much for quick Uranian action! Yet this man's essential teachings are not obsolete."
576 B.C. - Configuration - "Uranus-Neptune [14-15° Taurus] conjunction [576-575 B.C.]. Uranus and Neptune have relatively regular cycles - their orbits around the Sun are close-to-circular, so the complexities brought along by eccentric Pluto do not apply here. Successive conjunctions of Uranus and Neptune roll along every 170-172 years, and there's a certain consistency to their positioning too. Each conjunction occurs roughly half a sign [16-18°] further along the zodiac, which means that, usually, each sign receives two conjunctions, covering a two-cycle period lasting 240-245 years. This is close to the zodiacal cycle of Pluto at 250 years, almost half the length of a Neptune-Pluto cycle of 495 years [roughly twice the average length of Uranus-Pluto cycles]. Uranus-Neptune Cycles represent a contextual-shifting force, in which the underlying attitudinal feeling and perspective with which people experience their lives shifts surreptitiously and, at times, in sudden jumps or slides. This cycle affects the illusions and truths of any time and generation - and thus how they impact on history through their beliefs and the externalisation of the deeper human psyche in public and cultural affairs. The way people understand themselves and reality [Neptune], and the jiggling, sparking, shaking influence of Uranus combine here to lead people on an adventure - or if we so choose, a nightmare - of consciousness, culture, creativity and vision-led initiative. Uranus-Neptune energies work surreptitiously. They influence awareness and the inner movies playing within the world psyche."
570 B.C. - Birth? / Pythagoras - "The Essenes were advocates of the Greek philosopher Pythagoras [570-500 BC], who in his great study of arithmetical ratios searched for meaning both in the physical and metaphysical worlds through mathematical proportions. Over the centuries, using his methodology, world events were foretold with suprising accuracy. One particular event so forecast was the beginning of a new World Order, an occurence that was in many quarters determined to be the advent of the Savior Messiah."
"Pythagoras expounded the doctrine of reincarnation: the idea that, upon death in one life, the soul enters another body and begins life anew."
563 B.C. - Birth? / Buddha - "Buddha [563-483 B.C.], was born." [Link: 1]
*Trivia: "Ages before the time of Jesus or Buddha, every single precept taught by either one of them was well known in the world and formed a part of the fundamental code. If you live up to those teachings, you are not thereby following that particular Master or any one Master. If a given precept has been taught by seven Masters during different ages of the world, are you thereby a disciple of all seven of them? You are simply walking in the light of universal ethical principles, regardless of individual Masters." [Based on: Julian P. Johnson, The Path of the Masters, Sixteenth Edition 1997, p. 192; 1st published: 1939]
559 B.C. - Achaemenian [Achaemenid] Dynasty / Iran - "The Dynasty which ruled Iran from the time of Cyrus the Great [559 B.C.] to the invasian of Alexander the Great [330 B.C.]."
*Trivia: "The Achaemenid Empire or Achaemenid Persian Empire ... (550330 BC) was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of Greater Iran, and followed the Median Empire as the second great empire of the Iranian Peoples. At the height of its power, the Achaemenid Empire encompassed approximately 7.5 million square kilometers and was territorially the largest empire of classical antiquity. [NP] The empire was forged by Cyrus the Great, and spanned three continents, including territories of Afghanistan and Pakistan, parts of Central Asia, Asia Minor, Thrace, much of the Black Sea coastal regions, Iraq, northern Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon, Syria, and all significant population centers of ancient Egypt as far west as Libya. It is noted in western history as the foe of the Greek city states in the Greco-Persian Wars, for freeing the Israelites from their Babylonian captivity, and for instituting Aramaic as the empire's official language. Because of the Empire's vast extent and long endurance, Persian influence upon the language, religion, architecture, philosophy, law and government of nations around the world lasts to this day. [NP] The empire began as a tributary state of the Medes but ended up conquering and enlarging the Median empire to include Egypt and Asia Minor. Under Xerxes, it came very close to conquering Ancient Greece. The Achaemenids were overthrown by the conquest of Alexander the Great in 330 BCE. [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Achaemenid_Empire] - [T.D. - 09/25/08]
551 B.C. - Birth / Confucius - "Confucius [551-479 B.C.], was born."
*Trivia: "Confucius (Chinese: ???, transliterated Kong Fuzi or K'ung-fu-tzu, lit. "Master Kong," but most frequently referred to simply as Kongzi ??, traditionally September 28, 551 479 BC) was a famous Chinese thinker and social philosopher, whose teachings and philosophy have deeply influenced East Asian life and thought. [....]"
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confucius] - [T.D. - November 2006]
540 B.C. - Birth / Mahavira - "Mahavira [540-483 B.C.], the founder of Jainism , was born."
539 B.C. - Cyrus the Great / Persia - "Cyrus the Great of Persia creates great empire, conquers Babylon, and frees the Jews."
539 B.C. - Athenian Democracy / Greece - "Athenian democracy develops."
538 B.C. - Jewish Liberation - "A new Babylonian king allows the Jews to return to Judah and rebuild the Temple. While many do return, a significant number remain in Babylonia. While in Babylonia, a number of Hebrew prophets had been influenced by the dualism of Zoroaster."
538 B.C. - Beginning / Second Jewish Temple - "Beginning of Second Jewish Temple [538 B.C. - 70 A.D.] period."
537 B.C. - Cyrus / India - "Cyrus the Persian campaigns west of the Indus River."
536 B.C. - Trivia / Good and Evil - "Hebrew prophets, freed from Babylonian captivity in 536 B.C., had reportedly been influenced by the dualism of Zoroaster during their captivity."
525 B.C. - 27th Egyptian Dynasty -"Traditional date for the 27th Egyptian Dynasty [525 B.C.- 404 B.C.]. In 525 B.C. Egypt was conquered by the Persians." [Link: 1]
521 B.C. - Configuration - Uranus-Pluto [Capricorn/Cancer] opposition [521-518 B.C.]."
517 B.C. - Darius Rules Persia - "Darius the Persian conquers the Indus valley region, making the area a province of the Persian Empire. According to some scholars, 'Darius' is a common name for Persian kings."
515 B.C. - Completed / Second Jewish Temple - "Second Jewish temple completed."
510 B.C. - Established / Roman Republic -
The Roman Republic was a phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a republican form of government. The republican period began with the overthrow of the Monarchy in 510 BC and lasted until its subversion, through a series of civil wars, into the Roman Empire. The precise date in which the Roman Republic changed into the Roman Empire is a matter of interpretation, with the dates of Julius Caesar's appointment as perpetual dictator (44 BC), the Battle of Actium (September 2, 31 BC), and the date which the Roman Senate granted Octavian the title "Augustus" (January 16, 27 BC), being some of the common choices.
[Base on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Republic]
The Roman Kingdom (Latin: Regnum Romanum) was the monarchal government for the city of Rome and its territories from its founding. In Roman legend this took place in 753 BC by Romulus. The kingdom ended with the expulsion of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus in 510 BC and the establishment of the Roman Republic.
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Kingdom]
500 B.C. - Brahmi Script - "This elegant script appeared in India most certainly by the 5th century BCE, but the fact that just like the Greek alphabet, it has many local variants, which suggests that its origin lies further back in time. It is in this script that the great Indian king Asoka inscribed his laws onto monumental columns." [Link: 1]
500 B.C. - Persian Script - "Around the time of the first great Persian Empire of the Achaemenids around 500 BCE, Persian was written in a cuneiform syllabary. It was not a direct descendent of Sumerian and Akkadian systems, because even though Old Persian is cuneiform, its signs did not correspond to earlier signs. Old Persian only kept the cuneiform appearance of its character simply out of tradition, and the actual shape of the signs were completely original." [Link: 1]
500 B.C. - Mahabharata - "The Mahabharata [500-200 B.C.], of which the Bhagavad Gita is a part, is put into final form."
500 B.C. - Zapotec Civilization - "The Zapotec civilization was an indigenous pre-Columbian civilization that flourished in the Valley of Oaxaca of southern Mesoamerica. Archaeological evidence shows their culture goes back at least 2500 years. They left archaeological evidence at the ancient city of Monte Albán in the form of buildings, ball courts, magnificent tombs and grave goods including finely worked gold jewelry. Monte Albán was one of the first major cities in Mesoamerica and the center of a Zapotec state that dominated much of what we know of as the current state of Oaxaca. [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zapotec_civilization] - [T.D. - 11/29/08]
500 B.C. - Trivia / Exodus Text - "In the final text of Exodus, edited in the fifth century BCE, God is said to have made a covenant with Moses on Mount Sinai [an event which is supposed to have happened around 1200]. There has been a scholarly debate about this: some critics believe that the covenant did not become important in Israel until the seventh century BCE. But whatever its date, the idea of the covenant tells us that the Israelites were not yet monotheists, since it only made sense in the polytheistic setting. The Israelites did not believe that Yahweh, the God of Sinai, was the only God but promised, in their covenant, that they would ignore all other deities and worship him alone. It is difficult to find a single monotheistic statement in the whole of the Pentateuch. Even the Ten Commandments delivered on Mount Sinai take the existence of other Gods for granted: 'There shall be no strange Gods for you before my face.' " [Based on: Karen Armstrong, A History of God, pp. 22-23]
500 B.C. - Trivia / Genesis Text - During the later part of the nineteenth century, groundbreaking scholarship explained how the Book of Genesis is an edited combination of several different sources and traditions, now believed to have been compiled in its present form no earlier than 500-300 B.C."
500 B.C. - South Arabian Script - "South Arabian proper appears around 500 BCE, and continued to be used until around 600 CE [at which time, of course, the entire Arabian Peninsula was converted to Islam and Arabic became the most important language]." [Link: 1]
500 B.C. - Established / Athenian Democracy - "Reforms of Cleisthenes establish Athenian democracy." [Based on: Compact History Of The World, Geoffrey Parker, p. 32]
499 B.C. - Greco-Persian Wars - "In the 5th century B.C. the vast Persian Empire attempted to conquer Greece. If the Persians had succeeded, they would have set up local tyrants, called satraps, to rule Greece and would have crushed the first stirrings of democracy in Europe. The survival of Greek culture and political ideals depended on the ability of the small, disunited Greek city-states to band together and defend themselves against Persia's overwhelming strength. The struggle, known in Western history as the Persian Wars, or Greco-Persian Wars, lasted 20 years--from 499 to 479 BC." [Link: 1]
492 B.C. - Configuration - "Uranus-Neptune [Taurus/Scorpio] opposition [492-488 B.C.]."
490 B.C. - Battle of Marathon - "Greeks defeat Persians at battle of Marathon."
485 B.C. - Xerxes I Rules Persia - "Xerxes I, rules [485-465 B.C.] in Persia."
480 B.C. - Greek Victories / Thermopylae and Salamis - "Greeks defeat Persians at Thermopylae and Salamis."
478 B.C. - Athenian Domination / Aegean Sea - "Athens dominates [478-404 B.C.] Aegean through Delian League." [Based on: Compact History Of The World, Geoffrey Parker, p. 32]
469 B.C. - Birth? / Socrates - "Immortality of the soul [rather than of the body] was around as a concept long before Jesus's time. In the ancient Greek world it was promoted by the followers of the Athenian philosopher Socrates [469-399 B.C.]."
Socrates [....]; 470399 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher who is widely credited for laying the foundation for Western philosophy.
Said to be an Athenian, he is described as having been condemned to death by an Athenian court that had found him guilty of impiety and of corrupting Athenian youth through his teachings. Those giving the account say he chose to die by drinking hemlock, though he had been given the opportunity to go into exile, as he believed exile would both further dishonor the agreement he had willingly made to abide by the laws of Athens, and that he would fare no better teaching in other cities.
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Socrates]
Socrates (469-399 B.C.), the founder of the Socratic sect, being fundamentally a Skeptic, did not force his opinions upon others, but through the medium of questionings caused each man to give expression to his own philosophy. According to Plutarch, Socrates conceived every place as appropriate for reaching in that the whole world was a school of virtue. He held that the soul existed before the body and, prior to immersion therein, was endowed with all knowledge; that when the soul entered into the material form it became stupefied, but that by discourses upon sensible objects it was caused to reawaken and to recover its original knowledge. On these premises was based his attempt to stimulate the soul-power through irony and inductive reasoning. It has been said of Socrates that the sole subject of his philosophy was man. He himself declared philosophy to be the way of true happiness and its purpose twofold: (1) to contemplate God, and (2) to abstract the soul from corporeal sense.
[Based on: http://www.sacred-texts.com/eso/sta/sta03.htm]
462 B.C. - Pericles Rules Athens - "Pericles comes to power in Athens."
460 B.C. - Birth / Hippocrates - "Hippocrates [460 B.C.-377 B.C.], the Greek 'Father of Medicine' is born."
Hippocrates of Cos (c. 460 BCc. 377 BC) was an ancient Greek physician. He has been called "The Father of Medicine", and is commonly regarded as one of the most outstanding figures in medicine of all time. According to the biographical tradition, he was a physician trained at the Healing temple of Kos, and may have been a pupil of Herodicus. Writings attributed to him (Corpus hippocraticum, or "Hippocratic writings") rejected the superstition and magic of primitive "medicine" and laid the foundations of medicine as a branch of science. Little is actually known about Hippocrates' personal life, but some of his medical achievements were documented by such historians as Plato and Aristotle.
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hippocrates]
459 B.C. - Trivia / Ezra? - "The scribe who led the second body of exiles that returned from Babylon to Jerusalem B.C. 459, and author of the book of scripture that bears his name. In the seventh year in the reign of Artaxeres Longimanus [see Darius], he obtained leave to go up to Jerusalem and to take with him a company of Israelites [Ezra 8:1-36]. For about fourteen years, i.e., till B.C. 455, we have no record of what went on in Jerusalem after Ezra had set in order the ecclesiastical and civil affairs of the nation. In that year another distinguished personage, Nehemiah, appears on the scene."
450 B.C. - Persian Decline - "By 450 B.C. the Persian Empire was in decline."
450 B.C. - Flowering Greek Culture - "Flowering of Greek culture [450-400 B.C.]."
449 B.C. - Peace of Callias - "Persia and Athens sign peace treaty."
447 B.C. - Parthenon Built - "Traditional date when the Parthenon was built in Athens as a temple of the goddess Athena [447-432 B.C.]." [Link: 1]
445 B.C. - Nehemiah / Jerusalem - "Jerusalem came under the rule of Nehemiah, who had been a high official in the Persian government."
439 B.C. - Rebuilding / Jerusalem - "Nehemiah obtained permission to rebuild the walls of Jerusalem."
437 B.C. - Configuration - "Uranus-Pluto [Capricorn] conjunction."
431 B.C. - Beginning / Peloponnesian Wars - "Peloponnesian Wars between Athens and Sparta [431-404 B.C.] - Sparta victorius. Reportedly Sparta was unwalled."
427 B.C. - Birth / Plato - "Dialogues recorded by Plato [427-348 or 347 B.C.]. Plato maintained in the 4th century BC that mind, not matter, was the root of reality."
*Trivia: "Plato [....] (c. 427c. 347 BC), whose real name is believed to have been Aristocles, was an immensely influential ancient Greek philosopher, a student of Socrates, writer of philosophical dialogues, and founder of the Academy in Athens where Aristotle studied. [....]"
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plato]
424 B.C. - Lunar Eclipse - "October 9th"
423 B.C. - Darius II Rules Persia - "Darius II rules [423 B.C.- 423 B.C.] in Persia."
415 B.C. - Status / Peloponnesian War - "Athens fatally overstrained her resources with a disastrous expedition against Syracuse and Sicily [415-13 BC] ." [Based on: Compact History Of The World, Geoffrey Parker, p. 32]
412 B.C. - Lunar Eclipse - "August 28th"
405 B.C. - Lunar Eclipse - "April 15th"
404 B.C. - Configuration - "Uranus-Neptune [Gemini] conjunction."
404 B.C. - 28th Egyptian Dynasty - "A traditional date for the 28th Egyptian Dynasty [404 B.C.- 399 B.C.]." [Link: 1]
404 B.C. - Fragmented / Athenian Empire - "In 431 BC, Sparta declared war on Athens. The Peloponnesian war lasted 27 years and despite victories on both sides, Athens fatally overstrained her resources with a disastrous expedition against Syracuse and Sicily [415-13 BC] and was finally defeated in 404 BC. Her empire fragmented." [Based on: Compact History Of The World, Geoffrey Parker, p. 32]
400 B.C. - Pentateuch - "First five books of the Old Testament evolve [400-300 B.C.] in final form."
400 B.C. - Iberian Scripts - "The Iberian family of scripts is consisted of two 'styles', called Northeast and South. Structurally they are more or less the same, and the major difference between them is (a) geographical location, and (b) shape of the characters." [Link: 1]
400 B.C. - Sanskrit Grammar - "Panini's Sutra, the earliest Sanskrit grammer, is written."
400 B.C. - Matter / Indivisible Particles? - "Democritus concludes that matter consists of indivisible particles." [Based on: Ultimate Visual Dictionary of Science, Timeline of Discoveries, p. 15, 2005 Barnes & Noble Books]
399 B.C. - 29th Egyptian Dynasty - "A traditional date for the 29th Egyptian Dynasty [399 B.C.- 380 B.C.]." [Link: 1]
399 B.C. - Fatality / Socrates - "Trial and execution of the Greek philosopher Socrates."
392 B.C. - Temple of Juno / Rome - "The Kalends of each month were sacred to Juno so it is appropriate that a temple to her would be dedicated on Kalends of September in 392 B.C.. This particular temple [on the Aventine hill] was vowed by the dictator Marcus Furius Camillus, who led Rome in war against the major Etruscan city of Veii in 396 B.C. Juno Regina was the tutelary goddess of Veii and Camillus made use of the Roman evocatio ritual to 'invite' her to abandon Veii in return for a nice temple and rites at Rome." [Link: 1 ]
390 B.C. - Celtic Invasions / Rome - "A European people [Celts] invade the Greco-Roman world in the 4th century B.C. In 390 B.C. Rome was sacked and fell to the Gauls." [Reference?]
*Reference Links: http://www.dw.de/archeologists-revise-image-of-ancient-celts/a-16528844
384 B.C. - Birth / Aristotle - "Aristotle [....] (384 BCE March 7, 322 BCE) was an ancient Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. He wrote books on many subjects, including physics, poetry, zoology, logic, rhetoric, government, and biology, none of which survive in their entirety. Aristotle, along with Plato and Socrates, is generally considered one of the most influential of ancient Greek philosophers. They transformed Presocratic Greek philosophy into the foundations of Western philosophy as we know it. The writings of Plato and Aristotle founded two of the most important schools of Ancient philosophy. [....]"
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aristotle]
*Trivia: "Aristotle [384 B.C.-322 B.C.], a pupil of Plato, had tutored the young Alexander, and was one of the greatest ancient philosophers. He produced a virtual encyclopedia covering all the knowledge of the times."
381 B.C. - Configuration - Uranus-Pluto [Virgo/Pisces] opposition [381-379 B.C.]. Uranus-Pluto conjunctions and oppositions might bring sudden and radical changes, like a cathartic diarrhoea, yet their full integration takes ages."
380 B.C. - 30th Egyptian Dynasty - "A traditional date for the 30th Egyptian Dynasty [380 B.C.- 343 B.C.]. The 30th dynasties contains the last of the Egyptian-born Pharaohs." [Link: 1]
375 B.C. - Trivia / Juno Lucina - "Juno Lucina was an aspect of the goddess Juno associated with light and childbirth. Her name lucina probably comes from the Latin lucus [grove]. Livy records that the grove on the Esquiline Hill in which a temple was dedicated to her in 375 B.C., is the origin of her name. By the second century B.C., Juno Lucina was associated with childbirth because the name lucina was thought to have come from the Latin word lux [light]. When a child was born it was said to have been "brought to light." Women who worshiped Juno Lucina had to untie knots and unbraid their hair lest these entanglements symbolically block delivery. The Matronalia on March 1 honored Juno Lucina."
365 B.C. Birth / - Pyrrho of Elis
Of Skepticism as propounded by Pyrrho of Elis (365-275 B.C.) and by Timon, Sextus Empiricus said that those who seek must find or deny they have found or can find, or persevere in the inquiry. Those who suppose they have found truth are called Dogmatists; those who think it incomprehensible are the Academics; those who still seek are the Skeptics. The attitude of Skepticism towards the knowable is summed up by Sextus Empiricus in the following words: "But the chief ground of Skepticism is that to every reason there is an opposite reason equivalent, which makes us forbear to dogmatize." The Skeptics were strongly opposed to the Dogmatists and were agnostic in that they held the accepted theories regarding Deity to be self-contradictory and undemonstrable. "How," asked the Skeptic, "can we have indubitate knowledge of God, knowing not His substance, form or place; for, while philosophers disagree irreconcilably on these points, their conclusions cannot be considered as undoubtedly true?" Since absolute knowledge was considered unattainable, the Skeptics declared the end of their discipline to be: "In opinionatives, indisturbance; in impulsives, moderation; and in disquietives, suspension."
[Based on: http://www.sacred-texts.com/eso/sta/sta03.htm]
360 B.C. - Nectanebo Rules Egypt - "Last native Egyptian pharaoh to reign [360 B.C.-343 B.C.] in a line stretching back to Narmer 25 centuries earlier."
358 B.C. - Artaxerxes III Rules Persia - "Artaxerxes III rules [358 B.C.-336 B.C.] in Persia."
356 B.C. - Birth / Alexander - "Philip's wife Olympias gives birth to a son named Alexander."
356 B.C. - Burned / Temple of Artemis - "Reportedly, the temple of Artemis [one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World] was burned by a man named Herostratus."
353 B.C. - Uranus Square Pluto - Ura -SQR Plu 20Cp50 20Ar50
8. Baktun 7. Baktun of the Anointed One. 353 B.C.-A.D. 41. 188.8.131.52.0
Hellenistic civilization, Alexander the Great; Rise of Rome, beginning of Roman Empire; Celts in Europe, advanced iron technology; Warring States' consolidation of China by Ch'in Huang Ti, beginnings of Han Dynasty, Great Wall of China; spread of Buddhism as cosmopolitan religion from India to Central Asia. Jesus Christ, gnostic religions of Middle East; diffusion of Olmecs and beginning of Teotihuacan.
[Based on: The Mayan Factor / Path Beyond Technology, by Jose Arguelles, Copyright 1939-, 1987, p. 115]
350 B.C. - Trivia / Nazca Lines - "Experts have pronounced upon the antiquity of Nazca, basing their opinions on fragments of pottery found embedded in the lines and on radio-carbon results from various organic remains unearthed here. The dates conjectured range between 350 B.C. and 600 A.D. Realistically, they tell us nothing about the age of the lines themselves, which are inherently as undatable as the stones cleared to make them." [Link: 1]
350 B.C. - The Chuang Tzu - "Literally: 'Master Chuang'. [....] The most important book, next to the Lao Tzu, in Taoism. [....] The Records of the Historian (Shih-chi) attributes authorship of the book to the man Chuang Tzu (369-286 B.C.?), whose personal name was Chou. [....] Because of our scanty knowledge of the man Chuang Tzu, it is impossible to identify him as the historical author of the book. Based on internal evidence and the language of the work, modern scholars generally agree that the principal part of the Chuang Tzu was written about the same time as the Lao Tzu, between 350 and 275 B.C., but most of the 'outer chapters' and the 'miscellaneous chapters' were written near the end of the Warring States period (403-222 B.C.) or the beginning of the Former Han (206 B.C. - A.D. 8). [....]" [Based on: The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions, paperback edition, 1989, pp. 183-184]
*Trivia: "Another great Taoist sage is the venerable Chuang Tze, who lived in the 3rd century B.C.E. Very little is known of his life either; we have only the briefest of biographical information in a 'History' written in the 2nd century B.C.E. by Sze-ma Khien, which states that Chuang Tze was born in the kingdom of Wei, and held some sort of position in the city of Khi-yuan. He grew up in the same part of China as Lao Tze, and had thoroughly studied and understood the writings of his great predecessor. [....]" [Based on: History of Mysticism, by S. Abhayananda, third revised edition, 1996, p. 63]
*Trivia: "[....] As Chuang Tze says, 'Words are used to express meaning. When you understand the meaning, you can forget about the words.' [....]" [Based on: History of Mysticism, by S. Abhayananda, third revised edition, 1996, p. 64]
347 - Died / Plato -
After the death of Plato, his disciples separated into two groups. One, the Academics, continued to meet in the Academy where once he had presided; the other, the Peripatetics, removed to the Lyceum under the leadership of Aristotle (384-322 B.C.). Plato recognized Aristotle as his greatest disciple and, according to Philoponus, referred to him as "the mind of the school." If Aristotle were absent from the lectures, Plato would say: "The intellect is not here." Of the prodigious genius of Aristotle, Thomas Taylor writes in his introduction to The Metaphysics:
"When we consider that he was not only well acquainted with every science, as his works abundantly evince, but that he wrote on almost every subject which is comprehended in the circle of human knowledge, and this with matchless accuracy and skill, we know not which to admire most, the penetration or extent of his mind."
[Based on: http://www.sacred-texts.com/eso/sta/sta03.htm]
340 B.C. - Birth / Zeno -
The sect of the Stoics was founded by Zeno (340-265 B.C.), the Cittiean, who studied under Crates the Cynic, from which sect the Stoics had their origin. Zeno was succeeded by Cleanthes, Chrysippus, Zeno of Tarsis, Diogenes, Antipater, Panætius, and Posidonius. Most famous of the Roman Stoics are Epictetus and Marcus Aurelius. The Stoics were essentially pantheists, since they maintained that as there is nothing better than the world, the world is God. Zeno declared that the reason of the world is diffused throughout it as seed. Stoicism is a materialistic philosophy, enjoining voluntary resignation to natural law. Chrysippus maintained that good and evil being contrary, both are necessary since each sustains the other. The soul was regarded as a body distributed throughout the physical form and subject to dissolution with it. Though some of the Stoics held that wisdom prolonged the existence of the soul, actual immortality is not included in their tenets. The soul was said to be composed of eight parts: the five senses, the generative power, the vocal power, and an eighth, or hegemonic, part. Nature was defined as God mixed throughout the substance of the world. All things were looked upon as bodies either corporeal or incorporeal.
[Based on: http://www.sacred-texts.com/eso/sta/sta03.htm]
340 B.C. - Trivia / Derveni Papyrus, Europe - "High-tech equipment lets scholars  read more of Europe's oldest [340 B.C.] 'book' [Derveni papyrus - found in 1962]" [Based on: Title for A.P. article, p. A8, S.L.P.D., 06/02/06] - [Brackets text added for clarity - E.M.]
338 B.C. - Phillip II Rules Greece - "Battle of Chaeronea: Phillip II of Macedon gains control of Greece." [Based on: Compact History Of The World, Geoffrey Parker, p. 32]
336 B.C. - Assassinated / Phillip of Macedon - "After subduing the Greek city-states, Philip [382 B.C.-336 B.C.] of Macedon, who believed himself to be a descendant of the Greek people was assassinated. He was succeeded by his son Alexander [The Great]."
335 B.C. - Egyptian Victory / Alexander the Great - "Alexander the Great destroys Thebes."
333 B.C. - Persion Victory / Alexander the Great - "Alexander defeats the Persian Emperor Darius."
332 B.C. - Levant Victory / Alexander the Great - "Alexander the Great conquers Tyre and Jerusalem."
332 B.C. - Horoscopic Astrology / Alexandria, Egypt - "[....] After the occupation by Alexander the Great in 332BC, Egypt came under Greek rule and influence, and it was in Alexandrian Egypt where horoscopic astrology first appeared. The endeavour to trace the horoscope of the individual from the position of the planets and stars at the time of birth represents the most significant contribution of the Greeks to astrology. This system can be labeled as "horoscopic astrology" because it employed the use of the ascendant, otherwise known as the horoskopos in Greek. Although developed under Hellenistic rule, it was in large measure derived from the teachings of the Babylonians and the Egyptians.. [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_astrology] - [T.D. - 08/02/08]
330 B.C. - Babylonian Victory / Alexander the Great - "Alexander the Great occupies Babylon."
327 B.C. - Indian Victory / Alexander the Great - "Alexander the Great invades India."
323 B.C. - Euclid / Greece - "Euclid's work on geometry."
323 B.C. - Configuration - "Uranus-Pluto [Taurus] conjunction."
323 B.C. - Maurya Dynasty / India - "Chandragupta Maurya founds the Maurya dynasty, the first Indian empire. By 184, this dynasty will conquer most of India."
323 B.C. - Fatality / Alexander the Great - "Alexander the Great dies in Babylon. His empire is divided among his generals; one of them, Seleucus I."
*Trivia: "Alexander's death in 323 BC and the ensuing struggles between his leading generals created three major powers: Macedon, Egypt, and the Seleucid kingdom of western Asia." [Based on: Compact History Of The World, Geoffrey Parker, p. 32]
322 B.C - Greek Judah - "Judah is conquered by the Greek Empire. Consequently, some Jews adopt Greek customs and religion."
321 B.C. - Configuration - "Uranus-Neptune [Gemini/Sagittarius] opposition [321-317 B.C.]."
320 B.C. - Lunar Eclipse - "September 20th"
312 B.C. - Seleucus I Rules Babylon - "The year that Seleucus I established himself in Babylon."
304 B.C. - Chandragupta Rules India - "Chandragupta trades 500 war elephants to Seleucus in exchange for the Indus region and regions immediately to the west."
300 B.C. - Dead Sea Scrolls - "Within a fairly short time after their discovery, historical, paleographic, and linguistic evidence, as well as carbon-14 dating, established that the [Dead Sea] scrolls and the Qumran ruin dated from the third century B.C. to 68 A.D. Coming from the late Second Temple Period, a time when Jesus of Nazareth lived, they are older than any other surviving Biblical manuscripts by almost one thousand years." [Link: 1]
300 B.C. - Yayoi Period / Japan - "Japanese Yayoi Period 300 B.C.- 300 A.D."
300 B.C. - Trivia / Ksav Ashuris - "Reportedly, Ksav Ashuris [ktab asvryt], the script in which all sacred scrolls are written, was not introduced to the Jewish experience until the time of Ezra, approximately twenty-three hundred years ago. Ksav Ashuris, apparently, was the script of ancient Ashur, Assyria, one of the countries of the Persian Empire, under which the Jews were exiled in Ezra's time. Until then, the script used by Jews was the ancient Hebrew script known as Ksav Ivri [ktb abry]. If it is true then that the Ten Commandements were inscribed in a script other than Ksav Ashuris, then it would mean that the script now associated with the Torah is of foriegn origin and that Israel discarded the script in which God originally conveyed His word to them."
300 B.C. - Trivia / Temple of the Sun, Mexico - "According to popular history, the Temple of the Sun was built at Teotihuacan, Mexico. Invention of Mayan calendar in Yucatan - more exact than older calendars."
293 B.C. - Trivia / Temple of Venus - "[....] The oldest temple known of Venus dates back to 293 BCE, and was inaugurated on August 18. Later, on this date the Vinalia Rustica was observed. A second festival, that of the Veneralia, was celebrated on April 1 in honor of Venus Verticordia, who later became the protector against vice. Her temple was built in 114 BCE. [NP] After the Roman defeat near Lake Trasum in 215 BCE, a temple was built on the Capitol for Venus Erycina. This temple was officially opened on April 23, and a festival, the Vinalia Priora, was instituted to celebrate the occasion. [....] The last great temple of Venus was built by the emperor Hadrianus near the Colusseum in 135 CE. [....]"
[Based on: http://www.crystalinks.com/venusrome.html] - [T.D. - 12/01/06]
287 B.C. - Archimedes / Greece - "Archimedes, Greek mathematician [287-212 B.C.]."
285 B.C. - Ptolemy II Rules Egypt - "Ptolemy II [308 -246 B.C.] takes the throne in Egypt."
273 B.C. - Ashoka Rules India - "Chandragupta's grandson Ashokavardhan Maurya, better known as Ashoka the Great (ruled 273- 232 BCE), is considered by contemporary historians to be perhaps the greatest of Indian monarchs, and perhaps the world. H.G. Wells calls him the 'greatest of kings'. [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maurya_Empire#Ashoka_the_Great] - [T.D. - 12/15/08]
270 B.C. - Trivia / Septuagint - "In Judea, Hebrew was no longer the language of everyday life. It had been supplanted by Aramaic, which, however, was close enough to Hebrew so that one language could be easily learned by those who spoke the other. In Alexandria, however, the resident Jews learned Greek and, eventually, the Bible could not be understood by them. About 270 B.C., then, the project of translating the Bible into Greek began. Since 70 scholars were in charge of the project, the translation was called the Septuagint, from a Latin word for seventy." [Based on: Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 73] [Link: 1]
*Trivia: "The title Genesis was introduced by Greek Bible translators in the 3rd century BC, and relates to 'origin' or 'beginning'. The Hebrew opening for the book was Bereshit: 'At the beginning.' "
264 B.C. - Configuration - Uranus-Pluto [Aquarius/Leo] opposition [264-261 B.C.]."
264 B.C. - First Punic War - "First Punic war [264-241 B.C.]: Rome defeats the Carthaginians and begins its domination of the Mediterranean."
264 B.C. - Gladiator Games / Rome - "First Roman gladiator games."
260 B.C. - Flotation Principle & Levers - "Flotation principle discovered by Archimedes, who also studies principles of levers." [Based on: Ultimate Visual Dictionary of Science, Timeline of Discoveries, p. 15, 2005 Barnes & Noble Books]
250 B.C. - Buddhist Canon - "A general council of Buddhist monks is held in Patna, where the canon of Buddhist scriptures is selected."
250 B.C. - Ptolemaic Egypt - "By 250 B.C., Ptolemaic Egypt was the most prosperous and the strongest nation in the world." [Based on: Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 73]
*Trivia: "The Ptolemies founded a library which eventually became the largest one the world was to see prior to the invention of printing. By this time the Bible could be read by anyone speaking Greek. An Egyptian priest, Manetho, wrote a history of Egypt and divided its rulers into dynasties, each dynasty representing a family whose members ruled over Egypt for a period of time."
250 B.C. - Sanhedrin / Jerusalem - "According to Jewish tradition, Ezra founded the 'Great Assembly' of teachers who would preserve the oral traditions. Towards the middle of the third century B.C. the Great Assembly ceased and another organization the 'Sanhedrin' took charge of the affairs of the community."
248 B.C. - Arsaces I / Parthian Empire - "After 250 B.C., it seemed that the Seleucid Empire was breaking up. In 248 B.C., the eastern portions of the Seleucid Empire broke away. In what is now Iran, Arsaces I (who may have been of Scythian origin) set up the Parthian Empire, so-called because it was centered on the Persian province of Parthia." [Based on: Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 76]
241 B.C. - Roman Victory / Carthage - "Rome finally defeated Carthage in the First Punic War and, in 241 B.C., Carthage accepted a losing peace. [....] Rome took over Sicily - all except for Syracuse which remained independant under Hiero II." [Based on: Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 76]
240 B.C. - Perihelion / Halley's Comet - May 25th, 240 B.C.: "1P/-239 K1 (25 May 240 BC)"
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halley%27s_Comet] - [T.D. - 06/12/07]
*Trivia: - "240 BC and earlier: Historical records show that Chinese astronomers observed the comet's appearance in 240 BC and possibly as early as 2467 BC. Habitual observations and calculations of appearances after 240 BC are recorded by Chinese, Japanese, Babylonian, Persian, and other Mesopotamian astronomers." [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halley%27s_Comet] - [T.D. - 06/12/07]
233 B.C. - Configuration - "Uranus-Neptune [Gemini] conjunction [233-232 B.C.]."
221 B.C. - Qin Dynasty / China - "Much of what came to constitute China Proper was unified for the first time in 221 B.C. In subjugating the six other major states of Eastern Zhou, the Qin kings had relied heavily on Legalist scholar-advisors. Centralization, achieved by ruthless methods, was focussed on standardizing legal codes and bureaucratic procedures, the forms of writing and coinage, and the pattern of thought and scholarship. To silence criticism of imperial rule, the kings banished or put to death many dissenting Confucian scholars and confiscated and burned their books. Qin aggrandizement was aided by frequent military expeditions pushing forward the frontiers in the north and south. To fend off barbarian intrusion, the fortification walls built by the various warring states were connected to make a 5,000-kilometer-long great wall. The first Qin emperor died in 210 B.C. and his dynasty was extinguished less than twenty years after its triumph. The imperial system initiated during the Qin dynasty, however, set a pattern that was developed over the next two millennia."
219 B.C. - Second Punic War - "Second Punic War [219-201 B.C.]."
218 B.C. - Hannibal / Alps - "Hannibal, a Carthaginian general [246-142 B.C.], crosses the Alps [218 B.C.]."
214 B.C. - Hun Migration - "Huns push left to Europe."
211 B.C. - Hannibal / Rome - "Hannibal reaches the gates of Rome [211 B.C.]."
206 B.C. - Han Dynasty / China - "Three Han dynasties ranged from 206 B.C - 220 A.D."
202 B.C. - Retreat / Hannibal - "Hannibal retreats, and is defeated by Scipio Africanus at Zama [202 B.C.]."
200 B.C. - Book of Enoch - "The book of Enoch [representing the patriarch sixth in line from Adam] was written in the 2nd century BC. It forecast a restoration of the Messianic dynasties and laid down ground-rules for the structure of the priestly hierarchy. Included was the premise that successive dynastic heads should carry the names of the traditional angels and archangels to denote their rank and position. In the Old Testament days of King David, the senior priests were Zadok, Abiathar, and Levi [in that order of precedence]. The Essenes of Qumran duly preserved their priestly heritage using those names as titles: Zadok, Abiathar and Levi, as we have seen. Also, in accordance with the book of Enoch, the archangelic names were retained, under vow, as badges of priestly rank, with the Zadok dynast also being Michael; the Abiathar being Gabriel and the Levi being the Sariel." [Based on: Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, Laurence Gardner]
200 B.C. - Roman Supremecy / Western Mediterranian - "By 200 B.C., Rome was supreme in the western Mediterranian." [Based on: Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 77]
191 B.C. - Beginning / Roman World Domination - "Romans defeat Seleucid King Antiochus III at Thermopylae. The beginning of Roman world domination."
184 B.C. - End / Maurya Dynasty - "The Maurya dynasty ends when the last ruler is assassinated by an ambitious army commander."
182 B.C. - Configuration - "Uranus-Pluto [Aquarius] conjunction. Uranus-Pluto conjunctions and oppositions might bring sudden and radical changes, like a cathartic diarrhoea, yet their full integration takes ages."
168 B.C. - Jewish Revolt - "The uprising in 168 BC, in which the priestly caste of Hasmonaean Maccabees came to prominence, was prompted largely by the action of King Antiochus IV Epiphanes of Syria, who had foisted a system of Greek worship upon the Jewish community."
167 B.C. - Lunar Eclipse - "June 21st"
165 B.C. - Hannukah - "[....] Hanukkah [chnkh] recalls the victory against all odds of the small Maccabean army against the Syrian king Antiochus in 165 B.C. The eight-day length of the festival is a result of the account that when the Jews rededicated the temple in Jerusalem, a single vial of oil, enough for one day, burned miraculously for eight. The story has become one of the main trademarks of Hanukkah, which means 'dedication' in Hebrew. The holiday is also known as the 'Festival of Lights.' [....]" [Based on: A.P. article, p. A14, S.L.P.D., 12/26/05]
165 B.C. - Trivia / Book of Daniel - "Approximate time when the Old Testament Book of Daniel was written."
164 B.C. - Perihelion / Halley's Comet - November 12th, 164B.C.: "1P/-163 U1 (12 November 164 BC)"
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halley%27s_Comet] - [T.D. - 06/12/07]
150 B.C. - Configuration - "Uranus-Neptune [Gemini/Sagittarius] opposition [150-146 B.C.]."
150 B.C. - Parthian Empire - "By 150 B.C., all of the Old Persian Empire east of the Tigris-Euphrates valley was in Parthian hands. It was the eastern two thirds of the Persian empire, reconstituted one and three-quarter centuries after the death of Alexander the great. It was Persian in language and culture and Zoroastrian in religion."
149 B.C. - Third Punic War - "Third Punic War [149-146 B.C.]: Rome destroys Carthage [146 B.C.], killing 450,000 and enslaving the remaining 50,000 inhabitants. Roman armies conquer Macedonia, Greece, Anatolia, Balearic Islands, and southern France."
141 B.C. - Seleucid Empire / Syria - "In 141 B.C., Mithradates I of Parthia captured the Tigris-Euphrates valley from the Seleucid Empire, and established a new capital at Ctesiphon, just across the river from Seleucia. The Seleucid Empire, with its capital at Antioch, was now confined to Syria." [Based on: Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 83]
141 B.C. - Independence / Judea - "Independence of Judea established by the last of the Maccabean brothers [Simon]."
138 B.C. - Mithradates I / Parthia -
[....] It is tempting to identify the Roman Mithras with the Persian Mithra, except that there is no known Persian legend or text about Mithra killing a bull or being associated with other animals. On the other hand, there is a story of Ahriman, the evil god in popular developments of Zoroastrianism, killing a bull. It is also hard to explain how the Sun-god Mithra would come to be worshipped in the windowless, cave-like mithraeum.
A possible link between Persia and Rome, which could be the stage for these changes, may be the kingdoms of Parthia and Pontus in Asia Minor. Several of their kings were called Mithradates, meaning "given by Mithra", starting with Mithradates I of Parthia (died 138 BC). It would seem that, in those kingdoms, Mithra was a god whose power lent luster even to a king. And it was at Pergamum, in the 2nd century BC, that Greek sculptors started to produce bas-relief imagery of Mithra Taurocthonos, "Mithra the bull-slayer." Although the cult of Mithras never caught on in the Greek homeland, those sculptures may indicate the route between Persian Mithra and Roman Mithras. [....]
[Based on: http://www.crystalinks.com/mithra.html]
135 B.C. - Slave Rebellion / Sicily - "There was a slave rebellion in Sicily in 135 B.C., which took three years to put down. Some 200,000 slaves were in rebellion and, in the end, 20,000 of them were crucified." [Based on: Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 82]
133 B.C. - Roman Spain - "By 133 B.C., Rome had extended its dominations westward to include all of Spain except for the northwestern quarter."
133 B.C. - Assassination / Tiberius Graccus - "The Democratic leader Tiberius Graccus put forward proposals for agrarian reform in 133 BC, but he was murdered by the Senetorial party. His brother took up the farmers' cause and he to was murdered, with the Democratic leadership passing to the military commander Gaius Marius."
*Trivia: "The tribune Tiberius Gracchus of the Roman Empire tried in 133 B.C. to reduce the power of the moneychangers through stricter laws against usury and to limit the legal land ownership to iugeri (about 600 acres) per family. He was murdered the same year." [Based on: Juri Lina, The Barnes Review, p. 8, Sept./Oct. 2004]
130 B.C. - Qumran Community - "When the triumphant House of Maccabaeus took control and set up their own King and High Priest in Jerusalem, the Hasidim [a core of ultra-strict Jewish devotees, or 'Pious Ones'] not only voiced their opposition but marched en masse out of the city in order to establish their own 'pure' community in the nearby Wilderness of Qumran. Building work started in around 130 BC. Apart from the evidence of the scrolls, a collection of coins has also been amassed from the Qumran settlement, relating to a time-span from the Hasmonaean ruler John Hyrcanus [135-104 BC] to the Jewish Revolt of AD 66-70. Excavations at Qumran have produced much older relics dating from around 3,500 B.C."
128 B.C. - Lunar Eclipse - "November 5th"
127 B.C. - Configuration - "Uranus-Pluto [Libra/Aries] opposition."
114 B.C. - Trivia / Temple of Venus - "[....] The oldest temple known of Venus dates back to 293 BCE, and was inaugurated on August 18. Later, on this date the Vinalia Rustica was observed. A second festival, that of the Veneralia, was celebrated on April 1 in honor of Venus Verticordia, who later became the protector against vice. Her temple was built in 114 BCE. [NP] After the Roman defeat near Lake Trasum in 215 BCE, a temple was built on the Capitol for Venus Erycina. This temple was officially opened on April 23, and a festival, the Vinalia Priora, was instituted to celebrate the occasion. [....] The last great temple of Venus was built by the emperor Hadrianus near the Colusseum in 135 CE. [....]"
[Based on: http://www.crystalinks.com/venusrome.html] - [T.D. - 12/01/06]
113 B.C. - Migration / Germanic Tribes - "Beginning in 113 B.C., Germanic tribes called the Cimbri and Teutones were moving into the Roman sphere of influence. Two armies were sent to stop them and were defeated."
110 B.C. - Wu Ti / Southern China - "In about 110 B.C., the Chinese, under the emperor Wu Ti, advanced south of the Yangtse River and annexed all of what is now southern China."
108 B.C. - Chinese Korea - "In 108 B.C., Korea was conquered by China."
107 B.C. - Gaius Marius / Roman Republic - "By 107 BC Gaius Marius was Consul of Rome."
106 B.C. - Birth / Marcus Tullius Cicero -
Marcus Tullius Cicero (IPA: [....]; January 3, 106 BC December 7, 43 BC) was an orator, statesman, political theorist, and philosopher of Ancient Rome. He is generally considered the greatest Latin orator and prose stylist. His speeches are regarded as the pinnacle of the Golden Age of the Latin language, whereas the age which followed in the next two centuries, the Silver Age, is regarded as slightly less than the brilliance displayed by the works of the Golden Age, primarily Cicero's. He is considered by some to be the greatest orator, and speech and prose writer in history.
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cicero]
Eclecticism may be defined as the practice of choosing apparently irreconcilable doctrines from antagonistic schools and constructing therefrom a composite philosophic system in harmony with the convictions of the eclectic himself. Eclecticism can scarcely be considered philosophically or logically sound, for as individual schools arrive at their conclusions by different methods of reasoning, so the philosophic product of fragments from these schools must necessarily be built upon the foundation of conflicting premises. Eclecticism, accordingly, has been designated the layman's cult. In the Roman Empire little thought was devoted to philosophic theory; consequently most of its thinkers were of the eclectic type. Cicero is the outstanding example of early Eclecticism, for his writings are a veritable potpourri of invaluable fragments from earlier schools of thought. Eclecticism appears to have had its inception at the moment when men first doubted the possibility of discovering ultimate truth. Observing all so-called knowledge to be mere opinion at best, the less studious furthermore concluded that the wiser course to pursue was to accept that which appeared to be the most reasonable of the teachings of any school or individual. From this practice, however, arose a pseudo-broadmindedness devoid of the element of preciseness found in true logic and philosophy. [....]
[Based on: http://www.sacred-texts.com/eso/sta/sta03.htm]
105 B.C. - Germainic Tribes / Italy - "By 105 B.C., Germanic tribes were beginning to threaten Italy, and had defeated a third force sent against them." [Based on: Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 82]
102 B.C. - German Victory / Gaius Marius - "In two separate battles, in 102 B.C. and in 101 B.C., Marius completely wiped out the invading Germanic tribes." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 82]
100 B.C. - Roman Mastership / Mediterranean Area - "Rome had become master of the entire Mediterranean area from the Atlantic Ocean to the Euphrates River." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 82]
95 B.C. - Tigranes I / Armenia - "Once the Seleucid Empire broke up, two Armenian kingdoms gained their independence. In 95 B.C., the two were united under the energetic rule of Tigranes I (140-55 B.C.). Sometimes called 'Tigranes the Great.' " [Based on: Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 84]
88 B.C. - Roman Reforms - "Roman reforms grant citizenship to all Italians."
88 B.C. - Roman Defeat / Asia Minor - "In 88 B.C., Mithradates VI of Pontus, seeing that Rome was absolutely intent on limiting his power, decided to take the offensive. He swept westward in a suprise attack and drove the Romans out of Asia Minor, arranging to kill as many Roman civilians as possible. (He is supposed to have killed 80,000, but this may be a Roman atrocity story.)" [Based on: Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 84]
87 B.C. - Perihelion / Halley's Comet - August 6th, 87 B.C.: "1P/-86 Q1 (6 August 87 BC)"
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halley%27s_Comet] - [T.D. - 06/12/07]
*Trivia: "87 BC: According to V.G. Gurzadyan and R. Vardanyan, the "Symbol on Tigranes the Great's crown that features a star with a curved tail may represent the passage of Halley's comet in 87 BC. Tigranes could have seen Halley's comet when it passed closest to the Sun on Aug. 6 in 87 BC according to the researchers, who said the comet would have been a 'most recordable event' heralding the New Era of the brilliant King of Kings." [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halley%27s_Comet] - [T.D. - 06/12/07]
84 B.C. - Configuration - "Neptune-Pluto [15-16 Taurus] conjunction [84-83 B.C.]. Neptune-Pluto cycles last about 495 years - half a millennium. They characterise an underlying driving-force behind history, an undertow of reality which marries the inevitable ram-force of Pluto with the imaginal, ideational power of Neptune. This combined force helps us define our underlying historical reality on a collective-unconscious level - this world-view and body of collective experience being a combination of actualities and perceptions."
82 B.C. - Cornelius Sulla / Roman Republic - "Gaius Marius deposed by Cornelius Sulla who became Roman Dictator."
73 B.C. - Slave Rebellion / Spartacus - "In 73 B.C., a third slave rebellion broke out, under the leadership of a gladiator from Thrace named Spartacus (d. 71 B.C.). It raged over Italy for two years before being put down by Pompey and by Marcus Licinius Crassus. Crassus was Rome's richest man, who had gotten rich by business practices so questionable he would probably have felt right at home on Wall Street." [Based on: Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 85]
71 B.C. - Roman Seleucid - "Romans conquer the Seleucid Empire."
69 B.C. - Configuration - "Uranus-Pluto [Gemini] conjunction."
67 B.C. - Mithraism / Rome - Reportedly, "The popular Cult of Mithra [or Mithras] was indeed an embarrassment to the early church. Its roots are probably in Syria and it is believed to be an offshoot of the Persian cult of Zoroaster. It seems to have been introduced into the Roman Empire around 67 B.C. Born in a stable to a virgin, birthday celebrated on 25 December, died and reborn, Passover celebrated around Easter, whose rites of worship involved the ingestion of food and drink that were symbolic of eating the flesh of Mithra, and all this 600 years before the birth of Christ. Also included were rites of baptism, the belief in immortality, resurrection, a judgement at the end between Heaven and Hell, and a saviour who died and was resurrected to act as a mediator between man and God.' It is important to remember that the popular definitions of Mithraism have mutated over the centuries to conform with the molds of contemporary society. The popular definitions in circulation today are most likely far from the mark compared to what people understand about 'Mithra' in the beginning."
Around the first century AD, the Greek historian Plutarch wrote about pirates of Cilicia who practiced the Mithraic "secret rites" around 67 B.C. Since Cilicia was the coastal province in the southeast of Anatolia, the Mithras mentioned by Plutarch may have been worship of the Persian god Mithra; or may have been associated with Ahriman, the Persian god who killed a bull.
In Persia Mithra was the protector God of the tribal society until the Zoroaster's reformation of Persian polytheism (628-55BC). Mithra like the rest of the gods and goddess of the Iranian Pantheon was stripped of his sovereignty, and all his powers and attributes were bestowed upon Zarathustra.
Mithraism began in Persia where originally a multitude of gods were worshipped. Amongst them were Ahura-Mazda, god of the skies, and Ahriman, god of darkness. In the sixth and seventh century B.C., a vast reformation of the Persian pantheon was undertaken by Zarathustra (known in Greek as Zoroaster), a prophet from the kingdom of Bactria. The stature of Ahura-Mazda was elevated to that of supreme god of goodness, whereas the god Ahriman became the ultimate embodiment of evil.
[Based on: http://www.crystalinks.com/mithra.html]
63 B.C. - Roman Palestine - "In 63 BC Roman legions first entered Palestine, and Pompey the Great, the Roman general who led the conquering forces, placed the Jewish state under the control of the governor of Syria. Judea is annexed to Rome about this time, and the Maccabean kingdom came to an end a century after the Maccabean revolt. Another Roman general and statesman, Mark Antony, later gave the throne to Herod the Great, who began his rule in 37 B.C."
63 B.C. - Popularity / Julius Caesar - "The Democratic statesman and general Gaius Julius Caesar (100-44 B.C.) gained popularity and was duly elected to primary office in 63 BC."
63 B.C.? - Triumvirate / Roman Republic - "Pompey and Crassus were now joined by Gaius Julius Caesar (100-44 B.C), a charming and infinitely capable playboy, who was staked by Crassus and who finally made his money by looting Spain. The three formed a triumvirate (Latin for 'three-man combination'). Caesar got himself assigned as governor of the Gallic areas in northern Italy and along the Mediterranean coast. It was his intention to conquer Gaul." [Based on: Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 85]
62 B.C. - Configuration - "Uranus-Neptune [Cancer] conjunction [62-61 B.C.]."
60 B.C. - Equinox at Pisces - "Around the year 60 B.C., the Precessional Equinox moved into the sign of Pisces. Other dates associated with the Age of Pisces include: 1 A.D. and 140 A.D."
58 B.C. - Caesar Begins Campaign - "In 58 B.C., Caesar began his campaign." [Based on: Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 85]
55 B.C. - Roman Britain - "The island of Britain was inhabited by Celtic tribes closley akin to those of Gaul. It first entered the purview of history when Caesar invaded the island in 55 B.C., and again in 54 B.C. Caesar did this to persuade the Britons not to help their Gallic kinsmen in their resistance to Rome." [Based on: Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 91] [Link: 1]
54 B.C. - Fatality / Marcus Licinius Crassus - "Parthinians destroy Crassus' army and kill Crassus."
51 B.C. - Roman Gaul - "Although it took him [Caesar] seven years, by 51 B.C. all of Gaul - right up to the Rhine River - had become Roman, and, in the process, Caesar never lost a battle." [Based on: Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 85]
51 B.C. - Cleopatra & Ptolemy Rule Egypt - "Cleopartra and her brother Ptolemy XIII ascend the Egyptian throne [51-31 B.C.]."
50 B.C. - Status / Rome - "By 50 B.C., then, despite the battles with Pontus and Armenia in the east, despite insurrection and civil war at home, Rome was stronger than ever, and the only civilized nation on its borders that dared be independent was the Parthian Empire in the east." [Based on: Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 86]
49 B.C. - Julius Caesar / Rubicon River - "On January 10, 49 B.C., Caesar crossed the Rubicon River - the boundary of his Gallic province." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 87]
48 B.C. - Fatality / Pompey - "Pursued by Caesar, Pompey fled to Egypt where Ptolemy XII ordered him killed."
48 B.C. - Coined Money / Julius Caesar - "In 48 B.C. Julius Caesar deprived the moneychangers of the right to coin money and had it done himself. With a larger money supply he was able to erect many public buildings. Common people adored Caesar for his contribution to making money more available." [Based on: article by Juri Lina, The Barnes Review, Sept./Oct. 2004, p. 8]
47 B.C. - Roman Victory / Pontus - "On August 2, 47 B.C., Caesar's army met Mithradates VI at Zela in western Pontus. The Romans won so easy a victory that Caesar sent a message to Rome that said, Veni vidi, vici ('I came, saw, and won')." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 87]
45 B.C. - Julian Calendar - "The 365 day Julian calendar [of Julius Caesar] is introduced."
45 B.C. - Julius Caesar / Rome - "In September, 45 B.C., Julius Caesar returned to Rome as absolute master." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 87]
44 B.C. - Fatality / Julius Caesar - "On March 15 (the 'ides of March), 44 B.C., Caesar was murdered by a group of conspirators led by Marcus Junius Brutus (85-42 B.C.) and Gaius Cassius Longinus (d. 42 B.C.)." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 87]
*Trivia: "After the murder of Caesar there was an end to the abundance of money. The money supply was reduced by 90 percent. Taxes rose sky-high. As a result most people lost their land and their homes. The slander of Caesar goes on even today." [Juri Lina, The Barnes Review, p. 8, Sept./Oct. 2004]
37 B.C. - King Herod / Judah - "Herod was born into a prominent military family of Idumaeans, converts to Judaism who were distrusted by native Jews. Herod, whose father was granted Roman citizenship by Julius Caesar, was determined to assimilate the Jews into Greco-Roman culture. He dedicated the new cities of Caesarea and Sebaste [the Roman name for Samaria] to Augustus and built temples for the worship of the emperor. The king also initiated public games and placed Greek words on his coinage. Deeply religious Jews despised the nudity required at the games and considered the use of Greek language blasphemous. Their views contributed to Herod's unpopularity. Although Herod's use of Greek culture made him hated in the region of Judea, he was popular with the Jewish population outside Judea, known as the Diaspora, on whom he lavished money as a benefactor. Herod, fearing mutiny and conspiracy, did not trust his own people and enrolled in his army only Greeks and Diaspora Jews. After the death of Herod, his kingdom was divided among his sons, who ruled as tetrarchs [leadership by four rulers], although Judea soon became a small Roman province under the administration of Pontius Pilate, a military governor, or procurator, chosen by the Romans. Dissent, so long repressed by Herod's cruelty, burst forth, and the people in Palestine began to agitate for religious and political freedom. Messianic prophecy, the religious belief in the coming of a savior, was accompanied by bitter fighting between the political factions and religious sects among the Jewish people."
31 B.C. - Judaean Earthquake - "Jewish chronicles describe a violent Judaean earthquake in 31 B.C."
31 B.C. - Egyptian Victory / Octavian - "Caesar's nephew, Octavian, defeats Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium [31 B.C.]."
30 B.C. - Fatalities / Cleopatra & Mark Antony - "Mark Antony and Cleopatra commit suicide."
27 B.C. - Pantheon Built - "Traditional date when the Pantheon was built for the first time under Agrippa."
27 B.C. - Augustus Caesar / Roman Empire - January 16th, 27 B.C.: "Octavian named Augustus Caesar. The Roman Republic came to an end and the Roman Empire came into being, with Augustus as the first emperor."
20 B.C. - Building / Jewish Temple - Herod the Great began to rebuild Solomon's Temple in 20 B.C."
12 B.C. - Perihelion / Halley's Comet - October 10th, 12 B.C.: "1P/-11 Q1 (10 October 12 BC)"
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halley%27s_Comet] - [T.D. - 06/12/07]
*Trivia: "12 BC: Some theologians have suggested that the comet's appearance in 12 BC might explain the Biblical story of the Star of Bethlehem." [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halley%27s_Comet] - [T.D. - 06/12/07]
9 B.C. - Lebbaeus Thaddaeus - "Lebbaeus Thaddaeus is described as a 'son of Alphaeus' and is also called Judas [Theudas] in two of the Gospels. He was an influential leader of the community and yet another Zealot commander. For more than fifty years, from 9 BC, Thaddaeus was head of the Therapeutate, an ascetic order that had evolved during the Egyptian occupation of Qumran. Thaddaeus was a confederate of Jesus's father Joseph, and took part in the people's uprising against Pontius Pilate in AD 32." [Based on: Laurence Gardner, Bloodline Of The Holy Grail]
7 B.C. - Birth? / Jesus - "We now know, from both historical and astronomical observations, that Jesus 'of Nazareth' was actually born in 7 B.C. The usual explanation for this discrepancy is that a major miscalculation crept into the record-keeping during the early Christian era." *Further Reading ...
*Trivia: "Prior to Jesus' birth, the High Zadok [the Michael] was Zacharias. His wife was Mary's cousin Elizabeth, and his deputy, the Abithar [the Gabriel], was Simeon the Essene. It was he who gave the formal consent for Mary's confinement, even though she and Joseph had disobeyed the rules of dynastic wedlock. The rules of dynastic wedlock were infringed, since Mary gave birth to Jesus at the wrong time of year [Sunday, March, 7 BC]. One of Jesus' foremost problems was that he had been born into an environment of controversy over whether or not he was legitimate. It was for that very reason that Mary and Joseph took him to Simeon the Gabriel for legitimizing under the law [Luke 2:25-35]. Despite this endeavor by his parents, Jesus evoked a mixed response and the Jews were polarised in two opposing camps on the subject of his lawful status in the kingly line. He had been conceived at the wrong time of year and had been born before Joseph and Mary's wedlock was formalized by their Second Marriage. Six years later his brother James was born within all the rules of dynastic wedlock and there was no disputing his legitimacy. Hence, the opposing factions each had a prospective Messiah to support." [Based on: Laurence Gardner, Bloodline Of The Holy Grail]
*Trivia: "Hebrews 7:14 totally dismisses the Gospel-interpreted notion of the Virgin Birth in order to confirm that Jesus's real father was Joseph. It states: 'it is evident that our Lord sprang out of Judah, of which tribe Moses spake nothing concerning priesthood'. It is also explained that the Law concerning priesthood was changed to accomodate Jesus's new archangelic distinction [Hebrews 7:12]." [Based on: Laurence Gardner, Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, p. 129]
6 B.C. - Configuration - Uranus-Pluto [Pisces/Virgo] opposition [6 B.C. - 1 A.D.]."
4 B.C. - Lunar Eclipse - "March 23rd"
4 B.C. - Fatility / King Herod - "Traditional date when King Herod of Judah died."
1 B.C. - Pax Romana - "The Roman Empire was at relative peace and had been for 30 years. This was the Pax Romana [Roman Peace] in which, for a while, the Mediterranean world was free of the endless torments of cities and nations fighting each other endlessly."
1 B.C. - Birth? / James [the brother of Jesus] - "A reported date when James, the brother of Jesus, the second son of Mary and Joseph, was born."
Last page update 01/29/13