15 Billion - 4 Million B.C. 11,000 B.C. - 9,000 B.C. 9,000 B.C. - 3,000 B.C. 3,000 B.C. - 1 A.D.
Historical Summary: 3000 B.C - 1 A.D. Historical Summary: 500-year Neptune / Pluto Cycles
Timeline: 1 A.D. - Present Historical Summary: 1 A.D. - Present
*Color Code Index
9,000 B.C. - Wiki Trivia - "The 9th millennium BC marks the beginning of the Neolithic period. [NP] Agriculture spread throughout the Fertile Crescent and use of pottery became more widespread. Larger settlements like Jericho arose along salt and flint trade routes. Northern Eurasia was resettled as the glaciers of the last glacial maximum retreated. World population was at a few million people, likely below 5 million. [....]"
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/9th_millennium_BCE]
9,000 B.C. - Large City / Iraq - "The town of Chemi Shanidar, later part of Iraq, was the largest city of the time with 150 people."
9,000 B.C. - Atlantis Disaster? - "Traditional date when the continent of Atlantis sank beneath the waves. Researchers probing the ocean bottom have found 18-story-high towers of stone deep in the ocean near a section of volcanic fault ridges that extend for 6,200 miles along the Atlantic Ocean floor." [Links: 1, 2]
9,000 B.C. - Jericho Settlement - "This city, located near a permanent spring a few miles west of the Jordan River was excavated by Kathleen Kenyon. There were indications of settlement after 9,000 B.C. This settlement grew to city status by 7,000 B.C. and is perhaps the oldest continuously occupied city on Earth."
9,000 B.C. - Tools / North America - "The Wenachee site, dated to 11,000 B.P. and located in the Inner Columbia River Basin, presents evidence of a new assemblage of stone tools in the Americas at their earliest known horizon." [Links: 1 - # 5]
9,000 B.C. - Lunar Calendar / Uganda - "The Ishango bone from modern Uganda in equatorial east Africa was identified by Marshak as a Lunar Calendar, dated about 9,000 B.C."
9,000 B.C. - Wheat Cultivation / Turkey - "The wild progenitor of einkorn wheat, one of the first crops to be domesticated (ca. 9000 B.C.), has been identified genetically in southeastern Turkey, according to a report in the journal Science. Manfred Heun of the Agricultural University of Norway, along with Norwegian, German, and Italian colleagues, examined the DNA of 68 lines of cultivated einkorn (Triticum monococcum monococcum), 194 lines of wild einkorn (T. m. boeoticum) from nine geographical regions within the Fertile Crescent, and nine lines of a weedy einkorn (T. m. aegilopoides) found in the Balkans."
9,000 B.C. - Wooly Mammoth Extinction - "The wooly mammoth became extinct about 11,000 years ago."
9,000 B.C. - Fig Cultivation / Middle East - "[....] In the Middle East, figs were domesticated 11,400 years ago. Wheat wasn't far behind. In the New World, corn was being cultivated 9,000 years ago. [....]" [Based on: A.P. article (Fossils show ancient use of chili peppers [about 6,100 years ago]), p. A3, S.L.P.D., 02/16/07]
9,000 B.C. - Human Habitation / Denmark - "The finest record [9,000 B.C. - 4,000 B.C.] of Mesolithic and Neolithic peoples exists in Denmark, due to the country's numerous bogs."
8,820 B.C. - Amesbury in Wiltshire confirmed as oldest UK settlement - "A Wiltshire town has been confirmed as the longest continuous settlement in the United Kingdom. [N.P.] Amesbury, including Stonehenge, has been continually occupied since 8820BC, experts have found. [... .]"
[Based on: bbc.com article (Amesbury in Wiltshire confirmed as oldest UK settlement), May 1st, 2014]
8,810 B.C. - Equinox at Cancer - About this time, the Vernal Equinox was (reportedly) at Cancer.
8,800 B.C. - Settlement? / Cyprus - "[....] Cyprus, the third-largest island in the Mediterranean, is thought to have been first settled around 8,800 B.C., according to the British Museum. [....]" [Based on: Archaeologynews.org article: (Cyprus Digs Reveal First Settlements May Be Older Than Thought) by Paul Tugwell - Last Updated: July 22, 2009 07:33 EDT]
http://www.archaeologynews.org/story.asp?ID=472030&Title=Cyprus Digs Reveal First Settlements May Be Older Than Thought
8,600 B.C. - Trivia / Irish Elk - "Until this time, Irish Elk [Megaloceros giganteus] lived in temperate climates throughout Europe and western Asia."
8,500 B.C. - Cities / Middle East - According to popular history, this was the date when the first cities were established in the Middle East. One of the leading contenders is Jericho.
8,466 - Neptune-Pluto Conjunction - "There are five major planets with average cycles of motion relevant to the study of history. These are: Pluto [250 years], Neptune [165 years], Uranus [84 years], Saturn [28 years] and Jupiter [12 years]."
8,451 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -
8,000 B.C. - Wiki Trivia - "In the 8th millennium BC, agriculture became widely practised in the Fertile Crescent and Anatolia. [NP] Pottery became widespread (with independent development in Central America) and animal husbandry (pastoralism) spread to Africa and Eurasia. World population was approximately 5 million. [....]"
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/8th_millennium_BCE]
8,000 B.C. - Vedas? - "Reportedly, the Vedas have been passed down through oral tradition for over 10,000 years, appearing in written form between 2,000 - 4,000 B.C." [Link: 1]
*Trivia: [....] Professor Dinesh Agrawal of Penn State University reviewed the evidence from a variety of sources and estimated the dates as follows: 1. Rig Vedic Age - 7000-4000 BC; 2. End of Rig Vedic Age - 3750 BC; 3. End of Ramayana-Mahabharat Period - 3000 BC; 4. Development of Saraswati-Indus Civilization - 3000-2200 BC; 5. Decline of Indus and Saraswati Civilization - 2200-1900 BC; 6. Period of chaos and migration - 2000-1500 BC; 7. Period of evolution of syncretic Hindu culture - 1400-250 BC [....]
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk:Vedas/Archive_4] - [T.D. - 09/05/10]
8,000 B.C. - Bog Bodies - "Over the past centuries, remains of many hundreds of people - men, women, and children - have come to light during peat cutting activities in northwestern Europe, especially in Ireland, Great Britain, the Netherlands, northern Germany, and Denmark. These are the "bog bodies." The individual bog bodies show a great degree of variation in their state of preservation, from skeletons, to well-preserved complete bodies, to isolated heads and limbs. They range in date from 8,000 B.C. to the early medieval period. Most date from the centuries around the beginning of our era. We do not know exactly how many bog bodies have been found--many have disappeared since their discovery."
8,000 B.C. - Stonehenge? - "Stonehenge was for a long while thought to have been built slowly - over about 1000 years between 2,100 and 1,100 BC. This chronology was called into question in 1996 by new archaeological evidence. Following a two-year study commisioned by the English Heritage Foundation, researchers concluded that the great circles of blustones and sarsens had in fact been put up between 2,600 BC and 2,030 BC. Less than a year after these results were published another study showed that the stone circles had been preceded by wooden circles of 6-metre pine 'totem poles' dated to 8,000 B.C. [Based on: by Graham Hancock and Santha Faiia, Heaven's Mirror, Quest For The Lost Civilization, p. xiii]
8,000 B.C. - Neolithic Age - "According to popular history, this period [10,000 - 8,000 B.C.] in which herding and agriculture came into use, is called the 'New Stone Age' or [in Latin] the 'Neolithic Age.' "
8,000 B.C. - Early Writing - "Clay tokens have been used since as early as 8,000 B.C. in Mesopotamia for some form of record-keeping."
8,000 B.C. - Civilization / Ur - "The Ur culture developed during the Neolithic Age and became global in expanse by 8,000 B.C. According to popular belief: 'Where the Sumerians came from is still disputed. Typologically, the language of Sumer resembles Chinese, which suggests an eastern origin. Some scholars have proposed that the Sumerians came by ship, landing on the north shore of the Persian Gulf.' "
8,000 B.C. - Florida Indians - "Florida's Aucilla River is yielding evidence of the adaptability of Paleoindians to their changing environment at the end of the Pleistocene, 10,000 years ago. For a decade, researchers from the Florida Museum of Natural History have been excavating the Page-Ladson site, and this past fall  they uncovered the ground surface of a Paleoindian habitation at a depth of 15 feet. Radiocarbon dates place the beginning of the occupation at ca. 10,000 years ago. At the time, the site, now only five miles from the Gulf Coast near Tallahassee, was nearly 100 miles inland, and Florida's landscape resembled Africa's savannahs. Within 100 years, however, rising water at the end of the last glaciation flooded the site, sealing it with deposits that contain shells of freshwater molluscs."
8,000 B.C. - Ancient Ruins / India - "At Poompuhur, facing the Bay of Bengal, Indian divers found a horseshoe-shaped object, measuring 85 metres in length, in water more than 23 metres deep. According to one scientist, the land on which this structure was built last stood above water more than 11,000 years ago. In January , Indian marine scientists discovered what may be the more extensive remains of two ancient cities in the Gulf of Cambay. The site spans an area of about 25 square kilometres, 35 metres deep, which, until as late as 6,900 years ago, was entirely above water. About 2,000 possibly man-made artifacts have been dredged and carbon-dated from 8,500 to 9,500 years old."
*Trivia: "Stone Age rock shelters with paintings at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh are the earliest known traces of human life in India. The first known permanent settlements appeared over 9,000 years ago and gradually developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, dating back to 3300 BCE in western India. It was followed by the Vedic period, which laid the foundations of Hinduism and other cultural aspects of early Indian society, and ended in the 500s BCE. From around 550 BCE, many independent kingdoms and republics known as the Mahajanapadas were established across the country. [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/India] - [T.D. - 12/15/08]
*Trivia: "[....] At the Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka humans lived throughout the Upper Paleolithic (10th to 8th millennia BC), revealing cave paintings dating to ca. 7000 BC; the Sivaliks and the Potwar (Pakistan) region also exhibit many vertebrate fossil remains and paleolithic tools. Chert, jasper and quartzite were often used by humans during this period. [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Asian_Stone_Age] - [T.D. - 07/16/09]
8,000 B.C. - Petroglyphs / Nevada - "Petroglyphs confirmed in Nevada ['... more than 10,000 years old.']" [Based on: Title for DIGEST article, p. A10, S.L.P.D., 08/15/13]
8,000 B.C. - European Inscriptions - "Epigraphers remain perplexed concerning such ancient European inscriptions as the Azillian signary c.8000 B.C.E. from southern France."
8,000 B.C. - Agriculture & Farming - "The exact origins of agriculture remains unknown, but once chosen, farming developed a momentum of its own: there was no easy turning back, and the very success of the new lifestyle induced other fundamental changes. The ensuing increase in food resources made possible a spectacular growth of human population between 8000 and 4000 B.C. It also required cooperative effort, particularly after the introduction of irrigation led to the establishment of settled organized societies, at first in villages and later in towns and cities, and the development of new technologies, social systems and ideologies." [Based on: Compact History Of The World, edited by Geoffrey Parker, copyright 2003, pp. 16-17] - [First published by Times Books (as The Times Compact Atlas of World History) 1995 - updated and reprinted 2002]
*Trivia: "If Ohio State University soil scientist Rattan Lal is right, one of the simplest solutions to climate change may be right under our feet. With the right stewardship, Lal says, the agricultural soils of the world have the potential to soak up 13 percent of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere today - the equivalent of scrubbing every ounce of CO2 released into the atmosphere since 1980. [....] For millions of years, a natural partnership between plants and soil microbes has helped regulate carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. During photosynthesis, plants absorb carbon dioxide from the air and transform it into sugars, carbohydrates, and other carbon-based molecules. Some of those carbon products transfer from the roots to symbiotic fungi and soil microbes, which store the carbon in soil as humus. [NP] The invention of agriculture some 10,000 years ago disrupted these ancient soil-building processes. When humans started draining and plowing up the natural topsoil for planting, they exposed the buried carbon to oxygen, creating carbon dioxide and releasing it into the air. Animal husbandry made things worse, as domesticated animals began grazing grasslands down to the earth. In places wehere the ground is bare - from overgrazing or from the common practice of leaving fields unplanted for part of the year - photosynthesis stops. and so does the storage of carbon in the soil. Lal calculates that land use changes such as these have stripped 70 billion to 100 billion tons of carbon from the world's soils and pumped it into the earth's atmosphere, oceans, and lakes since the dawn of agriculture. Today agriculture and other land-use changes account for about a third of global greenhouse gas emissions. [....]" [Based on: Discover Magazine article (Could Dirt help Heal the Climate?) by Kristin Ohlson, pp. 11-12]
8,000 B.C. - Geography Trivia / Ireland - "The shape and landscape of present-day Ireland—an island of 27,100 square miles [70,200 square kilometers]—were formed 10,000 years ago when Atlantic Ocean glaciers slowly began their retreat. The event left the country rich with the soil that has nurtured Ireland's flora and fauna for centuries, and which offered a hospitable environment for migrating people to settle and plant seeds."
8,000 B.C. - First Nations people / Canada - "Archaeologists have found evidence that proves First Nations people were in New Brunswick more than 10,000 years ago. [NP] For years archaeologists suspected the First Nations history might go way back because there had been small, individual finds, but Hurricane Earl helped reveal even more. [NP] But for the first time, a large campsite has been uncovered that proves people moved through the area when ice still covered parts of the province. [NP] 'We have individual finds and that's how we knew people were here,' said Brent Suttie, archaeologist in charge of the site. [....] Suttie said they have found some material in the campsite that came from central Maine. [NP] 'So, already we know there were some connections with central Maine as early as between 10,000 and 11,000 years,' he said. [....]"
[Based on: CBC News article (First Nation artifacts discovered, divert highway) posted 07/21/11]
*Reference Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Brunswick
8,000 B.C. - Human Occupation / South America - "The altiplano of Peru and Bolivia appears at first sight to be a very inhospitable land. Its high mountains, windswept plains, and icy waters of Lake Titicaca make it a stark, yet beautiful landscape. This 'high plain' (literally!) at a base elevation of 12,600 feet above sea level, is the ancestral home to the famous Andean animals (llamas and alpacas) and plants (potatoes and quiñoa). These creatures evolved in this harsh environment through natural selection. However, the highly successful human occupation of the area that began approximately 10,000 years ago depended largely on cultural adaptations, rather than biological ones. These cultural developments from the Archaic (ca.9,500- 4000 years ago) through the Formative Period (ca. 3200-2000 years ago) attest to a long period of economic and social intensification, a trend that is common throughout the world. In this 7,000 year span, we see the first colonization of the altiplano, the settling of permanent villages, and the rise of chiefly societies that formed the basis of Tiwanaku, one of the high civilizations of the New World. Dating of squash seeds from a cave in Oaxaca, Mexico, has confirmed that plant domestication in the Americas began some 10,000 years ago. The new finding, reported by Smithsonian archaeologist Bruce Smith in the journal Science, indicates that planting began in the New World about the same time as in the Near East and China." [Source? Link?]
*Trivia: "[....] On July 5th , British scientists announced that literally hundreds of human footprints, approximately one-third of them children, found in Central Mexico during 2003, have been conclusively dated to the very dawn of modern man. Silvia Gonzalez, a geoarchaeologist at Liverpool's John Moores University, in England, co-discovered the impressions in an abandoned quarry near the city of Puebla, sixty miles southeast of Mexico City. They are perfectly preserved as trace fossils in ash laid down by a nearby volcano, known as Cerro Toluquilla, during the ancient past. [....] Long before the Puebla footprints were found, Ancient American investigators wrote of Brazil's Pedra Furada site, which pre-dated mainstream notions of the continent's earliest human settlers by nearly twenty thousand years. More remarkable still, our fall, 1997 issue reported the find of another university-trained archaeologist, Dr. Virginia Steen-McIntyre, who unearthed unmistakable evidence for human habitation in Central Mexico going back a fantastic quarter-of-a-million years! These on-going discoveries are replacing out-dated paradigms, while validating the very premise of our magazine." [Based on: Ancient American magazine article (Issue # 64, Entitled: Mexico's 40,000-Year-Old Footprints Demolish "Land-Bridge" Theory) by Frank Joseph] - [Paragraph indents removed to save space - E.M.]
8,000 B.C. - "Native American" culture / Colorado - "[....] After nearly two years of background work and two months of in-ground work, DARG researchers say they made quite the find. [NP] 'We found fire pits and storage features,' said James Miller, research director for DARG. 'We also collected all the lithic artifacts, or stone tools.' [NP] The group says it also found remnants of posts where a wall would have gone. [NP] At first glance, they might not look like anything exciting, but when you find out how old they are, they become much more interesting. [NP] 'The oldest one is about 8,000 years old,' Miller said. [NP] Miller says the small stone shelter was likely built by a culture called the Foothills-Mountain people, who lived in North America 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. [...] Last year, DARG researchers discovered evidence near Battlement Mesa of a culture that is 13,000 years old. [....]" [Based on: WDAM article (Archaeologists discover 8,000 year-old stone shelter) Updated: Aug 20, 2011 3:00 PM CDT - Copyright 2011 KKCO via NBC. All rights reserved.] - [My brackets. NP=New Paragraph. See link for original story & context. - E.M.]
8,000 B.C. - Glacial Decline / Northern Hemisphere - Popular Belief: "By 8,000 B.C. the Wisconsin Glaciation and the European Wurm Glaciation had withdrawn completely."
8,000 B.C. - Mysterious 10,000-year-old ruins found in Syrian desert - "Mysterious 10,000-year-old ruins found in Syrian desert ." [Based on: Title (and text) for FoxNews.com article Published June 25, 2012]
7,500 B.C. - World's Oldest Tree -
The world's oldest tree has been found in Sweden, a tenacious spruce that first took root just after the end of the last ice age, more than 9,500 years ago. [NP] The tree has rewritten the history of the climate in the region, revealing that it was much warmer at that time and the ice had disappeared earlier than thought. [NP] Previously, pine trees in North America were thought to be the oldest, at around 5,000 years old. [NP] But Swedish scientists report that in the mountains, from Lapland in the north to Dalarna in central Sweden, there are much more ancient spruce trees (Picea abies). [NP] Prof Leif Kullman at Umeå University and colleagues found a cluster of around 20 spruces that are over 8,000 years old. [NP] The oldest tree, in Fulu Mountain, Dalarna (“the dales”), was dated by carbon dating at a laboratory in Miami, Florida to 9,550 years old and underneath the crown in the soil there were another three generations of wood from the same clone, dating 375, 5,660 and 9,000 years old that have the same genetic makeup. [NP] The clones take root each winter as snow pushes low lying branches of the mother tree down to ground level, explains Prof Kullman. [NP] “A new erect stem emerges, and it may lose contact with the mother tree over time.” [NP] The trunks of the mother tree would survive only around 600 years but the trees are able to grow a new one, he adds. [NP] The finding is surprising because the spruce tree has been regarded as a relative newcomer in the Swedish mountain region and is thought to have originated 600 miles away in the east. [NP] "Our results migration in the complete opposite direction has be considered, because the spruce is one of the oldest known trees in the mountain range,” says Prof Kullman. [NP] Ten millennia ago, a spruce would have been extremely rare and it is conceivable that the ancient humans who lived there imported the tree, he says. [NP] “Man immigrated close to the receding ice front. We have also found fossil acorns in this area, and people may have taken them with them as they moved over the landscape.” [NP] It had been thought that this region was still in the grip of the ice age but the tree shows it was much warmer, even than today, he says. [NP] “Spruces are the species that can best give us insight about climate change,” he says. [NP] The summers 9,500 years ago were warmer than today, though there has been a rapid recent rise as a result of climate change that means modern climate is rapidly catching up. [NP] The tree probably survived as a result of several factors: the generally cold and dry climate, few forest fires and relatively few humans. [NP] Today, however, the nature conservancy authorities are considering putting a fence around the record breaking tree to protect it from trophy hunters.
[Based on: Telegraph.co.uk article (World's oldest tree discovered in Sweden) By Roger Highfield, Science Editor - Published: 2:30PM BST 17 Apr 2008] - [My brackets added. (NP = New paragraph) See link for paragraph indents. - E.M.]
*Related Links: http://www.plymouthtrees.org/treetrivia.php - [T.D. - 03/22/10]
7,500 B.C. - Pengtoushan culture - "The Pengtoushan culture [彭头山文化 Péng tóu shān wénhuà], dating 7500–6100 BC, was a Neolithic culture centered primarily around the central Yangtze River region in northwestern Hunan, China. It was roughly contemporaneous with its northern neighbor, the Peiligang culture. The two primary examples of Pengtoushan culture are the type site at Pengtoushan and the later site at Bashidang. [... .]"
[Based on: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pengtoushan]
7,422 B.C. - Copper Age - "Theoretical date for the beginning of the Copper Age based on computations using the number 2,160 years for the length of Kali Yuga."
7,420 B.C. - Nevada Mummy - "A mummy excavated in 1940 and stored at the Nevada State Museum in Carson City was recently dated to ca. 7,420 B.C., making it the oldest mummy ever discovered in North America.
7,370 B.C. - Volcanic Eruption? / Chaiten Volcano, Chile - "The long-dormant Chaiten volcano blasted ash some 20 miles into the Andean sky on Tuesday [05/06/08], forcing the last of thousands to flee and fouling a huge stretch of the South American continent. [....] The five-day-old eruption is the first in 9,370 years [7,362 B.C.?], said Charles Stern, a volcanologist at the University of Colorado-Boulder who has studied Chaiten. [....]" [Based on: A.P. article (Long-dormant volcano erupts in Chile), p A14, S.L.P.D., 05/07/08]
7,323 B.C. - Birth / Rama? - "[....] Based on Puranic genealogy, Rama is believed by Hindus to have been born in 7323 B.C.E. Rama is traditionally considered to have appeared in the last quarter of Treta Yuga. [....]"
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rama]
7,300 B.C. - Kennewick Man - "A skeleton was found in July, 1996 A.D. by the Columbia River in Kennewick, Washington. It was named the 'Richland Man.' The 9,300 year old bones were later studied and determined to be most closely related to Asian people, particularly the Ainu of northern Japan. It was concluded in 2,000 A.D. that he was an American Indian. The bones were dated to 7514-7324 B.C. Most intriguing is that the mummy was wearing moccasins and shrouds of woven marsh plants. The weave of the shrouds indicates that it was made on a loom. 'Kennewick Man' represents the best-preserved - human remains yet found in this part of the world, among the oldest anywhere in North America." [Link: 1]
7,300 B.C. - Neolithic Surgery - "New accelerator radiocarbon dating of the Dnieper Rapids cemeteries near Kiev in Ukraine by the Oxford Radiocarbon Laboratory has produced evidence that trepanation, the surgical removal of bone from the cranial vault, was performed during the Mesolithic period. During a study of 14 individuals at the Vasilyevka II cemetery, Malcolm C. Lillie, a geoarchaeologist and palaeoenvironmentalist at the University of Hull, found one skeleton [no. 6285-9] to have evidence of trepanation. The cemetery, excavated in 1953 by A.D. Stolyar, has been dated to 7,300-6,220 B.C., making the trepanned cranium the oldest known example of a healed trepanation yet discovered. The skull, which was originally reported in Russian by I.I. Gokhman in 1966, has a depression on its left side with a raised border of bone and 'stepping' in the center showing stages of healing during life. The complete closure indicates the survival of the patient, a man who was more than 50 years old at his death. The dates for the individual are 1,000-2,000 years earlier than those of the skull at Ensisheim in France, recently reported by Kurt Alt to be the earliest evidence for trepanation [see Neolithic Surgery, September/October 1997]." [Link: 1]
7,000 B.C. - Wiki Trivia - "During the 7th millennium BC, agriculture spreads from Anatolia to the Balkans. [NP] World population was essentially stable at around 5 million people, living mostly scattered across the globe in small hunting-gathering tribes. In the agricultural communities of the Middle East, the cow was domesticated and use of pottery became common, spreading to Europe and South Asia, and the first metal (gold and copper) ornaments were made. [....]"
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/7th_millennium_BCE]
7,000 B.C. - Pakistan - "Mehrgarh, (Urdu: ???????? ) one of the most important Neolithic (7000 BC to 3200 BC) sites in archaeology, lies on what is now the 'Kachi plain' of today's Balochistan, Pakistan. It is one of the earliest sites with evidence of farming (wheat and barley) and herding (cattle, sheep and goats) in South Asia. . [NP] Located near the Bolan Pass, to the west of the Indus River valley and between the present-day Pakistani cities of Quetta, Kalat and Sibi, Mehrgarh was discovered in 1974 by an archaeological team directed by French archaeologist Jean-François Jarrige, and was excavated continuously between 1974 and 1986. The earliest settlement at Mehrgarh—in the northeast corner of the 495-acre (2.00 km2) site—was a small farming village dated between 7000 BC–5500 BC.
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mehrgarh] - [T.D. - 07/16/09]
7,000 B.C. - Peiligang culture - "The Peiligang culture [裴李崗文化 Péilǐgǎng wénhuà] is the name given by archaeologists to a group of Neolithic communities in the Yi-Luo river basin in Henan Province, China. The culture existed from 7000 to 5000 BC. [... .]"
[Based on: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peiligang_culture]
*Trivia: "Archaeologists discover a 9,000 year old playable Flute in China. The 8.6 inch instrument in pristine condition has seven holes and was made from a hollow bone of a bird, the red-crowned crane. It is one of six flutes and 30 fragments recovered from the Jiahu arcaeological site in henan province." [Link: 1]
7,000 B.C. - Kura-Aras / Iran - "[....] Signs of the Kura-Aras culture were discovered at the Yanik Tepe, a multi-period site located northwest of Lake Urmia in Iran, which was extensively excavated by Charles Burney in 1960s. [NP] The earliest layers date back to the late 7th millennium BC. [NP] According to the concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology by Timothy Darvill, these represent some of the earliest permanent settlements in the region. [NP] Nine phases were represented, characterized by rectangular houses with plastered floors. The early Bronze Age phases, dating to the later 5th millennium BC, included closely packed circular dwellings equipped with benches and storage bins all set within a stone walled enclosure. Exploration of the Iron Age levels included the initial discovery of painted triangle ware dating back to the second quarter of the 1st millennium BC." [Based on: Tehran Times article (Archaeologists excavating Arastu Tepe for signs of Kura-Aras culture) Last Update: 22 August 2011 17:31 GMT Volume. 11228]
7,000 B.C. - Prehistoric Dentists? - "[....] Dentists drilled nearly perfect tiny holes in the teeth of live patients between 7,500 and 9,000 years ago, according to carbon-dating of skulls unearthed in a graveyard in Pakistan. [....] The discovery of the dental work is described today in the journal Nature. [....]" [Based on: A.P. article (Prehistoric dentists used drills, scientists find), p. A5, S.L.P.D., 04/06/06]
7,000 B.C. - Human Occupation / Alaska - "The Discovery Channel's latest archaeological offering takes mummy-mania to an unpublicized corner of the known mummy world - Alaska's Aleutian Islands. The Unangan, seafaring ancestors of today's Aleut, made their home in the barren archipelago for some 9,000 years, honing techniques for hunting large sea mammals, building sturdy houses, and, perhaps surprisingly, perfecting ritual mummification in a hostile, wet climate."
7,000 B.C. - Human Skeleton / England - "In 1903 A.D. a skeleton of a man, 9,000 years old, was discovered in the underground caves at Cheddar, 130 miles west of London, England."
7,000 B.C. - Corn Cultivation / New World - "[....] In the Middle East, figs were domesticated 11,400 years ago. Wheat wasn't far behind. In the New World, corn was being cultivated 9,000 years ago. [....]" [[Based on: A.P. article (Fossils show ancient use of chili peppers [about 6,100 years ago]), p. A3, S.L.P.D., 02/16/07]
7,000 B.C. - Permanent Settlements / India - "[....] Stone Age rock shelters with paintings at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh are the earliest known traces of human life in India. The first known permanent settlements appeared over 9,000 years ago and gradually developed into the Indus Valley Civilization, dating back to 3300 BCE in western India. It was followed by the Vedic period, which laid the foundations of Hinduism and other cultural aspects of early Indian society, and ended in the 500s BCE. From around 550 BCE, many independent kingdoms and republics known as the Mahajanapadas were established across the country. [....]"
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/India - [T.D. - 10/26/08]
*Trivia: "[....] The Mesolithic period in the Indian subcontinent was followed by the Neolithic period, when more extensive settlement of the subcontinent occurred after the end of the last Ice Age, or approximately 12,000 years ago. The first confirmed semi-permanent settlements appeared 9,000 years ago in the Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka in modern Madhya Pradesh, India. [....]"
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_India] - [T.D. - 06/06/10]
7,000 B.C. - Ancient House / Isle of Man - "Built 3,000 years before the miracle of Stonehenge, this is Britain's oldest and best preserved house. [NP] The remains of the strongly built shelter, discovered on the Isle of Man, provide a rare window into the domestic life of hunter-gatherers 9,000 years ago. [....] Manx National Heritage field archaeologist Andrew Johnson confirmed the building showed that people from this time were settled for long periods. [NP] 'The received wisdom is that 8,000 years ago people constantly moved through the landscape as nomads, gathering their food from the land, rather than staying put and farming and harvesting it,' he said. [NP] 'But this building was constructed from substantial pieces of timber, and had a hearth for cooking and warmth. [NP] 'Its occupants lived here often, or long enough to leave behind over 12,000 pieces of worked flint, together with the tools needed to flake them, and food debris in the form of hundreds of hazelnut shells,' he added. [....]"
[Based on: Archaeology News article (At 9,000 years old, Britain's oldest house gives a glimpse of post-Ice Age domesticity) Last updated at 3:25 PM on 13th August 2009]
*Link: http://www.archaeologynews.org/story.asp?ID=481761&Title=9000-year-old house found on Isle of Man reveals how hunter ...
7,000 B.C. - Volcanic Eruption / Kuril Islands - "More than 9,000 years ago, a catastrophic volcanic eruption created a huge caldera on the southern end of Onekotan Island, one of the Kuril Islands, located off the southern tip of Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula. Today, the ancient Tao-Rusyr Caldera is filled by the deep blue waters of Kal'tsevoe Lake. [....] Like the other Kuril Islands, Onekotan lies along the Pacific 'Ring of Fire.' The Kuril Island volcanoes are fueled by magma generated by the subduction of the Pacific Plate under the Eurasian Plate, which takes place along a deep trench about 200 kilometers (120 miles) to the islands' east. The only historical eruption at Krenitzyn Peak occurred in 1952, a week after a magnitude 9.0 earthquake along the subduction fault. [....]"
[Based on: geology.com article (Tao-Rusyr Caldera, Onekotan Island, Kuril Islands)] - [T.D. - 01/08/11]
6,900 B.C. - Human Activity / North America - "The recovery of a mysterious wooden pole at the bottom of Lake Huron is fuelling excitement among U.S. and Canadian researchers that they have found more evidence of a 'lost world' of North American caribou hunters from nearly 10,000 years ago. [...] The two-metre-long piece of wood, found amid such a rock assemblage during a summer search of Huron's floor for traces of human activity, was later dated to 8,900 years ago, the researchers revealed last month. [....]" [Based on: The Vancouver Sun article (Divers find clue to ancient civilization / Artifact at Lake Huron's bottom believed used by hunters 10,000 years ago) by Randy Boswell, Postmedia News January 7, 2012
*Related Links: http://tinyurl.com/7upzosw
6,800 B.C. - Jarmo Settlement / Iraq - "Reportedly, the settlement of Jarmo, in the foothills of northern Iraq, dates to about 6,800 B,C." [Link: 1]
6,500 B.C. - Houli culture - "The Houli culture [后李文化 Hòu lǐ wénhuà] (6500–5500 BC) was a Neolithic culture in Shandong, China. The people of the culture lived in square, semi-subterranean houses. Archaeological evidence shows that domesticated dogs and pigs were used. [... .]"
[Based on: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Houli_culture]
6,500 B.C. - Catalhuyuk / Anatolia - "A prehistoric city located in Anatolia, or modern day Turkey where a number of artifacts appear to support evidence for the widespread practice of Goddess worship. Reportedly, 'the oldest layer of Catal Huyuk yet excavated [virgin soil has not yet been reached] is reliably carbon dated to 6,500 B.C.' " *Link: 1
6,500 B.C. - Equinox at Gemini - About this time, the Vernal Equinox was (reportedly) at Gemini.
6,500 B.C. - Mexican Step Pyramid - "Just south of the university campus of Mexico City, off the main road connecting the capital to Cuernavaca, stands a circular step pyramid of great complexity [with four galleries and a central staircase]. It was partially excavated in the 1920's from beneath a mantle of lava. Geologists were called to the site to help date the lava, and carried out a detailed examination. To everyone's surprise, they concluded that the volcanic eruption which had completely buried three sides of this pyramid [and had then gone on to cover about sixty square miles of the surrounding territory] must have taken place at least seven thousand years ago. It is worth noting, however that Byron Cummings, the American Archaeologist who origianally excavated the site for the National Geographic Society, was convinced by clearly demarcated stratification layers above and below the pyramid [laid down both before and after the volcanic eruption] that it was 'the oldest temple yet uncovered on the American continent.' He went further than the geologists and stated categorically that this temple 'fell into ruins some 8,500 years ago.' " *Link: 1
6,500 B.C. - Human settlement / Anatolia - "8,500-year-old remains unearthed in western city / An archaeological dig in Izmir’s Yesilova district has revealed fingerprints dating back to the Neolithic age close to nine millennia ago. No other place in the area has such a long history of human settlement, a scholar says" [Based on: Title for IZMIR - Anatolia News Agency article, Monday, September 5, 2011]
6,500 B.C. - Prehistoric Gold Pendant / Greece - "A Greek hiker found a 6,500-year-old gold pendant in a field and handed it over to authorities, an archaeologist said Thursday [02/16/06]. The flat, roughly ring-shaped prehistoric pendant probably had religious meaning. It would have been worn on a necklace by a prominent member of society. Only three such gold artifacts have been discovered in organized digs, said the archaeologist, Georgia Karamitrou-Mendesidi. She heads the Greek archaeological service in the northern region where the discovery was made. 'It belongs to the Neolithic period, about which we know very little regarding the use of metals, particularly gold,' she said. 'The fact that it is made of gold indicates that these people were highly advanced, producing significant works of art.' The pendant measures roughly 1 1/2 by 1 1/2 inches. Karamitrou-Mendesidi said the hiker had picked it up last year near the town of Ptolemaida, about 90 miles southwest of the northern city of Thessaloniki. [....] Similar finds have been excavated in modern Turkey and the Balkans, particularly in Bulgaria. Around 4500 B.C., when the pendant was made, Greece's early Neolithic farming settlements were consolidating into trading centers with a knowledge of metalworking. In November , archaeologists announced the discovery in the Ptolemaida region of two prehistoric farming settlements dating back as early as 6000 B.C. The settlement digs uncovered burial sites, clay and stone figurines of humans and animals, pottery and stone tools." [Based on: A.P. article (Striking gold in Greece / Hiker finds prehistoric pendant), p. A14, S.L.P.D., 02/17/06]
6,390 B.C. - Prehistoric Building / Ramat Aviv - "Remains of a prehistoric building, the earliest ever discovered in the Tel Aviv region and estimated to be between 7,800 and 8,400 years old, were recently discovered in an archaeological excavation in Ramat Aviv. [NP] Ancient artifacts thought to be 13,000 and 100,000 years old were also discovered there. [....]
[Based on: Haaretz Service article (Archeologists discover 8,000-year-old building in Tel Aviv), 01/11/10] http://www.archaeologynews.org/story.asp?ID=554915&Title=Archeologists discover 8000-year-old building in Tel Aviv
6,200 B.C. - Domesticated Cattle - "The archeological record shows traces of domesticated cattle back to this time."
6,200 B.C. - Xinglongwa culture - "The Xinglongwa culture (興隆洼文化 Xīnglóng wā wénhuà) (6200-5400 BC) was a Neolithic culture in northeastern China, found mainly around the Inner Mongolia-Liaoning border. Xinglongwa pottery was primarily cylindrical, and baked at low temperatures. [N.P.] The Xinglongwa culture showed several signs of communal planning. At three Xinglongwa sites, houses were built in rows. Several Xinglongwa sites also featured a large central building. In addition, several Xinglongwa sites were surrounded by ditches. [...]The recently discovered site at Xinglonggou is the only site of the culture to show evidence of any sort of agriculture, with evidence of millet remains. [... .]"
[Based on: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xinglongwa_culture]
6,001 - Neptune-Pluto conjunction -
6,000 B.C. - Wiki Trivia - "During the 6th millennium BC, agriculture spread from the Balkans to Italy and Eastern Europe, and also from Mesopotamia to Egypt. World population was essentially stable at approximately 5 million, though some speculate up to 7 million. [....]"
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/6th_millennium_BCE]
6,000 B.C. - Sumer - "Sumer (Sumerian: ?????? ki-en-gir15, Akkadian: Šumeru; possibly Biblical Shinar) was a civilization and a historical region located in Southern Iraq (Mesopotamia), known as the Cradle of civilization. It lasted from the first settlement of Eridu in the Ubaid period (late 6th millennium BC) through the Uruk period (4th millennium BC) and the Dynastic periods (3rd millennium BC) until the rise of Babylon in the early 2nd millennium BC. The term "Sumerian" applies to all speakers of the Sumerian language. [NP] The cities of Sumer were the first to practice intensive, year-round agriculture (from ca. 5300 BC). However, it should be noted that such agriculture appeared independently in multiple civilizations close to the same time as Sumer. The surplus of storable food created by this economy allowed the population to settle in one place instead of migrating after crops and grazing land. It also allowed for a much greater population density, and in turn required an extensive labor force and division of labor. This organization led to the necessity of record keeping and the development of writing (ca. 3500 BC)."
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sumer] - [T.D. - 07/16/09]
6,000 B.C. - City / Ugarit - "Ugarit experienced a very long history. A city was built on the site in the Neolithic period around 6,000 B.C. Since the discovery of the Ugaritic texts, the study of the Old Testament has never been the same." *Link: 1
6,000 B.C. - Cishan culture - "The Cishan culture [磁山文化 Cí shān wénhuà] (6500–5000 BC) was a Neolithic culture in northern China, on the eastern foothills of the Taihang Mountains. The Cishan culture was based on the farming of broomcorn millet, the cultivation of which on one site has been dated back 10,000 years. There is also evidence that the Cishan people cultivated barley and, late in their history, a japonica variety of rice. [... .]"[Based on: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cishan_culture]
6,000 B.C. - Flax Cultivation - "Flax was being cultivated well before 6,000 B.C."
6,000 B.C. - Pottery Established - "By 6,000 B.C. pottery was a well established product."6,000 B.C. - Flooding? / Persian Gulf - "A once fertile landmass now  submerged beneath the Persian Gulf may have been home to some of the earliest human populations outside Africa, according to an article published Wednesday [12/08/10] in Current Anthropology. [NP] In recent years, archaeologists have turned up evidence of a wave of human settlements along the shores of the Gulf dating to about 7,500 years ago. But how could such highly developed settlements pop up so quickly, with no precursor populations to be found in the archaeological record? Jeffrey Rose, an archaeologist and researcher with the University of Birmingham in the U.K., believes that evidence of those preceding populations is missing because it's under the Gulf. [NP] 'Perhaps it is no coincidence that the founding of such remarkably well developed communities along the shoreline corresponds with the flooding of the Persian Gulf basin around 8,000 years ago,' Rose said. 'These new colonists may have come from the heart of the Gulf, displaced by rising water levels that plunged the once fertile landscape beneath the waters of the Indian Ocean.' [NP] Rose said that the area in and around this 'Persian Gulf Oasis' may have been host to humans for over 100,000 years before it was swallowed up by the Indian Ocean around 8,000 years ago. [....]." [Based on: FOX NEWS.com article (Lost Civilization Under Persian Gulf?) Published December 08, 2010 / FoxNews.com] - [My brackets. NP = new paragraph. - D.R.D.]
6,000 B.C. - Sun Temple? / Bulgaria - "Bulgarian archaeologist Georgi Ganetsovski has made a new hit discovering by unearthing what might be the world's oldest sun temple. [NP] The team of Georgi Ganetsovski, an archaeologist from the Vratsa Regional History Museum, who specializes in paleolithic settlements, has uncovered a structure similar in function to the Stonehenge in the UK but is 3 000 years older than it. [NP] The 8000-year-old structure has been found near the village of Ohoden, Vratsa District, Northwestern Bulgaria. [....] Ganetsovski has been excavating the site near Ohoden for years, which is believed to harbor important remains from the first agricultural communities in Europe; over the summer he found an 8000-year-old skeleton of a young man dubbed by the media 'The First European.' [....]" [Based on: Archaeology News article (Bulgarian Archaeologist Discovers World's Likely Oldest Sun Temple) December 16, 2010]
6,000 B.C. - Ancient Structure / Japan - "The submerged structure near the isle of Yonaguni [Japan], that is approximately 75 ft under the sea level, which has an evident artificial origin; it is 600 ft wide and 90 ft high, and it's about 8,000 years old." *Links: 1
6,000 B.C. - Mother Goddes? / Turkey - "... Mother Goddes from Çatalhöyük (Turkey), neolithic age (about 5500-6000 BC), today in Museum of Ana)"
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ankara_Muzeum_B19-36.jpg]
6,000 B.C. - "Shoosh Civilization" / Iran - "[....] 8000 years ago, there was a civilization which lived in today’s Khoozestan, their name was 'Shoosh Civilization,' or in English 'Susa Civilization.' So far this has been reported as the oldest civilization which have ever existed on Earth. By civilization, we mean civilized city government or city state or Empire or Kingdom or any type of local civilized system. Archeologists divide time periods & discoveries of Shoosh, into two periods: Period One & Period Two. These periods are based on Geological Layers which the fossils & other material has been found in them, layer one & two which are on top of one another. Archeologists were digging in Shoosh since 1897 by 'Jan Morgan' the French Archeologist, all the way until the present day. Dr. Scheil was also another valuable archeologist who dedicated a lot on uncovering the secrets of Shoosh. But only during the last decade a vast amount of discovery has been found @ Shoosh. [....]" [Shaghaghi.net, 02/07/04]
6,000 B.C. - Vinca Culture / "Old Europe" - "[....] A forgotten civilisation [NP] Visoko is within the catchment area of what Lithuanian–American archaeologist Dr Marija Gimbutas (1921–94) labelled 'Old Europe', a civilisation also known as the Vinca culture. This culture is dated to roughly 6000–3000 BCE, and many believe that it inspired other cultures, including the Sumerian Ubaid period. Examples of Vinca statues have been found as far west as southern France. As recently as November 2007, archaeologists excavating a settlement in southern Serbia, believed to be at least 7,000 years old, announced that this civilisation had great expertise in creating bronze artefacts—a discovery that requires a radical re-dating of the Bronze Age. [....]" [Based on: NEXUS Magazine article (Unearthing Europe’s Oldest Pyramid Complex), vol. 16, no. 1 (December 2008-January 2009) by Philip Coppens]
*Trivia: "The Vinc(a culture is a Neolithic archaeological culture of Southeastern Europe, dated to the period 5500–4500 BCE. Named for its type site, Vinc(a-Belo Brdo, a large tell settlement discovered by Serbian archaeologist Miloje Vasic' in 1908, it is thought to represent the material remains of a prehistoric tribal society chiefly characterised by their settlement pattern and ritual behaviour. The Vinc(a culture further adapted the Neolithic package of farming technology, imported into the region during the First Temperate Neolithic, to the local climate, fuelling a population boom that made Vinc(a settlements among the largest in prehistoric Europe. [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vin%C4%8Da_culture]
*Trivia: "The so-called Old European script, also known as Vinc(a script for its association with the Vinc(a culture (also Vinc(a signs, Vinc(a symbols, Vinc(a-Turdas, script, etc.) is a set of symbols found on Neolithic era (6th to 5th millennia BCE) artifacts from southeastern Europe. [....]"
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_European_Script]
6,000 B.C. - Ocean-Going Vessels / Mesopotamia - "By 6,000 BC, the people of the Mesopotamian Near East were using ships on the open sea."
5,800 B.C. - Dadiwan culture - "The Dadiwan culture [大地灣文化 Dàdì wān wénhuà] (5800–5400 BC) was a Neolithic culture located primarily in modern eastern area of Gansu and Shaanxi provinces of China. The culture takes its name from the earliest layer found at the type site at Dadiwan. The remains of millet and pigs were found in sites associated with the culture. The culture shared several similarities with the Cishan and Peiligang cultures. [... .]"[Based on: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dadiwan_culture]
5,600 B.C. - Massive Flooding / Black Sea - "[....] The common theory of the creation of the Black Sea says that there was a massive deluge through the straits of Bosporus (modern Istanbul), where waters from the Mediterranean flooded into the lake. Once the Mediterranean Sea breached the Bosporus Strait, it irreversibly changed the history of the people in the area, as well as the flora and fauna. [NP] In 1997, William Ryan and Walter Pitman published evidence that a massive flooding of the Black Sea occurred about 5600 BCE through the Bosporus. According to the theory, glacial melt-water had turned the Black and Caspian Seas into vast freshwater lakes draining into the Aegean Sea before that event. As glaciers retreated, some of the rivers emptying into the Black Sea declined in volume and changed course to drain into the North Sea. [....]"
[Based on: Article (Archaeology: Black Sea's ancient coast found - report), 07/07/11]
5,546 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -
5,508 B.C. - Neptune-Pluto Conjunction -
5,500 B.C. - Xinle culture - "The Xinle culture (新樂文化 Xīn yuè wénhuà) (5500–4800 BC) was a Neolithic culture in northeast China, found primarily around the lower Liao River on the Liaodong Peninsula in Liaoning. The culture showed evidence of millet cultivation and pig domestication. The type site at Xinle was discovered in the Huanggu District of Shenyang, Liaoning. [N.P.] The site is named after an old inn, in which grounds the remains were first discovered. [... .]"
[Based on: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xinle_culture]
5,500 B.C. - Copper Tools / Serbia - "A 'sensational' discovery of 75-century-old copper tools in Serbia is compelling scientists to reconsider existing theories about where and when man began using metal. Belgrade - axes, hammers, hooks and needles - were found interspersed with other artefacts from a settlement that burned down some 7,000 years ago at Plocnik, near Prokuplje and 200 km south of Belgrade. [NP The village had been there for some eight centuries before its demise. After the big fire, its unknown inhabitants moved away. But what they left behind points to man's earliest known extraction and shaping of metal. [NP] 'It really is sensational,' said Ernst Pernicka, a renowned archaeology professor at Germany's Tuebingen University who recently visited the Ploce locality.[NP] Scientists had previously believed that the mining, extraction and manipulation of copper began in Asia Minor, spreading from there. With the find in Plocnik, parallel and simultaneous developments of those skills in several places now seem more likely, Pernicka said. [NP] Indeed, the tools discovered in southern Serbia were made some 75 centuries ago - up to eight centuries older than what has been found to date. [....] The Ploce locality was discovered by railroad builders in 1927, but was largely disregarded until 1996, when serious excavations began, eventually yielding the sensational finds. [NP] According to Krause, old settlements may similarly surface in eastern Anatolia when Turkey launches some massive earth-moving project, such as building a dam. [....] Whatever remains to be found at Ploce and elsewhere, 'mankind took a major step toward the modern era' during that time, Pernicka said."
[Based on: Indo-Asian News Service article (World's oldest Copper Age settlement found), Belgrade, November 15, 2010 - First Published: 10:49 IST(15/11/2010), Last Updated: 10:56 IST(15/11/2010)]
5,500 B.C. - Cities / Mesopotamia - "Reportedly: "Cities, or settlements which became cities, existed in Mesopotamia from 5,500 B.C. The earlier cities lay in the northern part of Iraq, and in northeastern Syria. City living quickly spread down the Euphrates River and into the valley of the Tigris River, reaching the swamps at the head of the Persian Gulf before 4,000 B.C." *Links: 1, 2
5,500 B.C. - Carahunge / Armenia - "In the mountains of nowadays Armenia (in the south, close to town Goris), the first observatory Carahunge (Car-means stone, hunge-means voice, sound) was created. It has a history of 7.500 years and scientists believe, that there is a tight connection between the observatory in Armenia and Stonehenge in Britain, since the latter is much younger (about 4000 years) and the name itself is similar to the Armenian name and the second half of the name (hange) does not really mean anything in English. [....] The age of Carahunge has been estimated to be 7500 years or older (VI millennium BC). This was accurately ascertained by taking readings of the motion of the Sun, Moon and stars, using four independent astronomical methods based on the laws of the changes of the Earth’s axis precession and incline." [Based on: http://carahunge.com/]
*Trivia: "[....] The stones of Zorats Karer, sometimes also referred to as Karahunj after the name of a nearby village, have been the subject of much researches by various authors, notably Elma Parsamian of the Biurakan Observatory in the 1980s and Paris Herouni, an Armenian astronomer. According to Heruni, the site was 'a temple with a large and developed observatory, and also a university'. He thinks that the temple was dedicated to the Armenian sun-god Ari. He made a survey of the site and claimed it was 7600–4500 years old. [....] In December, 2010 Zorats Karer was featured on an episode of the popular History Channel show, Ancient Aliens on episode 14, titled 'Unexplained Structures' [....]."
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zorats_Karer]
5,500 B.C. - Complex Fist Traps / Russia - "Complex Fish Traps Over 7,500 Years Old Found in Russia" [Based on: Title for Popular Archaeology article (December 2011, Cover Stories, Daily News - Complex Fish Traps Over 7,500 Years Old Found in Russia), Wed, Jan 25, 201] - Vol. 5 December 2011 - Print the December 2011 Issue
5,400 B.C. - Zhaobaogou culture - "The Zhaobaogou culture (趙宝溝文化 Zhào bǎo gōu wénhuà) (5400–4500 BC) was a Neolithic culture in northeast China, found primarily in the Luan River valley in Inner Mongolia and northern Hebei. The culture produced sand-tempered, incised pottery vessels with geometric and zoomorphic designs. The culture also produced stone and clay human figurines. [... .]"
[Based on: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zhaobaogou_culture]
5,400 B.C. - Human Settlement / Eridu - "Mesopotamia is located on the fertile flood plain of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in a hot desert ecology. Human settlements based on irrigation agriculture first appeared coincident to the establishment of Eridu about 7,400 BP. A great stepped tower, a ziggurat, which culminated a series of 20 structures built one upon another during a span of 3,500 years evidences Eridu's importance. Public architectural monuments were the focus of early Mesopotamian community centers. By 6,500 BP. large scale canal systems and many towns with public architecture had been founded. Eridu was the largest." *Link: 1
5,300 B.C. - Beixin culture - "The Beixin culture [北辛文化 Běi xīn wénhuà] (5300–4100 BC) was a Neolithic culture in Shandong, China. It was the successor of the Houli culture (6500–5500 BC) and precursor of the Dawenkou culture (4100–2600 BC).. [...] Houses tended to be semi-subterranean and circular in shape. [... .]"
[Based on: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beixin_culture]
5,292 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -
5,149 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -
5,038 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -
5,015 B.C. - Neptune-Pluto Conjunction -
5,000 B.C. - Wiki Trivia - "The 5th millennium BC saw the spread of agriculture from the Near East throughout southern and central Europe. [NP] Urban cultures in Mesopotamia and Anatolia flourished, developing the wheel. Copper ornaments became more common, marking the Chalcolithic. Animal husbandry spread throughout Eurasia, reaching China. World population grew slightly throughout the millennium, maybe from 5 to 7 million people. [....]"
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/5th_millennium_BCE]
5,000 B.C. - Daxi culture - "The Daxi culture [大溪文化 Dà xī wénhuà] (5000–3300 BC) was a Neolithic culture centered in the Three Gorges region around the middle Yangtze, China. The culture ranged from western Hubei to eastern Sichuan and the Pearl River Delta. [... .]"
[Based on: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daxi_culture]
5,000 B.C. - Trivia / "Horus" - "According to reports, many Egyptologists have endowed Horus with a grand old age. He commenced life at the time of Osiris 22,000 years ago and kept up his health and strength down to the time of Menes 5,000 years ago. A grand old age of 17,000 years. This goes the Hindu mistranslation about Rama one better. Rama lasted only 10,000 years. From the commencement of Egyptian history, and apparently for thousands of years, Egypt was governed by the Church with a Horus. The last Horus as the Hieratic head of religion in Lower Egypt was the Horus that immediately preceded King Menes, according to Manetho [in the writings of Manetho there are references to six different Horuses as Hieratic heads]. The date of Mena, the first king of Egypt, is variously given B.C. 5,867 [Champollion], B.C. 5,004 [Mariette], B.C. 5,892 [Lepsius], and B.C. 4,455 [Brugsch]."
5,000 B.C. - Sahara Ecology - "Dried-up riverbeds as well as cave paintings indicate that at this time the Sahara was a land of flowing rivers, lush green pastures, and forests."
5,000 B.C. - Hemudu culture - "The Hemudu culture [河姆渡文化 Hémǔdù wénhuà] (5500 BC to 3300 BC) was a Neolithic culture that flourished just south of the Hangzhou Bay in Jiangnan in modern Yuyao, Zhejiang, China. [...]In the early Hemudu period is the maternal clan phase. Descent is said to be matrilineal and the social status of children and women is comparatively high. In the later periods, they gradually transitioned into patrilineal clans. During this period, the social status of men rose and descent is passed through the male line. [... .]"
[Based on: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hemudu_culture]
5,000 B.C. - Yangshao culture - "The Yangshao culture [仰韶文化 Yǎngsháo wénhuà] was a Neolithic culture that existed extensively along the Yellow River in China. It is dated from around 5000 BC to 3000 BC. The culture is named after Yangshao, the first excavated representative village of this culture, which was discovered in 1921 in Henan Province by the Swedish archaeologist Johan Gunnar Andersson (1874–1960). The culture flourished mainly in the provinces of Henan, Shaanxi and Shanxi. [...] The archaeological site of Banpo [半坡 Bàn pō] village, near Xi'an, is one of the best-known ditch-enclosed settlements of the Yangshao culture.[... .]"
[Based on: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yangshao_culture]
5,000 B.C. - Majiabang culture - "The Majiabang culture [馬家浜文化 Mǎ jiā bāng wénhuà] was a Chinese Neolithic culture that existed at the mouth of the Yangtze River, primarily around Lake Tai near Shanghai and north of Hangzhou Bay. The culture spread throughout southern Jiangsu and northern Zhejiang from around 5000 BC to 3300 BC. The later part of the period is known as the Songze culture. [... .]"
[Based on: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Majiabang_culture]5,000 B.C. - Megaliths / Egypt - "Standing megaliths and a ring of stones were erected from 6,700 to 7,000 years ago in the southern Sahara desert. They are the oldest dated astronomical alignment discovered so far and bear a striking resemblance to Stonehenge and other megalithic sites constructed a millennium later in England, Brittany, and Europe."
5,000 B.C. - Art / Amazon Basin - "[....] Archaeologists who have studied the photographs believe the art – which features images of faces and snakes – is another indication that thousands of years ago the Amazon was already home to large civilisations. [....]"
[Based on: guardian.co.uk article (Stone age etchings found in Amazon basin as river levels fall / Drought in Brazil reveals engravings up to 7,000 years old – evidence of ancient civilisation), by Tom Phillips in Rio de Janeiro, 11/10/10]
5,000 B.C. - Trepanation? / Alsace - "A 7,000-year-old burial at Ensisheim, in the French region of Alsace, has yielded the earliest  unequivocal evidence for trepanation, according to Kurt W. Alt of Freiburg University and his colleagues. Trepanation is a surgical operation that involves the removal of a rectangle or disk of bone from the cranial vault. Most previous claims to cases predating the Late Neolithic age have been shown to be untreated head injuries or the results of decomposition."
5,000 B.C. - Trivia / I Ching, China - "The I Ching, or Book of Changes, is the most widely read of the five Chinese Classics. The book was traditionally written by the legendary Chinese Emperor Fu Hsi [2953-2838 B.C.]. It is possible that the the I Ching originated from a prehistoric divination technique which dates back as far as 5,000 B.C. Futher commentaries were added by King Wen and the Duke of Chou in the eleventh century B.C."
5,000 B.C. - Farm Houses / Greece - "Geophysical studies at Kefala Hill in the Knossos archaeological site on Crete island, have revealed findings of the most ancient farm houses in Greece, and perhaps in all of Europe, dating back between 7,000- 6,400 BC. [NP] The important finds were presented on Wednesday in Athens by the head of the British School in Athens and university professor Catherine Morgan at the school's open annual meeting held at the Archaeological Society building. [NP] The British school, in cooperation with Dutch scientists, have been conducting studies in the Knossos area since May 2009 for the charting and imaging of the archaeological and geological deposits with the use of state-of-the-art radars. [NP] Moreover, Morgan presented an annual review of the British School on the research progress on Keros island in the Cyclades complex, and especially at the Daskalio early Bronze Age settlement, at Kavos on the Ionian island of Corfu, in Thessaly region and on the islands of Kythera and Antikythera." [Based on: Archaeology News article (Important archaeological finds at Knossos), 02/26/10]]
http://www.archaeologynews.org/story.asp?ID=575185&Title=Important archaeological finds at Knossos
5,000 B.C. - Bronze Age Mesopotamia - [....] Widely considered as the cradle of civilization, Bronze Age Mesopotamia included Sumer, Akkadian, Babylonian and Assyrian empires. In the Iron Age, it was ruled by the Neo-Assyrian Empire and Neo-Babylonian Empire, and later conquered by the Achaemenid Empire. It mostly remained under Persian rule until the 7th century Islamic conquest of the Sassanid Empire. [....] The history of Mesopotamia begins with the emergence of urban societies in northern Iraq in 5000 BCE, and ends with either the arrival of the Achaemenid Empire in the 6th century BCE, when Mesopotamia began being colonized by foreign powers, or with the arrival of the Islamic Caliphate, when the region came to be known as Iraq. [....]"
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mesopotamia] - [T.D. - 07/16/09]
5,000 B.C. - Human Habitation / Lebanon - "Stone age farmers and fisherman inhabited the area around Byblos, Lebanon. Archeologists at Byblos found at least 12 layers of civilizations that dated back 7,000 years."
5,000 B.C. - Signs of Mass Cannibalism? / Europe - "At a settlement in what is now southern Germany, the menu turned gruesome 7,000 years ago. Over a period of perhaps a few decades, hundreds of people were butchered and eaten before parts of their bodies were thrown into oval pits, a new study suggests. [....] 'Human sacrifice at Herxheim is a hypothesis that’s difficult to prove right now, but we have evidence that several hundred people were eaten over a brief period,' Boulestin [Bruno Boulestin of the University of Bordeaux 1 in France] says. Skeletal markings indicate that human bodies were butchered in the same way as animals. [....]"
[Based on: Wired Science article (Controversial Signs of Mass Cannibalism), by Bruce Bower, Science News Author, December 4, 2009]
4,900 B.C. - Abandoned? / Catalhuyuk - An estimated date when the Catalhuyuk area was abandoned.
4,900 B.C. - Leather Sandal / Missouri - "[....] The oldest known footwear - more sandal than shoe - was discovered in Missouri and is about 6,900 years old. Made from woven fibers and leather, the sandals are also in poor condition. [....]" [Based on: Los Angeles Times article (5,600-year-old shoe found / With it were grapes, winemaking apparatus and three human heads preserved in jars.) by Thomas H. Maugh II, p. A19, 06/10/10]
4,895 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -
4,490 B.C. - "Native Americans" / Iowa - "[....] Workers found more than 6,000 artifacts, from arrowheads and spear points to flint chips and even two human skeletons thought to be 6,680 to 6,890 years old at the site of a new wastewater treatment facility in Des Moines [Iowa], north of the Des Moines River. [NP] They are among some of the oldest and most well-preserved artifacts ever uncovered in Iowa. [....]"
[Based on: press-citizen.com article (UI archaeologists dig up 7,000-year-old remains) 10:15 PM, Aug. 19, 2011]
4,800 B.C. - Ancient Civilization / Europe
Archaeologists have discovered Europe's oldest civilisation, a network of dozens of temples, 2,000 years older than Stonehenge and the Pyramids.
More than 150 gigantic monuments have been located beneath the fields and cities of modern-day Germany, Austria and Slovakia. They were built 7,000 years ago, between 4800BC and 4600BC. Their discovery, revealed today by The Independent, will revolutionise the study of prehistoric Europe, where an appetite for monumental architecture was thought to have developed later than in Mesopotamia and Egypt.
In all, more than 150 temples have been identified. Constructed of earth and wood, they had ramparts and palisades that stretched for up to half a mile. They were built by a religious people who lived in communal longhouses up to 50 metres long, grouped around substantial villages. Evidence suggests their economy was based on cattle, sheep, goat and pig farming.
Their civilisation seems to have died out after about 200 years and the recent archaeological discoveries are so new that the temple building culture does not even have a name yet. [....] By David Keys, Archaeology Correspondent - June 11th, 2005
[Based on: http://news.independent.co.uk/europe/story.jsp?story=645976]
4,790 B.C. - Ancient Timbers / London, England - "When MI6 set up home on the banks of the Thames one secret escaped its watchful eyes. The oldest wooden structure ever found on the river, timbers almost 7,000 years old, have been discovered buried in the silt below the windows of the security services' ziggurat headquarters at Vauxhall, south London. [....] The timbers, partly scoured bare by erosion of the river bed, the largest up to a third of a metre in diameter, were discovered in work during exceptionally low tides last February, but carbon dating work - revealed in the new edition of London Archaeologist journal - has only recently been completed, proving that the trees were felled between 4790 BC and 4490 BC. [NP] Although the site is now exposed only at the lowest tides, the ancient Thames was narrower and deeper, and Milne believes that 7,000 years ago the timbers may have been built on dry land, possibly at the highest point of a small island. [....] The site is just where a smaller river, the Effra, enters the Thames, and it was clearly important to the prehistoric Londoners. The archaeologists, working with experts from the Museum of London and English Heritage, also found worked flint from the same date as the timbers, older pottery, and just upstream, on the far side of the modern Vauxhall bridge, a much later Bronze Age structure. [....]"
[Based on: The Guardian article (7,000-year-old timbers found beneath MI6 Thames headquarters / Archaeologists hail oldest wooden structure ever found on river, despite security services' armed response to researchers) by Maev Kennedy, 01/06/11]
4,784 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -
4,700 B.C. - Megaliths / Carnac - " 'Prehistory' itself is just the name that we give to the almost total amnesia that our species has suffered concerning more than 40,000 years of our own past. This amnesia covers the entire period from the emergence of anatomically modern humans until the first 'historical records' began to be written down in Sumer and in Egypt in the third millenium BC.
"Out of that long period of amnesia, and from its borders with history, a number of mighty monuments have come down to us. These include rock-hewn temples, circles of megaliths, and sacred sites arranged in dead straight lines over vast distances, such as the avenues of standing stones at Carnac in northern France. One earthern mound there, which contains a megalithic passageway orientated to the winter solstice sunrise, has been carbon-dated to 4.700 BC. [Based on: Graham Hancock and Santha Faiia, Heaven's Mirror, Quest For The Lost Civilization, pp. x-xi]
*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carnac_stones4,641 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -
4,700 B.C. - Hongshan culture - "The Hongshan culture (simplified Chinese: 红山文化; traditional Chinese: 紅山文化; pinyin: Hóngshān wénhuà) was a Neolithic culture in northeastern China. Hongshan sites have been found in an area stretching from Inner Mongolia to Liaoning, and dated from about 4700 to 2900 BC. [...] The Hongshanhou site was discovered by the Japanese archaeologist Torii Ryūzō in 1908 and extensively excavated in 1935 by Kōsaku Hamada and Mizuno Seiichi. [... .]"
[Based on: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hongshan_culture]
4,700 B.C. - Europe's 'oldest town' - "[...] Vasil Nikolov, a professor from Bulgaria's National Institute of Archaeology, said the stone walls excavated by his team near the town of Provadia were estimated to date between 4,700 and 4,200 B.C. [...] 'We started excavation work in 2005, but only after this archaeological season did we gather enough evidence to back up this claim,' Nikolov said. [...] Nikolov said the settlement near Provadia was home to some 350 people who probably produced salt from the nearby rocksalt deposits. [...] The two-story houses, as well as the copper needles and pottery found in graves at the site, suggest a community of wealthy people. [... .]" [Based on: A.P. article (Bulgarian claims to find Europe's 'oldest town' / Archaeologist says team has unearthed settlement that dates to 4,700-4,200 B.C., was wealthy from salt.), p. A11, S.L.P.D., 11/02/12]
4,600 B.C. - Ancient Civilization / Bulgaria - "Found by chance during construction works in 1972 in the western industrial part of Varna the Varna Eneolithic Necropolis was under research excavations till 1991 under the direction of Mr. M.Lazarov /1972-1976/ and Mr. I. Ivanov /1972-1991/. It is situated about 500 m to the north of the Varna Lake and about 4 km to the west of downtown Varna. [....]"
[Based on: http://www.varna-bg.com/museums/archaeology/enexhibit/enhall5.htm]
*Trivia: "[....] The Varna Chalcolithic Necropolis (4600 - 4200 B.C.) which experts qualify as 'the world's oldest gold and Europe's most ancient civilization' was a sensational discovery. [....]"
[Based on: http://www.travel-bulgaria.com/content/treasures.shtml]
*Trivia: "[....] The golden artifacts from a vast burial complex discovered in the 1970s near the Black Sea port of Varna date back to the end of the fifth millennium B.C. and are internationally renowned as the world's oldest golden treasure." [Based on: A.P. article, p. A12, S.L.P.D., 08/18/05]
*Trivia: "Earliest gold objects buried in Bulgarian graves." [Based on: N.G.M. (Dec. 2006), p. 113 & 114]
4,530 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -
4,522 - Neptune-Pluto Conjunction -
4,500 B.C. - Cities / Assyria - "Between 4,500 and 2,400 B.C., complex societies appear in the form of cities, with craft specialization and writing. These features were associated with the Sumerians, but they quickly spread to other parts of Mesopotamia, including Assyria. In Assyria, settlements had become large and guarded by fortifications walls, which implies the risk of attack from outside, and hence the need for defense and warfare." *Links: 1
4,500 B.C. - Elephants / China - "A sacrificial dump [4,500 - 2,000 B.C.] in Guanghan, Sichuan Province, in China was uncovered in 1976. Large quantities of elephants tusks reveal that elephants roamed the area. Human figures, monster masks, and tree fragments made of bronze tubes were also found."
4,500 B.C. - Salt Mine / Azerbaijan - "[....] French archeologists have recently provided proof that the Duzdagi salt deposits, situated in the Araz Valley in Azerbaijan, were already being exploited from the second half of the 5th millennium BC. [NP] It is therefore the most ancient exploitation of rock salt attested to date. And, to the researchers' surprise, intensive salt production was carried out in this mine at least as early as 3500 BC. This work, conducted in collaboration with the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences and published on 1st December 2010 in the journal TUBA-AR, should help to elucidate how the first complex civilizations, which emerged between 4500 BC and 3500 BC in the Caucasus, were organized. [....] Until now, the oldest traces of exploitation of this deposit, which is still in activity, went back to the 2nd millennium BC. This dating was based on the fortuitous discovery in the 1970s of an ancient collapsed gallery that contained the remains of four workers buried with their tools. [NP] In 2008, a French-Azerbaijani team directed by Marro and her colleague Veli Baxsaliyev began a systematic exploration of the Duzdagi mine. The team then made an inventory of a large number of remnants (tools, ceramics, etc.), the oldest of which date back to 4500 BC. It is the first time that artifacts from this period have been discovered in such large numbers in a salt mine. The researchers have thus been able to demonstrate that exploitation of this salt mine has been going on for a very long time, extending back at least to the second half of the 5th millennium BC: Duzdagi is therefore the oldest exploitation of rock salt known to date. [....] This work raises a lot of questions. Who and what was the salt intended for in the 5th and 4th millennia BC. How were the communities that exploited these deposits organized? What were the political and economic links between the different regional sites (villages, workshops and mines), etc. To find part of the answers, the archeologists hope to excavate the collapsed tunnels of this deposit, which covers more than 6 km2, in the near future." PhysOrg
[Based on: News.AZ article (Oldest salt mine known to date located in Azerbaijan), 11/30/10]
4,500 B.C. - Burial Cave / Galilee - "A 6,500-year-old burial cave full of clay ossuaries, ceramic and stone vessels, figurines thought to have been ritual objects, and piles of human skulls and bones has been discovered in Galilee in northern Israel. Until now, archaeologists believed that Chalcolithic cultures in different parts of Israel were more or less self-sufficient. But clay jugs found at the new site are similar to those uncovered in the Golan Heights, and bronze ax heads are like those from the Judean Desert, suggesting some interaction between cultures. The ossuaries, however, are unique. 'Decorated ossuary facades characteristic of this period that depict human faces are flat, with protruding noses,' says Zvi Gal, director of the Israel Antiquities Authority Northern Region. 'Here we found three-dimensional sculpted heads, with distinct eyes, noses, and ears, unlike any ever found.' "
4,468 B.C. - Narmer Plate - "The original sky chart of the remote Ancient Egyptians was incorporated into the Narmer Plate in 4,468 B.C." *Link: 1
4,387 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -
4,380 B.C. - Equinox at Taurus - "The immediate predecessor of the Age of Aries was the Age of Taurus - the Bull - which spanned the period between 4,380 B.C. and 2,200 B.C. It was during this precessional epoch [when the sun on the vernal equinox rose in the constellation of Taurus] that the Bull-cult of Minoan Crete flourished. It is interesting to note that at the very beginning of the dynastic period, the Egyptians were already venerating the Apis and Mnevis Bulls. Furthermore, the Sumerians represented the Bull of Heaven with human head and bull's body. The Greek representations of the Minotaur, depict him with human body and bull's head." *Link: 1
4,276 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -
4,241 B.C. - Egyptian Calendar - "A date believed to indicate the earliest recorded date in the Egyptian calendar." *Link: 1
4,200 B.C. - Rise of Patriarchy - "The Great Cycle of the Mayan calendar definitely has relevance to something, but what? If we look back into the past we will rediscover that the event which coincides with the beginning of the Great Cycle is none other than the birth of written language. This time in the evolution of our species represents the commencement of history itself. The period from 4200 to 3000 BC also coincides with the rise of patriarchy which ended the peaceful goddess culture that existed before history during the Early Neolithic."
4,133 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -
4,100 B.C. - Dawenkou culture - "The Dawenkou culture [大汶口文化 Dà wèn kǒu wénhuà] is a name given by archaeologists to a group of Neolithic communities who lived primarily in Shandong, but also appeared in Anhui, Henan and Jiangsu, China. The culture existed from 4100 to 2600 BC, co-existing with the Yangshao culture. [...] Dawenkou's inhabitants were the earliest practitioners of trepanation in prehistoric China. A skull of a Dawenkou man dating to 3000 BC was found with severe head injuries which appeared to have been remedied by this primitive surgery.  [... .]"
[Based on: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dawenkou_culture]
4,029 B.C. - Neptune-Pluto conjunction -
4,022 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -
*Interlude: "Did orthodox church dogma suggest Earth was created about 4,000 B.C.? Apparently, it did. Unfortunately, this long-held popular paradigm has seriously warped a modern view of the ancient world by attributing post-4,000 B.C. dates to the oldest civilizations and world cultures on the planet. Not only the first people, the first civilizations, the first languages, the first calendars, the first monuments, the first governments and religions, but after about 4,000 B.C. one could find nearly every Biblical event [thus all of Earth's history]. One could find things this way because what some people once believed, some people still do! " [- E.M.]
4,004 B.C. - Biblical Creation? - "Reported date for the creation of the world according to Bishop Ussher [1581-1656]. Based on O.T. Chronology, according to Ussher, Adam and Eve were driven from Paradise on Monday 10 November 4,004 B.C. Ussher was Archbishop of Armagh, Primate of All Ireland, and Vice-Chancellor of Trinity College in Dublin. According to John Lightfoot [1602-1675], Vice-Chancellor of Cambridge University and a contemporary of Ussher, man was created on October 23, 4,004 B.C., at nine o'clock in the morning. Other dates for the beginning of the world include: August 21st, 4004 B.C. and March 21st, 4004 B.C."
*Trivia: "[....] ... Natural selection is the process by which genes change their sequences. In the process of changing, though, those genes laid down a record of our four-billion year biography as a biological lineage. They are, if we only know how to read them, a more valuable source of information on our past than the manuscripts of the Venerable Bede. In other words, a record of our past is etched into our genes. [....]" [Based on: GENOME, The Aurobiography of a Species in 23 chapters, by Matt Ridley (Copyright 1999), 2000 paperback edition, p. 35]
4,000 B.C. - Wiki Trivia - "The 4th millennium BC saw major changes in human culture. It marked the beginning of the Bronze Age and of writing. [NP] The city states of Sumer and the kingdom of Egypt were established and grew to prominence. Agriculture spread widely across Eurasia. World population in the course of the millennium doubled, approximately from 7 to 14 million people in the area surrounding them. [....]"
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/4th_millennium_BCE]
4,000 B.C. - Stone Age - "The entire period of hominid history prior to 4,000 B.C. might be termed the Stone Age."
4,000 B.C. - Temple of Ur - "In the early 1900's, the builders of the Baghdad railway placed a station about 120 miles north of Basra because the landmarked site was a recognized travellers' rest. Here, an enormous solitary hill rose above the desert - a hill known to the Bedouins as Tell al Muqayyar [Mound of Pitch]. But some thousands of years ago this desert waste was a lush, fertile valley with cornfields and date groves. As was soon to be discovered, within this great mound was the towering multi-levelled Temple of Ur, along with the rest of the ancient city.
"In 1923 , the archaeologist Sir Charles Leonard Wooley, with a joint team from the British Museum and the University of Pennsylvania, set out to excavate the mound because some years earlier a collection of very old texts, engraved on stone cylinders, had been unearthed near the summit. One of these cylinder-seals [as they became known] had revealed the name of Ur-nammu, King of Ur in about 2,010 BC, and so it was determined that this was probably the location of Abraham's home." [Laurence Gardner, Genesis Of The Grail Kings]
"When the Wooley team investigated beneath the foundations of the 4,000-year-old ziggurat and its confines, they fiound the remains of another great ziggurat and a buried city from even more ancient times, with courtyard bricks dating back to the 4th millennium BC. Also there were graves and artifacts from 3,700 BC, around the time of Adam, along with numerous archaeologically valuable items from a far more distant era. They even discovered a kingly burial ground, together with documentary records and cultural treasures unsurpassed in all Egypt." [Based on: Laurence Gardner, Genesis Of The Grail Kings]
4,000 B.C. - Utah Villiages - "Archaeologists led reporters into a remote canyon Wednesday [06/30/04] to reveal an almost perfectly preserved picture of ancient life: stone pit houses, granaries and a bounty of artifacts kept secret for more than a half century [since about 1950]. [....] Archaeologists said the villiages were occupied more than 1,000 years ago and may be as old as 4,500 years. [....] Hundreds of granaries, ranging from cupboard-sized to several yards across, are in some cases hundreds of feet up nearly inaccessible cliffs. [....] Waldo Wilcox, the rancher who sold the land and returned Wednesday [06/30/04], kept the archaeological sites a closely guarded secret for more than 50 years." [Based on: A.P. article by Paul Foy, 07/01/04]
*Trivia: "Hidden deep inside Utah's nearly inaccessible Book Cliffs region, 130 miles from Salt Lake City, the prehistoric villages run for 12 miles and include hundreds of rock art panels, cliffside granaries, stone houses built halfway underground, rock shelters, and the mummified remains of long-ago inhabitants. The site was occupied for at least 3,000 years until it was abandoned more than 1,000 years ago, when the Fremont people mysteriously vanished. [....] The secret is coming to light after the federal and state governments paid Wilcox $2.5 million for the 4,200-acre ranch, which is surrounded by wilderness study lands. The state took ownership this year but has not decided how to control public access. [....] Metcalfe said a team of researchers has documented about 200 pristine sites occupied as long as 4,500 years ago, 'and we've only looked in a few places.' [....] Archaeologists think the sites may have been occupied as long as 7,000 years ago; they could shed light on the earliest inhabitants of North America, who are believed to have arrived by way of the Bering Strait 10,000 years ago. [....] 'I didn't let people go in there to destroy it,' said Wilcox, whose parents bought the ranch in 1951 and threw up a gate to the rugged canyon. 'The less people know about this, the better.' Over the years, Wilcox occasionally welcomed archaeologists to inspect part of the canyon, 'but we'd watch 'em.' When one Kent State researcher used a pick ax to take a pigment sample from a pictograph, Wilcox 'took the pick from him and took him out of the gate.' [....] He [Wilcox] said he gave up the land after the San Francisco-based Trust for Public Land, which transferred the ranch to public ownership, promised to protect it. [....] Archaeologists didn't realize the full significance of Range Creek until 2002. While many structures are standing or visible, others could be buried. Archaeologists have not done any excavations, simply because 'we have too big a task just to document' sites in plain view, Jones said. After The Associated Press started inquiring, Metcalfe decided to hasten an announcement. Next week, he plans to take news organizations to the ranch, 30 miles off the nearest paved highway over rough, mountainous terrain. A gate inside Range Creek Canyon blocks access; a dirt road continues from there about 14 miles down the canyon to a ranch house, now a hub of archaeological activity." [Based on: A.P. article by Paul Foy, 06/25/2004]\
4,000 B.C. - Copper in Use - "Copper was in use by this time."
4,000 B.C. - Pa Kua / China - "According to Chinese legend, in the 4th millenium B.C. a dragon delivered the eight mystic trigrams, the Pa Kua, to a legendary emperor."
4,000 B.C. - Chinese Writing - "In many pots, jades, and bronzes ranging from the late third millenium B.C. to as late as Shang and Chou dynasties, bird and sun motifs appear together, often joined, and possibly can be read as yang niao, or 'sun birds', the name of a local eastern Yi group which had settled in the Lower Yangtze valley. This could be an example of the precursor to Chinese writing." *Link: 1
4,000 B.C. - Winery / Armenia - "[....] Where did archaeologists make their discovery? In a cavern in southern Armenia near the Iranian border. 'The textual record for wine consumption in the area is a familiar one,' says Ben O'Donnell at Wine Spectator. Mount Ararat, where noted wine enthusiast Noah is said to have disembarked from the Ark, is only about 60 miles away. [NP] How significant is this discovery? At 6,000 years old, it's by far the oldest wine-making facility yet discovered. The oldest previously known winery, found in the West Bank, dates to around 1650 B.C. 'The fact that wine-making was already so well developed in 4,000 B.C. suggests that the technology probably goes back much earlier,' says archeologist Patrick McGovern of University of Pennsylvania, in the Los Angeles Times." [Based on: Article (The 6,000-year-old winery / Archaeologists are toasting the discovery of the world's oldest known wine-making facility, dating back to 4000 B.C. Now that's vintage!) posted on January 12, 2011, at 4:30 PM, Sources: National Geographic, Time, Los Angeles Times, The Daily Telegraph, Wine Spectator]
4,000 B.C. - Scythians / Akkad - "The ancient Scythians [a transient kingly tribe who first domesticated the horse before 4000 BC] were indeed the early occupiers of Akkad in pre-Sumerian times." [Based on: Laurence Gardner, Genesis Of The Grail Kings, p. 46]
4,000 B.C. - Megoliths / Malta - Reportedly: "Malta is the site of the world's most ancient temple complexes: recent dendrochronological dating has put the age of these monuments at just short of 6,000 years." [Link: 1]
4,000 B.C. - Petroglyphs / Russia - "[...] 'Petroglyphs are found at four sites in the area - on three islands and on a stone block on the lakeshore. The oldest ones date to between 5,000 and 6,000 years old,' explains Gjerde. The main site is on the island of Kanozero. [....]"
[Based on: Article (Remarkable Russian Petroglyphs) By: Hanne Jakobsen, ScienceNordic - 03/18/12 - Translated by Glenn Ostling. Article reproduced by kind permission of ScienceNordic]
4,000 B.C. - Agriculture / Europe - "Agriculture established across Europe." [Based on: Compact History Of The World, edited by Geoffrey Parker, copyright 2003, p. 16] - [First published by Times Books (as The Times Compact Atlas of World History) 1995 - updated and reprinted 2002]
4,000 B.C. - Ice-Free Antarctica? - "The Piri Reis Map, which is a genuine document, not a hoax of any kind, was made at Constantinople in A.D. 1513. The ice-free coast of Queen Maud Land shown in the map is a colossal puzzle because geological evidence confirms that the latest date it could have been surveyed and charted in an ice-free condition is 4,000 B.C. The true enigma of this 1513 map is not so much its inclusion of a continent not discovered until 1,818 but its portrayal of part of a coastline of that continent under ice-free conditions which came to an end 6,000 years ago and have not since recurred. Piri Reis tells us that he was not responsible for the original surveying and cartography, but he admitts that his role was merly that of compiler and copyist and that the map was derived from a large number of source maps. In 1963 professor Hapgood argued that some of the source maps the admiral had made use of, in particular those said to date back to the fourth century B.C., had themselves been based on even older sources, which in turn had been bassed on sources originating in the furthest antiquity. There was, he asserted, irrefutable evidence that the earth had been comprehensively mapped before 4,000 B.C. by a hitherto unknown and undiscovered civilization which had achieved a high level of technological advancement."
4,000 B.C. - Mesopotamian Flood? - "Among some 20,000 preserved clay tablets, excavated from the world's most famous library at Nineveh [old Ninua] in Mesopotamian Assyria, are twelve which tell the story of the Flood. According to these texts, the hero of the epic, who was commanded by the gods to 'build a ship', was King Uta-napishtim of Shuruppak, who reigned around 4,000 BC. His story even states that when the waters had abated, 'All mankind had turned to clay; the ground was flat like a roof'." [Laurence Gardner, Genesis Of The Grail Kings]
*Trivia: "Flood strata of Mesopotamia has been scientifically dated to about 4,000 B.C."
4,000 B.C. - Amber Trade / Europe - "Chiefdoms of northern Europe were trading in amber."
4,000 B.C. - Bulgarian Inscriptions - "Epigraphers remain perplexed concerning such ancient European inscriptions as the Azillian signary c.8000 B.C.E. from southern France, the Tartaria tablets from Romania and the 'proto-writing' from Gradeshnitsa, Bulgaria dated before 4,000 B.C."
4,000 B.C. - Neolithic farming / Egypt - "[....] Egypt's cabinet in 1989 declared 1,110 square km north of the lake [lake Qarun] a nature protectorate, an area that also contains unique geology, Pharaonic basalt quarries from the Old Kingdom and fossils of early whales and primates. [NP] Archaeologists say the remains of rain-based Neolithic farming in the reserve may hold vital clues to a technological leap that led to irrigation-based farming along the Nile. [NP] Around 4,000 BC, humans occupying a strip along the northern shore of the lake seized a window of only a few centuries of rainfall to grow grain in previously inhospitable desert, archaeologists say. [NP] 'We have the evidence of the earliest agriculture activity in Egypt. So it's before the Pharaohs, it's before the early dynastic period when Egypt becomes a state,' said Willeke Wendrich, an archaeology professor at the University of California in Los Angeles. [NP] 'What we have on the north shore of Fayoum is something unique worldwide. What we have is a Neolithic landscape which, because it's desert, has not been overbuilt,' she said in an interview. [....] The Neolithic farming community that appeared around six millennia ago had little material to build with and left no sign of permanent buildings or structures, she [Willeke Wendrich] said. [NP] 'They probably lived in some sort of reed matting huts. But what we do see is a whole pattern on the surface of fireplaces for different purposes - to make pottery, for the fish, to roast their meat. From that pattern we're trying to understand their activities,' Wendrich said. [....]" [Based on: Reuters article (Neolithic site ‘virtually untouched’), by Patrick Werr, 06/06/11]
4,000 B.C. - Olmec's / South America - "The roots of the Mayan civilization can be traced back thousands of years to the Olmecs, an earlier civilization that inhabited an area along the Gulf of Mexico. The Olmec, which means 'rubber people,' date back to at least 4000 BC. They began their rise to civilization around 1500 BC, and are considered to have reached the first advanced stages of high civilization around 550 BC."
*Trivia: "According to popular belief, the Olmecs were a culture of ancient peoples of the East Mexico lowlands. Other reports suggest a much older culture was responsible for the ancient sites which the Olmecs ['their descendants'] later inherited. It was at San Lorenzo that the earliest carbon-dates for an Olmec site [around 1,500 B.C.] had been recorded by archaeologists. However, Olmec culture appeared to have been fully evolved by that epoch and there was no evidence that the evolution had taken place in the vicinity of San Lorenzo. Not a single, solitary sign of anything that could be described as the 'developmental phase' of Olmec society had been unearthed anywhere in Mexico [or, for that matter, anywhere in the New World]." [Links: 1, 2 number 12]
4,000 B.C. - Set [the "Devil"] / Egypt - "About ten thousand years after the time of Thoth [about 14,000 B.C.], the vile, unscrupolous Egyptian priesthood, to bring fear and dread into the hearts of people and to enslave them for their priestly purposes, turned Set into the devil of today. Before a devil was invented by the Egyptians, a devil was unknown. Before that it was a fight between the Soul or Divine Force and the material affinities for control of man's mind and, through his mind, his bodily actions. The Soul's endeavor was to raise the material man to a higher plane. This the material affinities fought against and tried to keep him down to their own level." [Based on: Col. James Churchward]
4,000 B.C. - Human Settlement / Poland - "In Poland the archeological site at Oslonki uncovered some 30 longhouses and 80 graves."
4,000 B.C. - Footprints / Pembrokeshire - "A new booklet invites people to explore the lost lands of ancestors beyond the current Welsh coastline. [NP] Prehistoric Wales - published by Dyfed Archaeological Trust - tells how the rich homelands were drowned as global warming in the wake of the last great Ice Age caused a dramatic rise in sea levels. [NP] Footprints which are 6,000 years old can still be seen in areas such as Lydstep beach in Pembrokeshire, preserved in hardened peat deposits. [NP] Charlotte Dubenskij spoke to Ken Murphy, director of Dyfed Archaeological Trust and Karl-James Langford of Archaeology Cymru." [Based on BBC article (Prehistoric Wales: lost lands of ancestors) 03/23/11]
4,000 B.C. - Human Advancement / Sumer - "Although Mesopotamia was a world leader in numerous aspects from around 10,000 B.C., there appears to have been a very marked further advancement from about 4,000 B.C. when southern Mesopotamia became identified as Sumer and the truly municipal cities flourished. By that time they were formally recognized as city-states which operated as individual kingdoms, and it is the story of the amazing rise of Sumer which provides the very thrust of the patriarchal narrative in Genesis. This sudden cultural expansion was not simply a matter of general evolvement; it was a mighty technical and academic revolution which has long baffled scholars and historians worldwide."
*Trivia: "To this day, the majority are baffled by the sudden, extraordinary emergence of the Sumerians, seemingly from nowhere. But there is no doubt that, upon their advent in southern Mesopotamia, they were already highly advanced to a level far beyond that recorded or sustained from anyplace where logically they could have emanated. Nowhere on earth was there a culture like that of the Sumerians, who appeared soon after 4000 BC - at least that is what is generally supposed." [Based on: Laurence Gardner, Genesis of the Grail Kings, p. 45]4,000 B.C. - Hittite Settlements / Cappadocia - "The Hittites settled around Cappadocia in present day Turkey. According to reports: 'Sumerian as well as Akkadian words were borrowed into the Hittite language. Wherever Akkadian influence spread [among the Hurrians, Hittites, Elamites, Canaanites and still farther afield into the Aegean and Egypt], the Sumerian impact was felt. 'Cuneiform Hittite texts are not only written in the script of Mesopotamia, but are full of Sumero-Akkadian logograms and loan-words; so much so that the interpretation of Hittite texts comes more easily to Assyriologists than to Indo-Europeanists.' "
4,000 B.C. - Teotihuacan Trivia / South America - "Neither the Street of the Dead, nor the temple of Quetzalcoatl, nor the Pyramids of the Sun and the Moon had ever been definately dated. The majority of scholars believed that the city of Teotihuacan ['place of the gods'] had flourished between 100 B.C. and 600 A.D., but others argued strongly that it must have risen to prominence much earlier, between 1,500 and 1,000 B.C. There were others still who sought, largely on geological grounds, to push the foundation back to 4,000 B.C. before the eruption of the nearby volcano Xitli. Still other reports push the date back well beyond 10,000 B.C. Incidentally, the architects who had planned Teotihuacan had deliberately chosen to incline the Street of the Dead 15 degrees 30' east of north." [*Links: 1, 2]
4,000 B.C. - Human Occupation / Indus Valley - "The Indus Valley encompasses a large floodplain of rich alluvial soils that supported human occupation sites with irrigation based agriculture as early as 6,000 BP." [*Link: 1 - #10]
*Trivia: "The mature phase of the Harappan civilization lasted from c. 2600 to 1900 BCE. With the inclusion of the predecessor and successor cultures—Early Harappan and Late Harappan, respectively—the entire Indus Valley Civilization may be taken to have lasted from the 33rd to the 14th centuries BCE. Two terms are employed for the periodization of the IVC: Phases and Eras. The Early Harappan, Mature Harappan, and Late Harappan phases are also called the Regionalisation, Integration, and Localisation eras, respectively, with the Regionalization era reaching back to the Neolithic Mehrgarh II period. 'Discoveries at Mehrgarh changed the entire concept of the Indus civilization,' according to Ahmad Hasan Dani, professor emeritus at Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad. 'There we have the whole sequence, right from the beginning of settled village life.' [....] The Early Harappan Ravi Phase, named after the nearby Ravi River, lasted from circa 3300 BCE until 2800 BCE. It is related to the Hakra Phase, identified in the Ghaggar-Hakra River Valley to the west, and predates the Kot Diji Phase (2800-2600 BCE, Harappan 2), named after a site in northern Sindh, Pakistan, near Mohenjo Daro. The earliest examples of the Indus script date from around 3000 BCE. [....]"
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indus_Valley_Civilisation] - [T.D. - 12/15/08]
4,000 B.C. - Terracotta & Painted Pottery Culture / China - "Chinese archaeologists have discovered the Terracotta and Painted Pottery Culture, which flourished around 4000 B.C., during excavations of the Laohudun Site in Gaohu, Jing'an of Jiangxi Province. An important collection of late Neolithic remains and cultural relics were discovered in the dig. [NP] Xu Changqing, the excavation team leader, stated that in the bottom of the site where the Terracotta Pottery Culture relics sit they excavated some stoneware, including hatchets, adze, stone ploughs and stone walls as well as some pottery ware. The items have been preliminarily estimated to be 6,000 years old. [....] This site is located in the middle of a rice paddy field in Gaohu County, Jing'an. It falls into the category of ancient mound cultural relics."
[Based on: People's Daily Online article (6000-year-old ancient civilization discovered in Jiangxi) by Li Yancheng, 01/07/11]
4,000 B.C. - Prehistoric use of Chili Peppers / South America - "Fossils show ancient use of chili peppers [New fossil evidence shows prehistoric people from southern Peru up to the Bahamas were using varities of chilies millennia (about 6,100 years ago) before Columbus' arrival brought the spice to world cuisine.]" [Based on: Title for A.P. article, p. A3, S.L.P.D., 02/16/07]
3,900 B.C. - 5900 year-old dress found in Armenian - "Archaeologists in Armenia said on Wednesday [09/14/11] they had found parts of a woman's multicoloured straw dress that they believe was made about 5900 years ago. [NP] The find was made during excavations at a cave complex in southern Armenia where previous discoveries have included what are believed to be the world's oldest known leather shoe and most ancient winery, dating back 5500 and 6100 years respectively. [NP] 'It is the only example of clothing made of such an ancient vegetable material,' Pavel Avetisian, director of the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology at Armenia's Academy of Sciences, told AFP. [....]" [Based on: SkyNEWS article (5900 year-old dress found in Armenian) Updated: 12:56, Thursday September 15, 2011]
3,879 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -
3,800 B.C. - Tamil Nadu - "Tamil Nadu's history dates back to pre-historic times. Archaeological evidence points to this area being one of the longest continuous habitations in India. In Adichanallur, 24 km (15 mi) from Tirunelveli, archaeologists from the Archaeological Survey of India unearthed 169 clay urns containing human skulls, skeletons and bones, plus husks and grains of rice, charred rice and Neolithic celts, giving evidence confirming them to be of the Neolithic period, 3800 years ago. The ASI archaeologists have proposed that the script used at that site is 'very rudimentary' Tamil Brahmi. Adichanallur has been announced as an archaeological site for further excavation and studies. About 60% of the total epigraphical inscriptions found by ASI in India are from Tamil Nadu and most of which are in Tamil language. [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tamil_Nadu]
3,800 B.C. - Songze culture - "Songze culture [崧泽文化 Sōng zé wénhuà] was a matriarchal Chinese Neolithic culture that existed between 3800 and 3300 BCE in the Lake Tai area near Shanghai. [... .]"
[Based on: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Songze_culture]
3,768 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -
3,700 B.C. - 'Property Boom' / England - "[....] The fashion for the monuments, hilltops enclosed by rings of ditches, known to archaeologists as causewayed enclosures, instead of being the ritual work of generations as had been believed, began on the continent centuries earlier but spread from Kent to Cornwall within 50 years in about 3700 BC. [NP] Alex Bayliss, an archaeologist and dating expert at English Heritage, said: 'The dates were not what we expected when we began this project but prehistorians are just going to have to get their heads around it, a lot of what we have been taught in the past is complete bollocks.' [....] Although some sites were used for generations, the evidence suggests others were built with enormous effort, and then used only once or on a handful of occasions. [NP] 'Their construction may have been sparked by a critical mass of population, power and goods to trade around 3700 BC. It's the Swinging Sixties, everything changes – new wealth, new goods.' [NP] Bayliss added: 'We began by looking at the evidence from the causeway enclosures but then to get the story into which they fit, we ran every other carbon date taken for the period. What we found is that the spread of agriculture was far more rapid than we had believed. [NP] 'It took two centuries for agriculture to reach Cheltenham from London – and then just 50 years to get from Cheltenham to Aberdeen.' "
[Based on: The Guardian article (Archaeology dating technique uncovers 'property boom' of 3700 BC / English monuments, including Maiden Castle and Windmill Hill, found to have been built, used and abandoned in single lifetime), by Maev Kennedy, 06/06/11]
3,761 B.C. - Jewish Creation? - "The Jewish era in use today is dated from the supposed year of the Creation, with its epoch or beginning in what is 3,761 B.C. on the Gregorian calendar. According to Jewish tradition, the year 1 of the Jewish calendar was the time of 'waste and void,' referred to in Genesis 1.1. Nothing was yet created, and only a virtual clock started to tick on the first day of that year, heard, as it were, only by the Creator."
3,625 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -
3,600 B.C. - Sumer / Iraq - "Soon after 4,000 B.C., southern Mesopotamia was identified as Sumer [pronounced 'Shumer'], and it was here that the early patriarchs prevailed. One of the foremost cities of ancient Sumer was Uruk [modern-day Warka], from which derived the country's eventual name of Iraq." [*Links: 1, 2]
3,600 B.C. - Malta Temple - "A temple on the Medeterranian island of Malta was reportedly constructed around 3,600 B.C. [Note: Since Carbon 14 dating measures the age of organic materials only, nearly all of the stone ruins [composed of inorganic rock] have not been Carbon 14 dated. Rather, what have been Carbon 14 dated are so many organic materials lying with, next to, or around those stone ruins.] [*Link: 1]
3,600 B.C. - Yamna Culture - [....] The Yamna culture (Russian: ... , Ukrainian: ... , 'Pit [Grave] Culture', from Russian/Ukrainian ..., 'pit') is a late copper age/early Bronze Age culture of the Bug/Dniester/Ural region (the Pontic steppe), dating to the 36th–23rd centuries BC. The name also appears in English as Pit Grave Culture or Ochre Grave Culture. [NP] The culture was predominantly nomadic, with some agriculture practiced near rivers and a few hillforts. [....] The Yamna culture is identified with the late Proto-Indo-Europeans (PIE) in the Kurgan hypothesis of Marija Gimbutas. It is the strongest candidate for the Urheimat (homeland) of the Proto-Indo-European language, along with the preceding Sredny Stog culture, now that archaeological evidence of the culture and its migrations has been closely tied to the evidence from linguistics. [NP] However, Pavel Dolukhanov argues that the emergence of the Pit-Grave culture represents a social development of various local Bronze Age cultures, representing "an expression of social stratification and the emergence of chiefdom-type nomadic social structures", which in turn intensified inter-group contacts between essentially heterogeneous social groups. [NP] It is said to have originated in the middle Volga based Khvalynsk culture and the middle Dnieper based Sredny Stog culture. In its western range, it is succeeded by the Catacomb culture; in the east, by the Poltavka culture and the Srubna culture." [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yamna_culture]
3,600 B.C. - Leather Shoe / Armenia - "Archaeologist from the University of California-Los Angeles and Ireland have discovered the world's oldest leather shoe - an exquisitely preserved 5,600-year-old woman's size -7 lace-up-in a cave in Armenia. [....] ... reported Wednesday in the online journal PLoS One. [....] The cave, he [UCLA archaeologist Charles Stanish] added, is only one of at least 39 that researchers are just beginning to explore. [....] The oldest known footwear - more sandal than shoe - was discovered in Missouri and is about 6,900 years old. Made from woven fibers and leather, the sandals are also in poor condition. [NP] Radiocarbon dating indicated that the newly found shoe was from about 3,600 B.C." [Based on: Los Angeles Times article (5,600-year-old shoe found / With it were grapes, winemaking apparatus and three human heads preserved in jars.) by Thomas H. Maugh II, p. A19, 06/10/10]
3,536 B.C. - Neptune-Pluto Conjunction -
3,514 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -
3,500 B.C. - Bronze Age - "According to popular history, the Sumerians began to use bronze tools and about 3,500 B.C., entered the Bronze Age."
3,500 B.C. - Qumran Relics - "The excavations at Qumran have produced relics dating back about 3,500 BC, at which time [during the Bronze Age] the settlement was a Bedouin camp."
3,500 B.C. - Sumerian Writing - "Reportedly, the earliest attested documents in cuneiform were written in Sumerian, the language of the inhabitants of southern Mesopotamia and Chaldea from the 4th until the 2nd millennium B.C. According to popular belief, the original Sumerian script consisted of pictographs. It later became linear and then evolved into the cuneiform script." [*Links: 1, 2, 3]
*Trivia: "[....] Emerging in Sumer around the 30th century BC, with predecessors reaching into the late 4th millennium (the Uruk IV period), cuneiform writing began as a system of pictographs. [....] The original Sumerian script was adapted for the writing of the Akkadian, Eblaite, Elamite, Hittite, Luwian, Hattic, Hurrian, and Urartian languages, and it inspired the Ugaritic and Old Persian alphabets. Cuneiform writing was gradually replaced by the Phoenician alphabet during the Neo-Assyrian Empire, and by the second century of the Common Era, the script had become extinct. [....] The cuneiform script proper emerges out of pictographic proto-writing in the later 4th millennium. Mesopotamia's 'proto-literate' period spans the 35th to 32nd centuries. The first documents unequivocally written in the Sumerian language date to the 31st century, found at Jemdet Nasr. [....] From about 2900 BC, many pictographs began to lose their original function, and a given sign could have various meanings depending on context. The sign inventory was reduced from some 1,500 signs to some 600 signs, and writing became increasingly phonological. Determinative signs were re-introduced to avoid ambiguity. This process is chronologically parallel to, and possibly not independent of, the development of Egyptian hieroglyphic orthography. [....]"
3,500 B.C. - Burial Sites / Ireland - "In Ireland, burial sites have been dated to at least 3,500 B.C." *Link: 1
3,500 B.C. - Mesopotamian Pottery - "Early Mesopotamian pottery, from about 3,500 B.C., has links as far afield as peninsular Greece, via Anatolia. Cultural links between Mesopotamia and Greece have persisted, in varying degree, from period to period, ever since."
3,500 B.C. - Trivia / Temple of Ur - "Six years after beginning their excavations at Ur, Woolley's archaeologists found an intriguing complex of ancient graves dating to about 3,500 BC, including a stone-built tomb of unusual significance. It was significant because stone has never existed in this desert area; barely a pebble can be found within 30 miles of Ur."
3,500 B.C. - Semite Slaves? / Egypt - "According to popular history, about 3,700 years ago, West Semitic-speaking people of the Sinai became workers or slaves under the sway of Egyptian rule. The Egyptian hieroglyphic symbols these Semitic speakers saw made an impression on them, and encouraged the adoption of a limited number of hieroglyphics to write down sounds in their language."
3,500 B.C. - Wheeled Carts / Sumeria - "According to popular history, about 3,500 B.C., animal-drawn wheeled carts were in use in Sumeria."
3,500 B.C. - Oldest Writing? / Harappa, Pakistan - "[....] There was great excitement in scholarly circles when Dr. Richard Meadow of the Peabody Museum at Harvard University recently announced the discovery of a piece of pottery at Harappa in Pakistan, with a written message on it. The discovery was announced on the BBC (among others) where it was stated to be more than 5500 years old (3500 BC), making it the oldest example of writing known, and about a thousand years older than the bulk of Harappan writing. [....]" [Swordoftruth.com, 06/07/99]
3,500 B.C. - Human Migration / Siberia to Greenland - February 12th, 2010: "[....] This is the first time the whole genome of an ancient human has been analyzed . It also sheds new light on the settlement of North America by showing there was a hitherto unsuspected migration of people across the continent, from Siberia to Greenland, some 5,500 years ago. [....]" [Based on: New York Times article (4,000-year-old DNA reveals Greenland's past), p. A12 , S.L.P.D., 02/12/10]
3,500 B.C. - Ancient stones older than Stonehenge discovered on Dartmoor - April 19th, 2010: "The nine stones at Cut Hill, one of the highest points on Dartmoor in Devon, have been carbon-dated to around 3,500BC. [NP] The discovery of the megaliths has delighted archaeologists and will reignite the debtae about the purpose of Stonehenge, which is 120 miles away in Wiltshire. [NP] Standing in a line they are 1,000 years older than Britain's most famous prehistoric monument. It means they pre-date Stonehenge, which was not begun before 3,000BC. [NP] Both monuments appear to be clearly aligned to mark the rising of the midsummer sun and the setting of the midwinter sun which suggested they both had symbolic and astronomical purposes. [NP] Archaeologists are debating whether the find adds credence to the theory that Stonehenge was linked to prehistoric death rituals or whether it was seen by ancient Britons as a centre of healing. [NP] Mike Pitts, of British Archaeology magazine, said: ‘This is a spectacular find and its alignment on the Solstice sun, at the exact same angle as Stonehenge, gives us fresh insights into the knowledge of Stone Age people.’ "
[Based on: Telegraph.co.uk article (Ancient stones older than Stonehenge discovered on Dartmoor / Ancient stones which are thought to be 1,000 years older than Stonehenge have been discovered in Dartmoor.) Published: 7:00AM BST 19 Apr 2010 ]
*Link: http://www.archaeologynews.org/story.asp?ID=597839&Title=Ancient stones older than Stonehenge discovered on Dartmoor
*Reference Links: http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2012-02/uocp-rts022412.php
3,400 B.C. - Gezer - "Creamware was found at bedrock." [*Link: 1]
3,800 B.C. - Liangzhu culture - "The Liangzhu culture [[良渚文化 Liáng zhǔ wénhuà] (3400–2250 BC) was the last Neolithic jade culture in the Yangtze River Delta of China. [...] The Liangzhu culture was extremely influential and it's sphere of influence reached as far north as Shanxi and as far south as Guangdong. [...] Recent research has shown that the development of human settlements was interrupted several times by rising waters. [...] Researchers have found that some of the axes at Liangzhu sites were crafted using diamond tools. The inhabitants of Liangzhu, using these tools, worked corundum into ceremonial axes. The axes were said to 'have been polished to a mirrorlike luster'. The techniques they used generated results that are said to be difficult to replicate even with modern technology. This is the earliest known use of diamond tools worldwide, thousands of years earlier than the gem is known to have been used elsewhere. The researchers also note that this is the only prehistoric culture known to work Sapphire. [...] A 2007 analysis of the DNA recovered from human remains in archeological sites of prehistoric peoples along the Yangtze River shows high frequencies of Haplogroup O1 in the Liangzhu culture, linking them to Austronesian and Tai-Kadai peoples.The Liangzhu culture existed in coastal areas around the mouth of the Yangtze. Haplogroup O1 was absent in other archeological sites inland. The authors of the study suggest that this may be evidence of two different human migration routes during the peopling of Eastern Asia, one coastal and the other inland, with little genetic flow between them.[... .]"
[Based on: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liangzhu_culture]
3,371 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -
3,300 B.C. - Proto-Hieroglyphs - "Hieroglyphs emerged from the preliterate artistic traditions of Egypt. For example, symbols on Gerzean pottery from circa 4000 BC resemble hieroglyphic writing. For many years the earliest known hieroglyphic inscription was the Narmer Palette, found during excavations at Hierakonpolis (modern Kawm al-Ahmar) in the 1890s, which has been dated to circa 3200 BC. However, in 1998 a German archaeological team under Günter Dreyer excavating at Abydos (modern Umm el-Qa'ab) uncovered tomb U-j of a Predynastic ruler, and recovered three hundred clay labels inscribed with proto-hieroglyphs, dating to the Naqada IIIA period of the 33rd century BC. The first full sentence written in hieroglyphs so far discovered was found on a seal impression found in the tomb of Seth-Peribsen at Umm el-Qa'ab, which dates from the Second Dynasty. In the era of the Old Kingdom, the Middle Kingdom and the New Kingdom, about 800 hieroglyphs existed. By the Greco-Roman period, they numbered more than 5,000."
3,300 B.C. - Trivia / Stonehenge - "Stonehenge in Britain has long been a site of celebration of the summer solstice, June 21. But there are more than 1,000 other prehistoric stone circles in the British Isles. Not much is known about them, except that they appear to be giant sundials and astronomical clocks. What is known is that between 3300 and 900 B.C. there were three phases of stone-circle building. During the first phase, before 3000 B.C., impressive circles, more than 30 meters [33 yards] across, were built on hillsides around the Irish Sea. They usually had one wider gap to serve as an entrance. Sometimes they had one single standing stone outside the ring, like a signpost proclaiming the land was occupied. Many perfectly constructed rings of stones were created around 2600 B.C., perhaps because metal was then available. These include the circles of Stanton Drew, in Somerset, and the Ring of Brodgar, in the Orkneys, each more than 90 metres [98 yards] across. Certain areas seemed to adopt a preferred number of stones. They show a wide range of styles, from plain and concentric rings to rings with avenues, like that at Avebury. From 2000 to 900 B.C., the tradition of building stone circles declined. By 900 B.C. stone circles, including Stonehenge, were abandoned." [Note: Since Carbon 14 dating measures the age of organic materials only, nearly all of the stone ruins [composed of inorganic rock] have not been Carbon 14 dated. Rather, what have been Carbon 14 dated are so many organic materials lying with, next to, or around those stone ruins." [*Links: 1, 2]
*Trivia: "Stonehenge was for a long while thought to have been built slowly - over about 1000 years between 2,100 and 1,100 BC. This chronology was called into question in 1996 by new archaeological evidence. Following a two-year study commisioned by the English Heritage Foundation, researchers concluded that the great circles of blustones and sarsens had in fact been put up between 2,600 BC and 2,030 BC. Less than a year after these results were published another study showed that the stone circles had been preceded by wooden circles of 6-metre pine 'totem poles' dated to 8,000 B.C. [Based on: by Graham Hancock and Santha Faiia, Heaven's Mirror, Quest For The Lost Civilization, p. xiii]
*Reference Links: http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2012-02/uocp-rts022412.php
3,300 B.C. - Early Harappan Period - "The Early Harappan Ravi Phase, named after the nearby Ravi River, lasted from circa 3300 BCE until 2800 BCE. It is related to the Hakra Phase, identified in the Ghaggar-Hakra River Valley to the west, and predates the Kot Diji Phase (2800-2600 BCE, Harappan 2), named after a site in northern Sindh, Pakistan, near Mohenjo Daro. The earliest examples of the Indus script date from around 3000 BCE. [NP] The mature phase of earlier village cultures is represented by Rehman Dheri and Amri in Pakistan. Kot Diji (Harappan 2) represents the phase leading up to Mature Harappan, with the citadel representing centralised authority and an increasingly urban quality of life. Another town of this stage was found at Kalibangan in India on the Hakra River. [NP] Trade networks linked this culture with related regional cultures and distant sources of raw materials, including lapis lazuli and other materials for bead-making. Villagers had, by this time, domesticated numerous crops, including peas, sesame seeds, dates and cotton, as well as various animals, including the water buffalo. Early Harappan communities turned to large urban centres by 2600 BCE, from where the mature Harappan phase started. [....]" [Based on: Wikipedia article: Early Harappan - See link]
*Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indus_Valley_Civilization - [T.D. 10/26/08]
3,295 B.C. - Beginning? / "High Religion" -
Fifty-three hundred years ago the archetypal information concerning the End of the World was deliberately taken out of circulation, along with the Goddess culture that held it. All information was replaced by High Religion. The snow-ball effect concerning this one single movement in our history has continued straight through until today.
Recent scientific information given by Dr. Paul LaViolette has isolated the cause and effect scenario that the ancients knew as the coming End of All. When this restored archetypal information is placed on top of our modern historical interpretations, the picture we have held radically changes.
Based on all information, it would seem the cyclical event once known by all is, as the ancients have said, returning. We are out of the information loop. The destruction of the "Fourth World" comes.
We go about our business everyday believing that our versions of the truth give us all we need to know concerning this topic of the end of all. We see it as the light at the end of the dark tunnel of our complex lives. Unfortunately, that light is not the light of wisdom; it is the light of the oncoming train of the real End of the World.
[Based on: http://users.gloryroad.net/%7Ebigjim/pandora.htm]
3,260 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -
3,200 B.C. - Semites / Lebanon - "Semitic people come to the area around Byblos, Lebanon. It was then called Gebal and the people Giblites, who with flat axes cut timber from the mountains."
3,200 B.C. - Orcadian temple / Orkney - "Orcadian temple predates Stonehenge by 500 years / THE discovery of a Stone Age temple on Orkney looks set to rewrite the archeological records of ancient Britain with evidence emerging it was built centuries before Stonehenge." [Based on Title for heraldscotland article by Gerry Braiden, Local Government Correspondent, Monday 2 January 2012]
3,200 B.C. - Trivia / Indus Valley Civilization - "Traditional date when the Indus Valley civilization [3,200-1,600 B.C.] grew grew up along the banks of the Indus River in what is now Pakistan." *Link: 1
3,117 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -
3,114 B.C. - Beginning / Mayan Fifth Sun Epoch - "Central American cultures believed that prior to the fifth epoch [Fifth 'Sun'] there had been four previous 'Suns,' each of which had ended in a cataclysm that had wiped the face of the earth clean. The fifth epoch was said to have begun in darkness on 4 Ahau 8 Cumku, a date in the Mayan calendar corresponding to 13 August 3114 BC, and was expected to come to a catastrophic end as the result of a 'great movement of the earth' on 4 Ahau 3 Kankin - which corresponds in the modern calendar to 23 December AD 2012."
*Trivia: "This cycle, also called the Great Cycle, lasts exactly 1,872,000 kin, 260 katun, 5200 tun, or approximately 5125.36 years. After years of considering data from archeology, ethnography, iconography, and astronomy, Mayanologists have determined that the date 0.0.0.0.0 corresponds to the Julian date 854283, which equates to August 11, 3114 BC in the Gregorian calendar. [....] The end date, 220.127.116.11.0 corresponds to the date December 21, 2012 AD. [....] The Maya considered the period of this Great Cycle to be equivalent to a World Age, or Sun, and thus the 5200 tun Long Count reflects a creation epoch. [....] The purpose of this cycle, which the Maya calibrated and mapped as the Long Count, was specially engineered to raise the frequency of vibration of humanity, the planet, and the solar system through a quickening and transformation of matter. This cycle climaxes when the entire historic process converges in the direction of the now, beyond the third dimension. As the Earth moves into a higher vibrational state, our collective reality will phase into synchronization with the larger galactic frame of reference."
3,114 B.C. - Astronomic Configuration - August 13th, 3114 B.C. (-3113) JC:
"Sun [12 Cancer], Moon [16 Aquarius], Mercury [11 Cancer R.], Venus [8 Cancer], Mars [20 Libra], Jupiter [9 Pisces R.], Saturn [22 Leo], Uranus [26 Capricorn R.], Neptune [11 Scorpio R.], Pluto [23 Capricorn R.]." [Based on: http://www.astro.com/swisseph/ae/m3100/ae_m3113.pdf]
*Trivia: "There have been various methods proposed to allow us to convert from a Long Count date to a Western calendar date. These methods, or correlations, are generally based on dates from the Spanish conquest, where both Long Count and Western dates are known with some accuracy. [NP] The commonly-established way of expressing the correlation between the Maya calendar and the Gregorian or Julian calendars is to provide number of days from the start of the Julian Period (Monday, January 1, 4713 BCE) to the start of creation on 0.0.0.0.0 (4 Ajaw, 8 Kumk'u). [NP] The most commonly accepted correlation is the 'Goodman, Martinez, Thompson' correlation (GMT correlation). The GMT correlation establishes that the 0.0.0.0.0 creation date occurred on 3114 BCE September 6 (Julian) or 3114 BCE August 11 (Gregorian), Julian day number (JDN) 584283. This correlation fits the astronomical, ethnographic, carbon dating, and historical sources. However, there have been other correlations that have been proposed at various times, most of which are merely of historical interest, except that by Floyd Lounsbury, two days after the GMT correlation, which is in use by some Maya scholars, such as Linda Schele. [....]"
[Based on wikipedia article (Long count) - see link]
*Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mesoamerican_calendars - [T.D. - 11/29/08]
1. Baktun 0 (=13). Baktun of the Star Planting. 3113-2718 B.C. 18.104.22.168.0
Entry of Earth into Galactic Synchronization Beam. Planting of "star-transmissions" of the galactic league among peoples across the planet. Consolidation of upper and lower Egypt, 3100 B.C. Expansion of Sumeria, 3000 B.C. Condtruction of Stonehenge begun, 2800 B.C.
[Based on: The Mayan Factor / Path Beyond Technology, by Jose Arguelles, Copyright 1939-, 1987, p. 114]
3,102 B.C. - Astronomic Configuration - February 18th, 3103 B.C. (-3102) JC:
"Sun [5 Aquarius], Moon [3 Libra], Mercury [9 Capricorn], Venus [1 Pisces R.], Mars [29 Taurus], Jupiter [20 Capricorn], Saturn [25 Sagittarius], Uranus [6 Pisces], Neptune [8 Sagittarius], Pluto [4 Aquarius]."
[Based on: http://www.astro.com/swisseph/ae/m3100/ae_m3102.pdf]
3,102 B.C. - Beginning / Kali Yuga Age? - "Kali Yuga (Devanagari: ..., lit. 'Age of Kali', 'age of vice'), is one of the four stages of development that the world goes through as part of the cycle of Yugas, as described in Indian scriptures, the others being Satya Yuga, Treta Yuga and Dvapara Yuga. According to the Surya Siddhanta, an astronomical treatise that forms the basis of all Hindu and Buddhist calendars, Kali Yuga began at midnight (00:00) on 18 February 3102 BCE  in the proleptic Julian calendar or 23 January 3102 BC in the proleptic Gregorian calendar, which is also considered by many Hindus to be the time that Krishna, an incarnation of Vishnu, died as a result of a freak bow hunting accident. The Kali Yuga is traditionally thought to last 432,000 years. [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kali_Yuga] - [T.D. - 12/15/08]
*Trivia: "According to Hesiod, the present race of man [the iron race] had been preceded by three earlier races – the golden race, the silver race, and the bronze race respectively. Each of these three peoples had been destroyed by cataclysms, at the command of the gods, the most recent of which had been the flood of Deucalion. The disappearance of Atlantis, rather intriguingly, was dated by Plato to the third cataclysm before this flood of Deucalion."
*Trivia: "Sri Yukteswar’s introduction to The Holy Science includes his explanation of the Yuga Cycle – revolutionary because of his premise that the earth is now in the age of Dwapara Yuga, not the Kali Yuga that most Indian pundits believe to be the current age. His theory is based on the idea that the sun 'takes some star for its dual and revolves round it in about 24,000 years of our earth – a celestial phenomenon which causes the backward movement of the equinoctial points around the zodiac.' The common explanation for this celestial phenomenon is precession, the ‘wobbling’ rotating movement of the earth axis. Research into Sri Yukteswar’s explanation is being conducted by the Binary Research Institute. [....] In The Holy Science, Sri Yukteswar concludes that we are currently in the beginning stages of Dwapara Yuga, which began around 1699 A.D. This now puts us in the year 308 Dwapara according to Sri Yukteswar. Thus, we are moving closer to the grand center, and will pass into Treta Yuga around the year 4099 A.D. [....]"
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Holy_Science] - [T.D. - 10/19/08]
3,100 B.C. - "History" Begins? - "Reportedly, a society that possesses writing is 'historic'. One that does not is 'prehistoric'. By 3,100 B.C., the Sumerians had a system of writing that could communicate anything they wanted to say. In other words, human history begins with Sumeria not long before 3,000 B.C." [- Asimov]
3,100 B.C. - Important Period - "Historically, the date of 3,100 B.C. has proven to be one of the most important periods, if not the most important period, regarding three of the world’s most ancient civilizations: Sumer, Egypt and India."
3,800 B.C. - Majiayao culture - "The Majiayao culture [马家窑文化 Mǎ jiā yáo wénhuà] was a group of Neolithic communities who lived primarily in the upper Yellow River region in eastern Gansu, eastern Qinghai and northern Sichuan, China. The culture existed from 3300 to 2000 BC. The Majiayao culture represents the first time that the Upper Yellow River region was widely occupied by agricultural communities and it is famous for its painted pottery, which is regarded as a peak of pottery manufacturing at that time. [... .]"
[Based on: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Majiayao_culture]
3,100 B.C. - Qujialing culture - "The Qujialing culture [屈家嶺文化 Qū jiā lǐng wénhuà] (3400–2600 BC) was a Neolithic civilisation centered primarily around the middle Yangtze River region in Hubei and Hunan, China. The culture succeeded the Daxi culture and reached southern Shaanxi, northern Jiangxi and southwest Henan. [... .]"
[Based on: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qujialing_culture]
3,100 B.C. - "Scorpion" / Egypt - "In the protodynastic period of Egypt 'Scorpion' ruled and was followed by Narmer."
3,100 B.C. - First Dynasty / Egypt - "Traditional date when the two regions of Egypt were believed to have been united under the rule of Narmer [known as Menes, to the Greeks] and the First Egyptian Dynasty was founded. Incidentally, the number of years credited to some kings of the 1st and 2nd Dynasty is so high, that, in those particular cases, they are most likely not correct. It has sometimes been postulated that this high number of years does not reflect the length of a reign but the age at which the king died. Such high numbers for reigning kings also appear in the Sumerian King Lists." *Links: 1, 2
*Trivia: "[....] Until recently, theirs [Black Pharoahs] was a chapter of history that largely went untold. Only in the past four decades have archaeologists resurrected their story - and come to recognize that the black pharoahs didn't appear out of nowhere. They sprang from a robust African civilization that had flourished on the southern banks of the Nile for 2,500 years, going back at least as far as the first Egyptian dynasty. [....] By 2009, the massive Merowe Dam should be complete, and a 106-mile-long lake will flood the terrain abutting the Nile's Fourth Cataract, or rapid, including thousands of unexplored sites. For the past nine years, archaeologists have flocked to the region, furiously digging before another repository of Nubian history goes the way of Atlantis. [....]" [Based on: Article (AN IGNORED CHAPTER OF HISTORY TELLS OF A TIME WHEN KINGS FROM DEEP IN AFRICA CONQURED ANCIENT EGYPT / Black Pharaohs, by Robert Draper, N.G.M. (February 2008), p. 39]
*Trivia: "[....] Another scepter associated with the king is the was-scepter. This is a long staff mounted by an animal head. The earliest know depictions of the was-scepter date to the First dynasty of Egypt. The was-scepter is shown in the hands of both kings and gods. [....]"
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pharaoh]
*Trivia: "[....] The earliest evidence we have of the use of the Uraeus – a rearing cobra – is from the reign of Den from the First dynasty of Egypt. The cobra represents a serpent goddess who rears up and spits fire at the enemies of the king. [....]"
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pharaoh]
*Trivia: "[....] For the Early Dynastic Period, the archaeological record refers to the pharaohs by their Horus-names, while the historical record, as evidenced in the Turin and Abydos king lists, uses an alternative royal titulary, the nebty-name. The different titular elements of a pharaoh's name were often used in isolation, for brevity's sake, although the choice varied according to circumstance and period. [....]"
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hor-Aha]
*Trivia: "[....] Sirius, considered by the ancient Egyptians to be the most important star in the sky, was astronomically the foundation of their entire religious system. Its celestial movements determined the Egyptian calendar ... Sirius's heliacal rising (when Sirius again rose into visibility after being hidden by the sun's light for 70 days) marked the beginning of the Egyptian year and roughly coincided with the flooding of the Nile - major events marked by feasting and celebration. [....]"
[Baseed on: http://www.souledout.org/cosmology/cossynthreflects/sirius.html] - [T.D. - 12/28/07]3,043 B.C. - Neptune-Pluto Conjunction -
Note: "This date represents an approximation only. Most likely the calculation is off by several years." [- E.M.]
3,006 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -
Last page update 10/10/15