Historical Timeline

Calendar Months

   "Most newspaper article events happen anywhere from days, to months, to years before they reach publication. Consequently, most newspaper articles on this timeline are preceded by the date of the newspaper in which they appear." [E.M.]   *Color Code

1960-1965 A.D.

1960 - Astronomic Configuration - January 1st, 1960: "Sun [9 Capricorn], Moon [10 Aquarius], Mercury [24-25 Sagittarius], Venus [28 Scorpio], Mars [20 Sagittarius], Jupiter [18 Sagittarius.], Saturn [9 Capricorn], Uranus [20 Leo R], Neptune [8 Scorpio], Pluto [6 Virgo R]."  

1960 - Military Status / USSR - "Kruschev's military became so powerful that by 1960, the USSR had more tanks, planes, nuclear weapons, submarines, and aircraft carriers than the United States. He then invaded Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, and began to place nuclear weapons in these countries. Fearing a Soviet takeover, the people of East Germany began to leave their country for freedom in the West. In one week over 100,000 people fled. Krushchev ordered the border sealed, and began to construct a wall that would become the symbol of oppression to the world."

1960 - U.S.-Soviet Buffer State / Afghanistan - "Afghanistan is a rich tapestry of many different peoples living relatively isolated, deep in the highlands of Central Asia. In the 1960s, the U.S. power structure considered Afghanistan as a 'buffer state' between the Soviet Union to the north and the strategically important U.S.-backed states of Iran and Pakistan to the south. The overwhelming majority of the population of 18 million lived as impoverished farmers in the extremely backward countryside - dominated by large landowners and the heads of feudal clans. But then, at the end of the 1970s, the intensifying global rivalry between the U.S. and USSR brought bitter warfare to Afghanistan." [Link: 1]

1960 - Year of the Rat - January 28th, 1960: "The Chinese Year of the Rat begins."

1960 - Sit-Ins / U.S.A. - February 1st, 1960: "Sit-ins began Feb. 1 when 4 black college students in Greensboro, NC, refused to move from a Woolworth lunch counter when denied service. By Sept. 1961 over 70,000 students, whites and blacks, had participated in sit-ins." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 550]

*Trivia: "Lunch-counter sit-ins spread to 15 cities in 5 southern states."  

1960 - 4th "Nuclear Power" / France - February 19th, 1960: "France becomes the fourth nuclear power."

1960 - Birth / Prince Andrew - February 19th, 1960: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Britain's, Prince Andrew."

1960 - Earthquake / Agadir, Morocco - February 29th, 1960: "Earthquake location: Agadir, Morocco. Earthquake magnitude: 5.7. Number of recorded fatalities: 10,000."  

*Trivia: "Date: February 29th, 1960. Earthquake location: Agadir, Morocco. Earthquake magnitude: 5.9. Number of recorded fatalities: 12,000."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 208]

1960 - Birth / Greg Louganis - January 29th, 1960: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Olympic gold-medal diver, Greg Louganis."

1960 - Birth / James Spader - February 7th, 1960: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actor, James Spader."

1960 - 1st Gold Album / Elvis Presley - February 17th, 1960: "Elvis Presley was awarded his first gold album, for Elvis, 1960." [Based on: The Old Farmer's Almanac (2006) by Robert B. Thomas, p. 101]

1960 - Birth / Adam Clayton - March 13th, 1960: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Rock (U2) musician, Adam Clayton."

1960 - Sharpeville Massacre / South Africa - March 21st, 1960: "In South Africa, police fired into a packed demonstration of blacks against the hated Pass Laws. Seventy people died in the massacre at Sharpeville, and the world began slowly to wake to the brutal reality of apartheid. Soon after the shootings, Nelson Mandela was detained."

1960 - Best Picture Academy Award / "Ben-Hur" - Entertainment highlights during the week of April 2nd-8th, 1960: " 'Ben-Hur' won the best picture and best director Academy Awards. The film's star, Charlton Heston, was named best actor." [Based on: A.P.]

1960 - Trivia / Elvis Presley - "Entertainment highlights during the week of April 1-7, 1960: Elvis Presley recorded the songs "It's Now Or Never" and "Are You Lonesome Tonight?" in Nashville, Tenn. [Based on: A.P. article, p. D5, S.L.P.D., 04/02/07]

1960 - Returns to Hollywood / Elvis Presley - Entertainment highlights during the week of April 16th-22nd, 1960: "Elvis Presley returned to Hollywood following his Army duty. He began work on the film 'G.I. Blues.' " [Based on: A.P.]

1960 - Approved / U.S. Voting Rights Act - April 21st, 1960: "Congress approved a strong voting rights act Apr. 21." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 550]

1960 - Birth / Valerie Bertinelli - April 23rd, 1960: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actress, Valerie Bertinelli." [Based on: S.L.P.D., p. D2, 04/23/07]

1960 - U.S. U2 Spy Plane / USSR - May 1, 1960: "On the eve of a US-Soviet summit, U2 pilot Frances Gary Powers is shot down while flying a spy mission over the Soviet Union. Powers is taken prisoner, the Eisenhower administration is forced to own up to the mission, and Khrushchev cancels the summit."

1960 - Signed / U.S. Civil Rights Act - May 6th, 1960: "Civil Rights Act of 1960 signed by Eisenhower."  

1960 - Birth / Bono - May 10th, 1960: "Reportedly born this date in history: Rock singer (U2), Bono."

1960 - Founded / Motown Records - Entertainment highlights during the week of May 14th-20th, 1960: "Berry Gordy formed Motown Records." [Based on: A.P. article, p. C4, S.L.P.D., 05/15/06]

1960 - U.S. Infrared Spy Satelite - May 22nd, 1960: "The U.S. launches Midas 2, the first infrared spy satellite."

1960 - Earthquake / Chile - May 22nd, 1960: "Earthquake location: S. Chile. Earthquake magnitude: 9.5. Number of recorded fatalities: 5,700."  [Link: 1]  

1960 - Birth / Boy George - June 14th, 1960: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer, Boy George."

1960 - Passed / 23rd U.S. Amendment - June 17th, 1960: "23rd U.S. Constitutional amendment ['Presidential vote for District of Columbia'] passed." [Link: 1]

1960 - Independence / Congo - June 30th, 1960: "In 1960, the Republic of the Congo was granted its independence from Belgium."

1960 - The Twist / Chubby Checker - August, 1960: "Chubby Checker's appearance on the Dick Clark Saturday Night Show starts the twist craze, giving rock 'n' roll its first signature dance."

1960 - Trivia / Sputnik 5 - "Two dogs [Strelka and Belka] in Sputnik 5 became the first animals to be successfully returned to Earth in August." [Link: 1] 

1960 - Birth / Antonio Banderas - August 10th, 1960: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actor, Antonio Banderas."

1960 - Birth / Sean Penn - August 17th, 1960: "Reportedly born on this date in history: American actor, Sean Penn."

1960 - U.S. Photo Spy Satellite - August 18th, 1960: "The U.S. launches the CORONA, the first photo spy satellite."

1960 - Summer Olympic Games / Rome, Italy - "In 1960, the Summer Olympic Games were held in Rome, Italy. CBS buys the rights to televise the Games for $394,000. The Winter Olympic Games were held in Squaw Valley, California."  

1960 - U.S. Weather Satellite - "First television weather satellite Tiros 1." [Link: 1]  

1960 - U.S. Communication Satellte - "First communications satellite 124-lb. Echo 1." [Link: 1]  

1960 - Hurricane Donna / Caribbean & E U.S.A. - "Hurricane date(s): September 4-12, 1960. Number of recorded deaths: 148." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 206]

1960 - Birth / Hugh Grant - September 9th, 1960: "Reportedly born on this date in history: British actor, Hugh Grant."

1960 - Launched / USS Enterprise - September 24th, 1960: "The USS Enterprise, the first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier is launched." [Link: 1]

1960 - Independence / Nigeria - October 1st, 1960: "Nigeria declares independence from Britain and is admitted to UN membership."

1960 - ABC Debut / "The Bugs Bunny Show" - Entertainment highlights during the week of Oct. 7-13, 1960: "The Bugs Bunny Show" made its debut on ABC. [Based on A.P. article (THAT WAS THE WEEK THAT WAS), p. E2, S.L.P.D., 10/09/07]

1960 - Flooding / Bangladesh - "Flood date(s): October 10th, 1960. Number of recorded deaths: 6,000." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207]

1960 - Birth / Jean-Claude Van Damme - October 18th, 1960: "Jean-Claude Camille François Van Varenberg ... professionally known as Jean-Claude Van Damme,[1] is a Belgian martial artist, actor, and director[2] best known for his martial arts action films.[3] [...] Van Damme was born Jean-Claude Camille François Van Varenberg on 18 October 1960 in Berchem-Sainte-Agathe, Brussels, Belgium, the son of Eliana and Eugène Van Varenberg, who was an accountant.[6][7][8] [....]."

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_Claude_Van_Damme]

1960 - Flooding / Bangladesh - "Flood date(s): October 31st, 1960. Number of recorded deaths: 4,000." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207]

1960 - U.S. Warning / "Military Industrial Complex" - November 1960: "Eisenhower warns the nation about the 'Military-Industrial Complex' and its power."  

1960 - Election / John F. Kennedy - November 8th, 1960: "John F. Kennedy narrowly defeats Richard Nixon for the presidency. In his inaugrual address, Kennedy declares that Americans will be ready to '...bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and the success of liberty.' "

*Trivia: "Reportedly, the first televised presidential debates in the United States occured in 1960."

1960 - U.S. Nuclear Ballistic Missles / U.S.S. George Washington - November 15th, 1960: "The U.S.S. George Washington becomes the first submarine to carry nuclear ballistic missles." [Based on: N.G.M., August 2005, p. 107]

1960 - Birth / Amy Grant - November 25th, 1960: "Amy Lee Grant (born November 25, 1960) is an American singer-songwriter, musician, author, media personality and actress, best known for her Christian music. [...] Grant (born in Augusta, Georgia) is the youngest of four sisters. She and her family settled in Nashville, Tennessee in 1967.[2] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amy_Grant]

1960 - Birth Control Pills / U.S.A. - December 1960: "Birth Control Pills go on sale in the U.S.A."  

1960 - Birth / Daryl Hannah - December 3rd, 1960: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actress, Daryl Hannah."

1960 - U.S. Backing / Rightist Group, Laos - December 15th, 1960: "U.S. announced Dec. 15 it backed  rightist group in Laos, which took power the next day." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 550]

1960 - Universal Military Conscription / North Vietnam - "In 1960, North Vietnam Imposed Universal Military Conscription."

1960 - Formed / "Vietcong" - "In 1960, Hanoi formed the National Liberation Front for South Vietnam. Diem government dubs them 'Vietcong.' "

1960s - Student Protest Movement / U.S.A. - "In 1960, Student protests in San Francisco against the House Un-American Activities Committee kick-off the student protest movement of the sixties." [Link: 1]

1960 - Independence / Cyprus - "In 1960, Cyprus is declared independent from Britain."

1960 - Independence / Cameroon - "In 1960, French Cameroon gains independence under the London-Zurich Agreements."

1960 - Independence / Somalia - "In 1960, Somalia gains independence from Italy."

1960 - Trivia / U.S. Bill of Rights - "Since the early 60's, almost every clause in the Bill of Rights has been incorporated. Notable exceptions are the 2nd and 3rd Amendments, the grand jury indictment clause of the 5th Amendment, and the 7th Amendment."

1960 - Status / Union Membership, U.S.A. - "As recently as the 1960s, union membership stood at just over 30 percent of all workers, according to the National Bureau of Economic Research [September 2003]." [Based on: article from the St. Louis Post-Dispatch]

1960 - Heaveyweight Boxing Champion / Cassius Clay - "In 1960, Cassius Clay, later renamed Muhammad Ali, became the heavyweight boxing champion."

1960 - Color Additive Amendments - "In 1960, color additive amendments were enacted to allow the FDA to establish, by regulations, the conditions of safe use for all color additives in foods, drugs, cosmetics, and some devices, and to require manufacturers to perform the necessary scientific investigations to establish safety for their intended uses."

1960 - "Ancient Astronauts" - "The 'ancient astronaut' school of thought first came to the notice of a wide audience in the 1960s and 1970s, thanks to the phenomenally successful books of Erich von Daniken." [The Stargate Conspiracy, p. 25]

1960 - Divorce / Paul Twitchell & Camille Ballowe - "Reportedly, Paul Twitchell and Camille Ballowe divorced in early 1960."  [Based on: Dialogue in the Age of Criticism, Chap. 2]  

1960 - Advanced Technology? / National Security Agency - Early 1960s: "[....] As of the early 1960's the most advanced computers in the world were at the NSA, Ft. Meade. Research breakthroughs with these computers were kept for the NSA. At the present time [+2000] the NSA has advanced technology computers that are 15 years ahead of present computer technology. [....] NSA Signals Intelligence uses EMF Brain Stimulation for Remote Neural Monitoring (RNM) and Electronic Brain Link (EBL). EMB Brain Stimulation has been in development since the MK Ultra program of the early 1950's which included neurological research into 'radiation (non-ionizing EMF) and bioelectric research and development. The resulting secret technology is categorized at the National Security Archives as 'Radiation intelligence' defined as 'information from unintentionally emanated electromagnetic waves in environment, not including radioactivity or nuclear detonation.' Signals Intelligence implemented and kept this technology secret in the same manner as other electronic warfare programs of the U.S. government. The NSA monitors available information about this technology and withholds scientific research from the public. There are also international intelligence agreements to keep this technology secret. [....]"

[Based on: http://www.cyberspaceorbit.com/SigintInfo.htm]

1960 - Notable Songs of 1960 - "Georgia on My Mind" (Ray Charles); "It's Now Or Never" & "Are You Lonesome Tonight?" (Elvis Presley); "The Twist" (Chubby Checker); The Sound of Music (album), original cast (1960).

1960 - Flood Trivia / 1960 - "Number of notable floods this year: at least 2. Number of flood deaths: 10,000." [E.M.]

1960 - Hurricane Trivia / 1960 - "Number of notable hurricanes this year: at least 1. Number of hurricane deaths: 148." [E.M.]

1960 - Earthquake Trivia / 1960 - "Number of notable earthquakes this year: at least 2. Number of earthquake deaths: 17,700." [E.M.]

1960 - "Natural Disaster" Deaths / 1960 - "Estimated number of people who died from natural disasters this year: at least 27,848." [E.M.]

1961

1961 - Astronomic Configuration - January 1st, 1961: "Sun [10 Capricorn], Moon [29 Gemini], Mercury [7 Capricorn], Venus [25 Aquarius], Mars [8 Cancer R.], Jupiter [14 Capricorn.], Saturn [19 Capricorn], Uranus [25  Leo R.], Neptune [10 Scorpio], Pluto [8 Virgo R.]."  

1961 - Trivia / Roswell Story - "Reportedly, in 1961 the true Roswell story was still unknown outside the highest military circles."

1961 - Foreign Relations / U.S.A. & Cuba - January 3rd, 1961: "U.S. severed diplomatic and consular relations with Cuba Jan. 3, after disputes over  nationalization of U.S. firms, U.S. military presence at Guantanamo base." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 550]

1961 - Reactor Accident / Idaho Falls, Idaho - January 3rd, 1961: "A reactor at a federal installation near Idaho Falls, ID, killed three workers. Radiation contained." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 210]

1961 - Increasing Power / U.S. "Military Industrial Complex" - January 17th, 1961: "Eisenhower warns of increasing power of 'military-industrial complex.' " 

1961 - U.S. President John F. Kennedy - January 20th, 1961: "The 35th American President, John F. Kennedy [Democrat], begins his term. Kennedy was the 4th American President [the 1st Democrat] assassinated."

1961 - Approved / U.S. Counter-Insurgency Plan, Vietnam - January 28th, 1961: "President John Kennedy approves counter-insurgency plan for Vietnam." [Based on: S.L.P.D., p. A5, 04/25/05]

1961 - Birth / Wayne Gretzky - January 26th, 1961: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Hockey star, Wayne Gretzky."

1961 - Year of the Ox - February 15th, 1961: "The Chinese Year of the Ox begins."

1961 - Protest March / Bertrand Russell - February 18th, 1961: "Bertrand Russell, 89, leads march of 20,000 & sit-down of 5,000 anti-nuke outside U.K. Defense Ministry and is jailed for 7 days."  

1961 - Established / Peace Corps - March 1st, 1961: "The Peace Corps is established."

*Trivia: "John Kennedy initiates 17 billion dollar nuclear missile program, increases military aid to Indochina & announces creation of the Peace Corps."  

1961 - Ratified / 23rd U.S. Amendment - March 29th, 1961: "23rd U.S. Constitutional amendment ['Presidential vote for District of Columbia'] ratified." [Link: 1]

1961 - Birth / Eddie Murphy - April 3rd, 1961: "Reportedly born on this date in history: American comedian-actor, Eddie Murphy."

1961 - 1st Venus Probe - "First Venus probe launched by the Russians Venera 1, but contact soon lost." [Link: 1]  

1961 - 1st Paid Gig / Bob Dylan - Entertainment highlights during the week of April 2nd-8th, 1961: " Bob Dylan played his first paid gig in New York, at the Loeb Music Center." [Based on: A.P. article, p. C5, S.L.P.D., 04/02/06]

1961 - Bob Dylan / Gerde's Folk City - April 11th, 1961: "Bob Dylan's first billed performance at Gerde's Folk City."

1961 - 1st Man in Space / Vostok 1 - April 12th, 1961: "Having launched the first earth satellite in 1957, the Soviet Union again stole the thunder of the U.S. space programme in April 1961, by sending Yuri Gagarin into orbit [in Vostok 1] as the first man in space. He circled the earth three times. The best the Americans could do a month later was to blast Alan Shepard briefly into space and bring him straight down again."

1961 - Bay of Pigs  Invasion / Cuba - April 17th, 1961: "A plot to invade Cuba and overthrow Fidel Castro goes miserably wrong when air support at the Bay of Pigs fails to materialize. Kennedy's leadership skills are called into question, and Kennedy himself develops doubts about heeding the advice of the military."

1961 - The Brookings Report - April 18th, 1963: "According to The Brookings Report: 'Discovery of life on other worlds could cause the earth's civilization to collapse.' " [Link: 1]

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brookings_Report

1961 - "The President and the Press" / U.S.A. - April 27th, 1961: "[....] 'The very word 'secrecy' is repugnant in a free and open society; and we are as a people inherently and historically opposed to secret societies, to secret oaths and to secret proceedings. We decided long ago that the dangers of excessive and unwarranted concealment of pertinent facts far outweighed the dangers which are cited to justify it. Even today, there is little value in opposing the threat of a closed society by imitating its arbitrary restrictions. Even today, there is little value in insuring the survival of our nation if our traditions do not survive with it. And there is very grave danger that an announced need for increased security will be seized upon by those anxious to expand its meaning to the very limits of official censorship and concealment. That I do not intend to permit to the extent that it is in my control. And no official of my Administration, whether his rank is high or low, civilian or military, should interpret my words here tonight as an excuse to censor the news, to stifle dissent, to cover up our mistakes or to withhold from the press and the public the facts they deserve to know. [....]"

[Based on: http://millercenter.org/scripps/digitalarchive/speeches/spe_1961_0427_kennedy]

1961 - ABC's Wide World of Sports - April 29th, 1961: "ABC's Wide World of Sports begins broadcasting."

1961 - Independence / Sierra Leone - May 5th, 1961: "Sierra Leone gains its independence."

1961 - Birth / George Clooney - May 6th, 1961: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actor, George Clooney."

1961 - Birth / Enya - May17th, 1961: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer, Enya."

1961 - "Freedom Rides" / U.S.A. - May 20th, 1961: " 'Freedom Rides' from Washington D.C., across deep South were launched May 20 to protest segregation in interstate transportation." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 550]

1961 - Alliance for Progress / Latin America - May 27th, 1961: "Pres. Kennedy ... signed bill creating Alliance for Progress, for Latin America." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 550]

1961 - Founded / Amnesty International - May 28th, 1961: "Amnesty International is founded to promote human rights and protect the rights of political prisoners." [Link: l]

1961 - Birth / Michael J. Fox - June 9th, 1961: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Canadian actor Michael J. [Andrew] Fox."

1961 - Inadmissible / Illegally Obtained Evidence - June 19th, 1961: "In Mapp v. Ohio ... Supreme Court ruled that illegally obtained evidence is inadmissible in state as well as federal trials." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 550]

1961 - Worldwide Demonstrations / "Ban The Bomb" - July 1961: "Ban The Bomb Demonstrations start worldwide."  

1961 -  Satellite Live TV Transmission - July 19th, 1961: "First Telstar Satellite Live TV Transmission across the Atlantic."  

1961 - Birth / Barack H. Obama - August 4th, 1961: Reportedly born this date in history, Barack Hussein Obama.

1961 - Man in Space / Vostok 2 - August 6th, 1961: "Gherman Titov spends more than a day in space [25 hours] in the second Vostok manned flight in August." [Link: 1]  

1961 - Birth / The Edge - August 8th, 1961: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Guitarist (U2), The Edge."

1961 - Beginning / Berlin Wall - August 13th, 1961: "The GDR blocks off East from West Berlin and begins constructing the Berlin wall after the U.S. rejects proposals by Khrushchev to make Berlin a 'free city' with access controlled by East Germany."

1961 - U.S. Military Advisors / Vietnam - In 1961, U.S. President Kennedy sent the first 100 military advisors along with 400 soldiers to Vietnam."

1961 - First No. 1 Hit / Motown Records - Entertainment highlights during the week of August 27th-September 2nd, 1961: Motown released its first No. 1 hit, "Please Mr. Postman" by The Marvelettes. [Based on: A.P. article, p. C2, S.L.P.D., 08/28/06]

1961 - Americans Urged to Build Fallout Shelters - September 1961: "President John F. Kennedy urges Americans to build fallout shelters." [Based on: N.G.M., August 2005, p. 107]

1961 - Underground Nuclear Testing / U.S.A. - September 15th, 1961: "U.S. starts underground nuclear testing."

*Trivia: "U.S. conducts its first underground nuclear test [09/19/1957] in the Nevada desert." [Based on: N.G.M., August 2005, p. 106]

1961 - Fallout Shelters Advised? / U.S.A.- October 16th, 1961: "President Kennedy advises Americans to build fallout shelters."  

1961 - World's Largest Nuclear Bomb Explosion - October 30th, 1961: "The U.S.S.R. explodes the world's largest nuclear bomb, with a yield of roughly 50 megatons." [Based on: N.G.M., August 2005, p. 107]

1961 - Hurricane Hattie / Honduras - "Hurricane date(s): October 31st, 1961. Number of recorded deaths: 400." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 206]

1961 - Birth / k.d. Lang - November 2nd, 1961: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer-songwriter, k.d. Lang."

1961 - Birth / Nadia Comaneci - November 12th, 1961: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Olympic gold metal gymnast, Nadia Comaneci."

1961 - Birth / Meg Ryan - November 19th, 1961: "Reportedly born on this date in history: American actor, Meg Ryan [Margaret Mary Emily Anne Hyra]."

1961 - Commissioned / USS Enterprise - November 25, 1961: "The first nuclear powered aircraft carrier, the USS Enterprise, was commissioned."

1961 - 1st American Casualty / Vietnam - December 22nd, 1961: "James Thomas Davis becomes the first American casualty in Vietnam."

1961 - "The Lion Sleeps Tonight" / The Tokens - Entertainment highlights during the week of December 24 - 30th, 1961: "The Lion Sleeps Tonight" by the Tokens became the first African song to reach No. 1 on the American pop charts. [Based on: A.P. article (THAT WAS THE WEEK THAT WAS), S.L.P.D., 12/26/06]

1961 - U.S. Sub-Orbital Space Flight - First manned American space-flight by astronaut Shepard, sub-orbital." [Link: 1]  

1961 - Famine Trivia / China - "Famine grips China after three years of crop failure and floods."

1961 - Independence / Kuwait - "In 1961, Kuwait gained independence. British troops stop Iraqi attempt to annex Kuwait."

1961 - Central American Common Market - "The Central American Common Market is formed providing a 'free trade zone' in El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica."

1961 - Lyndon Johnson  / Vietnam - "During a tour of Asian countries, Vice President Lyndon Johnson visits Diem in Saigon. Johnson assures Diem that he is crucial to US objectives in Vietnam and calls him 'the Churchill of Asia.' President Kennedy authorizes 'Green Berets,' a Special Forces operation activated at Fort Bragg, NC. The Special Forces will specialize in counterinsurgency."

1961 - Time Experiments? / USSR - "In 1952, head of the Soviet secret police organization Lavrenty Beria initiated a case against researchers participating in the experiments, as a result of which 18 professors were executed by shooting and 59 candidates and doctors of physical sciences were sent to camps. The Institute recommenced its activity under Khruschev. But an experimental stand with eight leading researchers disappeared in 1961, and buildings close to the one where experiments were conducted were ruined. After that, the Communist Party political bureau and the Council of Ministers decided to suspend researchers of the Institute for an uncertain period. [Olga Zharina, 03/01/2004, Pravada]  

1961 - Trivia / Vietnam Conflict - "In 1961, 400 guerillas attacked villages in Kienhoa Province, and were defeated by South Vietnamese troops."

1961 - The Rolling Stones / Chelsea, England - "In 1961, The Rolling Stones started out as a blues band in Chelsea, England."

1961 - Notable Songs of 1961 - "Please Mr. Postman" (The Marvelettes); "Stand By Me" (Ben E. King); "The Lion Sleeps Tonight" (The Tokens)

1961 - Hurricane Trivia / 1961 - "Number of notable hurricanes this year: at least 1. Number of hurricane deaths: 400." [E.M.]

1961 - "Natural Disaster" Deaths / 1961 - "Estimated number of people who died from natural disasters this year: at least 400." [E.M.]

1962

1962 - Astronomic Configuration - January 1st, 1962: "Sun [10 Capricorn], Moon [0 Scorpio], Mercury [19 Capricorn], Venus [3-4 Capricorn], Mars [5 Capricorn], Jupiter [10 Aquarius.], Saturn [29-30 Capricorn], Uranus [Virgo R.], Neptune [12-13 Scorpio], Pluto [10 Virgo R.]."  

1962 - Status / Berlin Wall, Berlin - "By 1962, the Berlin Wall completely encircled the city of Berlin. President Kennedy started what became known as the Berlin airlift to ensure that the Soviets could not take over the rest of the city. At the same time Krushchev secretly began to put nuclear missiles in the country of Cuba. Cuba is located 90 miles from the United States. If Krushchev could get these missile sites operational, he could launch an attack against the United States with no warning what-so-ever. Krushchev did not know however, that the United States knew of his plans in Cuba after a 'U-2' spy plane took overhead pictures of the missile sites. President Kennedy then called for the massing of over one million troops in Europe to prepare for war with the USSR. Kennedy moved aircraft carriers, tanks, and destroyers close to Soviet territory. Kennedy then stunned the world by announcing all this on national public television and told Krushchev in private that he had 24 hours to remove the missiles from Cuba or the United States might launch a full scale nuclear strike against the USSR. No one had ever made this threat before and Krushchev made the public statement, '...we will crush you.' Kennedy did not back down however, and refused to extend the deadline he gave Krushchev. Faced with nuclear oblivion, Krushchev removed the missiles from Cuba with only hours to spare. Krushchev was publicly humiliated, and many in the Politburo now called for him to resign his office. He refused and was forcibly removed from power and committed to what became known as 'internal exile.' "

1962 - Birth / Jim Carrey - January 17th, 1962: "James Eugene 'Jim' Carrey (born January 17, 1962) is a Canadian actor and comedian. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jim_Carrey]

1962 - Year of the Tiger - February 5th, 1962: "The Chinese Year of the Tiger begins."

1962 - Birth / Axl Rose - February 6th, 1962: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Rock singer (Guns N' Roses), Axl Rose."

1962 - Birth / Garth Brooks - February 7th, 1962: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Country singer, Garth Brooks."

1962 - Birth / Sheryl Crow - February 11th, 1962: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer, Sheryl Crow."

1962 - Foreign Relations / U.S.A. & Vietnam - February 14th, 1962: "Pres. John F. Kennedy said ... that U.S. military advisors in Vietnam would fire if fired upon." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 550]

1962 - Anti-Nuclear March / Washington D.C. - February 16th, 1962: "Boston SANE & fledgling SDS hold first anti-nuclear march on Washington with 4000-8000 protesters."  

1962 - Flooding / North Sea Coast, Germany - "Flood date(s): February 17th, 1962. Number of recorded deaths: 343." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207]

1962 - Trivia / John Glen - "February 20th, 1962: John Glenn became the first US astronaut to orbit the earth [in the Mercury 6 capsule: Friendship 7."

1962 - Record Deal / Peter, Paul & Mary - Entertainment highlights during the week of Jan 28 - Feb. 3, 1962: Peter, Paul and Mary signed a record deal with Warner Brothers. [Based on: Article (THAT WAS THE WEEK THAT WAS), p. E5, S.L.P.D., 01/30/07]

1962 - Birth / Steve Irwin - February 22nd, 1962: "Reportedly born on this date in history: ('Crocodile Hunter'), Steve Irwin."

1962 - Birth / Jon Bon Jovi - March 2nd, 1962: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Rock singer, Jon Bon Jovi."

1962 - Birth / Rosie O'Donnell - March 21st, 1962: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Comedian, Rosie O'Donnell."

1962 - Walter Cronkite / "The CBS Evening News" - Entertainment highlights during the week of April 16th-22nd, 1962: Walter Cronkite made his debut as anchorman of "The CBS Evening News." [Based on: A.P.]

1962 - Trivia / The "Tonight" Show - Entertainment highlights during the week of March 26-April 1: Jack Paar hosted NBC's "Tonight" Show for the last time. Johnny Carson followed Paar and began his stint as host in October." [Based on: A.P.]

1962 - Birth / Bobcat Goldthwait - May 26th, 1962: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Comedian, Bobcat Goldthwait."

1962 - "Twist and Shout" / The Isley Brothers - Entertainment highlights during the week of May 25th-31st, 1962: The Isley Brothers released "Twist and Shout." [Based on: A.P. article (THAT WAS THE WEEK THAT WAS), p. D2, S.L.P.D., 05/28/08]

1962 - Birth / Paula Abdul - June 19th, 1962: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer-dancer, Paula Abdul."

1962 - Birth / Tom Cruise - July 3rd, 1962: "Reportedly born on this date in history: American actor, Tom Cruise [Mapothter IV]."

1962 - Independence / Algeria - July 3rd, 1962: "Algeria declares independence."

1962 - Nuclear Test / Starfish Prime - July 9th, 1962: "Starfish Prime was a high-altitude nuclear test conducted by the United States of America on July 9, 1962, a joint effort of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and the Defense Atomic Support Agency (which became the Defense Nuclear Agency in 1971). [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Starfish_Prime] - [T.D. - 12/12/09]

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_artificial_radiation_belts

1962 - 1st U.S. Communications Satellite - July 10th, 1962: "Bell Labs' Telstar I, the world's first commercial communication satellite is launched from Cape Canaveral on July 10; the next day the first transatlantic broadcast of a TV signal occurs between earth stations in Andover, Maine, Goonhilly in Cornwall, and Pleumeur-Boudou in France; the U.K. transmits the first color TV pictures via satellite."

1962 - Birth / Wesley Snipes - July 31st, 1962: "Reportedly born on this date in history: American actor, Wesley Snipes."

1962 - Fatality / Marilyn Monroe - August 5th, 1962: "Marilyn Monroe, 36 years old and a burned-out superstar, was found dead in her bed, of an overdose."

1962 - Passed / 24th U.S. Amendment - August 27th, 1962: "24th U.S. Constitutional amendment ['Poll taxes barred'] passed." [Link: 1]

1962 - Independence / Trinidad & Tobago - August 31st, 1962: "Trinidad and Tobago gain independence from Britain."

1962 - Spider Man - August, 1962: "Comic book author Stan Lee [Lieber] [b. 1922] introduces Spider-man."

1962 - Major Earthquake / Iran - September 1st, 1962: "An earthquake in Iran kills more than 12,000 people." [Link: 1]

*Trivia: "Date: September 1st, 1962. Earthquake location: NW Iran. Earthquake magnitude: 7.3. Number of recorded fatalities: 12,230."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 208]

1962 - Typhoon Wandaa / Hong Kong - "Typhoon date(s): September 1st, 1962. Number of recorded deaths: 130-200." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 206]

1962 - Birth / Kristy McNichol - September 11th, 1962: "Christina Ann "Kristy" McNichol (born September 11, 1962) is an American actress.[2] [...] McNichol was born in Los Angeles, California, the daughter of Carolyn McNichol Lucas, a business manager and actress, and Jim McNichol, a carpenter.[5] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kristy_McNichol]

1962 - "Love me do" / The Beatles - September 11th, 1962: Love me do and P.S. I love you were recorded at the Abbey Road studios by The Beatles. [Link: 1

1962 - NBC Premier / "The Jetsons" - Entertainment highlights during the week of Sept. 23-29, 1962: "The Jetsons" premiered on ABC. It was the first program on the network to be carried in color. [Based on: A.P. article (THAT WAS THE WEEK THAT WAS), p. E2, S.L.P.D., 09/25/07]

1962 - Flooding / Barcelona, Spain - "Flood date(s): September 27th, 1962. Number of recorded deaths: 445." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207]

1962 - CBS Premier / "The Beverly Hillbillies" - September, 1962: "Entertainment highlights during the week of Sept. 26-Oct. 2, 1962: "The Beverly Hillbillies premiered on CBS." [Based on: A.P., 09/27/04]

*Trivia: " 'The Beverly Hillbillies' debuted on CBS in September 1962, shooting to No. 1 its first two seasons, according to Nielsen rankings, and continued to reside in the top 20 throughout the rest of its nine-year run." [Based on: Los Angeles Times]

*Trivia: "Reportedly, Mr. Paul Henning, the writer and producer of 'The Beverly Hillbillies', also created 'Petticoat Junction,' a spinoff from the hit show. 'Petticoat Junction' ran from 1963 to 1970. Mr. Paul Henning was also the executive producer of 'Green Acres,' which ran from 1965 to 1971." [E.M.] 

1962 - 1st Black Student / University of Mississippi - October 1st, 1962: "James Meredith beame first black student at University of Mississippi ... after 3,000 troops put down riots." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 550]

1962 - Johnny Carson / The "Tonight" Show - October 1962: Entertainment highlights during the week of March 26-April 1: "Jack Paar hosted NBC's 'Tonight' Show for the last time [March?]. Johnny Carson followed Paar and began his stint as host in October." [Based on: A.P.]

1962 - Missles in Cuba - October 22nd, 1962: "A Soviet offensive missle buildup in Cuba was revealed Oct. 22 by Pres. Kennedy, who ordered a naval and air quarantine on shipment of offensive military equipment to the island. He and Soviet Prem. Krushchev agreed Oct. 28 on formula to end the crisis. Kennedy announced Nov. 2 that Soviet missle bases in Cuba were being dismantled." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 550]

1962 - Cuban Missle Crisis - October 27th, 1962: "If the Cuban Missile Crisis was the most dangerous passage of the Cold War, the most dangerous moment of the Cuban Missile Crisis was the evening of Saturday, 27 October 1962, when the resolution of the crisis—war or peace— appeared to hang in the balance."

1962 - Birth / Demi Moore - November 11th, 1962: "Reportedly born on this date in history: American actor, Demi Moore."

1962 - Birth / Jodie Foster - November 19th, 1962: "Reportedly born on this date in history: American actor, Jodie [Alicia Christian] Foster."

1962 - Project 112 - "On October 31st, [2002?] the Department of Defense released five more detailed fact sheets on Cold War-era chemical and biological warfare tests identified as Desert Test Center Project 112. Project 112 was a comprehensive program initiated in 1962 out of concern for our nation's ability to protect and defend against these potential threats. These fact sheets are in addition to the 40 fact sheets previously released since September 2001." [Links: 1, 2]

1962 - Project Shad - "Project SHAD, an acronym for Shipboard Hazard and Defense, was part of a larger effort called Project 112, which was conducted during the 1960s. Project SHAD encompassed tests designed to identify US warships' vulnerabilities to attacks with chemical or biological warfare agents and to develop procedures to respond to such attacks while maintaining a war-fighting capability." [Link: 1]

1962 - Work Hours Act / United States - "The Work Hours Act provides time-and-a-half pay for work past an eight hour day or 40-hour week."

1962 - Trivia / U.S. Presence, Vietnam - "In 1962, the U.S. presence in Vietnam was increased to 11,000 soldiers."

1962 - Kefauver-Harris Drug Amendments - "News reports on the role of Dr. Frances O. Kelsey, an FDA medical officer, in keeping thlidomide off the American market aroused public interest in drug regulation. The drug had been associated with the birth of thousands of malformed babies in Western Europe. The Kefauver-Harris Drug Amendments were passed to assure a greater degree of safety and to strengthen new drug clearance procedures. For the first time, drug manufacturers were required to prove the effectiveness of their products to the FDA before marketing them. In addition, the amendments: 1) Transferred jurisdiction over medical advertising of prescription products from the Federal Trade Commission [FTC] to the FDA. 2) Extended the FDA's inspection authority over establishments in which prescription drugs are manufactured, processed, packed, or held to include records, files, papers, controls, and facilities. 3) Required that facilities, methods, and control procedures used by manufacturers conform to 'current good manufacturing practices'. 4) Established 'full disclosure', under which the most vital, up-to-date, and reliable information about a prescription drug was required in its labeling, in the form of a package insert."

1962 - Trivia / Agent Orange, Vietnam - "U.S. Air Force begins using Agent Orange - a defoliant that came in metal orange containers - to expose roads and trails used by Vietcong forces. Senate Majority Leader Mike Mansfield reports back to JFK from Saigon his opinion that Diem had wasted the two billion dollars America had spent there."

*Trivia: "A federal judge on Thursday [03/10/05] dismissed a lawsuit alleging that U.S. chemical companies, including Monsanto Co. of Creve Coeur, Mo., committed war crimes against 4 million Vietnamese citizens by making Agent Orange, the defoliant that allegedly caused birth defects, miscarriages and cancer. 'There is no basis for any of the claims of plantiffs under the domestic law of any nation or state or under any form of international law,' U.S. District Judge Jack B. Weinstein wrote in a 233-page ruling. 'The case is dismissed.' Lawyers who filed the suit on behalf of the Vietnamese citizens said an appeal was planned. They had argued that Agent Orange, which is laden with the toxic chemical dioxin, was a poison barred by international rules of war. Lawyers for Monsanto, Dow Chemical Co. and more than a dozen other companies said they should not be punished for following what they believed to be the legal orders of the nation's commander in chief. [....] A lawyer for the Vietnamese plantiffs called the decision that Agent Orange was not a poison 'a clear error.' U.S. aircraft sprayed more than 21 million gallons of the chemical between 1962 to 1971 in attempts to destroy crops and remove foliage used as cover by communist forces. Some 10,000 U.S. war veterans receive medical-disability benefits related to Agent Orange." [Based on A.P. article, S.L.P.D., p. C2, 03/11/05]

1962 - Trivia / Letters to Gail - December 6th, 1962: "In Letters to Gail, Paul [Paul Twitchell] wrote in his letter dated December 6, 1962:

What I have to say in all seriousness is: The greatest advantage of spiritual alertness (awareness) is not to be trapped in any position with anyone or anything! You can be trapped by religion, churches, jobs, people who depend on your love, etc., but be watchful! It is usually the feeling element within the person that traps him!

[See: Dialogue in the Age of Criticism, Chap. 6]   

1962 - LED's - "In 1962, Light-emitting diodes [LEDs] are developed by General Electric."

1962 - Moon Pictures - "NASA 730- lb. Ranger 4 got TV close-up pictures of the Moon." [Link: 1] 

1962 - 1st Mars Probe  - "Russians launch the first Mars probe, but contact is lost." [Link: 1] 

1962 - Geodetic Satellite - "First active geodetic satellite [Anna 1 B]." [Link: 1] 

1962 - Venus Probe / Mariner 2 - "Venus probe Mariner 2 sends back close-range information about Venus."  [Link: 1] 

1962 - Silent Spring - "Rachel Carson's Silent Spring launched environmentalist movement." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 550]

1962 - Notable Songs of 1962 - "I Left My Heart in San Francisco" (Tony Bennett); Love me do and P.S. I love you (The Beatles); "Twist and Shout" (The Isley Brothers)

1962 - Flood Trivia / 1962 - "Number of notable floods this year: at least 2. Number of flood deaths: 788." [E.M.]

1962 - Typhoon Trivia / 1962 - "Number of notable typhoons this year: at least 1. Number of typhoon deaths: 130-200." [E.M.]

1962 - Earthquake Trivia / 1962 - "Number of notable earthquakes this year: at least 1. Number of earthquake deaths: 12,230." [E.M.]

1962 - "Natural Disaster" Deaths / 1962 - "Estimated number of people who died from natural disasters this year: at least 13,148." [E.M.]

1963

1963 - Astronomic Configuration - January 1st, 1963: "Sun [9 Capricorn], Moon [13 Pisces], Mercury [28 Capricorn], Venus [25 Scorpio], Mars [24 Leo R.], Jupiter [9 Pisces], Saturn [9-10 Aquarius], Uranus [5 Virgo R.], Neptune [15 Scorpio], Pluto [12 Virgo R.]."  

1963 - NBC Premier / "Wild Kingdom" - Entertainment highlights during the week of January 6th-12th, 1963: "Wild Kingdom" premiered on NBC. [Based on: A.P. article, p. E3, S.L.P.D., 01/08/08]

1963 - Year of the Rabbit - January 25th, 1963: "The Chinese Year of the Rabbit begins."

1963 - U.K. Tour / The Beatles - February 2nd, 1963: "A young rock band, then called a group, had learned its craft in the cramped and sweaty Cavern Club in Liverpool. Turned down by Decca at the start of 1962, the Beatles went on towards the end of that year to make a modest impression with their first single, Love Me Do. In 1963, they took over the world. The Beatles had started their first U.K. tour on February 2nd, 1963." [Link: 1]

1963 - Boeing 727 - February 9th, 1963 : "First Boeing 727 flight took place, 1963." [Based on: The Old Farmer's Almanac (2006) by Robert B. Thomas, p. 103]

1963 - Must Have Counsel / U.S. Criminal Defendants - March 18th, 1963: "In Gideon v. Wainwright ... Supreme Court ruled that all criminal defendants must have counsel." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 550]

1963 - Closed / Alcatraz Federal Prison - March 21st, 1963: "Alcatraz federal prison closes after 29 years of operation."

1963 - ABC Premier / "General Hospital" - Entertainment highlights during the week of March 26-April 1: The soap opera "General Hospital" premiered on ABC." [Based on: A.P.]

1963 - Birth / Julian Lennon - April 8th, 1963: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer, Julian Lennon."

1963 - Best Picture/Director Oscars / "Lawrence of Arabia" - Entertainment highlights during the week of April 8th-14th, 1963: "Lawerence of Arabia" won the Oscars for best picture and best director. [Based on: A.P. article, p. D3, S.L.P.D., 04/09/07]

1963 - Birth / Conan O'Brien - April 18th, 1963: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Talk show host, Conan O'Brien."

1963 - Birth / Jet Li - April 26th, 1963: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actor, Jet Li."

1963 - Civil Rights March / Alabama - May 2nd, 1963: "March for civil rights begun ... in Birmingham, AL, led to desegragation accord, which in turn sparked rioting and violence." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 550]

1963 - Trivia / Bob Dylan - Entertainment highlights during the week of May 6th-12th, 1963: Bob Dylan refused to appear on the "Ed Sullivan Show" because CBS would not allow him to sing "Talking John Birch Society Blues." [Based on: A.P. article (THAT WAS THE WEEK THAT WAS), p. C2, S.L.P.D., 05/07/07]

1963 - Monterey Folk Festival - May 17th, 1963: "Joan Baez, Bob Dylan, and Peter Paul and Mary performed at the first Monterey Folk Festival, a three day event, on the weekend of 17 May 1963, along with many other folk artists." [Link: 1]

1963 - Birth / Mike Myers - May 25th, 1963: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Canadian actor, Mike Myers."

1963 - Windstorm / Bangladesh - "Windstorm date(s): May 28th-29th, 1963. Number of recorded deaths: 22,000." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 206]

1963 - Birth / Johnny Depp - June 9th, 1963: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actor, Johnny Depp."

1963 - Proposed / U.S. Civil Rights Bill - June 11th, 1963: "JFK Proposes the Civil Rights Bill."  

1963 - Desegragation / University of Alabama - June 11th, 1963: "University of Alabama desegrated after Gov. George Wallace stepped aside when confronted by federally deployed National Guard troops June 11." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 550]

1963 - Assassinated / Medgar Evers - June 12th, 1963: "Mississippi NAACP leader Medgar Evers [b. 1925] is murdered by KKK member Byron de la Beckwith."

*Trivia: "Byron De La Beckwith convicted Feb. 5 [1994] of the 1963 murder of civil rights leader Medgar Evers." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 555]

1963 - Birth / Helen Hunt - June 15th, 1963: "Reportedly born on this date in history: American actress, Helen Elizabeth Hunt."

1963 - No. 1 in U.S.A. / "Sukiyaki" - Entertainment highlights during the week of June 11-17, 1963: "Sukiyaki" became a hit on the American pop chart. It was the first Japanese song ever to go to No. 1 in the United States." [Based on: A.P. article, p. C2, S.L.P.D., 06/12/06]

1963 - 1st Maneuverable Satellite - "First maneuverable satellite [Polyot 1, USSR]." [Link: 1] 

1963 - U.S. Communications Satellite / Syncom II - "NASA 80 - lb. Syncom II, geosynchronous communications satellite." [Link: 1] 

1963 - Spacecraft  Trivia / USSR - "Two spacecraft in orbit at the same time [Nikolayev and Popovich, USSR] [Link: 1] 

1963 - 1st Woman in Space - June 16th. 1963: "Soviet cosmonaut Lt. Valentina Tereshkova becomes the first woman in space [in Vostok 6]." [Link: 1

1963 - Unconstitutional? / Prayer In Public Schools, U.S.A. - June 17th, 1963: "Supreme Court ruled, 8-1 ... that laws requiring recitation of the Lord's Prayer or Bible verses in public schools were unconstitutional." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 550]

*Trivia: "In 1963, American Atheist crusader Madalyn Murray O'Hair [1918-1995], 'the most hated woman in America' enters the spotlight with a victory over government-sponsored prayer in public schools."

1963 - Elected / Pope Paul VI - June 21st, 1963: "Pope John XXIII died on June 3, and Giovanni Battista Montini was elected Pope Paul VI [1897-1978] on June 21."

1963 - "ECKANKAR" - July 9th, 1963: "This chapter [Chap. 3, Dialogue in the Age of Criticism, by Doug Marman, Copyright 2000] covers the few short years just before Paul [Paul Twitchell] officially introduced ECKANKAR as a spiritual teaching. David [David Lane] begins by referring to an interview by Jack Jarvis, on July 9, 1963, called 'Paul Twitchell, Man of Parts,' which appears to be the first time that Paul mentions the name ECKANKAR. Shortly after, Paul wrote a response to Jarvis' article, called, 'The Square Peg,' which I quoted from earlier in Chapter One.
   "These days, then, were Paul's Cliff-Hanger days, when he also began introducing the name and concept of ECKANKAR." [Based on: Doug Marman, Dialogue in the Age of Criticism, Chap. 3]  

*Tivia: [A request has been made for this article to be peer reviewed ....]

Eckankar, Religion of the Light and Sound of God emphasizes the value of personal experiences as the most natural way back to God. The current [2006] spiritual leader of Eckankar (since October 1981) is Sri Harold Klemp.

The teaching states that Eckists (students of Eckankar; also called chelas) must prove the veracity of the path for themselves, and gives specific Spiritual Exercises that teach individuals to leave their body, and journey into what is known as the "higher planes." Eckists believe it is possible to achieve self-realization and God-realization in this lifetime, and recommend that there is no better time than the present moment to experience God's divine love. The final spiritual goal of all Eckists is to become conscious co-workers with God.

[....]

Paul Twitchell stated that he had put Eckankar together from the scattered bits and pieces of other teachings, but it is fair to say that neither he nor any of his successors have ever publicly stated that he plagiarized the works of other authors. (It should be noted: In the context of the times, the usage and embellishment by an author of phrases from other religious and spiritual writers was not an uncommon event, as indeed it remains so today.)

[....]

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eckankar] - [11/11/06]

1963 - Earthquake / Skopje, Yugoslavia - July 26th, 1963: "Earthquake location: Skopje, Yugoslavia. Earthquake magnitude: 6.0. Number of recorded fatalities: 1,100."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 208]

1963 - Newport Folk Festival - July 26-28, 1963: "Newport Folk Festival July 26-28, includes Bob Dylan, Joan Baez, Phil Ochs and Pete Seeger."  

1963 - Birth / "D.R.D." - July 27th, 1963: Born this date in history: Mirror History creator, D.R.D., a.k.a. Etznab Mathers.

1963 - Birth / Lisa Kudrow - July 30th, 1963: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actress, Lisa Kudrow."

1963 - Signed / 1st Nuclear Test Ban Treaty - August 5th, 1963: "First Nuclear Test Ban Treaty signed."  

1963 - Birth / Whitney Houston - August 9th, 1963: Born on this date in history: Singer, Whitney Houston.

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whitney_Houston

1963 - "Beach Party" / Frankie Avalon & Annette Funicello - Entertainment highlights during the week of August 6th-12th, 1963: Frankie Avalon and Annette Funicello's first movie together, "Beach Party," was released. [Based on: A.P. article, p. E5, S.L.P.D., 08/08/06]

1963 - "I Have A Dream" / Martin Luther King Jr. - August 28th, 1963: "Martin Luther King Jr. delivers his 'I Have a Dream' speech on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial on August 28th to 200,000 people." [Link: 1]

1963 - Church Bombing / Alabama - September 15th, 1963: "16th St. Baptist Church in Birmingham, AL, bombed ... in racial violence; 4 black girls killed." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 550]

1963 - Birth / Richard Marx - September 16th, 1963: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer, Richard Marx."

1963 - Gay Rights Demonstration / New York - September 19th, 1963: "The first gay rights demonstration in the U.S. takes place on September 19 in New York at the Whitehall Induction Center, protesting against discrimination in the military."

1963 - Ratified / 1st Nuclear Test Ban Treaty - September 24th, 1963: "Nuclear Test Ban Treaty ratified by Senate."  

1963 - Birth / Mark McGwire - October 1st, 1963: "Reportedly born on this date in history: American baseball player, Mark McGwire."

1963 - Signed / Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty - October 7th, 1961: "President Kennedy signs the Limited Test Ban Treaty ... prohibiting nuclear testing in the atmosphere, underwater, and in outer space." [Based on: N.G.M., August 2005, p. 107]

1963 - Hurricane Flora / Caribbean- "Hurricane date(s): October 4th-8th, 1963. Number of recorded deaths: 6,000." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 206]

1963 - Flooding [Dam Collapse] / Vaiont, Italy - "Flood date(s): October 9th, 1963. Number of recorded deaths: 1,800." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207]

1963 - In Effect / Nuclear Test Ban Treaty - October 10th, 1963: "Nuclear Test Ban Treaty takes effect."  

1963 - "Beatlemania" - October 13th, 1963: "British newspapers first use the term 'Beatlemania' in headlines."

*Trivia: "Beatles on TV at London Palladium [10/13/63]. 15 million get to see them perform 'She Loves You' and 'Twist and Shout'."  

1963 - U.S.-Approved Assassination / South Vietnam  - November 1st, 1963: "U.S. President John F. Kennedy approves the assassination of the the president of South Vietnam." [Based on TV program: "The Presidents" - The History Channel, 01/21/05]

1963 - Assassination / Ngo Dinh Diem, South Vietnam  - November 2nd, 1963: "President Ngo Dinh Diem of South Vietnam and his brother are killed in a coup." [Link: 1]

1963 - Birth / Tatum O'Neal - November 5th, 1963: "Tatum Beatrice O'Neal (born November 5, 1963) is an American actress and author. She is the youngest person ever to win a competitive Academy Award, which she won at the age of 10 for her performance as Addie Loggins in Paper Moon (1973) opposite her father Ryan O'Neal. She then starred in The Bad News Bears in 1976, followed by Nickelodeon, and Little Darlings. [...] O'Neal was born in Los Angeles, California, to actors Ryan O'Neal and Joanna Moore, who had appeared in various motion pictures and television shows. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tatum_O%27Neal]

1963 - Birth / Nicollette Sheridan - November 21st, 1963: "Nicollette Sheridan (born November 21, 1963) is an English television and film actress, best known for playing Edie Britt on the ABC dramedy series Desperate Housewives (2004–2009) and as Paige Matheson of the CBS primetime soap opera Knots Landing (1986–1993). [...] Sheridan was born in Worthing, Sussex, England, the daughter of actress Sally Sheridan (née Adams).[1] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicollette_Sheridan]

1963 - Assassination / John F. Kennedy, U.S.A. - November 22nd, 1963: "In Dallas, Texas, U.S. President John F. Kennedy was assassinated."

1963 - U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson - November 22nd, 1963: "The 36th American President, Lyndon B. Johnson [Democrat], begins his term."

1963 - Died / Aldous Huxley - November 22nd, 1963: "Aldous Huxley dies while tripping on LSD (intentionally!)."

1963 - Fatally Wounded / Lee Harvey Oswald - November 24th, 1963: "Lee Harvey Oswald ... was shot and fatally wounded Nov. 24. Jack Ruby, a nightclub owner, was convicted of Oswald's murder; he died in 1967, while awaiting retrial following reversal of his conviction." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 550]

1963 - Escalation / Vietnam War - November 24th, 1963: "LBJ escalates the Vietnam War."  

*Trivia: "[....] In Vietnam, the U.S. lost on average about 4,850 soldiers a year from 1963-75. In the Korean war, from 1950-53, the U.S. lost about 12,300 soldiers a year. [....] " [Based on: A.P. article (U.S. death toll in Iraq war reaches 4,000 / Roadside bombing in southern Baghdad kills 4 U.S. soldiers.) by Robert H. Reid, p. A10, S.L.P.D., 03/24/08]

1963 - "I Want to Hold Your Hand" / The Beatles - November 29th, 1963: Beatles "I Want to Hold Your Hand" Released.  

1963 - Birth / Brad Pitt - December 18th, 1963: "William Bradley 'Brad' Pitt ... is an American actor and film producer. [...] William Bradley 'Brad' Pitt was born in Shawnee, Oklahoma, and is the son of Jane Etta (née Hillhouse), a high school counselor, and William Alvin Pitt, a truck company owner.[4] The family soon moved to Springfield, Missouri, where he lived together with his younger siblings, Doug (born 1966) and Julie Neal (born 1969).[5] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brad_Pitt]

1963 - Battle of Ap Bac / Vietnam  - "In 1963, Vietcong units defeated the South Vietnamese Army [ARVN] in the Battle of Ap Bac."

1963 - Revelation / Nuclear Weapons Stockpile, Israel - "Israel’s possession of nuclear weapons had actually been revealed ... by the late George Ball, who was under secretary of state under presidents John Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson. Ball, in a Washington Post commentary, said the United States had been aware of Israel’s nuclear stockpile since 1963." [Based on: James P. Tucker Jr., A.F.P., March 2004]

1963 - Ba'ath Party  / Iraq - "In 1963, the CIA architected a bloody military coup to overthrow Kassem and brought the joint socialist-nationalist Ba'athist party - headed by Col. Salem Aref, to power. The CIA then supported the Baathists' bloody pogrom against the leftists, consolidating Saddam's power." [Links 1]

1963 - Trivia / Timothy Leary - "Timothy Leary [1920-1996], who tried LSD for the first time a year earlier, predicts that a million people will try it within ten years, and is kicked out of his position at Harvard."

1963 - Discovered / Valium  - "Leo Sternbach discovers Valium [diazepam]."

1963 - Measles Vaccine / U.S.A. - "The United States had 37 cases of measles last year [2004], the smallest number in more than 90 years of recordkeeping, the government said Thursday [12/08/05]. [....] In the decade before a measles vaccine became available in 1963, more than 500,000 measles cases and about 450 measles deaths occurred in the United States each year." [Based on: A.P. article (U.S. measles cases hit record low, CDC says), p. A8, S.L.P.D., 12/09/05]

1963 - 1963 Inventions - "Lucky Charms [cereal]; Lava Lamp; Skateboards; Felt-tipped Pen."

1963 - Trivia / Light Research - [....] Until Glauber published his theories in 1963, scientists dismissed the idea that quantum theory, which was developed to describe the behavior of particles, had any application to light. But Glauber showed that certain types of light - including lasers - could only be understood using quantum methods, which treat light as individual packets of energy rather than continuous waves. [....] [Based on: A.P. article, p. A11, S.L.P.D., 10/05/05]

1963 - Equal Pay Act / U.S.A. - 1963: "Congress passes the Equal Pay Act, making it illegal for employers to pay a woman less than what a man would receive for the same job." [Based on: Everyday section article (Women's History Timeline), p. E4, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 03/21/06]

1963 - Cost of Mailing a Letter? / U.S.A. - "Cost of stamp for mailing a letter in U.S.A.: 5 cents." [Based on: S.L.P.D. article (Cost of mailing a letter will jump to 39 cents next week [January 2006]), p. C1, S.L.P.D., 01/03/06]

1963 - Television Debut / "Petticoat Junction" - "Reportedly, Mr. Paul Henning, the writer and producer of 'The Beverly Hillbillies', also created 'Petticoat Junction,' a spinoff from the hit show. 'Petticoat Junction' ran from 1963 to 1970. Mr. Paul Henning was also the executive producer of 'Green Acres,' which ran from 1965 to 1971." [E.M.] 

1963 - 1963 Novels / 1963 - "Planet of the Apes."

1963 - Notable Songs of 1963 - "I Want To Hold Your Hand" (The Beatles); "Louie Louie" (The Kingsmen)

1963 - Flood Trivia / 1963 - "Number of notable floods this year: at least 1. Number of flood deaths: 1,800." [E.M.]

1963 - Windstorm Trivia / 1963 - "Number of notable windstorms this year: at least 1. Number of windstorm deaths: 22,000." [E.M.]

1963 - Hurricane Trivia / 1963 - "Number of notable hurricanes this year: at least 1. Number of hurricane deaths: 6,000." [E.M.]

1963 - Earthquake Trivia / 1963 - "Number of notable earthquakes this year: at least 1. Number of earthquake deaths: 1,100." [E.M.]

1963 - "Natural Disaster" Deaths / 1963 - "Estimated number of people who died from natural disasters this year: at least 30,900." [E.M.]

1964

1964 - Astronomic Configuration - January 1st, 1964: "Sun [9 Capricorn], Moon [0 Leo], Mercury [17 Capricorn R.], Venus [10 Aquarius], Mars [20 Capricorn], Jupiter [10 Aries], Saturn [20 Aquarius], Uranus [9 Virgo R.], Neptune [17 Scorpio], Pluto [14 Virgo R.]."  

1964 - End ? / U.S. Baby Boom - "The U.S. baby boom ends; mature baby boomers generally delay childbearing." [Link: 1]

1964 - MKSEARCH / U.S.A. - 1964: "Headed by Dr. Sidney Gottlieb, MKULTRA was started on the order of CIA director Allen Dulles in April 13, 1953, largely in response to alleged Soviet, Chinese, and North Korean uses of mind-control techniques on U.S. prisoners of war in Korea. The CIA wanted to use similar methods on their own captives. The CIA was also interested in being able to manipulate foreign leaders with such techniques, and would later invent several schemes to drug Fidel Castro. In 1964, the project was renamed to MKSEARCH. The project attempted to produce a perfect truth drug for use in interrogating suspected Soviet spies during the Cold War, and generally to explore any other possibilities of mind control. Because most of the MKULTRA records were deliberately destroyed in 1972 by order of the Director at that time, Richard Helms, it is impossible to have a complete understanding of the more than 150 individually funded research projects sponsored by MKULTRA and the related CIA programs. [....] Experiments were often conducted without the subjects' knowledge or consent. [....] A secretive arrangement granted a percentage of the CIA budget. The MKULTRA director was granted 6% of the CIA operating budget in 1953, without oversight or accounting."

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Project_MKULTRA#Origins]

1964 - Birth / Nicolas Cage - January 7th, 1964: "Reportedly born on this date in history: American actor, Nicolas Cage [Coppola]."

1964 - Foreign Relations / U.S. & Panama - January 9th, 1964: "Panama suspended relations with U.S. Jan. 9 after riots. U.S. offered Dec. 18 to negotiate a new canal treaty." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 551]

1964 - U.S. Surgeon General Warning / Cigarette Smoking - January 11th, 1964: "U.S. Surgeon General declares cigarettes cause lung disease."  

*Trivia: "The U.S. Surgeon General issues a 387-page report containing evidence that cigarette smoking causes lung cancer and heart disease, but tobacco companies deny the charges."

1964 - Birth / Michelle Obama - January 17th, 1964: "Reportedly born on this date in history: U.S. 1st Lady (2009), Michelle Obama."

1964 - Ratified / 24th U.S. Amendment - January 23rd, 1964: "24th U.S. Constitutional amendment ['Poll taxes barred'] ratified." [Link: 1]

1964 - "Eckankar, The Bilocation Philosophy" - January, 1964: "David [David Lane] reports that in January 1964, Orion Magazine published what seems to be Paul's [Paul Twitchell's] first public article entirely devoted to ECKANKAR. In this article, called, 'Eckankar, The Bilocation Philosophy,' Paul wrote:

    Eckankar, the philosophy of out of body experience, is that understanding which I have gained from bi-location excursions similar to those in the lives of saints of all faiths...

     Man needs to learn to leave his body at will and dwell in his spirit body, on other planes. He must someday leave this fleshy temple, so he should learn that by going in and out of his body that he can give it up to death without suffering...

     The orthodox eastern philosophies teach that man must become one with God, but I cannot hold to this concept.  The individual self of man becomes a coworker of God, not a part of the unity of Him, in the sense of being one with the divine source anyway, for we are dwelling in the body of God, but we have the freedom of movement and of choice inside this framework of the Almighty...

[Based on: Dialogue in the Age of Criticism, Chap. 3]  

1964 - New Military Junta / South Vietnam - January 30th, 1964: "New military junta takes over in South Vietnam."  

1964 - Trivia / "Louie Louie" - Entertainment highlights during the week of January 30th-February 5th, 1964: "Indiana's governor declared the Kingsmen song 'Louie Louie' pornographic and asked the state's radio stations to ban it. An FCC investigation concluded the record to be 'unintelligible at any speed we played it.' " [A.P.]

1964 - "British Rock & Roll Invasion" / U.S.A. - February 7th, 1964: "The British Rock and Roll Invasion of America is started by the Beatles as they land in Kennedy Airport [New York]."

*Trivia: "The Beatles ... appeared Feb. 9 on CBS-TV's Ed Sullivan Show." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 551]

1964 - Year of the Dragon - February 13th, 1964: "The Chinese Year of the Dragon begins."

1964 - Birth / Christopher Farley - February 15th, 1964: "Reportedly born on this date in history: American actor, Christopher [Chris] Crosby Farley [died 12/18/1997]."

1964 - Birth / French Stewart - February 20th, 1964: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actor ('Third Rock From the Sun'), French Stewart."

1964 - World Heavyweight Champion / Cassius Clay - February 25th, 1964: "Cassius Clay (later Muhammad Ali) won world heavyweight boxing championship." [Based on: The Old Farmer's Almanac (2006) by Robert B. Thomas, p. 103]

1964 - Birth / Prince Edward - March 10th, 1964: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Britain's, Prince Edward."

1964 - Great Earthquake / Alaska - March 28th, 1964: "Earthquake location: Prince William Sound, Alaska. Earthquake magnitude: 9.2. Number of recorded fatalities: 125." [Link: 1]  

*Trivia: "Earthquake date: March 27th, 1964. Earthquake location: Alaska. Magnitude: 9.2. Number of earthquake deaths: 131." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 209]. " 

*Trivia: "Another major quake [7.9] would later hit this area in 2002."

1964 - Birth / Tracy Chapman - March 30th, 1964: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer, Tracy Chapman."

1964 - Top Songs / The Beatles - Entertainment highlights during the week of April 2nd-8th, 1964: The Beatles held the top five positions on Billboard's Hot 100 chart. "Can't Buy Me Love" was No. 1, followed by "Twist and Shout," "She Loves You," "I Want to Hold Your Hand" and "Please Please Me." [Based on: A.P. article, p. C5, S.L.P.D., 04/02/06]

1964 - Birth / Russell Crowe - April 7th, 1964: "Russell Ira Crowe (born 7 April 1964) is a New Zealand born Australian[3][4] actor,[5] film producer and musician.[6] He came to international attention for his role as Roman General Maximus Decimus Meridius in the 2000 historical epic film Gladiator, [... .]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russell_Crowe]

1964 - Birth / Melissa Gilbert - May 8th, 1964: "Melissa Ellen Gilbert (born May 8, 1964) is an American actress, writer, and producer, primarily in film and television. Gilbert is best known as a child actress who starred as Laura Ingalls Wilder, on the NBC series Little House on the Prairie (1974–1984). [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melissa_Gilbert]

1964 - Debut Album / "The Rolling Stones" - Entertainment highlights during the week of April 13-19, 1964: "The Rolling Stones' self-titled debut album was released in Britian." [Based on: A.P. article (THAT WAS THE WEEK THAT WAS), p. E2, S.L.P.D., 04/15/08]

1964 - U.S. Military Planes / Laos - May 27th, 1964: "U.S. reported May 27 it was sending military planes to Laos." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 551]

*Trivia: "[...] The U.S. dropped more than 2 million tons of bombs on the North Vietnamese ally during its 'secret war' between 1964 and 1973 - about a ton of ordinance for each Laotian man, woman and child. That exceeded the amount per person dropped on Germany and Japan together in World War II. [NP] Four decades later, American weapons are still claiming lives. When the war ended, about a third of some 270 million cluster bombs dropped on Laos had failed to detonate. More than 20,000 people have been killed in Laos since then by ordinance, according to its government, and agriculture development has been stymied. [....]" [Based on: A.P. article (U.S. pledges to address legacy of Laos bombing) by Bradley Klapper, p A12, S.L.P.D., 07/12/12]

1964 - The Beatles / Hollywood, California - April 23rd, 1964: "Beatles appear at the Hollywood Bowl."

1964 - Vietnam War Protest / San Francisco - "In the spring 80,000 people march in San Francisco to protest the Vietnam War."

1964 - Bob Dylan / England - May 1964: "Bob Dylan's first visit to England, meets The Beatles & Rolling Stones; turns The Beatles on to marijuana."  

1964 - Birth / Courteney Cox - June 15th, 1964: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actress, Courteney Cox."

1964 - Major Earthquake / Niigata, Japan - June 16th, 1964: "Earthquake location: Prince William Sound, Alaska. Earthquake magnitude: 7.5. Number of recorded fatalities: 26."  

1964 - Fatalities / Civil Rights Workers - June 22nd, 1964: "Three civil rights workers were reported missing in Mississippi June 22; found buried Aug. 4. Twenty-one white men were arrested. On Oct. 20, 1967, an all-white federal jury convicted 7 of conspiracy in the slayings." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 551]

*Trivia: "More than 40 years [01/07/05] after one of the most notorious crimes of the turbulent civil rights era - the 'Freedom Summer' slayings of three young civil rights workers - a reputed Ku Klux Klansman [Edgar Ray Killen] was arrested Thursday [01/06/05] on state murder charges in the case. [....] In 1964, James Chaney, 21, Michael Schwerner, 24 and Andrew Goodman, 20, who were helping to register black voters, were murdered as they drove to a church to investigate a fire. They were believed to have been stopped by Klansmen, beaten and shot to death. Their bodies were found weeks later buried in a nearby dam. Nineteen men - including Killen - were indicted. Seven were convicted of federal civil rights violations in 1967 and sentenced to prison terms ranging from three to 10 years. Killen was freed after his trial on federal conspiracy charges ended in a hung jury. [....]" [A.P., 01/07/05]

1964 -  Typhoon Winnie / N. Philippines - "Typhoon date(s): June 30th, 1964. Number of recorded deaths: 107." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 206]. "

1964 - Signed / U.S. Civil Rights Act - July 2nd, 1964: "Omnibus civil rights bill cleared by Congress July 2, signed same day by Pres. Johnson, banning discrimination in voting, jobs, public accomodations." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 551]

*Trivia: "1964 seemed to mark a turning point in America; with the passage of the Civil Rights Act, a new age in race relations appeared to be dawning. But the states acted quickly to circumvent the new federal law. California reacted with Proposition 14, which moved to block the fair housing components of the Civil Rights Act. This, and other acts, created a feeling of injustice and despair in the inner cities."

*Trivia: "The Civil Rights Act, signed by President Lyndon B. Johnson, outlaws segregation of restaurants, lodging and other public facilities." [St. Louis Post Dispatch, 05/17/04]

1964 - Birth / David Spade - July 22nd, 1964: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actor-comedian, David Spade."

1964 - Birth / Sandra Bullock - July 26th, 1964: "Reportedly born on this date in history: American actor, Sandra Bullock."

1964 - Trivia / Gulf of Tonkin Incident - August 4th, 1964: "The National Security Agency has released [2005] hundreds of pages of long-secret documents on the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident that played a critical role near the beginning of the Vietnam War. The material posted on the Internet at midnight Wednesday [11/30/05] included one of the largest collections of secret, intercepted communications ever made available for study. The most provocative document is a 2001 article in which an agency historian argued that the agency's intelligence officers 'deliberately skewed' the evidence passed on to policymakers on the crucial question of whether North Vietnamese ships attacked U.S. destroyers on Aug. 4, 1964. Based on the mistaken belief that such an attack had occurred, President Lyndon Johnson ordered airstrikes on North Vietnam, and Congress passed a broad resolution authorizing military action. The historian, Robert Hanyok, wrote the article in an internal publication and it was classified top secret despite the fact that it dealt with events in 1964. Word of Hanyok's findings leaked to historians outside the agency, who requested the article under the Freedom of Information Act in 2003. [....] In his 2001 article, an elaborate piece of detective work, Hanyok wrote that 90 percent of the intercepts of North Vietnamese communications relevant to the supposed Aug. 4, 1964, attack were omitted from the major agency documents going to policymakers. 'The overwhelming body of reports, if used, would have told the story that no attack had happened,' he wrote. 'So a conscious effort ensued to demonstrate that an attack had occurred.' [....] 'A lot of people at the agency haven't been happy that communications intelligence was used to support a wrong conclusion,' he said. Agency employees worked late Wednesday [11/30/05] to meet a self-imposed end-of-November deadline, posting the intercepts, oral history interviews with retired agency officials and internal reports on the agency's Web site at www.nsa.gov/vietnam." [Based on: New York Times article (Secret Gulf of Tonkin papers are released on Web), p. A3, S.L.P.D., 12/02/05]

1964 - Gulf of Tonkin Resolution - August 7th, 1964: "In a bloodless coup, General Nguyen Khanh seizes power in Saigon. South Vietnam junta leader, Major General Duong Van Minh, is placed under house arrest, but is allowed to remain as a figurehead chief-of-state. On August 2, three North Vietnamese PT boats allegedly fire torpedoes at the USS Maddox, a destroyer located in the international waters of the Tonkin Gulf, some thirty miles off the coast of North Vietnam [In 1971 it would be revealed that the U.S. gunboats violated Vietnamese territorial waters]. The attack comes after six months of covert US and South Vietnamese naval operations. A second, even more highly disputed attack, is alleged to have taken place on August 4. The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution is approved by Congress on August 7 and authorizes President Lyndon Johnson to 'take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against forces of the United States and to prevent further aggression.' The resolution passes unanimously in the House, and by a margin of 82-2 in the Senate. The Resolution allows Johnson to wage all out war against North Vietnam without ever securing a formal Declaration of War from Congress." [Link: 1]

*Trivia: "The 'facts' behind this critically important resolution [the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution] were quite simply ... lies." [Ben Bradlee - former managing editor, The Washington Post - 1987 public lecture, England]

*Trivia: "Reportedly, before the end of the Vietnam War, 58,000 American soldiers and almost 3 million Vietnamese will have died." [Based on: Video Tape: "The Great Deception"]

1964 - War on Poverty Bill - August 11th, 1964: "Congress approved War on Poverty bill Aug 11, providing for a domestic Peace Corps (VISTA), a Job Corps, and antipoverty funding." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 551]

1964 - Awarded Nobel Peace Prize / Martin Luther King - August 14th?, 1964: "Martin Luther King awarded Nobel Peace Prize."  

1964 - The Beatles / U.S. Tour - August 1964: "Beatles first U.S. tour: 25 North American cities."  

*Trivia: "Entertainment highlights during the week of August 14th-20th, 1964: "The Beatles opened their North American tour at the Cow Palace in San Francisco. The Righteous Brothers and Jackie DeShannon also were on the tour." [Based on: A.P., 08/15/05]

1964 - Movie Release / "A Hard Days Night " - "Beatles' A Hard Day's Night movie released."  

1964 - The Beatles / Hollywood Bowl   - August 23rd, 1964: "Beatles Hollywood Bowl concert."  

1964 - U.S. Food Stamp Bill - August 31st, 1964: "LBJ signs food stamp bill."  

1964 - Summer Olympic Games / Tokyo, Japan - "In 1964, the Summer Olympic Games were held in Tokyo, Japan. In 1964, the Winter Olympic Games were held in Innsbruck, Austria."  

1964 - Nobel Peace Prize Won / Martin Luther King - August 14th, 1964: "Martin Luther King Jr. wins Nobel Peace Prize."  

1964 - Birth / Keanu Reeves - September 2nd, 1964: "Reportedly born on this date in history: American actor, Keanu Charles Reeves."

1964 -  Typhoon Ruby / Hong Kong & China - "Typhoon date(s): September 5th, 1964. Number of recorded deaths: 735." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 206]. "

1964 - Birth / Molly Shannon - September 16th, 1964: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Comedian, Molly Shannon."

1964 - Born / Bonnie Hunt - September 22nd, 1964: "Bonnie Lynne Hunt (born September 22, 1964)[1] is an American actress, commedian, writer, director, television producer and daytime television host. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bonnie_Hunt]

1964 - ABC Debut / "Bewitched" - September, 1964: Entertainment highlights during the week of Sept. 17-Sept. 23, 1964: "Bewitched," starring Elizabeth Montgomery, made its debut on ABC. [Based on: A.P. article, p. C5, 09/18/06]

1964 - No. 1 Song / "Oh, Pretty Woman", Roy Orbison - Entertainment highlights during the week of Sept. 23-29, 1964: "Roy Orbison's "Oh, Pretty Woman" hit No. 1 on the pop charts. [Based on: A.P. article (THAT WAS THE WEEK THAT WAS), p. E2, S.L.P.D., 09/25/07]

1964 - Warren Commission Report - September 27th, 1964: "The Warren Commission released Sept. 27 a report concluding that Lee Harvey Oswald was solely responsible for the Kennedy assassination." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 551]

*Trivia: "[....] A 1979 report by the House Select Committee on Assassinations concluded Oswald probably did not act alone. [....]" [Based on: A.P. article, p. A4, S.L.P.D., 11/22/05]

1964 - CBS Premier / "The Munsters" - September, 1964: CBS Television premier: "The Munsters". The show ran from 1964-1966."

1964 - CBS Premier / "Gilligan's Island" - September, 1962: "Entertainment highlights during the week of Sept. 26-Oct. 2 [1964]: "Gilligan's Island premiered on CBS." [Based on: A.P., 09/27/04]

1964 - The Beach Boys / Ed Sullivan Show - "Entertainment highlights during the week of Sept. 26-Oct. 2 [1964]: The Beach Boys made their first appearance on 'The  Ed Sullivan Show.' " [Based on: A.P., 09/27/04]

1964 - Leonid Brezhnev / USSR - October, 1964: "Because of the large amounts of money spent in Krushchev's arms and space race, the USSR was once again faced with massive unemployment and debt. A new leader came on the scene who, just as Krushchev before him, began to promise massive reforms. This leader, however, kept his word. Leonid Brezhnev had been a Politburo member since the time of Stalin. He had fought in World War II, was wounded and decorated. He was viewed by the people as an ideal ruler. In 1964, he began a series of reforms that greatly improved the working conditions of his people. He signed nuclear arms reduction treaties with the USA and allowed the conquered countries of Europe more freedom. He even allowed a joint Soviet/American space flight in 1975. He was the most liked ruler since Lenin. The only problem was that now that the people had enjoyed so much freedom they only wanted more. Brezhnev died in 1982 after ruling peaceably for almost 20 years."

1964 - Elected / Lyndon B. Johnson - November 3rd, 1964: "Pres. Johnson was elected to a full term ... defeating Republican Sen. Barry Goldwater (AZ) in a landslide." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 551]

1964 - Deportation / Ayatollah Rhuollah Khomeini - November, 1964: "In 1964, the Iranian legislative assembly granted American soldiers and their families stationed in Iran, the same immunity to prosecution which was normally only enjoyed by diplomats. The Iranian people were outraged that American soldiers were able to break their laws without fear. One of the most outspoken critics of this law was the Shiite Muslim Leader, Ayatollah Rhuollah Khomeini. He accused those of agreeing to this, including the Shah himself, as being traitors to Iran. The Shah could not risk having this powerful religious leader imprisoned. What he could and did risk, was having him deported. Khomeini was exiled to Turkey. On November 4, 1964, Khomeini vowed that he would return one day and even the score with the Shah and the United States. Throughout the 1970's, the Shah, with the backing of the U.S., remained in power. But there was a growing movement which was getting increasingly violent, against both the United States and the hated Shah." [Links: 1]

1964 - Mars Launch / Mariner 4 - November 28th, 1964: "The Mariner 4 spacecraft is launced on a 228 day mission to Mars." [Link: 1]

1964 - Birth / Marisa Tomei - December 4th, 1964: "Reportedly born this date in history: Actress, Marisa Tomei."

1964 - Birth / Eddie Vedder - December 23rd, 1964: "Reportedly born this date in history: Rock singer, Eddie Vedder."

1964 - Fatality / Jawaharlal Nehru, India - "Jawaharlal Nehru, the first prime minister, headed India from 1947 until his death in 1964. He was followed later by his daughter, Indira Gandhi, whose often iron-fisted rule defined two decades of Indian life. Indira was murdered by her own bodyguards in 1984, and her son, Rajiv Gandhi, an airline pilot, reluctantly stepped up. Riding a wave of sympathy, he easily won the next election. But he lost the prime minister's post in 1989 and was assassinated two years later while campaigning." [A.P., 05/14/04]

1964 - Founded / Palestinian Liberation Organization - "The PLO was founded in 1964 by Egyptian President Gamal Abdul Nasser. Arafat took over the PLO in 1969."

1964 - Quarks? - "Existence of quarks proposed by Murray Gell-Mann." [Based on: Ultimate Visual Dictionary of Science, Timeline of Discoveries, p. 15, Barnes & Noble Books - 2005]

1964 - Trivia / U.S. Appliances - "There are 500 million radios and 162 million TV sets in America."

1964 - Trivia / Ford Mustang - "The Ford Mustang hits the U.S. market, and 680,000 are sold the first year; Pontiac counters with the GTO, beginning the U.S. muscle car craze."

1964 - Trivia / Space Exploration - "ESRO established in Europe with 10 member nations - Close-range photographs of the Moon obtained from 806-lb Ranger 7 before impact [USA] - NASA 830-lb Nimbus 1 in polar orbit got complete world cloud cover each day - NASA 575-lb Mariner 4  got TV pictures of Mars on 6100-mi fly-by - First three-crew space-craft in Voskhod 1, USSR." [Link: 1

1964 - Notable Songs of 1964 - "I Want to Hold Your Hand" (The Beatles); "Oh, Pretty Woman" (Roy Orbinson); "The Girl from Ipanema" (Stan Getz/Astrud Gilberto).

1964 - Notable Albums of 1964 - "Love Supreme" (John Coltrane); "The Rolling Stones" (The Rolling Stones)

1964 - Typhoon Trivia / 1964 - "Number of notable typhoons this year: at least 2. Number of typhoon deaths: 842." [E.M.]

1964 - Earthquake Trivia / 1964 - "Number of notable earthquakes this year: at least 2. Number of earthquake deaths: 151." [E.M.]

1964 - "Natural Disaster" Deaths / 1964 - "Estimated number of people who died from natural disasters this year: at least 993." [E.M.]

1965-1970 A.D.

*Page last updated 12/19/12