Historical Timeline

Calendar Months

   "Most newspaper article events happen anywhere from days, to months, to years before they reach publication. Consequently, most newspaper articles on this timeline are preceded by the date of the newspaper in which they appear." [E.M.]      *Color Code

1945-1959 A.D.

1945 - "Discontinuity in History" - "[....] Now look at 1945, and consider what happened in the space of a very short time, a veritable instant in history.

Before 1945, all that human beings could do in the way of rapine and destruction could not seriously affect our planet. It recovered rapidly from even the most destructive of wars. Since 1945, however, we have accumulated nuclear weapons, which in the space of days (if used unsparingly) can destroy civilization and, perhaps, compromise the very habitability of the planet.

Before 1945, all the economic processes of humanity, from the use of fire to the use of radio, had not sufficed to endanger the environment seriously. Since 1945, however, the rapid advance of industrialization and the vast multiplication of the use of fossil fuels has resulted in the dangerous pollution of air, water, and soil, and the possible creation of a greenhouse effect - so that, again, the very habitability of the planet may be compromised. This includes the use of new artificial substances, such as chlorofluorocarbons and plastics, which resist breakdown by natural processes and which introduce new strains on the environment.

The human population of Earth has risen steadily since the days of the early hominids, but prior to 1945, it more or less matched the extension of the human range and took place slowly enough so that world society could adapt to it. Since 1945, the rate of population increase has itself increased and the world population has more than doubled, while the use of energy and of resources generally has increased far more rapidly still. The planet groans under the weight of humanity, the forests and the wilderness are disappearing, large numbers of living species are being driven to extinction, and the ecological balance of the earth is being compromised. Closer to us as individuals are the spectres of food shortage and famine that would unbearably aggravate the serious problems of disease, violence, drugs, and social alienation that already exist.

All through the history of civilization, until 1945, there has been a tendency for imperial growth, with larger political units being built up. Since 1945, in a very short period of time, all the overseas European empires broke up and "third world" nations have become independant by the dozens. (A generation afterward, the Soviet empire broke up as well.) In a way, this is a "freedom explosion" that might be welcomed, but the change has been so rapid that these new nations have developed neither the economic substructure nor the political maturity to run their societies properly.

Still, not everything points to disaster. All through the history of humanity, there has been a steady and accelerating advance in technology that has, by and large, made human life richer and more secure, and enabled humanity to handle its problems better. This has continued faster than ever, and such new postwar phenomena as computers, television, jet planes, space flight, and medical techniques offer hope. And yet, here too, there is difficulty. Prior to 1945, technological advances spread outward from the point of origin sufficiently slow so that the changes could be absorbed without undue difficulty. Since 1945, new advances spread over the world almost at once, producing changes that can only with difficulty be worked into our society.

   If ever there was a discontinuity in history, then, it was in 1945, and it would be entirely too jarring to attempt to continue this present history past that fearful break.
   What is needed is a completely different book, one with a short prolog describing the nature of pre-1945 human history, and then examining the effects of the discontinuity in detail. Post-1945 history may turn out to require a book nearly or quite as long as this book, devoted to pre-1945 history.
   Naturally, I want to do this second book myself; however, after 52 years as a professional writer, and after the production of well over 465 published books, I seem to begin to recognize a limitation to my capacity for endless work. Well, we shall see ..." [Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology of the World, Copyright 1991, pp. 648-649]

*Trivia: "Estimated Number of Warheads as of 2004: Russia - 16,000; U.S.A - 10,350; China - 400; France - 350; United Kingdom - 200; Israel - 200; Pakistan - 24-48; India - 30-35; North Korea - 6-8? The last four countries on this list [Israel, Pakistan, India & North Korea] are not signatories to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty." [Based on: N.G.M., August 2005, pp. 104-105]

1945 - Beginning / Cold War - "Stalin's new military now occupied all of the Baltic States, Poland, East Germany [including the capital, Berlin], Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria. A post-war agreement with the US and Britain at Yalta guaranteed that the Soviets would withdraw from these countries when stable governments existed there. Stalin liked the sound of that and installed 'stable' governments in these countries that were Communist and answered to him. Also, Soviet troops never withdrew from these countries. The Iron Curtain and the Cold War were beginning in 1945. Stalin began to round up entire families. He would send some to exile in Siberia where they would work in coal and mineral mines, and would send others to industrial cities where they could work on his weapons programs. These people were told that if they ever wanted to see their families again they would do exactly what they were told. They did. People who were of little value to Stalin were systematically killed. It is estimated that 30 million people died on Stalin's orders between 1924-1953. Stalin spent the rest of his life in fear that old rivals were attempting to remove him from power. He continued his purges and killing right up to his death in 1953."

1945 - Founded / Huna Fellowship - "The Huna Fellowship was founded by Max Freedom Long in 1945."

1945 - Status / English National Debt - "In 1815 it [the English national debt] was 885 million pounds and in 1945 it had grown to 22.5 billion pounds. By 1995 the national debt had risen to more than 300 billion pounds, equal to 45 percent of GNP."
  "Not even the Macmillan Committee, which was appointed in 1929, managed to find out who governed the Bank of England. Only one name has leaked out—that of Rothschild. All great wars have been started and financed by the economic conglomerate emanating from one single banking family—the Rothschilds.
   "In the Netherlands, secret societies had been able to found a central bank as early as 1609. About 40 of the world's most important central banks were established in a similar way as that of the Bank of England. In that way the Masonic bankers ruled the long-term development in the world with loan interest as a method, the central banks as middlemen, the politicians as dummies and the people as ignorant wage slaves. The Freemason-controlled banks thus can govern political life by acting without being seen. The English people strengthened the power of these invisible Freemasons through paying taxes during three centuries. Central banks were supposed to keep the economy stable." [Based on: article by Juri Lina, The Barnes Review, September/October 2004, p. 9]

1945 - Elected Communists? / U.S.A. - "As late as 1945 the Communist Party had two members on the New York City Council. Both were elected from Jewish areas of the city. Two Jews born in Russia were William Weinstone, (of the Communist Part USA Central Executive Committee) and Jay Lovestone, (editor of 'The Communist' magazine).
   "Mike Gold was editor of 'New Masses.' Alexander Bittelman served on the Central Executive Committee of Communist Part USA and as editor of the Yiddish Communist Part USA daily newspaper, 'Freiheit'. Alexander Trachtenberg fought in the failed 1905 revolution against the Czar. He fled to the U.S. and headed the front group, 'Friends of the Russian Revolution'. Louis Fraina, a Jew born in Italy, was the chief organizer of the original U.S. Communist Party. He operated under the name Ralph Snyder." [Link: 1]

1945 - Paul Twitchell / New York City - "[....] He and Camille were married in Providence, Rhode Island, in 1942. When he got out of the navy in 1945, they moved to New York. Paul wandered around a bit, and eventually took a job with the navy as the Washington, D.C., correspondent for Our Navy magazine. He kept copies of a lot of letters written from Washington, D.C., or the Washington Press Club, so we know he worked there for quite a while. [....]"

[Based on: Article (Early Commitments) @ http://www.eckankar.org/Masters/Peddar/hisStory.html#trail]

1945 - L. Ron Hubbard / Naval Hospital, Oakland California - " In 1945, left partially blind with injured optic nerves and lame from hip and back injuries, Mr. Hubbard was hospitalised at Oak Knoll Naval Hospital in Oakland, California. Among the 5,000 Navy and Marine Corps patients at Oak Knoll were hundreds of former American prisoners liberated from Japanese camps on South Pacific islands. Many were in terrible condition from starvation and other causes, unable to assimilate protein. [NP] In an attempt to resolve this problem, Navy physicians were administering the male hormone, testosterone. This medical treatment, however, was not getting effective results on all patients, and Mr. Hubbard utilised the opportunity to not only help his fellow servicemen, but to test a theory he had developed in application. [NP] 'All I was trying to establish,” he wrote, “was whether or not the mind regulated the body or the body regulated the mind. Therefore, if on some of these patients hormones did not work and on some of them they did, there might be a mental reason. If those patients on whom it did not work had a severe mental block, then it was obvious that regardless of the amount of hormone or medical treatment the person received, he would not get well. If the mind was capable of putting this much restraint upon the physical body then obviously the fact that was commonly held to be true, that structure monitors function, would be false. I set out to prove this.... I was not interested in endocrinology but in resolving whether or not function monitored structure or structure monitored function.' [NP] In case after case, he found that by utilising techniques he had developed, previously unresponsive patients immediately improved with medical treatment once the mental blocks were removed. [NP] In fact, function did monitor structure. As Mr. Hubbard noted at the time, 'Thought was boss.' [NP] This was a revolutionary concept, cutting across misconceptions that had plagued Eastern philosophy and science for centuries. [....]" [http://lron.hubbard.org/pg008.html] - [T.D. - 09/13/08]

1945 - Birth / Stephen Stills - January 3rd, 1945: "Stephen Arthur Stills ... is an American multi-instrumentalist and singer/songwriter best known for his work with Buffalo Springfield and Crosby, Stills & Nash (and Young). [...] Stills was raised in a military family. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_Stills]

1945 - Birth / Rod Stewart - January 10th, 1945: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer, Rod Stewart."

1945 - Test Launch / German IBM Prototype - January 24th, 1945: "Germany successfully launched the A-9, a winged prototype of the first Intercontinental Ballistic Missile, which was designed to reach North America.  It reached almost 50 miles in altitude, and achieved a speed of 2,700 mph.  The launch was executed on January 24th." [Link: 1]  

1945 - White Sands Proving Grounds / U.S.A. - "In February, the Secretary of War approved the Army's plans to establish the White Sands Proving Grounds, for testing new rockets." [Link: 1]

1945 - Yalta Conference / Crimea, USSR - February 4th-11th, 1945: "Yalta Conference met in the Crimea, USSR, Feb. 4-11. Roosevelt, Churchill, and Soviet leader Joseph Stalin agreed that their 3 countries, plus France, would occupy Germany and that the Soviet Union would enter war against Japan." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 548]

1945 - U.S. Forces / Iwo Jima, Japan - February 19th, 1945: "Marines landed on Iwo Jima Feb. 19, won control Mar. 16 after heavy casualties." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 548]

1945 - Birth / Micky Dolenz - March 8th, 1945: "George Michael 'Micky' Dolenz, Jr. ... is an American actor, musician, television director, radio personality and theater director, best known as the drummer and lead vocalist of the 1960s made-for-television band The Monkees. [...] Dolenz was born at the Cedars of Lebanon Hospital (now Cedars-Sinai Medical Center), Los Angeles California,[1] the son of actors George Dolenz and Janelle Johnson. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Micky_Dolenz]

1945 - Birth / Robin Trower - March 9th, 1945: "Robin Leonard Trower ... is an English rock guitarist and vocalist who achieved success with Procol Harum during the 1960s, and then again as the bandleader of his own power trio. [...] Trower was born in Catford, South East London, England and grew up in the seaside resort of Southend-on-Sea, Essex. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robin_Trower]

1945 - Birth / Eric Clapton - March 30th, 1945: "Eric Patrick Clapton, CBE... is an English guitarist and singer-songwriter. [...] Eric Patrick Clapton was born in Ripley, Surrey, England, the son of 16-year-old Patricia Molly Clapton ... and Edward Walter Fryer ... a 25-year-old soldier from Montreal, Quebec. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eric_Clapton]

1945 - U.S. Forces / Okinawa, Japan - April 1st, 1945: "U.S. forces invaded Okinawa Apr. 1, captured Okinawa June 21." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 548]

1945 - Test Fired / Private-F Rockets, Texas - "On April 1st through 13th, seventeen rounds of Private-F rockets were fired at Hueco Ranch, Texas." [Link: 1]

1945 - Fatality / U.S. President Roosevelt - April 12th, 1945: "Pres. Roosevelt died in Warm Springs GA, Apr. 12; Vice Pres. Harry S. Truman became president." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 548]

1945 - U.S. President Harry S. Truman - April 12th, 1945: "The 33rd American President,  Harry S. Truman [Democrat], begins his term."

*Trivia: "President Harry Truman proposes publicly financed national health insurance, but the American Medical Association, the insurance industry and businesses block it." [Source: Institute of Medicine, 10/04/04]

1945 - Birth / Tony Dow - April 13th, 1945: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actor ('Leave It to Beaver'), Tony Dow."

1945 - Fatality? / Adolf Hitler - April 30th, 1945: "Reportedly, in his search for the Hallows of Grail Castle, the Fuehrer of Germany obtained an ancient lance [said to have been used by Charlemagne], which he insisted was the spear which pierced the side of Jesus at the Crucifixion. On April 30th, 1945 [the very day when the American 7th Army, under General Patton, seized the lance from Nuremberg Castle], Adolf Hitler accepted defeat and shot himself. Today the lance resides in the Hofburg Museum, Vienna."

1945 - Von Braun Relocation / White Sands - "On May 5th, Peenemunde was captured by the Red army, but the facilities there were mostly destroyed by the personnel.  Von Braun was captured by the U.S. and relocated to the White Sands proving ground in New Mexico.  He was made part of  'Operation Paperclip.' " [Link: 1]

1945 - Birth / Bob Seger - May 6th, 1945: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer, Bob Seger."

1945 - Surrender / Germany - May 7th, 1945: "Germany surrendered May 7." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 548]

1945 - V-E Day - May 8th, 1945: "May 8 proclaimed V-E Day." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 548]

1945 - Birth / Pete Townshend - May 19th, 1945: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Rock singer-composer (The Who), Pete Townshend."

1945 - Birth / Priscilla Presley - May 24th, 1945: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actress, Priscilla Presley."

1945 - Birth / Carly Simon - June 25th, 1945: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer, Carly Simon."

1945 - Birth / Deborah Harry - July 1st, 1945: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer (Blondie), Deborah Harry."

1945 - 1st Atomic Bomb Detonation / New Mexico, U.S.A. - July 16th, 1945: "The first nuclear bomb was detonated [in a test code-named Trinity] on July 16, 1945, at Alamogordo, New Mexico. The second and third bombs fell on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan on August 6 and August 9, respectively. They were products of the 'Manhattan Project,' the $2 billion wartime effort by U.S. and British scientists and the U.S. Army to build a weapon that would 'end the war.' At its peak, about 160,000 people worked on the project in more than 25 sites across the United States. No one person can be completely credited with the invention of nuclear weapons." [Link: 1]

*Trivia: "A study that used a rediscovered stash of St. Louis baby teeth to research the health impact of atom bomb testing in the 1950s got a boost this month [December 2010] when it was published in an international science journal. [NP] The study by Janette Sherman and Joseph Mangano in The International Journal of Health Services suggests the link between atom bomb fallout residue found in baby teeth and the incidence of cancer in those same donors about 40 to 50 years later. The authors found that the level of strontium 90 was 122 percent higher in teeth of 50-year-old men who had cancer than those without. Strontium 90 is not naturally occurring on Earth and is produced in atomic explosions. It is readily absorbed into calcium-rich teeth and bones. [NP] The study got its start in 2001 when Washington University rediscovered 85,000 baby teeth stored in its Tyson Research Center since the 1970s Those teeth were originally part of the St. Louis Baby Tooth Survey, in which nearly 300,000 area children sent their teeth to local researchers who then determined that children were absorbing radioactive fallout from nuclear bomb tests. [NP] Mangano, executive director of the radiation and Public Health Project in New York, said it took nine years to get funding for the newer study to track down about 1,000 male donors, analyze the teeth and make the comparisons. The researchers first shatred their results publicly about 14 months ago [October 2009]. [NP] 'Discovering high fallout levels in U.S. baby boomers exposed as infants during the Cold War who died of cancer at an early age is an important step in the effort to understand damage from bomb testing,' Mangano said. [....]" [Based on: Title for article (New study links cancer, A-bomb fallout / Researchers analyzed baby teeth from an earlier, WU study to connect now-adult donors, incidence of cancer.) by Nancy Cambria, p. A4, S.L.P.D., 12/15/10] - [My brackets. NP = New paragraph. - D.R.D.]

*Trivia: "[....] The new research was spurred by the 2001 reappearance of 85,000 teeth that had been donated for the 1960s study, which was conducted by Washington University [Mo.] scientists. The teeth were found in an old bunker at the university's Tyson Research Center, where they had been stuffed into envelopes that included information about the donors, one of whom was Edward Ketterer ['he passed away in 2006 at the age of 47'] [....] Washington University scientists analyzed most of the teeth for strontium-90, which was created by the bomb blasts and absorbed by the teeth and bones of infants. [NP] They suspected that the children were exposed by drinking milk from cows and goats that grazed on grass contanimated by fallout. They called it the 'milk pathway.' [NP] The study concluded that St. Louis children born in 1964 had about 50 times more strontium-90 in their baby teeth than those born in 1950, before the start of atomic testing in Nevada. [....] Of the healthy donors, levels of strontium-90 were insignificant, the research shows. But the donors who died of cancer had about 122 percent more of the isotope in their teeth than the healthy donors. [....]" [Based on: Article (WU baby teeth study's findings are confirmed in new research / Men who got cancer had high level of radioactive isotope) by Kim McGuire, pp. A1 & A4, S.L.P.D., 10/21/09]

1945 - Potsdam Conference - July 17th-August 2nd: "At Potsdam Conference, July 17-Aug. 2, leaders of U.S., USSR, and Britain agreed on disarmament of Germany, occupation zones, war crimes trials." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 548]

1945 - Bomber Accident / Empire State Building - July 28th, 1945: "Empire State Building struck by Army B-25 bomber, July 28, killing 13." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 548]

1945 - V-2 Rockets / White Sands, U.S.A. - August 1945: "May 8th marked the end of the war in Europe.  At the time of the German collapse, more than 20,000 V-1's and V-2's had been fired.  Components of approximately 100 V-2 rockets arrived at the White Sands Testing Grounds, in August." [Link: 1]

1945 -  Atomic Bomb Detonation / Hiroshima, Japan - August 6th, 1945: "Making good on his threat to unleash 'a rain of ruin the like of which has never been seen on earth,' President Harry Truman [from Independence Missouri?] authorizes the dropping of two atomic bombs on Japan - one on Hiroshima on August 6, and a second on Nagasaki on August 9. The Japanese surrender within days."

*Trivia: "Bomb dropped on Hiroshima Aug. 6, with about 750,000 people killed." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 548]

*Trivia: "B-29 bomber Enola Gay drops a 15-kiloton uranium bomb, nicknamed Little Boy, on Hiroshima, Japan. Some 68,000 die immediately, followed by perhaps 70,000 more over the next few years." [Based on: N.G.M., August 2005, p. 103]

*Trivia: "[....] Including those initially listed as missing or who died later from a loosely defined set of bomb-related ailments, including cancers, Hiroshima officials now put the total number of the dead in this city alone at 237,062. This year [2005], 5,000 more names are to be added to the list. [....]" [Based on: A.P. article, S.L.P.D., p. A4, 08/05/05]

*Links: http://www.commondreams.org/views05/0805-20.htm

1945 -  Atomic Bomb Detonation / Nagasaki, Japan - August 9th, 1945: "Making good on his threat to unleash 'a rain of ruin the like of which has never been seen on earth,' President Harry Truman authorizes the dropping of two atomic bombs on Japan - one on Hiroshima on August 6, and a second on Nagasaki on August 9. The Japanese surrender within days."

*Trivia: "Bomb dropped on Nagasaki Aug. 9, killing about 40,000." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 548]

*Trivia: "Fat Man, a 21-kiloton plutonium bomb, is dropped on Nagasaki. Japan, killing 38,000, with an estimated 35,000 additional fatalities. Japan surrenders days later." [Based on: N.G.M., August 2005, p. 103]

*Trivia: "[....] Three days later [08/09/1945], another plane, Bock's Car, bombed Nagasaki, on the souther Japan island of Kyushu, killing at least 80,000. On Aug. 15, 1945, Japan surrendered. [....]" [Based on: A.P. article, S.L.P.D., p. A4, 08/05/05]

*Links: http://www.commondreams.org/views05/0805-20.htm

1945 - Died / Robert Goddard - "On August 10, Robert Goddard died due to cancer. He died at the University of Maryland Hospital in Baltimore." [Link: 1]

1945 - Birth / Steve Martin - August 14th, 1945: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Comedian-actor, Steve Martin."

1945 - Informal Surrender / Japan - August 14th, 1945: "Japan agreed to surrender Aug. 14; formally surrendered Sept. 2." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 548]

1945 - Formal Surrender / Japan - September 2nd, 1945: "Japan agreed to surrender Aug. 14; formally surrendered Sept. 2." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 548]

*Trivia: "Akihito's father, Hirohito, was revered as a living god until 1945, when Japan's defeat in WWII led him to renounce his divinity." [A.P.,10/29/04]

1945 - Democratic Republic of Vietnam / Ho Chi Minh - September 2nd, 1945: "Ho Chi Minh proclaims the Democratic Republic of Vietnam." [Based on: S.L.P.D. p. A5, 04/25/05]

*Trivia: "Ho Chi Minh Creates Provisional Government Following the surrender of Japan to Allied forces, Ho Chi Minh and his People's Congress create the National Liberation Committee of Vietnam to form a provisional government. Japan transfers all power to Ho's Vietminh."

*Trivia: ""Ho Declares Independence of Vietnam. British Forces Land in Saigon and return Authority to the French."

1945 - Censored Stories / U.S. Weapons of Mass Destruction, Japan - September 6th, 1945: "An American journalist who sneaked into Nagasaki soon after the Japanese city was leveled by a U.S. atomic bomb found a 'wasteland of war' and victims moaning from the pain of radiation burns in downtown hospitals. Censored 60 years ago [1945] by the U.S. military, George Weller's stories from the atom-bombed city surfaced this month [June 2005] in a series of reports in the national newspaper Mainichi. Weller was an award-winning reporter for the now-defunct Chicago Daily News. [....] By hiring a Japanese rowboat, catching trains and later posing as a U.S. Army colonel, Weller slipped into Nagasaki in early September 1945, Mainichi reported - about a month after the bombing on Aug. 9 that killed about 70,000 people instantly. In a Sept. 8, 1945, dispatch, Weller wrote of walking through the city - a 'wasteland of war' - and finding evidence to back the talk of radiation fallout in American radio news reports. [....] The United States dropped two atomic bombs - the first on Hiroshima on Aug. 6, and the second three days later on Nagasaki, about 614 miles southwest of Tokyo. The twin bombings led to Japan's surrender on Aug. 15, 1945, which ended World War II. Weller, who died in 2002, was the first foreign journalist to set foot in the devestated city, which Gen. Douglas MacArthur, head of the U.S. occupation in Japan, had designated off-limits to reporters, the newspaper said. Carbon copies of his stories, running to about 25,000 words on 75 typed pages, along with more than two dozen photos, were discovered by his son Anthony last summer [2004] at Weller's apartment in Rome, Italy, Mainichi said. Anthony Weller, a novelist living in Annisquam, Mass., couldn't be reached for comment. He previously said he plans to publish his father's stories. Though he skirted American authorities to get into Nagasaki, Weller submitted his reports - the first was dated Sept. 6 - to the censors. The stories infuriated MacArthur, and he personally ordered them quashed. The originals were never returned to Weller. Anthony Weller told Mainichi he thought wartime officials wanted to hush up stories about radiation sickness and feared that his father's reports would sway American public opinion against building an arsenal of nuclear bombs. The first batch of stories was finished just as a delegation of American scientists was to visit the city to test for radiation. [....] 'The atomic bomb's peculiar 'disease,' uncured because it is untreated and untreated because it is not diagnosed, is still snatching away lives here,' Weller wrote. Weller was 95 when he died in December 2002. [....] He also covered the French Indochina war in Southeast Asia and World War II in Europe." [Based on: A.P. article, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p. A8, 06/20/05]

*Trivia: "[....] A Japanese professor, Dr. K. Yagasaki, has calculated that 800 tons of DU is the atomicity equivalent of 83,000 Nagasaki bombs. The U.S. has used more DU since 1991 than the atomicity equivalent of 400,000 Nagasaki bombs. [....]"

[Based on: http://www.sfbayview.com/081804/depleteduranium081804.shtml]

1945 - U.S. Forces / South Korea - September 8th, 1945: "U.S. forces entered Korea south of 38th parallel to displace Japanese Sept. 8." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 548]

1945 - Gen. Douglas MacArthur / Japan - September 9th, 1945: "Gen. Douglas MacArthur took over supervision of Japan Sept. 9." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 548]

1945 - OSS Abolished / U.S.A. - October 1st, 1945: "The OSS [Office of Strategic Services] was abolished and its functions transferred to the State and War Departments."

1945 - U.S. Guided Missile Battalion - "In October, the U.S. Army established it's first Guided Missile Battalion, with the Army Guard Forces." [Link: 1]

1945 - Birth / Henry Winkler - October 30th, 1945: "Henry Franklin Winkler, Hon. OBE (born October 30, 1945) is an American actor, director, producer and author. [...] Henry Winkler was born in Manhattan, New York City, the son of Ilse Anna Maria (née Hadra) and Harry Irving Winkler, a lumber company executive.[2] Winkler's Jewish parents emigrated from Germany to the United States in 1939, before the beginning of World War II.[3] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_winkler]

1945 - Birth / Neil Young - November 12th, 1945: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer-songwriter, Neil Young."

1945 - Birth / Frida - November 15th, 1945: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Pop singer (ABBA) Frida."

1945 - Birth / Goldie Hawn - November 21st, 1945: "Goldie Jeanne Hawn (born November 21, 1945) is an American actress, film director, producer, and occasional singer. [...] Goldie Jeanne Hawn (born November 21, 1945) is an American actress, film director, producer, and occasional singer. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goldie_Hawn]

1945 - Birth / John McVie - November 26th, 1945: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Pop musician, John McVie."

*Link: http://www.fleetwoodmac.org/john-mcvie.php

1945 - Communist Federation / Yugoslavia - November 29th, 1945: "Josef Tito remade Yugoslavia as a federation under communist rule after WWII. He kept it intact by suppressing ethnic rivalries. His actions that angered Serbs included granting Vojvodina and Kosovo autonomy." [Based on: St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p. A12, 06/26/05]

*Links: http://www.worldstatesmen.org/Yugoslavia.html

1945 - Paul Twitchell  / Washington D.C. - December 1945: "[....] Ms. Ballowe writes that Paul and she went to New York City after the war. There, Twitchell embarked on a literary career. He later became associated with Our Navy magazine as a correspondent; a job which, in December of 1945, took him to Washington, D.C."

*Link: http://webspace.webring.com/people/de/eckcult/chapters/tmsm1.html

1945 - German Rocket Engineers / U.S.A. - December 1945: "In 1945, the Secretary Of War approved plans to bring top German rocket engineers to the U.S., in order to further knowledge and technology.  Fifty five German scientists arrived at Fort Bliss and White Sands Proving Grounds, in December." [Link: 1] 

1945 - Birth / Bette Midler - December 1st, 1945: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actress-singer, Bette Midler."

1945 - Birth / Chris Matthews - December 17th, 1945: "Christopher Matthews (born December 17, 1945) is an American news anchor and political commentator, known for his nightly hour-long talk show, Hardball with Chris Matthews, which is televised on the American cable television channel MSNBC. On weekends he hosts the syndicated NBC News-produced panel discussion program, The Chris Matthews Show. Matthews makes frequent appearances as a political commentator on many NBC and MSNBC programs."

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chris_Matthews]

1945 - Birth / Diane Sawyer - December 22nd, 1945: "Reportedly born on this date in history: ABC News correspondent, Diane Sawyer."

1945 - Birth / Davy Jones - December 30th, 1945: "David Thomas 'Davy' Jones (30 December 1945 – 29 February 2012) was an English singer-songwriter and actor best known as a member of The Monkees. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Davy_Jones_%28musician%29]

1945 - Discovery / Nag Hammadi Library - "In December 1945 two peasant brothers were digging for fertilizer in a cemetary near the town of Nag Hammadi when they came upon a large sealed jar containing thirteen leather-bound books. The books' papyrus leaves contained an assortment of scriptures, written in the tradition that was later to be called Gnostic [esoteric insight]. Inherently Christian works, but with Jewish overtones, they became known as the Nag Hammadi Library. The books were written in the ancient Coptic language of Egypt during early Christian times. The Coptic Museum in Cairo assertained that they were, in fact, copies of much older works originally composed in Greek. Indeed some of the texts were discovered to have very early origins, incorporating traditions from before AD 50. Included in the fifty-two separate tractates are various religious texts and certain hitherto unknown Gospels. They tend to portray an environment very different from that portrayed in the Bible. The cities of Sodom and Gomorrah, for example, are not presented as centers of wickedness and debauchery, but as cities of great wisdom and learning. They describe a world in which Jesus gives his own account of the Crucifixion, and in which his relationship with Mary Magdalene reaches enlightening proportions."

1945 - World Bank - "Since October 1929, the US dollar had been tied to gold at the rate of $35/oz., and the key decision of the conference was the Dollar Standard — the US$ was to be adopted as the medium for international trade and settlement whilst the US government would be able to print as many dollars as would be required to rebuild Europe and regenerate international trade once protective tariffs were lifted. The British pound [Sterling] was intended to play a mediating role in those regions already tied to Sterling.
   "The Institutions which were planned at Bretton Woods to oversee this arrangement include the World Bank, launched late in 1945 and officially called the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development [IBRD], intended to provide long-term loans to states for reconstruction after the devastation of the War, the I.M.F. [International Monetary Fund] launched in 1946 and intended to finance short-term imbalances in international payments and help maintain fixed exchange rates, linking all currencies to gold via the Dollar Standard, and in October 1947 the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade [GATT] to oversee the dismantling of trade barriers." [Link 1]

*Trivia: "Crushing national debt in many developing nations is producing armies of 'career terrorists,' Noreena Hertz writes in 'The Debt Threat,' a chilling look at perilous trends threatening the planet's stability and viability [....] Hertz builds a case that unemployment and a lack of educational, health and other services provide the environment for fatalistic world views to grow. And those deprivations are direct results of the debt burdens many of the world's poorest nations carry, she contends. Because of the debt payments owed to the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, export credit agencies, commercial banks and other lenders, the government's don't have money left to provide adequate social services or to invest in infrastructure and jobs. As a result, Hertz writes, people become susceptible to extremist groups and drug dealers. [....] But terrorism is only one part of the debt threat Hertz spells out. She also focuses on environmental perils that are growing, including global warming. Debt-burdened countries must use their cheapest resources, so they cut forests, drain wetlands and burn areas for agriculture, causing pollution and other environmental devestation." [Based on article by Cecil Johnson, The Fort Worth Star-Telegram, posted in The St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p. C5, 02/04/05]

*Trivia: "[....] Economically, the American Empire was born with Bretton Woods in 1945. The U.S. dollar was not fully convertible to gold, but was made convertible to gold only to foreign governments. This established the dollar as the reserve currency of the world. It was possible, because during WWII, the United States had supplied its allies with provisions, demanding gold as payment, thus accumulating significant portion of the world's gold. An Empire would not have been possible if, following the Bretton Woods arrangement, the dollar supply was kept limited and within the availability of gold, so as to fully exchange back dollars for gold. However, the guns-and-butter policy of the 1960's was an imperial one: the dollar supply was relentlessly increased to finance Vietnam and LBJ's Great Society. Most of those dollars were handed over to foreigners in exchange for economic goods, without the prospect of buying them back at the same value. The increase in dollar holdings of foreigners via persistent U.S. trade deficits was tantamount to a tax - the classical inflation tax that a country imposes on its own citizens, this time around an inflation tax that U.S. imposed on rest of the world. [....]"

[Based on: Article (The Proposed Iranian Oil Bourse) by Krassimir Petrov, Ph. D.]
http://news.goldseek.com/GoldSeek/1137510262.php]

1945 - FDC Amendment - "In 1945, the FDC Act was amended to require certification of the safety and efficacy of penicillin."

1946

1946 - Baby Boom Begins / U.S.A. - "U.S. 1946-1964 Baby Boom begins."

1946 - Remote Viewing Trivia - 1946: "Psychiatrist Lewis J. Fielding joins the Veteran's Administration (VA) in Los Angeles as staff psychiatrist and instructor in clinical psychiatry. When Fielding joins the VA, and intermittantly over the next several years, Dianetics and Scientology founder L. Ron Hubbard is living in and around L.A., doing Dianetic research. He has opened an office in Hollywood, California, and is delivering Dianetic processing to people. When there, he is associated with the Los Angeles Veteran's Administration. [NOTE: Fielding later will be integral to incidents involving CIA's E. Howard Hunt, Daniel Ellsberg, Lucien Conein, the Pentagon Papers, and the Watergate scandal—at the very time that CIA is secretly setting up its remote viewing program using highly trained Scientologists. See timeline years 1971 and 1972.] [Based on: http://www.sc-i-r-s-ology.pair.com/rvtimeline/index.html] - [T.D. - 09/09/08]

1946 - Status / U.S. National Debt - "The U.S. national debt, which was only $16 billion in 1930, reaches a peak of $269 billion in 1946 but this borrowing is also made at very low interest rates. Whereas the economies of most European countries are devasted, the U.S. gross national product rises substantially." [Link: 1]

1946 - International Monetary Fund - "Since October 1929, the US dollar had been tied to gold at the rate of $35/oz., and the key decision of the conference was the Dollar Standard — the US$ was to be adopted as the medium for international trade and settlement whilst the US government would be able to print as many dollars as would be required to rebuild Europe and regenerate international trade once protective tariffs were lifted. The British pound [Sterling] was intended to play a mediating role in those regions already tied to Sterling.
   "The Institutions which were planned at Bretton Woods to oversee this arrangement include the World Bank, launched late in 1945 and officially called the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development [IBRD], intended to provide long-term loans to states for reconstruction after the devastation of the War, the I.M.F. [International Monetary Fund] launched in 1946 and intended to finance short-term imbalances in international payments and help maintain fixed exchange rates, linking all currencies to gold via the Dollar Standard, and in October 1947 the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade [GATT] to oversee the dismantling of trade barriers." [Link 1]

*Trivia: "Crushing national debt in many developing nations is producing armies of 'career terrorists,' Noreena Hertz writes in 'The Debt Threat,' a chilling look at perilous trends threatening the planet's stability and viability [....] Hertz builds a case that unemployment and a lack of educational, health and other services provide the environment for fatalistic world views to grow. And those deprivations are direct results of the debt burdens many of the world's poorest nations carry, she contends. Because of the debt payments owed to the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, export credit agencies, commercial banks and other lenders, the government's don't have money left to provide adequate social services or to invest in infrastructure and jobs. As a result, Hertz writes, people become susceptible to extremist groups and drug dealers. [....] But terrorism is only one part of the debt threat Hertz spells out. She also focuses on environmental perils that are growing, including global warming. Debt-burdened countries must use their cheapest resources, so they cut forests, drain wetlands and burn areas for agriculture, causing pollution and other environmental devestation." [Based on article by Cecil Johnson, The Fort Worth Star-Telegram, posted in The St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p. C5, 02/04/05]

1946 - Indian Claims Commission Act - "There is some speculation that this act originated, in part, as a response to the role the United States played at the Nuremberg trials. The act was designed to provide legal recourse to those Native Americans who felt that their land was unjustly taken away from them. The act established a Claims Commission, which was responsible for hearing cases brought forward by Native Americns. The commission, however, was not empowered to return land to any Native American; rather, it was required to assign a monetary value to the land in question - 'at the time it was taken.' As a result, awards given out by the commission tended to be very small. In general, the act gave the United States the tool with which to legitimize its claim to Native American lands."

*Trivia: "Archaeologists led reporters into a remote canyon Wednesday [06/30/04] to reveal an almost perfectly preserved picture of ancient life: stone pit houses, granaries and a bounty of artifacts kept secret for more than a half century [since about 1950]. [....] Archaeologists said the villiages were occupied more than 1,000 years ago and may be as old as 4,500 years. [....] Hundreds of granaries, ranging from cupboard-sized to several yards across, are in some cases hundreds of feet up nearly inaccessible cliffs. [....] Waldo Wilcox, the rancher who sold the land and returned Wednesday [06/30/04], kept the archaeological sites a closely guarded secret for more than 50 years." [By Paul Foy, A.P., 07/01/04]

1946 - French Forces / North Vietnam - "In 1946, France recognized Vietnam as a 'free state' within the French Union. French troops replace Chinese in the North."

*Trivia: "In 1946, following months of steadily deteriorating relations, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam launched its first consorted attack against the French."

1946  - U.S. Outer Space Research Program - January, 1946: "In January, the U.S. outer space research program was started with captured V-2 rockets.  A V-2 panel of representatives of interested agencies was formed, and more than 60 rockets were fired before the supply was finally exhausted." [Link: 1]  

1946 - Birth / John Paul Jones - January 3rd, 1946: "John Paul Jones ... is an English multi-instrumentalist, songwriter, composer, arranger and record producer. [...] Jones was born in Sidcup, Kent, as John Paul Baldwin.[10] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Paul_Jones_%28musician%29]

1946 - First Meeting / United Nations - January 10th, 1946: "First meeting of the United Nations."

1946 - Birth / Dolly Parton - January 19th, 1946: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Country singer, Dolly Parton."

1946 - Steel Strike / U.S.A. - January 21st, 1946: "Steel strike by 750,000 started Jan. 21, settled in 4 weeks." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 549]

1946 - Central Intelligence Group / U.S.A. - January 22nd, 1946: "After disbanding the OSS on 1 October 1945, President Truman established the Central Intelligence Group [CIG] on 22 January 1946. Although its budget and staff came from the several departments that maintained intelligence services, this new organization was headed by a Director of Central Intelligence [DCI], appointed by the President to serve under the supervision of a National Intelligence Authority made up of the Secretaries of State, War, and Navy and the President’s personal representative. Thus, there was a Director of Central Intelligence almost two years before there was a Central Intelligence Agency."

*Trivia: "The current [2004] questions about restructuring U.S. intelligence are similar to those raised more than  a half-century ago when the national security system was set up, says former CIA director William H. Webster. [....] Christopher Briem, a researcher at the University of Pittsburgh's Center for Social and Urban Research, says Missourians 'were the key players in the creation in the CIA and setting up the intelligence structure that has lasted until now.' One was Rear Adm. Sidney Souers of St. Louis. Though operating largely in the background, he was an architect of the modern national security system, helping define the nature of the National Security Council and the CIA in the early days of the Cold War. [....] Souers served for five months before Truman named him the first executive secretary of the National Security Council. For the next seven years, Souers served as a trusted advisor to Truman on national security matters. The two men left Washington in early 1953 and returned to Missouri. Souers became head of General American Life Insurance Co. in St. Louis. When Truman had initially turned to Souers to help choose among competing ideas for a new intelligence structure, he asked the St. Louisan to work with Clark Clifford, another Missourian and a leading national security and political figure in Washington. The president signed the directive devised by Clifford and Souers on Jan. 22, 1946, Briem said. 'The trust that the president had in his fellow Missourians, Sidney Souers and Clark Clifford, facilitated President Truman's acceptance of a new intelligence organization.' Webster, a St. Louisan, says he and Clifford 'had conversations over the years' about the evolving national security apparatus. Webster has his own place in the history of U.S. intelligence as the only person to have led both the CIA and the FBI." [Based on: Post-Dispatch Washington Bureau article by Philip Dine, 08/24/04]

1946 - Paul Twitchell / Rangoon? - February, 1946: Dialogue in Rangoon. [Based on: ECKANKAR Compiled Writings, Volume I, p. 193, Copyright 1975, Gail T. Gross]

1946 -  1st Digital Computer / ENIAC - February 1st, 1946: "In 1946, ENIAC, the World's First Automatic Digital Computer, was Introduced."

*Trivia: "The National Safety Council (NSC) estimates that 315 million computers will be junked in 2004, up from 20 million in 1998. In 1998 (the last year this was monitored), only 11 percent of the PCs that were thrown out were recycled. Unfortunately, old PCs tossed into landfills contain dangerous chemicals and metals that can leak toxins into the environment - a good reason to recycle your machine when you buy a new one." [Based on: Leo Laporte's 2005 Technology Almanac, p. 3]

1946 - New Phrase / "Iron Curtain" - March 5th, 1946: "At a speech at a Fulton, MO, college, Mar. 5, Winston Churchill employed the phrase 'iron curtain.' " [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 549]

1946 - Birth / David Gilmour - March 6th, 1946: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Rock singer (Pink Floyd), David Gilmour."

1946 - Signed / Franco-Vietnamese Accords - March 6th, 1945: "Franco-Vietnamese accords signed." [Based on: S.L.P.D. p. A5, 04/25/05]

1946 - 1st American-Built V-2 Rocket - March 15th, 1946: "On March 15, the first American-built V-2 rocket was static-fired at the White Sands Proving Grounds."  [Link: 1]  

1946 - American WAC Rocket - March 22nd, 1946: "The first American-built rocket to leave the earth's atmosphere (the WAC) was launched on March 22nd. It was launched from White Sands, and attained 50 miles of altitude." [Link: 1

1946 - Earthquake / Uninak Island, Alaska - April 1st, 1946: "Earthquake location: Unimak Island, Alaska. Earthquake magnitude: 7.3. Number of recorded fatalities: 165."  

1946 - Mine Workers Strike / U.S.A. - April 1st, 1946: "Strike by 400,000 mine workers began Apr. 1 (settled May 29th); other industries followed." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 549]

1946 - Birth / Al Green - April 13th, 1946: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer, Al Green."

1946 - 1st American V-2 Launch - April, 1946: "The first actual launch of an American-built V-2 took place at White Sands in April.  The U.S. Army began a program to develop two stage rockets.  This resulted in the WAC Corporal as the 2nd stage of a V-2. [Link 1]  

1946 - Politics and the English Language / George Orwell - April 1946: "Most people who bother with the matter at all would admit that the English language is in a bad way, but it is generally assumed that we cannot by conscious action do anything about it. Our civilization is decadent, and our language—so the argument runs—must inevitably share in the general collapse. It follows that any struggle against the abuse of language is a sentimental archaism, like preferring candles to electric light or hansom cabs to aeroplanes. Underneath this lies the half-conscious belief that language is a natural growth and not an instrument which we shape for our own purposes. [....]."

[Based on: http://www.netcharles.com/orwell/essays/politics-english-language1.htm]

1946 - Birth / Greg Gumbel - May 3rd, 1946: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Sports announcer, Greg Gumbel."

1946 - Birth / Donovan - May 10th, 1946: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer, Donovan."

1946 - Birth / Cher - May 20th, 1946: "Cher ... (born Cherilyn Sarkisian on May 20, 1946) is an American recording artist, television personality, actress, director, record producer and philanthropist. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cher]

1946 - Birth / Donald Trump - June 14th, 1946: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Real estate developer, Donald Trump."

1946 - Birth / Barry Manilow - June 14th, 1946: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer, Barry Manilow."

1946 - Earthquake / Vancouver Island, B.C., Canada - June 23rd, 1946: "Earthquake location: Vancouver Island, B.C., Canada. Earthquake magnitude: 7.3. Number of recorded fatalities: 0."  

1946 - Birth / Gilda Radner - June 28th, 1946: "Reportedly born this date in history: Actress / Comedian, Gilda Radner."

1946 - U.S. Atomic Bomb Test / Bikini Atoll, Pacific Ocean - July 1st, 1946: "Atomic bomb tested off Bikini Atoll in Pacific, July 1." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 549]

1946 - U.S. Atmospheric & Underwater Tests / Marshall Islands - July 1946: "The U.S. begins atmospheric and underwater tests of weapons designs in the Marshall Islands." [Based on: N.G.M., August 2005, p. 103]

1946 - Independence / Philippines - July 4th, 1946: "Philippines given independence by U.S. July 4."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 549]

1946 - Birth / George W. Bush - July 6th, 1946: "Reportedly born on this date in history: George W. Bush, the 43rd U.S. President [Republican]."

1946 - Birth / Sylvester Stallone - July 6th, 1946: "Michael Sylvester Gardenzio Stallone (... born July 6, 1946), commonly known as Sylvester Stallone, and nicknamed Sly Stallone,[2] is an American actor, filmmaker, screenwriter, film director and occasional painter.[3] [... .]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sylvester_Stallone]

1946 - Birth / Cheech Marin - July 13th, 1946: "Richard Anthony 'Cheech' Marin (born July 13, 1946) is an American comedian, actor and writer who gained recognition as part of the comedy act Cheech & Chong during the 1970s and early 1980s, and as Don Johnson's partner, Insp. Joe Dominguez on Nash Bridges. [... .]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cheech_Marin]

1946 - Birth / Linda Ronstadt - July 15th, 1946: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer, Linda Ronstadt."

1946 - Birth / Gallagher - July 24th, 1946: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Comedian, Gallagher."

1946 - Dean Martin & Jerry Lewis - Entertainment highlights during the week of July 23-29, 1946: "Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis began their partnership as a nightclub song and comedy act with a performance in Atlantic City, N.J. They split up in 1956." [Based on: Article (THAT WAS THE WEEK THAT WAS), p. D5, S.L.P.D., 07/24/06]

1946 - Saturn in Leo - August 2nd, 1946 - July 19th, 1949: "On this date in history, the planet Saturn entered the sign of Leo." [E.M.]

1946 - Earthquake / Dominican Republic - August 4th, 1946: "Earthquake location: Dominican Republic. Earthquake magnitude: 8.0. Number of recorded fatalities: 100."  

1946 - Birth / Loni Anderson - August 5th, 1946: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actress, Loni Anderson."

1946 - Birth / Bill Clinton - August 19th, 1946: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Former U.S. President, Bill Clinton."

1946 - Birth / Connie Chung - August 20th, 1946: "Reportedly born on this date in history: TV journalist, Connie Chung."

1946 - Birth / Barry Gibb - September 1st, 1946: "Reportedly born on this date in history: singer, Barry Gibb."

1946 - Birth / Oliver Stone - September 15th, 1946: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Movie director, Oliver Stone."

1946 - Birth / Tommy Lee Jones - September 15th, 1946: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actor, Tommy Lee Jones."

1946 - Project [Operation] Paperclip / U.S.A. - September 1946:

After WWII ended in 1945, victorious Russian and American intelligence teams began a treasure hunt throughout occupied Germany for military and scientific booty. They were looking for things like new rocket and aircraft designs, medicines, and electronics. But they were also hunting down the most precious "spoils" of all: the scientists whose work had nearly won the war for Germany. The engineers and intelligence officers of the Nazi War Machine.

The U.S. Military rounded up Nazi scientists and brought them to America. It had originally intended merely to debrief them and send them back to Germany. But when it realized the extent of the scientists knowledge and expertise, the War Department decided it would be a waste to send the scientists home. Following the discovery of flying discs (foo fighters), particle/laser beam weaponry in German military bases, the War Department decided that NASA and the CIA must control this technology, and the Nazi engineers that had worked on this technology.

There was only one problem: it was illegal. U.S. law explicitly prohibited Nazi officials from immigrating to America - and as many as three-quarters of the scientists in question had been committed Nazis.

Data-Points:

Convinced that German scientists could help America's postwar efforts, President Harry Truman agreed in September 1946 to authorize "Project Paperclip," a program to bring selected German scientists to work on America's behalf during the "Cold War"

[....]

When the JIOA formed to investigate the backgrounds and form dossiers on the Nazis, the Nazi Intelligence leader Reinhard Gehlen met with the CIA director Allen Dulles. Dulles and Gehlen hit it off immediatly. Gehlen was a master spy for the Nazis and had infilitrated Russia with his vast Nazi Intelligence network. Dulles promised Gehlen that his Intelligence unit was safe in the CIA.

Apparently, Wev decided to sidestep the problem. Dulles had the scientists dossier's re-written to eliminate incriminating evidence. As promised, Allen Dulles delivered the Nazi Intelligence unit to the CIA, which later opened many umbrella projects stemming from Nazi mad research. (MK-ULTRA / ARTICHOKE, OPERATION MIDNIGHT CLIMAX)

Military Intelligence "cleansed" the files of Nazi refrences. By 1955, more than 760 German scientists had been granted citizenship in the U.S. and given prominent positions in the American scientific community. Many had been longtime members of the Nazi party and the Gestapo, had conducted experiments on humans at concentration camps, had used slave labor, and had comitted other war crimes.

[....]

Project Paperclip was stopped in 1957, when West Germany protested to the U.S. that these efforts had stripped it of "scientific skills." There was no comment about supporting Nazis. Paperclip may have ended in 1957, but as you can see from Licio Gelli and his international dealings with the CIA in Italy/P2, and Heinrich Rupp with his involvement in October Surprise, the ramifications of Paperclip are world-wide. The Nazis became employed CIA agents, engaging in clandestine work with the likes of George Bush, the CIA, Henry Kissenger, and the Masonic P2 lodge. This is but one of the results of Operation Paperclip. Another umbrella project that was spawned from Paperclip was MK-ULTRA. [....]

[Based on: http://www.thirdworldtraveler.com/Fascism/Operation_Paperclip_file.html]

1946 - Birth / Justin Hayward - October 14th, 1946: "Justin Hayward (born 14 October 1946) is an English musician, best known as singer, songwriter and guitarist in the rock band The Moody Blues. [NP] Hayward was born in Dean Street, Swindon, Wiltshire, England and educated at Shrivenham School, Berkshire and The Commonweal School, in Swindon.[1] [....]."

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Justin_Hayward]

1946 - Birth / Richard Carpenter - October 15th, 1946: "Richard Lynn Carpenter (born October 15, 1946) is an American pop musician, best known as one half of the brother/sister duo The Carpenters, along with his sister Karen Carpenter. He was a producer, arranger, pianist and keyboardist, and occasional lyricist, as well as joining with Karen on harmony vocals. [...] Richard Lynn Carpenter was born to parents Agnes Reuwer Tatum and Harold Bertram Carpenter at Grace-New Haven Hospital (now called Yale-New Haven Hospital) in New Haven, Connecticut, the same hospital where Karen was later born.[2] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Carpenter_%28musician%29]

1946 - Birth / Suzanne Somers - October 16th, 1946: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actress, Suzanne Somers."

1946 - Trivia / V-2 Technology - "On October 24th, a V-2 with a motion picture camera was launched.  It recorded images from 65 miles above the earth, covering 40,000 square miles." [Link: 1] 

1946 - Birth / Pat Sajak - October 26th, 1946: "Pat Sajak ... is a television personality, former weatherman, actor and talk show host, best known as the host of the American television game show Wheel of Fortune. [...] Sajak, the son of a Polish American trucking foreman, was born and raised in Chicago. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pat_Sajak]

1946 - Birth / Laura Bush - November 4th, 1946: "Reportedly born on this date in history: First Lady, Laura Bush."

1946 - Birth / Sally Field - November 6th, 1946: "Sally Margaret Field (born November 6, 1946) is an American actress, singer, producer, director, and screenwriter. [...] Sally Field was born in Pasadena, California, daughter of Richard Dryden Field, an Army officer, and his wife, actress Margaret Field (née Morlan).[1] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sally_Field]

1946 - Beginning / First Indochina War - December 9th, 1946: "Vietmihn attack French forces in Tonkin, beginning the First Indochina War." [Based on: S.L.P.D. p. A5, 04/25/05]

1946 -  Trivia / V-2 Technology - "On December 17th, the first night-flight of a V-2 occurred.  It achieved a record making 116 miles of altitude, and velocity of 3600 mph.  German rocket engineers arrived in Russia to begin work with Soviet rocket research groups   Sergei Korolev built rockets using technology from the V-2." [Link: 1]  

1946 - Birth / Steven Spielberg - December 18th, 1946: "Steven Allan Spielberg ... is an American film director, screenwriter, producer, video game designer, and studio entrepreneur. [...] Spielberg was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, to a Jewish family.[7] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steven_Speilberg]

1946 - Earthquake / Nankaido, Japan - December 20th, 1946: "Earthquake location: Nankaido, Japan. Earthquake magnitude: 8.1. Number of recorded fatalities: 1,330."  

1946 - Birth / Susan Lucci - December 23rd, 1946: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actress, Susan Lucci."

1946 - Established / UNICEF - December 11th, 1946: "UNICEF established, 1946." [Based on: The Old Farmer's Almanac (2006) by Robert B. Thomas, p. 99]

1946 - Birth / Patti Smith - December 30th, 1946: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer, Patti Smith."

1946 - Tavistok Institute of Human Relations -

The Tavistock Institute of Human Relations, a novel, interdisciplinary, action orientated research organisation, was founded in London in 1946 with the aid of a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. It was set up for the specific purpose of actively relating the psychological and social sciences to the needs and concerns of society. In sustaining this endeavour for more than fifty years, it has won international recognition.

The circumstances of World War Two brought together an unusually talented group of psychiatrists, clinical and social psychologists and anthropologists in the setting of the British Army, where they developed a number of radical innovations in social psychiatry and applied social science. They became known as the Tavistock Group because the core members had been at the pre-war Tavistock Clinic. Though only some of them continued their involvement with the post-war Tavistock organisation, those who did built on the war-time achievements to introduce a number of far-reaching developments in several fields. This style of research related theory and practice in a new way.

The objectives of the Institute were to study human relations in conditions of wellbeing, conflict or breakdown, in the family, the community, the work group and the larger organisation, and to promote the health and effectiveness of individuals and organisations.

Since that time, the Tavistock Institute has evolved into an organisation that does research and consultancy, evaluation and professional development work in support of change and learning. We try to contribute to the development of the social sciences by publishing our work. We also own and edit Human Relations, an international social science journal, and edit the journal Evaluation.

The Institute was located in the Tavistock Centre in Belsize Park, which we shared with the Tavistock Clinic until the summer of 1994, when we moved to our current office in central London.

More information about us, our publications, our work and our current interests can be found on this website. A more detailed account of our history can be found in The Social Engagement of Social Science - A Tavistock Anthology published by the University of Pennsylvania Press in three volumes between 1990 and 1997, (ISBN 081228912-6, 081228193-4 and 081228194-2). A history of the Tavistock Clinic can be found on the website of the Tavistock & Portman NHS Trust.

[Based on: Tavistok Institute article (HISTORY) [T.D. 12/02/06] - [see link]
http://www.tavinstitute.org/index.php?mode=063d0d25586e5520&location=533208655f34024b514b07125a4b
083a57300a62033f0267046957385e2351615b640a235b3a5a6b066f513b0d665162544f5c4d034b05480734
01310b33
[© 2002 The Tavistock Institute | 30 Tabernacle Street | London EC2A 4UE]

1946 - Founded / Stanford Research Institute, U.S.A. - [....]

Jesse Hobson, the first president of Stanford Research Institute, in a 1952 speech made it clear what lines the institute was to follow. Stanford can be described as one of the "jewels" in Tavistock's Crown in its rule over the United States. Founded in 1946 immediately after the close of WWII, it was presided over by Charles A. Anderson, with emphasis on mind control research and "future sciences." Included under the Stanford umbrella was Charles F. Kettering Foundation which developed the "Changing Images of Man" upon which the Aquarian Conspiracy rests.

Some of Stanford's major clients and contracts were at first centered around the defense establishment but, as Stanford grew, so, did the diversity of its services: Applications of Behavioral Sciences to Research Management Office of Science and Technology

SRI Business Intelligence Program
U.S. Department of Defense Directorate of Defense Research and Engineering
U.S. Department of Defense Office of Aerospace Research

Among corporations seeking Stanford's services were Wells Fargo Bank, Bechtel Corporation, Hewlett Packard, Bank of America, McDonnell Douglas Corporation, Blyth, Eastman Dillon and TRW Company. One of Stanford's more secret projects was extensive work on chemical and bacteriological warfare (CAB) weapons.

Stanford Research is plugged into at least 200 smaller "think tanks" doing research into every facet of life in America. This is ARPA networking and represents the emergence of probably the most far reaching effort to control the environment of every individual in the country. At present Stanford's computers are linked with 2500 "sister" research consoles which include the CIA, Bell Telephone Laboratories, U.S. Army Intelligence, The Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI), Rand, MIT, Harvard and UCLA. Stanford plays a key role in that it is the "library", cataloging all ARPA documentation.

"Other agencies".....one can use one's imagination here, are allowed to search through SRI's "library" for key words, phrases, look through sources and update their own master files with those of Stanford Research Center. The Pentagon uses SRI's master files extensively, and there is little doubt that other U.S. Government agencies do the same. Pentagon "command and control" problems are worked out by Stanford.

While ostensibly these apply only to weapons and soldiers, there is absolutely no guarantee that the same research could not , and will not be turned to civilian applications. Stanford is known to be willing to do anything for anyone.

[....]

[Based on: barefootsworld.net article (- TAVISTOCK - THE BEST KEPT SECRET IN AMERICA / CONSPIRATORS' HIERARCHY: THE STORY OF THE COMMITTEE OF 300) by Dr. John Coleman, 08/18/97] - [T.D. 12/02/06] - [see link]

*Link: http://www.barefootsworld.net/tavistok.html 

*Trivia: "In 2006, SRI International celebrates 60 years of R&D innovation for its government, business, and foundation clients. Since its founding, SRI has been committed to discovery and to the application of science and technology for knowledge, commerce, prosperity, and peace."

[Based on: SRI article (SRI International's 60th Anniversary) [T.D. 12/02/06] - see link
*Link: http://www.sri.com/about/60years.html

1946 - Baby and Child Care - "Dr. Benjamin Spock's Baby and Child Care published as 1946-64 baby boom began." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 549]

1946 - Autobiography of a Yogi / Paramahansa Yogananda - "Mahavatar Babaji is a legendary Hindu saint, yogi, and culture hero. His life was first documented by Paramahansa Yogananda in his best-selling Autobiography of a Yogi (1946) and later accounts have added to Babaji's biography. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahavatar_Babaji] - [T.D. - 01/07/07]

1946 - Earthquake Trivia / 1946 - "Number of notable earthquakes this year: at least 5. Number of earthquake deaths: 1,595." [E.M.]

1947

1947 - Beginning / Doomsday Clock? - "In 1947, the Doomsday Clock began to be published in the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists - it was set at 7 minutes till midnight."

1947 - Independence / Burma - January, 1947: "Burma is granted Independence from Britain."

1947 - Birth / David Bowie - January 8th, 1947: "David Robert Jones ... known by his stage name David Bowie ... is an English musician, actor, record producer and arranger. [...] David Bowie was born ... in Brixton, London, on 8 January 1947. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Bowie]

1947 - Birth / Farrah Fawcett - February 2nd, 1947: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actress, Farrah Fawcett."

1947 - Birth / Dave Davies - February 3rd, 1947: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer-guitarist (The Kinks), Dave Davies."

1947 - Trivia / Russian V-2 Rockets - "In 1947, the Russians began launch tests of their V2 rockets, at Kapustin Yar." [Link 1]    

1947 - Trivia / Rocket Telemetry - "Telemetry was successfully used for the first time in a V-2, launched from White Sands." [Link 1]    

1947 - Trivia / Rocket Technology - "On February 20th, the first of a series of rockets was launched for the purpose of testing ejection canister effectivity." [Link 1]    

1947 - Discovered / Dead Sea Scrolls - February 1947: "In February, 1947, young Bedouin shepherds, searching for a stray goat in the Judean Desert, entered a long-untouched cave and found jars filled with ancient scrolls. Reportedly, the excavations at Qumran have produced relics dating from about 3,500 B.C. According to the Copper Scroll, old Qumran was called Sekhakha." [Link: 1]

1947 - Giant Sunspot 8438 - March 3rd, 1947:

*Links: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1947PASP...59..109H

https://plus.google.com/113507009175485747967/posts/STCV7S9HzGP?pid=6074284044744161538&oid=113507009175485747967

1947 - Conflict / Jerusalem - March, 1947: "In March, British barricade Jewish settlements in Jerusalem to contain incidents of violence."

1947 - Birth / Rob Reiner - March 6th, 1947: "Robert Reiner ... is an American actor, director, and producer. [...] Reiner was born to a Jewish family in The Bronx, New York, and is the son of Estelle Reiner (née Lebost), an actress, and Carl Reiner, a comedian, actor, writer, producer, and director. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rob_Reiner]

1947 - The Truman Doctrine - March 12th, 1947: "In a speech on 12 March 1947, U.S. President Truman formulated what was to be called 'The Truman Doctrine' in terms of the need to provide aid to the governments of Greece and Turkey, but the speech contained the clear implication that Truman was proposing a new global role for the United States." [Link: 1

1947 - Birth / Glenn Close - March 19th, 1947: "Glenn Close ... is an American film, television and stage actress. [...] Close was born in Greenwich, Connecticut, the daughter of Bettine (née Moore) and William Taliaferro Close,[1] a doctor who operated a clinic in the Belgian Congo and served as a personal physician to Congo/Zaire President Mobutu Sese Seko. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glenn_Close]

1947 - Passed / 22nd U.S. Amendment - March 21st, 1947: "22nd U.S. Constitutional amendment ['Presidential Term Limits'] passed." [Link: 1]

1947 - Birth / Elton John - March 25th, 1947: "Sir Elton Hercules John, CBE (born Reginald Kenneth Dwight on 25 March 1947), is an English rock singer-songwriter, composer, pianist and occasional actor. [...] John was born ... the eldest child of Stanley and only child of Sheila Eileen Dwight (née Harris)[12][13][14] and was raised in Pinner, Middlesex in a council house of his maternal grandparents. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elton_John]

1947 - Paul Twitchell / Istanbul, Turkey? - April, 1947: Dialogues in Istanbul. [Based on: ECKANKAR Compiled Writings, Volume I, p. 195, Copyright 1975, Gail T. Gross]

1947 - Trivia / Master Kirpal Singh? - In 1955 he [Kirpal Singh] wrote, "The authority of giving initiation into the beyond and contacting with the Word, which he [Sawan Singh] vouchsafed to me verbally on October 12, 1947, was thus completely transferred while going. The intoxication of that glance is still the life of my soul." [Message on the death anniversary of Hazur Baba Sawan Singh Ji Maharaj. April 2, 1955] (Probably c. Ruhani) [....] I do not like to say anything about the activities of Sardar Kirpal Singh's group, called Ruhani Satsang. . . . Since you have inquired, you are entitled to an answer, so I will simply add that the Great Master [Sawan Singh] never did appoint him as His Successor. He appointed Sardar Bahadur Maharaj Jagat Singh Ji, in a witnessed and recorded Will, to carry on all His Spiritual Work. If anybody else is bold enough to assert himself as the Great Master's Successor, then I can simply leave it to the sagacity of the seekers to judge his claim. The Great Master's Representatives in the foreign countries also have photostatic copies of the documents proving Successorship, and the one nearest you will be glad to show them to you on request. [Based on: http://www.angelfire.com/band/radhasoamisantmath/]

1947 - Jackie Robinson / Brooklyn Dodgers - April 11th, 1947: "Jackie Robinson joined the Brooklyn Dodgers ... breaking the color barrier in major league baseball." [The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 549]

1947 - Birth / David Letterman - April 12th, 1947: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Talk show host, David Letterman."

1947 - Birth / Kareem Abdul-Jabbar - April 15th, 1947: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Basketball Hall-of-Famer, Kareem Abdul-Jabbar."

1947 - V-2 Accident / Juarez Mexico - "On May 29, a modified V-2 landed 1.5 miles south of Juarez, Mexico, narrowly missing a large ammunition dump." [Link: 1]    

1947 - Marshall Plan - June 5th, 1947: "On June 5, 1947, US Secretary of State George Marshall announced the Marshall Plan — a huge loan program extended to all the European countries. At first it was intended that the Soviet Union and the Eastern European countries would benefit from the Marshall Plan, but at a Conference in Paris in July 1947, the war-devastated USSR was told they would get no aid and countries like Poland and Czechoslovakia were faced with the choice of lining up with the US to destroy the Soviet Union [whose Army still had a considerable presence on their own soil!] or be excluded from the Plan and from trade with those countries which were to benefit. This more or less marked the beginning of the Cold War [though the term had been coined by US Navy expert George Kennan in late 1946]. Marshall Aid was then used systematically to pressure governments and voters in countries like Britain, France and Italy into rejecting Communism in exchange for Aid, while Keynesian Economic policies were used to provide welfare and jobs for the workers." [Link 1]

1947 - Taft-Hartley Act - June 23rd, 1947: "On June 23, the Taft-Hartley Act, which banned closed union shops, created the National Labor Relations Board and gave the president the power to seek an 80-day injunction against any strike. The Act was passed over Truman's veto - who called it a 'slave-labor bill.' " [Link: 1]

1947 - Birth / "Mick" Fleetwood - June 24th, 1947: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Musician, "Mick" Fleetwood"

*Link: http://www.fleetwoodmac.org/mick-fleetwood.php

1947 - Birth / Jimmie Walker - June 25th, 1947: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actor-comedian, Jimmie Walker."

1947 - UFO Investigations / United States - "From June 1947 through December 1969 the Air Force was primarily responsible for investigating unidentified flying object [UFO] phenomena. Investigations were conducted by the Air Technical Intelligence Center [ATIC] at Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio until December 17, 1969. All records of these investigations [known as Project Sign, 1947-1949, Project Grudge, 1949-1952, and Project Blue Book, 1952-1969] were retired to the National Archives and Records Administration and are available to the public on archives microfilm publication T1206 [94 rolls of 35 mm film]." [Link 1]

1947 - Trivia / Roswell, New Mexico - July 1st, 1947: "Base radar at the army's 509th airfield outside of Roswell had been tracking strange blips all night on July 1st, 1947." [The Day After Roswell, Col. Philip J. Corso, with William J. Birnes]

1947 - Roswell Incident / Roswell, New Mexico- July 1947: "The Roswell incident of July 2-4 leads many to believe that the U.S. government covered up an extraterrestrial alien landing in New Mexico." [Link: 1]

1947 - Birth / O.J. Simpson - July 9th, 1947: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Football star, O.J. Simpson."

1947 - Birth / Arlo Guthrie - July 10th, 1947: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Folk singer, Arlo Guthrie."

1947 - Birth / Carlos Santana - July 20th, 1947: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Rock musician, Carlos Santana."

1947 - Birth / Don Henley - July 22nd, 1947: "Donald Hugh 'Don' Henley (born July 22, 1947, in Gilmer, Texas) is an American singer, songwriter and drummer, best known as a founding member of the Eagles before launching a successful solo career. [...] Henley grew up in the small northeast Texas town of Linden. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Don_Henley]

1947 - Birth / Danny Glover - July 22nd, 1947: "Danny Lebern Glover (born July 22, 1946) is an American actor, film director and political activist. [...] Glover was born in San Francisco, the son of Carrie (née Hunley) and James Glover. [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Danny_Glover]

1947 - Signed / National Security Act, U.S.A. - July 26th, 1947:

The National Security Act of 1947 signed July 26, 1947 by U.S. President Harry S. Truman realigned and reorganized the United States' armed forces, foreign policy, and Intelligence Community apparatus in the aftermath of World War II. The majority of the provisions of the Act took effect on 18 September 1947, the day after the Senate confirmed James V. Forrestal as the first Secretary of Defense.

The Act merged the Department of War and the Department of the Navy into the National Military Establishment (NME) headed by the Secretary of Defense. It was also responsible for the creation of a separate Department of the Air Force from the existing United States Army Air Forces. Initially, each of the three branches maintained quasi-cabinet status through their individual secretaries, but the act was amended on 10 August 1949 to assure their subordination to the Secretary of Defense. At the same time, the NME was renamed as the Department of Defense.

Aside from the military reorganization, the act established the National Security Council, a central place of coordination for national security policy in the Executive Branch, and the Central Intelligence Agency, the United States' first peacetime intelligence agency.

The act and its changes, along with the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan, were major components of the Truman administration's Cold War strategy.

The bill signing took place aboard Truman's C-54 presidential aircraft Sacred Cow, the predecessor of Air Force One. [....] [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Security_Act_of_1947]

*Trivia:

Project Paperclip brought us MK-ULTRA. Paperclip ultimately brought in key players involved in the Assassination of Pope 1, October Surprise (sabotage of Carter's peace talks), and a great many other things still classified to this day. The results of Project Paperclip were devastating, and very far reaching. I guess that is what you would expect from collaborating with Nazis.

This research shows that the OSS/CIA that was formed in the National Security Act, the same agency that employed hundreds of Nazis, has been in alliance with the Vatican through various Agency connections such as Licio Gelli. The CIA/Vatican alliance that Assassinated Pope John Paul 1, JFK, and hundreds of dictators of 3rd world countries is the Illuminati.

The Bavarian Illuminati has been around for centuries in one way or another. It's presence in the 20th century is the direct result of the Nazis. The Nazi connections to the occult and the Bavarian Thule Society were parallel to the American members of 33rd degree Freemasonry. When the Operation Paperclip was successfully executed, the Nazi element of the Bavarian Thule society was fused with the American members of Freemasonry to create the Illuminati.

Operation Paperclip, MK-ULTRA, October Surprise, and George Bush are all facets of the Illuminati, a group whose ideals are rooted in the occult, and dedicated to world domination.

Soon after the American Revolution, John Robinson, a professor of rural philosophy at Edinburgh University in Scotland and member of a Freemason lodge, said that he was asked to join the Illuminati. After studying the group, he concluded that the purposes of the Illuminati were not compatible with his beliefs.

In 1798, he published a book called "Proofs Of A Conspiracy," which states:

"An association has been formed for the express purpose of rooting out all the religious establishments and overturning all the existing governments.... The leaders would rule the World with uncontrollable power, while all the rest would be employed as tools of the ambition of their unknown superiors."

The CIA and the Vatican have rooted out all the religious establishemnts in the world. The CIA has overthrown and set up dictators under their control all over the world. The CIA and the Vatican have fullfilled the purpose of the Illuminati. The CIA and the Vatican _are_ the Illuminati.

[Based on: http://www.thirdworldtraveler.com/Fascism/Operation_Paperclip_file.html]

1947 - Birth / Arnold Schwarzenegger - July 30th, 1947: "Reportedly born [Austria] on this date in history: body-builder, actor, politician, Arnold Schwarzenegger."

1947 - Birth / Ian Anderson - August 10th, 1947: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer-flutist (Jethro Tull), Ian Anderson."

1947 - Independence / India & Pakistan - August 15th, 1947: "Indian and Pakistan gain independence from the British Commonwealth."

*Trivia: "On 15 August 1947, British India was granted independence as the separate dominions of India and Pakistan. The British dissolved their treaty relations with the over 600 princely states, who were encouraged to accede to either India or Pakistan. Most of the states acceded to India, and a few to Pakistan. Bhutan and Hyderabad opted for independence, although the armed intervention of India brought Hyderabad into the Indian Union."

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/States_Reorganisation_Act]

1947 - Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru / India - "Jawaharlal Nehru, the first prime minister, headed India from 1947 until his death in 1964. He was followed later by his daughter, Indira Gandhi, whose often iron-fisted rule defined two decades of Indian life. Indira was murdered by her own bodyguards in 1984, and her son, Rajiv Gandhi, an airline pilot, reluctantly stepped up. Riding a wave of sympathy, he easily won the next election. But he lost the prime minister's post in 1989 and was assassinated two years later while campaigning." [A.P., 05/14/04]

1947 - Paul Twitchell / India? - "Well, anyway, in about 1947, it was right shortly after the Indians nation, India, received their freedom from England and then became a nation... I went over to Darjeeling... right on the Sikkim border... I went up there at the time after being over in Allahabad, and there wasn't much left there after SUDAR SINGH HAD PASSED AWAY. [NP] But then I went there and I'd been told that I would find the ECK Master Rebazar Tarzs, I've got something about that in one of my books, I think it's Introduction to ECK in which I have it. I told about meeting him up in that part of the world. [....]"

[Based on D.O.B.T.L.E.M. book. E.S.A. post by Prometheus, Date: Thu, Nov 5, 2009 1:52 pm - Re: PT's "Difficulties Of Becoming The LEM" - See: p. 70]

*Trivia: http://dlane5.tripod.com/reba1.html

1947 - Paul Twitchell / Lisbon? - September, 1947: Dialogue in Lisbon. [Based on: ECKANKAR Compiled Writings, Volume I, p. 184, Copyright 1975, Gail T. Gross]

1947 - 1st Ship-launched V-2 - September, 1947: "The first V-2 to be launched from a ship was launched from the deck of the U.S.S. Midway, on September 6th." [Link 1]   

1947 - Birth / Jane Curtin - September 6th, 1947: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Comedian-actress, Jane Curtin76 ."

1947 - National Security Act - September 18th, 1947: "Under the provisions of the National Security Act of 1947 [which became effective on 18 September 1947] the National Security Council and the Central Intelligence Agency were established." [Link: 1]

1947 - Established / CIA, U.S.A. - September 18th, 1947: "The CIA was established by sections of the National Security Act that went into effect on 18 September 1947, a birthday the CIA shares with the US Air Force and the National Security Council, both also created by this Act. RAdm. Roscoe Hillenkoetter, whose tenure as third DCI spanned both CIG and CIA, was reappointed the new Act required." [Link: 1]

1947 - U.S. Air Force - September 18th, 1947: "The U.S. Air Force becomes a separate branch of the military."

1947 - Flooding / Honshu Island, Japan - "Flood date(s): September 20th, 1947. Number of recorded deaths: 1,900." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207]

1947 - Birth / Stephen King - September 21st, 1947: "Reportedly born on this date in history: writer & movie legend, Stephen King."

1947 - Trivia / Flying Discs - September 23rd, 1947: "General Twining reportedly sent a memo to the general of Army Air Forces in Washington, dated September 23, 1947 addressing, in the most general of terms, the Official Air Material Command's intelligence regarding 'flying discs.' " [The Day After Roswell]

1947 - Birth / Cheryl Tiegs - September 25th, 1947: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Model, Cheryl Tiegs."

1947 - Birth / Lynn Anderson - September 26th, 1947: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer, Lynn Anderson."

1947 - 'Majestic Twelve' - September 26, 1947: "Three days after the memo, on September 26th, 1947, General Twining gave his report on the Roswell crash and its implications for the United States to President Truman and a short list of officials he convened  to begin the management of this top-secret combination of inquiry, police development, and 'ops.' This working group which included Adm. Roscoe H. Hillenkoetter, Dr Vannevar Bush, Secretary James Forrestal, Gen. Hoyt Vandenberg, Dr. Detlev Bronk, Dr. Jerome Hunsaker, Sidney W. Souers, Gordon Gray, Dr. Donald Menzel, Gen. Robert M. Montague, Dr. Lyoyd V. Berkner, and Gen. Nathan Twining himself, became the nucleous for an on-going 50-year operation that some people have called 'Majestic-12.' " [The Day After Roswell, Col. Philip J. Corso, with William J. Birnes]

1947 - GATT - "Since October 1929, the US dollar had been tied to gold at the rate of $35/oz., and the key decision of the conference was the Dollar Standard — the US$ was to be adopted as the medium for international trade and settlement whilst the US government would be able to print as many dollars as would be required to rebuild Europe and regenerate international trade once protective tariffs were lifted. The British pound [Sterling] was intended to play a mediating role in those regions already tied to Sterling.
   "The Institutions which were planned at Bretton Woods to oversee this arrangement include the World Bank, launched late in 1945 and officially called the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development [IBRD], intended to provide long-term loans to states for reconstruction after the devastation of the War, the I.M.F. [International Monetary Fund] launched in 1946 and intended to finance short-term imbalances in international payments and help maintain fixed exchange rates, linking all currencies to gold via the Dollar Standard, and in October 1947 the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade [GATT] to oversee the dismantling of trade barriers." [Link 1]

1947 - Birth / Sammy Hagar - October 13th, 1947: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer-musician, Sammy Hagar."

1947 - Sound Barrier Broken - October 14th, 1947: "American test pilot Captain Charles Yeager broke the sound barrier in a Bell X-1 test plane after reaching speeds in excess of 600mph."

1947 - Remote Viewing Trivia - October 15th, 1947: "A letter purportedly from L. Ron Hubbard, dated 15 October 1947, ends up in his Veteran's Administration files in Los Angeles, where Lewis J. Fielding is staff psychiatrist. The subject of the letter is Hubbard pleading with the VA for psychiatric help. [NOTE: The letter never surfaces until decades later, and then only as a copy several generations removed, making its authenticity impossible to prove or disprove.]"

[Based on: http://www.sc-i-r-s-ology.pair.com/rvtimeline/index.html] - [T.D. - 09/09/08]

1947 - Earthquake / Fairbanks, Alaska - October 16th, 1947: "Earthquake location: Fairbanks, Alaska. Earthquake magnitude: 7.2. Number of recorded fatalities: 0."  

1947 - Birth / Jaclyn Smith - October 26th, 1947: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actress, Jaclyn Smith."

1947 - Birth / Hillary Rodham Clinton - October 26th, 1947: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Sen. D-N.Y., Hillary Rodham Clinton."

1947 - Birth / Peter Noone - November 5th, 1947: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer, Peter Noone."

1947 - Birth / Joe Walsh - November 20th, 1947: "Joseph Fidler 'Joe' Walsh (born November 20, 1947)[1] is an American musician, songwriter, record producer, and actor. He has been a member of three commercially successful bands: the James Gang, Barnstorm, and the Eagles. [...] A native of Wichita, Kansas, Walsh and his family lived in Columbus, Ohio, for a number of years. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joe_Walsh]

1947 - Palestine Partition - November 29th, 1947: "When Britain, in 1947, first declared it would withdraw from Palestine, the UN stepped in and adopted a plan calling for the partition of Palestine into two states - one Palestinian and one Jewish, with Jerusalem under UN control. Arabs throughout the Middle East rejected the plan, while Jews in Palestine rejoiced - and steeled themselves for war." [N.G.M./October/2002]

*Trivia: "[....] On 29 November 1947 the United Nations General Assembly approved a plan, UN General Assembly Resolution 181, to resolve the Arab-Jewish conflict by partitioning Palestine into two states, one Jewish and one Arab. Each state would comprise three major sections, linked by extraterritorial crossroads; the Arab state would also have an enclave at Jaffa. With about 32% of the population, the Jews would get 56% of the territory, an area that then contained 499,000 Jews and 438,000 Palestinians, though this included the inhospitable Negev Desert in the south. The Palestinians would get 42% of the land, which then had a population of 818,000 Palestinians and 10,000 Jews. In consideration of its religious significance, the Jerusalem area, including Bethlehem, with 100,000 Jews and an equal number of Palestinians, was to become a Corpus Separatum, to be administered by the UN. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1948_Arab-Israeli_War] - [T.D. - 04/27/08]

1947 - Trivia / Dead Sea Scrolls - November 29th, 1947: "For nearly two thousand years the scrolls lay undisturbed in their dark, dry cavities. When uncovered shortly after World War II [February? 1947], the first modern eyes to read their scripts and recognize their antiquity were those of E. L. Sukenik, a specialist in Jewish paleography. Coincidentally, it was November 29, 1947, the very day the United Nations voted to partition Palestine in order to create a Jewish state."

*Trivia: "In February, 1947, young Bedouin shepherds, searching for a stray goat in the Judean Desert, entered a long-untouched cave and found jars filled with ancient scrolls. Reportedly, the excavations at Qumran have produced relics dating from about 3,500 B.C. According to the Copper Scroll, old Qumran was called Sekhakha." [Link: 1]

*Trivia: "Since the late fifties, about 40% of the Scrolls, mostly fragments from Cave 4, remained unpublished and were unaccessible. It wasn't until 1991, 44 years after the discovery of the first Scroll, after the pressure for publication mounted, that general access was made available to photographs of the Scrolls. In November of 1991 the photos were published by the Biblical Archaeological Society in a nonofficial edition; a computer reconstruction, based on a concordance, was announced; the Huntington Library pledged to open their microfilm files of all the scroll photographs."

[Based on: http://www.centuryone.com/25dssfacts.html] 

1947 - Destruction / Aleppo Codex - December 1947: "Anti-Jewish riots burn the synagogue of Aleppo that housed [since the 1300s] the thousand-year-old Aleppo Codex of the Hebrew scriptures. The Codex was partially destroyed." [Link: 1]

1947 - Discovery / NEA ( 2201) Oljato - December 12th, 1947: "Discovery Circumstances: H. L. Giclas - Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, 12 Dec 1947 [....]"

*Link: http://earn.dlr.de/nea/002201.htm - [T.D. - 04/04/10]

1947 - Invented / Transistor  - December 16th, 1947: "Reportedly, the transistor was invented by a team of scientists led by William Shockley."

1947 - Blizzard / NYC, N Atlantic States - "Blizzard date(s): December 26th, 1947. Number of recorded deaths: 55." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 206]

1947 - Howdy Doody Show - December 27th, 1947: "The Howdy Doody show debuted."

1947 - Birth / Ted Danson - December 29th, 1947: "Reportedly born this date in history: American actor, Ted Danson."

1947 - Project Sign - December 30th, 1947: "On December 30, 1947, Major General L. C. Craigie, Director of Research and Development, issued an order establishing Project Sign [aka Project Saucer]: ...to collect, collate, evaluate and distribute to interested government agencies and contractors all information concerning sightings and phenomena in the atmosphere which can be construed to be of concern to the national security.
   "There is reliable testimony that in August, 1948, the Technical Intelligence Division at Wright-Patterson and Project Sign, decided to make a formal Estimate of the Situation. The Estimate was a top secret document that contained unexplained sightings by pilots, scientists, and other reliable witnesses. The report concluded that UFOs were of extraterrestrial origin.
   "The Estimate of the Situation was promptly rejected by Air Force Chief of Staff General Hoyt S. Vandenburg. It is said that he deleted the strongest parts of the original report, sent it back, and then, when he received the revised report, he rejected it on the grounds that there was not enough evidence to support the conclusions. Then, after rejecting it, he ordered all copies destroyed. Those inside Project Sign said that their morale and enthusiasm for the project declined sharply after this. Project Sign would soon have its name fittingly changed to Project Grudge." [Link 1]

1947 - Project CHATTER -

Project Chatter was instigated by the US Navy late in 1947. Intelligence rumours of Soviet success with truth drugs fuelled the program. The project was geared to identifying agents both synthetic and natural that were effective during interrogation. The project was centred around, but not restricted to, the use of Anabasis aphylla (an alkaloid), scopolamine and mescaline. The project was halted in 1953, presumably due to limited progress and the success of other projects.

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Project_CHATTER]

1947 - Vietminh Activity / Vietnam - "In 1947, Vietminh Move North of Hanoi. French General Etienne Valluy attempts, and fails, to wipe out the Vietminh in one stroke."

1947 - Trivia / C-14 Radiocarbon Dating - "Willard Frank Libby of the University of Chicago discovered the C-14 radiocarbon dating method." [Link: 1]

1947 - Andrija Puharich / Northwestern University - "He [Andrija Puharich] received a medical degree from Northwestern University in 1947. Upon graduation, Puharich developed a slavish interest in clairvoyance and dabbled in theories for electronically enhancing and synthesizing psychic abilities. He joined the Army and took part in certain 'parapsychology' experiments." [Alex Constantine, Virtual Government, p. 11]

1947 - Founded / National Training Laboratories, U.S.A. - [....]

[...] Founded in 1947 by members of the Tavistock network in the United States and located originally on an estate in Bethel, Maine, NTL had as its explicit purpose the brainwashing of leaders of the government, educational institutions, and corporate bureaucracies in the Tavistock method, and then using these "leaders" to either themselves run Tavistock group sessions in their organizations or to hire other similarly trained group leaders to do the job. The "nuts and bolts" of the NTL operation revolves around the particular form of Tavistock degenerate psychology known as "group dynamics," developed by German Tavistock operative Kurt Lewin, who emigrated to the United States in the 1930s and whose students founded NTL. In a Lewinite brainwashing group, a number of individuals from varying backgrounds and personalities, are manipulated by a "group leader" to form a "consensus" of opinion, achieving a new "group identity." The key to the process is the creation of a controlled environment, in which stress is introduced (somtimes called dissonance) to crack an individual's belief structure. Using the peer pressure of other group members, the individual is "cracked," and a new personality emerges with new values. The degrading experience causes the person to deny that any change has taken place. In that way, an individual is brainwashed without the victim knowing what has taken place. [....]

[Based on: barefootsworld.net article (- TAVISTOCK - THE BEST KEPT SECRET IN AMERICA / CONSPIRATORS' HIERARCHY: THE STORY OF THE COMMITTEE OF 300) by Dr. John Coleman, 08/18/97] - [T.D. 12/02/06] - [see link]

*Link: http://www.barefootsworld.net/tavistok.html 

1947 - The Secret of Light - "The Secret of Light, by Walter Russell, copyright 1947."

"Truth is simple. Balance is simple. Rhythmic balanced interchange between all pairs of opposite expressions in Natural phenomena, and in human relations, is the consumate art of God's universe of Light."

[From THE SECRET OF LIGHT (p.2) by Walter Russell, copyright 1947 - Source Link: ]

1947 - Notable Songs of 1947 - "This Land is Your Land" (Woody Guthrie)

1947 - Flood Trivia / 1947 - "Number of notable floods this year: at least 1. Number of flood deaths: 1,900." [E.M.]

1947 - Blizzard Trivia / 1947 - "Number of notable blizzards this year: at least 1. Number of blizzard deaths: 55." [E.M.]

1947 - Earthquake Trivia / 1947 - "Number of notable earthquakes this year: at least 1." [E.M.]

1947 - "Natural Disaster" Deaths / 1947 - "Estimated number of people who died from natural disasters this year: at least 1,955." [E.M.]

1948

1948 - Birth / Kenny Loggins - January 7th, 1948: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer, Kenny Loggins."

1948 - Birth / Donald Fagen - January 10th, 1948: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer-musician (Steely Dan), Donald Fagen."

1948 - Fatality / Mohandas Gandhi - January 30th: " Mohandas K. Gandhi was shot and killed by a member of the high Hindu caste."

1948 - Emmy Awards - Entertainment highlights during the week of Jan 28 - Feb. 3, 1948: The first Emmy Awards were given for excellence in television. The first Emmy winner was Shirley Dinsdale and her puppet, Judy Splinters, for most outstanding personality. [Based on: Article (THAT WAS THE WEEK THAT WAS), p. E5, S.L.P.D., 01/30/07]

1948 - Birth / Alice Cooper - February 4th, 1948: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Rock singer, Alice Cooper."

1948 - Birth / Pat O'Brien - February 14th, 1948: "Reportedly born on this date in history: TV personality, Pat O'Brien."

1948 - Birth / James Taylor - March 12th, 1948: "James Vernon Taylor ... is an American singer-songwriter and guitarist. A five-time Grammy Award winner, Taylor was inducted into the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame in 2000. [...] James Taylor was born at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston on March 12, 1948, where his father, Isaac M. Taylor, was a resident physician. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Taylor]

1948 - Birth / Billy Crystal - March 14th, 1948: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Comedian, Billy Crystal."

1948 - Birth / Andrew Lloyd Weber - March 22nd, 1948: "Andrew Lloyd Webber, Baron Lloyd-Webber Kt. ... is an English composer and impresario of musical theatre. [...] Andrew Lloyd Webber was born in Kensington, London, the elder son of William Lloyd Webber (1914–1982), a composer and organist, and Jean Hermione (née Johnstone; 1921–1993), a violinist and pianist. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrew_Lloyd_Weber]

1948 - Birth / Wolf Blitzer - March 22nd, 1948: "Wolf Isaac Blitzer ... is an American journalist and television news anchor who has been a CNN reporter since 1990. [...] Blitzer was born in Augsburg, Germany,[2][3] the son of Cesia Blitzer (née Zylberfuden), a homemaker, and David Blitzer, a home builder.[4][5][6] His parents were Jewish refugees from Poland, and Holocaust survivors.[7] He was raised in Buffalo, New York. Blitzer graduated from Kenmore West Senior High School and received a Bachelor of Arts in history from the University at Buffalo in 1970. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wolf_Blitzer]

1948 - American Broadcasting Company (ABC) - April 19th, 1948: "The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) is an American commercial broadcasting television network. Created in 1943 from the former NBC Blue radio network, ABC is owned by The Walt Disney Company as of 1996 and is part of Disney–ABC Television Group, formerly ABC-TV. Its first broadcast on television was in 1948. It is the largest broadcaster in the world by revenues. As one of the Big Three television networks, its programming has contributed to American popular culture. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Broadcasting_Company]

1948 - Birth / Steven Tyler - March 26th, 1948: "Steven Tyler ... is an American singer, songwriter, and multi-instrumentalist, best known as the frontman and lead singer of the Boston-based rock band Aerosmith, in which he also plays the harmonica, and occasional piano and percussion. [...] Steven Victor Tallarico was born on March 26, 1948, in Yonkers, New York, the son of Susan Ray (née Blancha; June 2, 1925 – July 4, 2008), a secretary, and Victor A. Tallarico (May 14, 1916 – September 10, 2011),[4] a classical musician and pianist. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steven_Tyler]

1948 - Birth / Al Gore - March 31st, 1948: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Former U.S. Vice president, Al Gore."

1948 - Died / "Sawan Singh" - April 2nd, 1948: "[....] Huzur Sawan Singh died on April 2, 1948, just days after appointing Jagat Singh as his spiritual successor. [....]"  

[Based on: http://vclass.mtsac.edu:930/phil/saint.htm]

1948 - Radasoami Master / Jagat Singh - April, 1948: "Maharaj Jagat Singh Ji [Maharaj Sardar Bahadur Jagat Singh Ji], Sant Sat Guru, Radha Soami Satsang Beas (1948 - 1951)[1] was born on the 20th July, 1884 at Nussi, a small village not very far from Beas. [....] After his retirement in 1943, He spent practically all his time in meditation and Shabd Abhyas (Practice) till He assumed charge of His Master's work at Beas in April 1948 and engrossed Himself fully in carrying out the functions and duties entrusted to Him, despite His indifferent health. [NP] He talked little, used words sparingly, went straight to the point - often quite bluntly. At such moments, His quiet brown eyes would light up with a flash. [NP] He died quietly early on the morning of the 23rd October, 1951. The day before, He had dictated His will and given instructions about His funeral."

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sardar_Bahadur_Jagat_Singh] - [T.D. - 03/07/10]

*Trivia: "[....] He passed away quietly early on the morning of the 23rd October, 1951. The day before, He had dictated His will and given instructions about His funeral. [....]"

[Based on: http://www.mountainman.com.au/guru_ji.html]

*Trivia: http://www.radhasoamiji.in/babajagat.html

1948 - Birth / Steve Winwood - May 12th, 1948: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer-musician, Steve Winwood."

1948 - Two-Stage Rocket - "On May 13th, the first two-stage rocket launched in the Western Hemisphere was launched from the White Sands facility.  It was a V2 which had been converted to include a WAC-Corporal upper stage.  It reached a total altitude of 79 miles." [Link 1]

1948 - Independence  / Israel - May 14th, 1948: "On May 14th, Israel declared independence, offering itself as a haven from anti-Semitism for the world's Jews. An ongoing war between Jews and Palestinians was thereupon joined by neighboring Arab states. When the war ended in January 1949, Israel controlled 78 percent of Palestine, and 750,000 Palestinians became refugees." [N.G.M. / October 2002]

*Trivia: "[....] In 1948, the United States was the first country to recognize Israel, 11 minutes after its statehood declaration. In that momentous decision, President Harry Truman broke with his secretary of state, George Marshall, and most of the foreign policy experts. [NP] 'Because Harry Truman did what was right instead of following the convential wisdom, we can say today that America is Israel's oldest and best friend in the world,' Bush [U.S. President George W. Bush] said to cheers from conference guests [Jerusalem - 05/14/08]." [Based on: Title for A.P. article (President is upbeat in visit to Jerusalem), p A5, S.L.P.D., 05/15/08]

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1948_Arab-Israeli_War

1948 - Astronomic Configuration - May 14th, 1948: "Sun [23 Taurus], Moon [26 Cancer], Mercury [9 Gemini], Venus [4 Cancer], Mars [28 Leo], Jupiter [27 Sagittarius R.], Saturn [16 Leo], Uranus [24 Gemini], Neptune [10 Libra R.], Pluto [12 Leo], Chiron [21 Scorpio R.]."

[Based on: http://www.astro.com/swisseph/ae/1900/ae_1948.pdf]

1948 - Status / State of Israel - May 15th, 1948: "British leave Palestine. Jews establish state of Israel & repel Arab attacks."

1948 - Established / World Council of Churches - May 17th? 1948: "The World Council of Churches is formed."

1948 - Birth / Stevie Nicks - May 26th, 1948: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer, Stevie Nicks."

*Link: http://www.fleetwoodmac.org/stevie-nicks.php

1948 - Israeli Expansion / Beyond U.N.-Set Borders  - "Following Arab attacks on Israel in May 1948, the Israelis pushed back the Arab armies and extended the area under Israeli control beyond the then U.N.-set borders for the Jewish state."

*Trivia: "[....] Any changes Israel made in expanding its boundaries since the end of the 1948 war for independence 'must be mutually agreed to,' Bush said. And he said Israel must remove illegal makeshift outposts from the West Bank and stop expanding Jewish settlements." [Based on: Washington Post article, p. A1 & A14, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 05/27/05]

1948 - Birth / Jerry Mathers - June 2nd, 1948: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actor, Jerry Mathers."

1948 - Rockets With Live Animals - June 11th, 1948: "White Sands launched the first in a series of rockets that contained live animals, on June 11.  The launches were named 'Albert,' after the monkey that rode in the first rocket.  Albert died of suffocation in the rocket.  Several monkeys and mice were killed in the experiments." [Link: 1]

1948 - Start / Berlin Airlift - June 1948: "[....] In an effort to squeeze the Western powers out of Berlin, Soviet dictator Josef Stalin in June 1948 blockaded all rail, road and ship traffic into the city. The airlift supplied West Berliners with food and fuel for 11 months until the Soviets lifted the blockade." [Based on: News Services article (Germany celebrates anniversary [June 26th] of airlift), p. A12, S.L.P.D., 06/27/08]

1948 - Rocket Technology / White Sands - "On June 26, two rockets, a V-2 and an Aerobee were launched from White Sands.  The V-2 attained 60.3 miles, while the Aerobee attained 70 miles altitude." [Link: 1]

1948 - Birth / Ian Paice - June 29th, 1948: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Drummer (Deep Purple), Ian Paice."

1948 - Earthquake / Fukui, Japan - June 28th, 1948: "Earthquake location: Fukui, Japan. Earthquake magnitude: 7.3. Number of recorded fatalities: 5,390."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 208]

1948 - Birth / Richard Simmons - July 12th, 1948: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Fitness guru, Richard Simmons."

1948 - Birth / Yusuf Islam - July 21st, 1948: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer, Yusuf Islam (formerly Cat Stevens)."

1948 - Birth / Peggy Fleming - July 27th, 1948: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Olympic gold medal figure skater, Peggy Fleming."

1948 - Birth / Sally Struthers - July 28th, 1948: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actress, Sally Struthers."

1948 - ABC Debut / "Candid Camera" - Entertainment highlights during the week of August 6th-12th, 1948: Allen Funt's "Candid Camera" made its television debut on ABC with the title "Candid Microphone," which was also the name of a radio program produced by Funt. [Based on: A.P. article, p. E5, S.L.P.D., 08/08/06]

1948 - Birth / Robert Plant - August 20th, 1948: "Robert Anthony Plant, CBE (born 20 August 1948) is an English singer and songwriter best known as the vocalist and lyricist of the rock band Led Zeppelin. He has also had a successful solo career. [... .]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Plant]

1948 - Summer Olympic Games / London, England - "In 1948, the Summer Olympic Games were held in London, England. Germany and Japan [aggressor nations during WWII] were not invited, but Communist countries participated for the first time. In 1948, the Winter Olympic Games were held in St. Moritz, Switzerland."  

1948 - Birth / Terry Bradshaw - September 2nd, 1948: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Football's, Terry Bradshaw."

1948 - Birth / Olivia Newton-John - September 26th, 1948: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer, Olivia Newton-John."

1948 - Birth / Bryant Gumbel - September 28th, 1948: "Reportedly born on this date in history: TV personality, Bryant Gumbel."

1948 - Paul Twitchell /  Philippines? - October, 1948: Talks in Manila, P.I. [Based on: ECKANKAR Compiled Writings, Volume I, p. 186, Copyright 1975, Gail T. Gross]

1948 - Birth / Jackson Browne - October 9th, 1948: "Clyde Jackson Browne (born October 9, 1948) is an American singer-songwriter and musician who has sold over 17 million albums in the United States alone. [...] Browne was born in Heidelberg, Germany, where his father, Clyde Jack Browne, an American serviceman, was stationed for his job assignment with the Star and Stripes newspaper. Browne's mother, Beatrice Amanda (née Dahl), was a Minnesota native of Norwegian ancestry.[2] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jackson_Browne]

1948 - Birth / Margot Kidder - October 17th, 1948: "Margaret Ruth 'Margot' Kidder (born October 17, 1948) is a Canadian-born actress. [...] Kidder, one of five children, was born in Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada, the daughter of Jocelyn Mary 'Jill' (née Wilson), a history teacher, and Kendall Kidder, an explosives expert and mining engineer. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margot_Kidder]

1948 - Birth / Kate Jackson - October 29th, 1948: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actress, Kate Jackson."

1948 - Truman Elected / U.S.A. - November 2nd, 1948: "President Truman elected Nov. 2nd, defeating Governor Thomas E. Dewey in a historic upset." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 549]

1948 - Birth / Glenn Frey - November 6th, 1948: "Glenn Lewis Frey (pronounced Fry; born November 6, 1948) is an American musician, singer, songwriter, and actor, best known as a founding member of the Eagles. Frey formed the Eagles after he met drummer Don Henley in 1970 and the two eventually joined Linda Ronstadt's backup band for her summer tour. [...] Frey was born in Detroit, Michigan.[1]  [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glenn_Frey]

1948 - Birth / Prince Charles - November 14th, 1948: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Britain's Prince Charles."

1948 - Scrabble Trademark - December 1st, 1948: "Scrabble trademark registered, 1948." [Based on: The Old Farmer's Almanac (2006) by Robert B. Thomas, p. 99]

1948 - Birth / Ozzy Osbourne - December 3rd, 1948: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Rock singer, Ozzy Ozbourne."

1948 - Birth / Teri Garr - December 11th, 1948: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actress, Teri Garr."

1948 - Birth / Ted Nugent - December 13th, 1948: "Theodore Anthony 'Ted' Nugent ... is an American rock musician from Detroit, Michigan. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ted_Nugent]

1948 - Radiological Warfare Research / U.S.A. - "The U.S. Army explored the potential of using radioactive poisons to assassinate 'important individuals' such as military or civilian leaders during the Cold War, according to newly declassified documents obtained by The Associated Press. [NP] Kept secret since it was approved at the highest levels of the Army in 1948, the effort was part of the military's pursuit of a 'new concept of warfare' using radioactive materials from atomic bombmaking to contaminate swaths of enemy land or to target military bases, factories or troop formations. [NP No targeted individuals are mentioned in references to the assassination weapon in the government documents declassified in response to a Freedom of Information Act request filed by the AP in 1995. [NP] The broader effort on offensive uses of radiological warfare apparently died by about 1954, at least in part because of the Defense department's conviction that nuclear weapons were a better bet. [NP] Whether the work migrated to another agency such as the CIA is unclear. The project was given final approval in November 1948 and began the following month, just one year after the CIA's creation in 1947. [NP] It was a turbulent time on the international scene. In August 1949, the Soviet Union successfully tested its first atomic bomb, and two months later Mao Zedong's communists triumphed in China's civil war. [....] The government's first public report on the bomb project, published in 1945, noted that radioactive fission products from a uranium-fueled reactor could be extracted and used 'like a particularly vicious form of poison gas.' [....] Among the released documents, an Army memo - dated Dec. 16, 1948, and labled secret - described a crash program to develop a variety of military uses for radioactive materials. Work on a 'subversive weapon for attack of individuals or small groups' was listed as a secondary priority, to be confined to feasibility studies and experiments. [NP] The top priorities listed in order were: * Weapons to contaminate 'populated or otherwise critical areas for long periods of time.' * Munitions combining high explosives with radioactive material 'to accomplish physical damage and radioactive contamination simultaneously.' * Air and/or surface weapons that would spread contamination across an area to be evacuated, thereby rendering it unusable by enemy forces. [NP] The stated goal was to produce a prototype for the first two weapons by Dec. 31, 1950. [NP] The fourth ranked priority was 'munitions for attack on individuals' using radioactive agents for which there is 'no means of therapy.' [....] The Dec. 16, 1948, memo said a lethal attack against individuals using radiological material should be done in a way that makes it impossible to trace the U.S. government's involvement, a concept known as 'plausible deniability' that is central to U.S. covert actions." [Based on: A.P. article (U.S. researched radiological assassinations / Cold War pursuit was part of 'new concept of warfare,' documents show.), p A2, S.L.P.D., 10/09/07] - [My brackets. "NP" = New Paragraph]

1948 - Elements of "Foreign Technology" - December, 1948: "Just a little over a year after the initial group meetings at the White House, Air Force Intelligence, now that the Air Force had become a separate service, issued a December 1948 report - 100-203-79 - called 'Analysis of Flying Object Incidents in the U.S.' in which UFO'S are never referred to as extraterrestial objects but as elements of  'foreign technology,' which is actually the subject of the report. The report, inocuous to most people because it doesn't say that flying  saucers are from outer space, is actually one of the first indications showing how the camouflage plan was supposed to work over the ensuing years." [The Day After Roswell, Col. Philip J. Corso, with William J. Birnes]

1948 - Trivia / U.S. Health Insurance - "Supreme Court allows [1948] collective bargaining for employment-based health insurance." [Source: Institute of Medicine, 10/04/04]

1948 - Apartheid / South Africa - "[....] Tha National Party, which came to power in 1948, presided over 48 years of systematic and often brutal oppression of the country's [South Africa's] black majority, who were denied the right to vote or mix with whites. [....]" [Based on: A.P. article, S.L.P.D., 04/10/05]

1948 - Voting Rights / Arizona Indians - "In 1948, Arizona state is forced by the courts to give Indians the right to vote as in other American states."

1948 - Last Published / Index Librorum Prohibitorum - 1948 "[....] In 1557, when Pope Paul IV created the Index [Index Librorum Prohibitorum], the church was in a defensive mood, said Jonathan Canning, a curator for the exibit [@ Loyola University Museum of Art - 2007]. Martin Luther's criticism of Catholic practices was splitting Western Christendom in two. The church had its hands full answering Protestant arguments and wasn't happy about having to fight a second front with science - which was just then emerging from centuries of stagnation. [....] The last edition of the Index was published in 1948, and the practice was abolished by Vatican II in the 1960s [1966], Canning noted. [....]." [Based on: Chicago Tribune article (Once-banned books on display / Exibit at Catholic university [Loyola University Museum of Art] includes volumes by Copernicus, Descartes.) by Ron Grossman, p A4, S.L.P.D., 05/02/07]

1948 - Notable Songs of 1948 - "Round Midnight" (Thelonius Monk)

1948 - Established / Fate Magazine - Established in 1948 by Clark Publishing Company, the first edition of Fate hit world newsstands in the Spring. Co-founded by Ray Palmer, editor of the Amazing Stories magazine, and Curtis Fuller, an accomplished editor in his own right, the magazine's inaugural edition featured an article by Kenneth Arnold who recounted in it his amazing UFO encounter in 1947. Arnold's sighting marked the beginning of the modern UFO era, and his story propelled the fledgling Fate to national recognition. *Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fate_(magazine) - [T.D. - 01/17/10]

1948 - Earthquake Trivia / 1948 - "Number of notable earthquakes this year: at least 1. Number of earthquake deaths: 5,390." [E.M.]

1948 - "Natural Disaster" Deaths / 1948 - "Estimated number of people who died from natural disasters this year: at least 5,390." [E.M.]

1949

1949 - Hoover Commission - "The Hoover Commission on the Reorganization of Government recommended termination of the federal-Indian trust relationship."

1949 - Hubbard & Religion - "I'd like to start a religion. That's where the money is." -L. Ron Hubbard to Lloyd Eshbach, in 1949; quoted by Eshbach in Over My Shoulder.

*Link: http://www.bible.ca/scientology-judges.htm - [T.D. - 01/23/10]

1949 - Founded / Ananaikyo - Ananaikyo. A New Sect Shinto organization (see SECT SHINTO) founded in 1949 by Nakano Yonosuke. It is deliberately eclectic: the name means ‘the teaching’ (kyo) of ‘the three’ (ana) and ‘the five’ (nai), referring to the religious traditions from which it draws inspiration. It practises kami possession and ecstasy, through a technique known as chinkon kishin, ‘stilling the self to become one with the kami’. The principal kami worshipped is Kuni Tokotachi no Mikoto.

*Link: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O101-Ananaikyo.html - [T.D. - 01/17/10]

1949 - Central Intelligence Agency Act - "In 1949, the Central Intelligence Agency Act was passed supplementing the 1947 Act by permitting the Agency to use confidential fiscal and administrative procedures and exempting the CIA from many of the usual limitations on the expenditure of federal funds." [Link: 1]

1949 - Excavation / Tomb of Pacal Votan - "Pacal’s final resting place was in a tomb below the Temple of Inscriptions. Archeologists encountered this tomb after they discovered a secret stairway that let down into the heart of the pyramid. The tomb was unearthed in 1952 AD after three years of work [since 1949?] removing boulders that had been used to block the entrance of the stairway."  

1949 - Debut / 45 Vinyl Disc - January 10th, 1949: "Back in 1948, the Columbia company had perfected  the 12-inch, 33 1/3 rpm, long-playing vinyl disc known as the LP. A year later on  January 10th, 1949, Columbia's rival, RCA Victor, introduced a competing format, a 7-inch disc that played at 45 revolutions per minute. The 45's greatest success came with the onset of rock and roll, reaching its sales peak in the mid-1960s." [Based on: Leo Laporte's 2005 Technology Almanac, p. 12]

1949 - Birth / George Foreman - January 10th, 1949: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Boxer, George Foreman."

1949 - Birth / Steve Perry - September 22nd, 1949: "Reportedly born on this date in history: singer, Steve Perry."

1949 - Birth / John Belushi - January 24th, 1949: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actor-comedian, John Belusi [d. 03/05/1982]."

1949 - 1st TV Daytime Soap Opera / U.S.A. - Entertainment highlights during the week of January 27th-February. 2nd 1949: The first TV daytime soap opera, "These Are My Children," was broadcast from the NBC station in Chicago. [Based on: A.P. article, p. E2, S.L.P.D., 01/29/08]

1949 - Project Grudge - February, 1949: "In February, 1949, Project Sign came to an end, and with it the Air Force's objective attitude toward UFOs. The final report of Project Sign was decidedly skeptical towards the extraterrestrial origin hypothesis for the origin of UFOs, reflecting a shift towards explaining all sightings as misidentifications of natural phenomena. Secretly, however, the Air Force had merely changed the name of the project to Project Grudge [1949-1952]."

1949 - Test Launch / No. 5 Two-Stage Rocket - February 24th, 1949: "A number 5 two-stage rocket was launched to 244 miles of altitude, and 5,510 mph velocity over White Sands.  It set a new record for the time-being, on February 24." [Link: 1]   

1949 - Elysee Agreement / France & Vietnam - March 8th, 1949: "Bao Dai and President Vincent Auriol of France sign the Elysee Agreement. As part of the agreement the French pledge to assist in the building of a national anti-Communist army."

1949 - Birth / Erik Estrada - March 16th, 1949: "Henry Enrique "Erik" Estrada ... is an American police officer and actor, known for his co-starring lead role in the 1977–1983 United States police television series CHiPs.[1] [...] Estrada was born in East Harlem, Manhattan, New York City, the son of Carmen, a seamstress, and Renildo Estrada.[1] He is of Puerto Rican descent.[2] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erik_Estrada]

1949 - Birth / Eddie Money - March 21st, 1949: "Eddie Money (born Edward Joseph Mahoney, March 21, 1949), is an American rock guitarist, saxophonist, and singer–songwriter who found success in the 1970s and 1980s with a string of Top 40 hits and platinum albums. [...] Eddie Money was born Edward Mahoney into a large Irish Catholic family in Brooklyn and raised in Plainedge on Long Island. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eddie_Money]

1949 - - March 26th, 1949: "Vicki Lawrence ... is an American actress, comedienne, and Billboard Hot 100 #1 singer, who was frequently a game show panelist in the 1970s and 1980s. [...] Lawrence was born in Inglewood, California,[2] the daughter of Anne Alene (née Loyd) and Howard Axelrad, a certified public accountant. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vicki_Lawrence]

1949 - Relieved of Duty / U.S. Secretary of Defense - Late March, 1949: "[....] President Truman relieved Forrestal ... of his position in late March of 1949. Within a few days he was committed, apparently against his will, to Bethesda Naval Hospital suffering from 'exhaustion.' In spite of the invaluable service he had rendered to the country during World War II, first as Under Secretary of the Navy and then Secretary of the Navy, he had in 1948 and early 1949 been the subject of an unprecedented press vilification campaign, led by powerful columnists Drew Pearson and Walter Winchell. [....]"

[Based on article by David Martin @ http://www.nationalvanguard.org/story.php?id=5634]

*Trivia: "However history may ultimately judge his opposition to the establishment of Israel, by 1949 it was clear that Forrestal was, in a sense, one of the casualties of the diplomatic warfare that had led to the creation of the Jewish state." - Arnold Rogow, James Forrestal, A Study of Personality, Politics, and Power, 1963

[http://www.nationalvanguard.org/story.php?id=5634]

1949 - Conception / NATO - April 4th, 1949: "With the memory of the Berlin Blockade and the Communist takeover in Czechoslovakia still fresh, 12 nations agree to form the North Atlantic Treaty Organization as a counter to Soviet expansionism. The 12 are the United States, Belgium, Britain, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Neatherlands, Norway, and Portugal." [Sources: NATO, The Associated Press, the World Book, the Encyclopedia Britannica]

*Trivia: "NATO established Aug. 24 by U.S., Canada, and 10 Western European nations, agreeing that an armed attack against one would be considered an attack against all." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 549]

1949 - Earthquake / Olympia, Washington - April 13th, 1949: "Earthquake location: Olympia, Washington. Earthquake magnitude: 7.1. Number of recorded fatalities: 8."  

1949 - Birth / Billy Joel - May 9th, 1949: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer, Billy Joel."

1949 - Kape Kennedy Test Range - "On May 11, President Truman signed a bill for a 5,000 mile test range to extend from Cape Kennedy Florida.  The Secretary of the Army approved the relocation of the White Sands scientists and their equipment to Huntsville, Alabama."  [Link: 1

1949 - Suicide? / James Forrestal - May 22nd, 1949: "In the early morning hours of May 22, 1949, the recently ousted first American Secretary of Defense, James Vincent Forrestal, committed suicide at the Bethesda Naval Hospital in Bethesda, Maryland. His death came as a shock to official Washington, where he had been a commanding figure, yet to those who knew him well, there was a certain grim logic to this tragic end." [Based on: Arlington National Cemetary Website]

*Trivia:

[....]

James V. Forrestal was America's first Secretary of Defense. He was also the leading official in the Truman administration opposing the creation and U.S. recognition of the state of Israel. President Truman relieved Forrestal ... of his position in late March of 1949. Within a few days he was committed, apparently against his will, to Bethesda Naval Hospital suffering from "exhaustion." In spite of the invaluable service he had rendered to the country during World War II, first as Under Secretary of the Navy and then Secretary of the Navy, he had in 1948 and early 1949 been the subject of an unprecedented press vilification campaign, led by powerful columnists Drew Pearson and Walter Winchell.

At around 1:45 am, May 22, some seven weeks after his admission to the hospital, Forrestal plunged from a 16th floor window of the hospital to his death. A belt or cord, said to be from his dressing gown, was tied tightly around his neck.

On May 23, a review board was appointed by Admiral Morton D. Willcutts, the head of the National Naval Medical Center to investigate the death. The board completed its work on May 31, but not until October 11 did it publish a brief, summary report of only a few lines. No explanation of the delay was given. The summary concluded that Forrestal had died from the fall, but it had nothing to say about what caused the fall, except to conclude that no one associated with the Navy was responsible. In short, it did not conclude that he had committed suicide, as initial reports stated and the public is still given to believe. No mention was made in the summary, or in those later October press reports, of the belt around Forrestal's neck.

The Willcutts Report, itself, was kept secret, and, curiously, no hue and cry was raised over that fact. After two unsuccessful Freedom of Information Act tries with the National Naval Medical Center, I was finally able to get the report of the review board from the office of the Navy's Judge Advocate General, and my analysis is at http://www.dcdave.com/article4/040922.html .

[....]

Pro-Israel writers like Rogow, Winchell biographer, Neal Gabler, Jack Anderson, Charles Higham, John Loftus, and Mark Aarons have continued the character assassination against Forrestal, falsely characterizing him as an anti-Semitic nut who had made several previous suicide attempts. This claim of several previous suicide attempts, echoed at this Arlington Cemetery Web site: http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net/jvforres.htm , is virtually proved to be false by the testimony of Forrestal's Bethesda Hospital doctors in the Willcutts Report. They agree that, from all indications, he had never before attempted suicide.

The indications are very strong that the Roman Catholic Forrestal kept his no-suicide-attempt record intact on May 22, 1949, and became another casualty of the creation of the state of Israel in the same sense that Lord Moyne, Count Bernadotte, Yitzhak Rabin, Rachel Corrie, 34 crewmen on the USS Liberty, and Palestinian leaders on a regular basis have been casualties.

The Willcutts Report is available in pdf form on the web site of the Seeley Mudd Manuscript Library at Princeton University. Copies should also be available for perusal at the Harry S. Truman Library in Independence, Missouri, and the Library of Congress. I have given the appropriate officials at these libraries compact discs of the report.

[Based on article by David Martin @ http://www.nationalvanguard.org/story.php?id=5634]

1949 - Birth / Joyce DeWitt - April 23rd, 1949: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actress ('Three's Company'), Joyce DeWitt."

1949 - Earthquake / Pelileo, Ecuador - August 5th, 1949: "Earthquake location: Pelileo, Ecuador. Earthquake magnitude: 6.8. Number of recorded fatalities: 6,000."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 208]

1949 - NBC Radio Premier / "Dragnet" - Entertainment highlights during the week of July 6-12, 1949: The police drama "Dragnet," starring Jack Webb and Barton Yarborough, premiered on NBC radio. [Based o article (THAT WAS THE WEEK THAT WAS), p. E2, S.L.P.D., 07/09/08]

1949 - Birth / Keith Carradine - August 8th, 1949: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actor, Keith Carradine."

1949 - Birth / Mark Knopfler - August 12th, 1949: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer-guitarist (Dire Straits), Mark Knopfler."

1949 - Earthquake / B.C., Canada - August 22nd, 1949: "Earthquake location: Queen Charlotte Island, B.C., Canada. Earthquake magnitude: 8.1. Number of recorded fatalities: 0."  

1949 - Established / NATO - August 24th, 1949: "NATO established Aug. 24 by U.S., Canada, and 10 Western European nations, agreeing that an armed attack against one would be considered an attack against all." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 549]

1949 - Birth / Gene Simmons - August 25th, 1949: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Rock singer-actor [Kiss], Gene Simmons."

1949 - Soviet Atomic Bomb Explosion / Kazakhstan - August 29th, 1949: "The Soviet Union becomes the world's second nuclear power when it explodes a copy of the Fat Man bomb in Kazakhstan. The bomb's design was stolen from the U.S. by German-born scientist Klaus Fuchs." [Based on: N.G.M., August 2005, p. 103]

1949 - Birth / Richard Gere - August 31st, 1949: "Richard Tiffany Gere (... born August 31, 1949) is an American actor. [...] Born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Gere is a descendant of Mayflower Pilgrims Francis Eaton, John Billington, George Soule, Richard Warren, Degory Priest, William Brewster, and Francis Cooke.[1] His paternal great-grandfather had changed the spelling of the surname from 'Geer'.[1] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Gere]

1949 - Pluto 17 Degrees Leo - September 6th, 1949: Pluto at 17 degrees Leo. ...

*Link: http://www.astro.com/swisseph/ae/1900/ae_1949.pdf

1949 - ABC-TV Premier / "The Lone Ranger" - "Entertainment highlights during the week of Sept. 11-17: 'The Lone Ranger' premiered on ABC-TV with Clayton Moore as the masked hero and Jay Silverheels as Tonto." [Based on: A.P.]

1949 - Birth / Bruce Springsteen - September 23rd, 1949: "Bruce Frederick Joseph Springsteen (born September 23, 1949), nicknamed "The Boss," is an American singer-songwriter-performer who records and tours with the E Street Band. Springsteen is widely known for his brand of heartland rock, poetic lyrics, and Americana sentiments centered on his native New Jersey.[1] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bruce_Springsteen] - [T.D. - 03/19/12]

1949 - Died / Babuji - "Babuji [the fifth Sant Sat Guru] died in October 1949, only one year before Paul [Paul Twitchell] joined Swami Premananda's ashram, as Paul began looking for his new spiritual teacher. Eventually Paul made contact with Rebazar Tarzs, who showed him the complete teachings of ECKANKAR." [Based on: Dialogue in the Age of Criticism, Chap. 12]   

*Trivia: "It was predicted by Sant Das Maheshwari, who was Babuji's personal secretary, that the next Sant Sat Guru would appear in the early to mid-60's, but none have ever been recognized officially. Some claim that Sant Das himself was the Sant Sat Guru, but he denied it numerous times. Others split off from the group with their own gurus." [Based on: Dialogue in the Age of Criticism, Chap. 12]  

1949 - Dead Sea Scrolls / U.S. Library of Congress - "The Dead Sea Scrolls were first displayed in the United States at the Library of Congress in October 1949. The scrolls belonged to Mar Athanasius Yeshua Samuel, the head of the Syrian Jacobite Monastery of St. Mark in Jerusalem. In 1954, he placed an advertisement in 'The Wall Street Journal' offering 'The Four Dead Sea Scrolls' for sale. Purchased for the State of Israel by archaeologist Yigael Yadin, these scrolls are housed today in The Shrine of the Book in Jerusalem."

1949 - Formally Established / People's Republic of China - "On October 1, 1949, the People's Republic of China was formally established, with its national capital at Beijing, with Chairman Mao Zedong. The people were defined as a coalition of four social classes: the workers, the peasants, the petite bourgeoisie, and the national-capitalists."

*Trivia: "[....] China and Taiwan split amid civil war in 1949. Beijing still [2006] claims sovereignty over the self-ruled island and threatens to use force if Taiwan moves toward formalizing its de facto independence." [Based on: News Services article, p. A8, S.L.P.D., 03/13/06]

*Trivia: "Taiwanese President Ma Yingjeou says that a communist Chinese envoy visiting Taiwan [2008] has had a successful trip. [....] China and Taiwan split amid civil war in 1949, and China claims the democratically governed island as part of its territory. [....]" [Based on: News Services article (TAIPEI, TAIWAN / Visit by Chinese envoy is called a success), p. A3, S.L.P.D., 11/06/08]

1949 - Birth / Lindsey Buckingham - October 3rd, 1949: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer, Lindsey Buckingham."

*Link: http://www.fleetwoodmac.org/lindsey-buckingham.php

1949 - Birth / Sigourney Weaver - October 8th, 1949: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actress, Sigourney Weaver."

1949 - Birth / Daryl Hall - October 11th, 1949: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer, Daryl Hall."

1949 - Birth / Bonnie Raitt - November 8th, 1949: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer, Bonnie Raitt."

1949 - Birth / Sissy Spacek - December 25th, 1949: "Sissy Spacek (born Mary Elizabeth Spacek; December 25, 1949) is an Academy Award winning American actress and singer. [...] Spacek was born ... in Quitman, Texas. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sissy_Spacek]

1949 - Exorcism? / St. Louis, Mo. - 1949: "[....] You've probably heard of 'The Exorcist.' Father Halloran, who died Tuesday (March 1, 2005) at 83, was the last living Jesuit to be involved in an exorcism that took place in 1949 at a psychiatric unit in St. Louis. [....] Father Halloran died at a Jesuit retirement home in Wauwatosa, Wis., a Milwaukee suburb. But he spent many years in St. Louis from the 1940s and on into the 1970s. He was just 27 and a history student at St. Louis University when he was summoned to the psychiatric wing at Alexian Brothers Hospital, 3933 South Broadway. The Rev. William S. Bowdern was dealing with a 14-year-old lad who he believed was possessed by a diabolical spirit or spirits. The boy, Douglas Deen, was a Lutheran from Mount Rainier, Md., a Washington suburb. An eight-page report concerning the incident that was filed in the Georgetown University archives said the boy's parents were concerned by his aberrant behavior. Later accounts said that an aunt and uncle living in St. Louis had suggested to the parents that they try an exorcism as a way of bringing the child under control. That's how he ended up at Alexian Brothers. [....] Father Halloran said he observed streaks  and arrows and words like 'hell' that would rise on the child's skin. [....] In 1988, the Post-Dispatch did a two-part series on the actual exorcism, with Father Halloran providing a lot of fascinating information. [....] Father Halloran became the last remaining priest from the exorcism after the death of Van Roo, 89, who died in March 2004 at a health care center in Wauwatosa, Wis. Bowdern died in 1983 at age 85. [....] A visitation and Mass will taske place Friday evening [03/04/05] in Wauwatosa, Wis." [Based on: St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p. A1 & A8, 03/03/05]

1949 - Volkswagen / United States - "In 1949, the Volkswagen is introduced to the U.S.A."

1949 - Notable Songs of 1949 - "Rudolph the Red Nosed Reindeer" (Gene Autry)

1949 - Earthquake Trivia / 1949 - "Number of notable earthquakes this year: at least 3. Number of earthquake deaths: 6,008." [E.M.]

1949 - "Natural Disaster" Deaths / 1949 - "Estimated number of people who died from natural disasters this year: at least 6,008." [E.M.]

1950

1950 - 1st Credit Card - "The first credit card [Diners]."

1950 - "Space Brothers" - "By the 1950's, contactees such as George Adamski and Howard Menger were writing books and lecturing to eager believers about the almost god-like space brothers."  [Tim Swartz, The Lost Journals of Nikola Tesla, p. 28]

1950 - Native American Relocation - "Dillon Myer, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, supported termination as well as relocation and urbanization program for reservation Indians, encouraging migration to cities and cultural assimilation."

1950 - Paul Twitchell / Self-Revelation Church of Absolute Monism - "In 1950, Paul Twitchell and his wife, Camille Ballowe, joined the Self-Revelation Church of Absolute Monism in Washington, D.C."

[Based on: Dialogue in the Age of Criticism, Chap. 2]  

1950 - Birth / Victoria Principal - January 3rd, 1950: "Victoria Principal ... is an American actress, author and businesswoman best known for her role as Pamela Barnes Ewing on the CBS nighttime soap opera Dallas from 1978 to 1987. [...] Principal was born in Fukuoka, Japan, the eldest daughter of United States Air Force sergeant Victor Principal, after whom she was named and who was then stationed in Fukuoka. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victoria_Principle]

1950 - Birth / Barbi Benton - January 28th, 1950: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actress-singer, Barbi Benton."

1950 - Authorization / H-Bomb Production, U.S.A. - January 31st, 1950: "President Truman authorized production of the H-bomb Jan. 31." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 549]

1950 - Birth / Morgan Fairchild - February 3rd, 1950: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actress, Morgan Fairchild."

1950 - Pluto 17 Degrees Leo - February 6th, 1950: Pluto at 17 degrees Leo, R.; July 15th, D.  ...

*Link: http://www.astro.com/swisseph/ae/1900/ae_1950.pdf

1950 - Birth / Mark Spitz - February 11th, 1950: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Olympic gold-medal swimmer, Mark Spitz."

1950 - Birth / Peter Gabriel - February 13th, 1950: "Peter Brian Gabriel ... is an English singer, musician, and songwriter who rose to fame as the lead vocalist and flautist of the progressive rock band Genesis. [...] Peter Gabriel was born in Chobham, Surrey, England. [... .]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_Gabriel]

1950 - Walt Disney Release / "Cinderella" - February 12th-18th: Entertainment highlights during the week of Feb. 12th-18th: Walt Disney released the animated movie "Cinderella." [Based on: A.P. article, p. C5, S.L.P.D., 02/13/06]

1950 - Birth / George Thorogood - February 24th, 1950: "George Thorogood ... is an American blues rock vocalist/guitarist from Wilmington, Delaware, United States [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Thorogood]

1950 - Martin Short - March 26th, 1950: "Martin Hayter Short, CM (born March 26, 1950) is a Canadian American actor[1] comedian, writer, singer , voice actor and producer. [...] Short was born in Hamilton, Ontario, the youngest of five children of Olive (née Hayter), a violinist, and Charles Patrick Short, a corporate executive with Stelco, a Canadian steel company. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martin_Short]

1950 - Birth / Agnetha Faltskog - April 5th, 1950: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer (ABBA), Agnetha Faltskog."

1950 - Birth / David Cassidy - April 12th, 1950: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer, David Cassidy."

1950 - Birth / Peter Frampton - April 22nd, 1950: Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer, Peter Frampton.

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_Frampton

1950 - Birth / Jay Leno - April 28th, 1950: "Reportedly born on this date in history: 'Tonight Show' host, Jay Leno."

1950 - Birth / Lou Gramm - May 2nd, 1950: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer ('Foreigner'), Lou Gramm."

1950 - Birth /  Tim Russert - May 7th, 1950: "Reportedly born on this date in history [Buffalo, New York]: NBC newsman, Tim Russert [Died: 06/13/08]." *Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tim_Russert

1950 - Dianetics / L. Ron Hubbard - May 9th, 1950: "The book Dianetics, the Modern Science of Mental Health by L. Ron Hubbard is released. It decries hypnosis, and describes techniques for safely accessing in the mind the contents of incidents involving unconsciousness, hypnosis, drugs, and pain. It becomes a bestseller." [Based on: http://www.sc-i-r-s-ology.pair.com/rvtimeline/index.html] - [T.D. - 09/09/08]

*Trivia: "[....] Sensing where this world was headed as early as 1950, L. Ron Hubbard began to search out a means by which, as he wrote, 'man can recover to himself some of the happiness, some of the sincerity, some of the love and kindness with which he was created.' "

[Based on: http://www.lronhubbard.org/profile/human.htm] - [T.D. - 09/13/08]

*Trivia: "[....] L. Ron Hubbard had found the source of human aberration and had developed a technique of the mind that worked. Dianetics was born. [....] Shortly thereafter, he found himself literally deluged with letters requesting more information on the application of his breakthroughs. Hoping to make his discoveries available to the broad public, and at the insistence of those working with him at the time, he offered his findings to the American Medical Association and the American Psychiatric Association. The response was most enlightening. Not only did the health care establishment claim no interest in his work, they declined to even examine his results. [....]" [http://lron.hubbard.org/pg008.html] - [T.D. - 09/13/08]

*Links: http://www.strippingthegurus.com/stgsamplechapters/scientology.asp

1950 - Birth /  Stevie Wonder - May 13th, 1950: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer, Stevie Wonder."

1950 - TV Debut / Frank Sinatra - Entertainment highlights during the week of May 25th-31st, 1950: Frank Sinatra made his TV debut with Bob Hope on NBC. [Based on: A.P. article (THAT WAS THE WEEK THAT WAS), p. D2, S.L.P.D., 05/28/08]

1950 - Navy Resignation / L. Ron Hubbard - May 27th, 1950: "The Office of Naval Intelligence in Washington, D.C. sends an officer to put L. Ron Hubbard into civilian service in the government to continue his researches on the mind. Hubbard says no. The officer says that if he refuses, Hubbard will be ordered back to active duty, since his Naval commission has not been terminated. Hubbard quickly takes advantage of a letter of permission he has from the Secretary of the Navy to resign his commission, thereby putting Dianetics and Scientology out of the reach and control of the U.S. government."

[Based on: http://www.sc-i-r-s-ology.pair.com/rvtimeline/index.html]

1950 - Birth /  Ann Wilson - June 19th, 1950: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Rock singer (Heart), Ann Wilson."

1950 - Korean War - June 25th, 1950: "When Communist forces from North Korea invade the Republic of South Korea on June 25, President Truman appeals to the United Nations to take action. The UN quickly brands North Korea the aggessor, and Truman follows up by sending US air and naval support to Korea immediately thereafter."

*Trivia: "[....] Last week [February 2005], as the president's $82 billion supplemental budget for Iraq and Afghanistan reached the House, some Republicans expressed skepticism about many of its provisions, particularly the $658 million earmarked to build a new U.S. embassy in Baghdad. The $82 billion would push the total cost of the war efforts to more than $300 billion, about 80 percent of which has gone or will go to the Iraq operation. Adjusted for inflation, that exceeds the $200 billion cost of World War I and is approaching the $350 billion spent on the Korean War. Between 1962 and 1975, the United States spent more than $600 billion in today's dollars in Vietnam. We're almost halfway to that figure in just two years in Iraq. And that understates the war's cost. The money for the war is on top of the more than $420 billion a year already allocated for the Defense Department. It costs $100,000 a year to feed, house, equip, train and maintain every U.S. soldier, before he or she ever gets to Iraq. [....] [Based on: Editorial, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p. B6, 02/21/05 - paragraph indents removed - E.M.]

*Trivia: "[....] In Vietnam, the U.S. lost on average about 4,850 soldiers a year from 1963-75. In the Korean war, from 1950-53, the U.S. lost about 12,300 soldiers a year. [....] " [Based on: A.P. article (U.S. death toll in Iraq war reaches 4,000 / Roadside bombing in southern Baghdad kills 4 U.S. soldiers.) by Robert H. Reid, p. A10, S.L.P.D., 03/24/08]

1950 - U.S. Military Nurses / Korean War - 1950-1953: "More than 50 nurses arrive in Pusan less than 72 hours after the first U.S. soldiers land. Nurses land on the beaches at Inchon during the Army's invasion." [Based on: St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p. A10, 07/10/05]

1950 - U.S. Air Force & Navy / Korea - June 27th, 1950: "Truman ordered Air Force and Navy to Korea June 27th." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 549]

1950 - U.S. Military Advisors / South Vietnam - "U.S. sent 35 military advisors to South Vietnam June 27, and agreed to aid anti-Communist government." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 549]

*Trivia: "In 1950, the United States sent $15 million dollars in military aid to the French for the war in Indochina. Included in the aid package was a military mission and military advisors."

*Trivia: "[....] Last week [February 2005], as the president's $82 billion supplemental budget for Iraq and Afghanistan reached the House, some Republicans expressed skepticism about many of its provisions, particularly the $658 million earmarked to build a new U.S. embassy in Baghdad. The $82 billion would push the total cost of the war efforts to more than $300 billion, about 80 percent of which has gone or will go to the Iraq operation. Adjusted for inflation, that exceeds the $200 billion cost of World War I and is approaching the $350 billion spent on the Korean War. Between 1962 and 1975, the United States spent more than $600 billion in today's dollars in Vietnam. We're almost halfway to that figure in just two years in Iraq. And that understates the war's cost. The money for the war is on top of the more than $420 billion a year already allocated for the Defense Department. It costs $100,000 a year to feed, house, equip, train and maintain every U.S. soldier, before he or she ever gets to Iraq. [....] [Based on: Editorial, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p. B6, 02/21/05 - paragraph indents removed - E.M.]

*Trivia: "In 1950, the Chinese and Soviets offered weapons to the Vietminh."

1950 - Ground Troops & Air Strikes / North Korea - June 30th, 1950: "Truman approved ground forces, air strikes against North Korea June 30." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 549]

1950 - U.S.-Backed Massacre? / Daejeon, South Korea - July 1950: "Grave by mass grave, South Korea is unearthing the skeletons and buried truths of a cold-blooded slaughter from early in the Korean War [early July], when this nation's U.S.-backed regime killed untold thousands of leftists and hapless peasants in a summer of terror [Daejeon] in 1950. [....] The roots of the summer 1950 bloodbath lie in the U.S-Soviet division of Japan's former Korea colony in 1945, which precipitated north-south turmoil and eventual war. [NP] In the late 1940s, President Syngman Rhee's U.S.-installed rightist regime crushed leftist political activity in South Korea. By 1950, southern jails were packed with as many as 30,000 political prisoners. [....] North Korean invaders seized Seoul, the southern capital, in late June 1950. Southern authorities, in full retreat with their U.S. military advisers, ordered National Guidance League members in areas they controlled to report to the police, who detained them. Soon after, commission researchers say, the organized mass executions of people regarded as potential collaborators began. [NP] A State Department cable that fall said overall commander Gen. Douglas MacArthur viewed the executions as a Korean 'international matter,' even though he controlled South Korea's military." [Based on: A.P. article (Massacre by U.S.-backed regime in South Korea comes to light / As many as 100,000 leftists, peasants were imprisoned, executed.) by Charles J. Hanley & Jae-soon Chang, p A8, S.L.P.D., 05/19/08]

1950 - Plan to Suspend Habeas Corpus / J. Edgar Hoover - July 7th, 1950: "A newly declassified document [12/21/07] shows that J. Edgar Hoover, the long-time director of the FBI, had a plan to suspend habeas corpus and imprison some 12,000 Americans that he suspected of disloyalty. [NP] Hoover sent his plan to the White House on July 7, 1950, 12 days after the Korean War began. It envisioned putting suspect Americans in military prisons. [....] The Constitution says habeas corpus shall not be suspended 'unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require it.' The plan proposed by Hoover, the head of the FBI from 1924 to 1972, stretched that clause to include 'threatened invasion' or 'attack upon United States troops in legally occupied territory.' [....]" [Based on: New York Times article (Hoover sought arrest of 12,000 Americans) by Tim Weiner, p A3, S.L.P.D., 12/23/07]

1950 - Kape Kennedy Rockets - "On July 24th, the first rocket launch from Cape Kennedy was a number 8 of the two-stage rockets.  It climbed to a total of 25 miles in altitude.  A number 7 two-stage rocket was launched from Cape Kennedy. It set the record for the fastest moving man-made object, by traveling Mach 9." [Link: 1]  

1950 - Earthquake / Assam, Tibet- August 15th, 1950: "Earthquake location: Assam, Tibet. Earthquake magnitude: 8.6. Number of recorded fatalities: 1,526."  

1950 - Railroad Seizure / U.S.A. - August 27th, 1950: "Army seized all railroads Aug. 27 on Truman's order to prevent a general strike; returned to owners in 1952." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 549]

1950 - Birth / Phil McGraw - September 1st, 1950: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Talk show host, Dr. Phil McGraw."

1950 - Birth / Joe Perry - September 10th, 1950: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Musician-songwriter (Aerosmith), Joe Perry."

1950 - U.S. Forces / Inchon - September 15th, 1950: "U.S. forces landed at Inchon Sept. 15." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 549]

1950 - Birth / Bill Murray - September 21st, 1950: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actor, Bill Murray."

1950 - Birth / Randy Quaid - October 1st, 1950: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actor, Randy Quaid."

1950 - UN Force / Pyongyang - October 20th, 1950: "UN force took Pyongyang Oct. 20." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 549]

1950 - Birth / Tom Petty - October 20th, 1950: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer, Tom Petty."

1950 - Birth / Jane Pauley - October 31st, 1950: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Talk-show hostess, Jane Pauley."

1950 - Assassination Attempt / U.S. President Truman - November 1st, 1950: "Two members of Puerto Rican nationalist movement tried to kill Pres. Truman Nov. 1." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 549]

1950 - UN Force / China Border - November 20th, 1950: "UN force reached China border Nov. 20." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 549]

1950 - Border Crossing / Chinese Troops - November 26th, 1950: "China sent troops across border Nov. 26." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 549]

1950 - Allied Command / Europe - December, 1950: "General Dwight Eisenhower becomes the first Supreme Allied Commander, Europe. The next year, the Allied Command Europe becomes operational." [Sources: NATO, The Associated Press, the World Book, the Encyclopedia Britannica]

1950 - U.S. Trade Ban / China - December 8th, 1950: "U.S. banned shipments Dec. 8 to Communist China and to Asiatic ports trading with it." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 549]

1950 - Deteriorating / Genesis Apocryphon - "For reasons unknown, the Genesis Apocryphon has deteriorated rapidly from the 1950's and is generally recognized as the text in the worse shape."

1950 - Trivia / Food & Drugs - "In Alberty Food Products Company vs. US, the US Court of Appeals held that the directions for use on a drug label must include the purpose for which the drug is offered. Therefore, a worthless remedy cannot escape the FDC Act by not stating the condition that the drug is supposed to treat."

1950 - Worlds in Conflict - "In 1950 Velikovsky [Immanuel Velikovsky] published 'Worlds in Conflict,' in which he claimed that a comet collided twice with the earth in approximately 1500 B.C., causing cataclysmic upheavals. As evidence for his theory, Velikovsky appealed to events from mythology and the history of ancient civilizations. Velikovsky's book was a popular success, despite the hostile criticism from most scientists, who questioned its scientific accuracy. Macmillan was Velikovsky's publisher, but two months after publication the book's rights were transferred to Doubleday. Macmillan feared that its textbook business  would suffer from a boycott threatened by the sizeable number of scientists who rejected Velikovsky's methodology. Velikovsky was born in Vitebsk, Russia and was educated at the universities in Edinburgh, Kharkov, and Moscow. He practiced medicine in Palestine and then studied psychology in Zürich and Vienna. His studies of  the legends of the ancient Jews and other eastern Mediterranean peoples led him to conclude that some tales described actual occurrences and were not mere myths or allegories. Later in the United States he expanded the geographic scope the ancient documents he studied, and he hypothesized that in historical times an electromagnetic derangement of the solar system caused Venus and Mars to approach the Earth closely, disturbing its rotation, axis inclination, and magnetic field. According to Velikovsky these events and others caused many of the 'miraculous' events described in the Bible and in other ancient writings and myths. Succeeding publications by Velikovsky included: 'Ages in Chaos' (1952), in which he revised the chronology of the pre-Christian Middle East; 'Earth in Upheaval' (1955), in which he set forth geologic and paleontological evidence for the catastrophes that he believes have overwhelmed the Earth; 'Oedipus and Akhnaton' (1960), in which he links Egyptian history with Greek mythology; and 'Peoples of the Sea' (1977), in which he identifies Ramses III with Nectanebo, pharaohs previously dated to have lived 800 years apart. In spite of the scientifically suspect nature of Velikovsky's investigations, it should be noted that some of his astronomical hypotheses, such as the emission of radio waves from Jupiter and the relatively hot temperature for Venus, have been experimentally verified. The questions raised in the scientific community about Velikovsky's theories have been addressed in a number of publications: 'Velikovsky and Establishment Science' (1977); 'Scientists Confront Scientists Who Confront Velikovsky' (1978); 'Velikovsky Reconsidered' (1976); and 'The Age of Velikovsky' (1977)."  [Honorary Subscriber: Immanuel Velikovsky] - [Paragraph indents untranscribed to save space. - D.R.D.]

1950 - Peanuts Comic Strip - "Peanuts comic strip appeared." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 549]

1950 - Earthquake Trivia / 1950 - "Number of notable earthquakes this year: at least 1. Number of earthquake deaths: 1,526." [E.M.]

1950 - "Natural Disaster" Deaths / 1950 - "Estimated number of people who died from natural disasters this year: at least 1,526." [E.M.]

1951

1951 - Arctic Warming? - "The Arctic was cooling for 1,900 years because of a natural change in Earth's orbit until greenhouse gas accumulation from the use of fossil fuels reversed the trend in recent decades, according to a study published Thursday [09/03/09] in Science magazine. [....] The warmth of the Arctic during the second half of the 20th century, is striking against the backdrop of the previous 1,900 years ... The second half of the 20th century was warmer in the Arctic than any other half-century of the last 2,000 years.' [....] One of the most important findings from the study was that its findings matched the output of the National Center for Atmospheric Research's climate-system computer model, Kaufman [Darrell Kaufman, a professor of geology and environmental science at Northern Arizona State University and the lead author of the study] said." [Based on: McCLATCHY NEWSPAPERS article (Greenhouse gases quickly reversed Arctic cooling trend, scientists find.), p. A17, S.L.P.D., 09/04/09]

1951 - Workers' Party / Vietnam - "In 1951, Ho Chi Minh Creates Workers' Party."

1951 - Mohammed Mossadegh / Iran - "The British occupied Iran after WW II to prevent Iran, more specifically Iranian oil, from falling into the hands of Nazi Germany and to protect an oil supply route to the Soviet Union, a British ally during the war. During the war, the U.S. and Britain felt that the Shah had become unmanageable and led another 'regime change' to replace him with his son, Muhammed Shah Pahlavi. Through their new proxy, Washington and London controlled Iran’s oil production. In 1951, the Iranian parliament voted to nationalize the Anglo-Iranian oil company and elected nationalist and pro-Soviet Mossadegh as Prime Minister who then deposed the Shah. London and Washington launched 'Operation Ajax', the code name for the 'regime change' effort that toppled Mossadeqh and 'restored' the Shah. Eisenhower labeled Mossadegh a 'communist' and justified the regime change as necessary to prevent Iran from falling into the Soviet camp." [Links 1]

1951 - Prescott Bush / Union Banking Co. - "Prescott Bush received $750,000 for his share of Union Banking Corporation, a princely sum in 1951, but nothing compared to the millions the Thyssen family got back. Prescott used some of this Nazi cash to bankroll his son George Herbert Walker Bush’s first business enterprise and to support his successful bid for Senate in 1952. The Thyssen’s rebuilt their empire, and today, the Thyssen Group [TBG] is the largest industrial conglomerate in Germany." [D. A. Friedrichs] [Link: 1]

1951 - "Theta-MEST Theory" / L. Ron Hubbard - January 1951: "L. Ron Hubbard introduces the "Theta-MEST Theory" stating that thought (Theta) is separate from the physical universe (Matter, Energy, Space and Time—MEST): that Theta can operate in and with MEST, that Theta can consider itself integrated with MEST, and that Theta can consider itself to be MEST, but that creative thought and perception reside in Theta, not MEST."

[Based on: http://www.sc-i-r-s-ology.pair.com/rvtimeline/index.html] - [T.D. - 09/09/08]

1951 - Birth / Rush Limbaugh - January 12th, 1951: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Radio commentator, Rush Limbaugh."

1951 - Birth / Kirstie Alley - January 12th, 1951: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actress, Kirstie Alley."

1951 - Volcanic Eruption / Mt. Lamington, New Guinea - "Volcanic eruption date(s): January 17th-21st, 1951. Number of recorded deaths: 3,000." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 491]

1951 - Birth / Phil Collins - January 30th, 1951: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer, Phil Collins."

1951 - Paul Twitchell / Sidney, Australia? - February, 1951: Dialogues in Sidney, Australia. [Based on: ECKANKAR Compiled Writings, Volume I, p. 182, Copyright 1975, Gail T. Gross]

1951 - Ratified / 22nd U.S. Amendment - February 27th, 1951: "22nd U.S. Constitutional amendment ['Presidential Term Limits'] ratified." [Link: 1]

1951 - Birth / Kurt Russell - March 17th, 1951: "Kurt Vogel Russell ... is an American television and film actor. [...] Russell was born in Springfield, Massachusetts, the son of Louise Julia (née Crone), a dancer; and Neil Oliver 'Bing' Russell, a character actor, best known for playing Deputy Clem Foster on Bonanza. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kurt_Russell]

1951 - Guilty of Espionage / Rosenbergs - March 29th, 1951: "Julius Rosenberg, his wife, Ethel, and Morton Sobell found guilty March 29 of conspiracy to commit wartime espionage. Rosenbergs received death penalty. Sobell sentenced to 30 years; released 1969." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 549]

1951 - Paul Twitchell / Bangkok Thailand? - April, 1951: Dialogue in Bangkok. [Based on: ECKANKAR Compiled Writings, Volume I, p. 184, Copyright 1975, Gail T. Gross]

1951 - Birth / Steven Seagal - April 10th, 1951: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actor, Steven Seagal."

1951 - Removed From Korea / Douglas MacArthur - April 11th, 1951: "Gen. Douglas MacArthur removed from Korea command Apr. 11 by Pres. Truman, for unauthorized policy statements." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 549]

1951 - Birth / Tony Danza - April 21st, 1951: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actor, Tony Danza."

1951 - Birth / Al Franken - May 21st, 1951: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Comedian / radio talk-show host, Al Franken."

1951 - U.S. Loki Rockets - June 22nd, 1951: "The Jet Propulsion Laboratory of California launched the first of a series of 3,544 Loki rockets, on June 22.  The program ended 4 years later, after having fired the most rounds in ten years at White Sands." [Link: 1

1951 - Color TV Telecast / U.S.A. - Entertainment highlights during the week of June 22-28, 1951: "The first commercial color telecast took place as CBS transmitted a one-hour special from New York to four other cities." [Based on: Article (THAT WAS THE WEEK THAT WAS), p. E2, S.L.P.D., 06/24/08]

1951 - Science of Survival / L. Ron Hubbard - June 25th 1951: "L. Ron Hubbard exposes 'a carefully guarded secret of certain military and intelligence organizations.' In a new book, Science of Survival, Hubbard says: 'It required Dianetic processing to uncover pain-drug-hypnosis. Otherwise, pain-drug-hypnosis was out of sight, unsuspected, and unknown.' Hubbard denounces its use as a 'vicious war weapon' that may be 'of considerably more use in conquering a society than the atom bomb.' [NOTE: It's not until decades later that CIA's pain-drug-hypnosis experimentation during this period begins to be investigated and reported by Congress. By that time, CIA's Richard Helms, Sidney Gottlieb, and others will have destroyed many of CIA's records of such activities. See January 1973.]"

[Based on: http://www.sc-i-r-s-ology.pair.com/rvtimeline/index.html] - [T.D. - 09/09/08]

1951 - Construction / U.S. Nuclear Submarine - July 1951: "In July 1951, Congress authorized construction of the world's first nuclear-powered submarine. Four years later, on the morning of July 17, 1955, the Nautilus's first commanding officer, Commander Eugene P. Wilkinson, ordered all lines cast off and signaled the memorable and historic message, 'Underway on nuclear power' - and the age of the nuclear Navy had begun." [Leo Laporte's 2005 Technology Almanac, p. 19]

1951 - Beginning / Korea Cease-Fire Talks - July, 1951: "Korea cease-fire talks began in July; lasted 2 years. Fighting ended July 27, 1953." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 549]

1951 - Assassination / Lebanese Prime Minister, Riad Solh - July 16th, 1951: "Riad Solh, first prime minister of independent Lebanon, is assassinated."

*Links: http://www.politicalroundtable.com/forums/king-hussein-of-jordan-1935-1999--t1042s150.html

1951 - Birth / Robin Williams - July 21st, 1951: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Comedian-actor, Robin Williams."

1951 - Birth / Lynda Carter - July 24th, 1951: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actress ('Wonder Woman'), Lynda Carter."

1951 - Meeting? / Paul Twitchell & Rebazar Tarzs - "[....] My sole purpose was to find the elusive Tibetan lama, known as Rebazar Tarzs, of whom I had heard much from the late Sudar Singh at Allahabad. [....] It was a hot summer afternoon in 1951. [....]" [Based on: ECKANKAR, Compiled Writings Volume 1, Paul Twitchell (Copyright 1975 by Gail T. Gross), p. 32] - [Compiled from: Introduction to Eckankar, by Paul Twitchell, copyright 1966?]

*Trivia: http://dlane5.tripod.com/reba1.html

1951 - Flooding / Manchuria - "Flood date(s): August 1951. Number of recorded deaths: 1,800." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207]

1951 - Suspension / U.S. Tariff Concessions - August 1st, 1951: "Tariff concessions by the U.S. to the Soviet Union, China, and all Communist-dominated lands were suspended Aug. 1." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 549]

1951 - U.S. Viking 7 Rocket - "On August 7, a Navy Viking 7 rocket set the new altitude record for single stage rockets by reaching 136 miles and a speed of 4,100 mph." [Link: 1] 

1951 - Birth / Dan Fogelberg - August 13th, 1951: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer, Dan Fogelberg."

1951 - Trivia / Sidney Gottlieb -

Sidney Gottlieb (August 3, 1918 – March 7, 1999) was an American chemist probably best-known for his involvement with the Central Intelligence Agency mind control program (MKULTRA).

Sidney was born in the Bronx under the name Joseph Schneider. He received a Ph.D. in chemistry from the California Institute of Technology. Despite the fact that he was a stutterer since childhood, Sidney got a master's degree in speech therapy. He also had a club foot, but this did not stop him from practicing folk dancing, a lifelong passion.

In 1951, Sidney Gottlieb joined the Central Intelligence Agency. As a poison expert, he headed the chemical division of the Technical Services Staff (TSS). Sidney became known as the "Black Sorcerer" and the "Dirty Trickster". He supervised preparations of lethal poisons and experiments in mind control.

[....]

In 1972 while still the head of the Technical Services Staff, shortly before retirement, Sidney Gottlieb allegedly destroyed most of the CIA files pertaining to him.

Sidney Gottlieb's passing on March 10, 1999 came at a convenient time for the CIA, as several new trials involving victims of its experiments were commencing.

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sidney_Gottlieb]

1951 - Project BLUEBIRD -

BLUEBIRD is the cryptonym for a CIA mind control program, lasting from 1951 to 1953. During this time the CIA authorized experiments to be conducted by licensed psychiatrists. The experiments had various purposes, including but not limited to: creating new identities, inducing amnesia, inserting hypnotic access codes in subjects' minds, creating multiple personalities, and creating false memories. The research also included placing brain electrodes in people and controlling their behavior from remote transmitters, administering daily dosages of LSD to children for extended periods of time, and using electroconvulsive therapy to erase memories.

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Project_BLUEBIRD]

1951 - Project ARTICHOKE -

"Project ARTICHOKE was a CIA project that researched interrogation methods and arose from project BLUEBIRD in 1951 August 20. The project studied hypnosis, forced opiate addiction (and subsequent forced withdrawal), and the use of other chemicals, among other methods, to produce amnesia and other vulnerable states in subjects. Magician John Mullholland consulted for the project. A memorandum by Richard Helms to director Allen Welsh Dulles indicated it became project MKULTRA in 1953 April 20. It was an offensive programme of mind control that gathered together the intelligence divisions of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and FBI. In addition, the scope of the project was outlined in a memo dated January 1952 that stated, "Can we get control of an individual to the point where he will do our bidding against his will and even against fundamental laws of nature, such as self preservation?"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Project_ARTICHOKE]

1951 - Earthquake / Kona, Hawaii - August 21st, 1951: "Earthquake location: Kona, Hawaii. Earthquake magnitude: 6.9. Number of recorded fatalities: 0."  

1951 - Birth / Queen Noor - August 23rd, 1951: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Jordan's, Queen Noor."

1951 - Transcontinental TV - September 4th, 1951: "Transcontinental TV begun Sept. 4 with Pres. Truman's address at Japanese Peace Treaty Conference in San Francisco." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 549]

1951 - Birth / Michael Keaton - September 5th, 1951: "Reportedly born on this date in history: actor, Michael Keaton."

1951 - Birth / Crissie Hynde - September 7th, 1951: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Rock singer, Crissie Hynde (The Pretenders)."

1951 - Signed / Japanese Peace Treaty - September 8th, 1951: "Japanese peace treaty signed in San Francisco Sept. 8 by U.S., Japan, and 47 other nations." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 549]

1951 - Birth / Sting - October 2nd, 1951: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer-actor, Sting."

1951 - Birth / Kevin Cronin - October 6th, 1951: "Kevin Patrick Cronin ... is the lead vocalist, rhythm guitarist, and occasional pianist for the American rock band, REO Speedwagon. [...] Cronin was born in Evanston, Illinois. [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kevin_Cronin]

1951 - Birth / John Mellencamp - October 7th, 1951: "John Mellencamp ... is an American rock singer-songwriter, musician, painter and occasional actor known for his catchy, populist brand of heartland rock which emphasizes traditional instrumentation. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Mellencamp]

1951 - CBS Premier / "I Love Lucy" - Entertainment highlights during the week of October 14-20, 1951: The sitcom "I Love Lucy," starring Lucille Ball and Desi Arnaz, premiered on CBS. It ran until mid-1957. [Based on: Article (THAT WAS THE WEEK THAT WAS), p. E2, S.L.P.D., 10/16/07]

1951 - Birth / Pam Dawber - October 18th, 1951: "Pam Dawber (born October 18, 1951) is an American actress best known for her lead television sitcom roles as Mindy McConnell in Mork & Mindy (1978 – 1982) and Samantha Russell in My Sister Sam (1986 – 1988). [...] Dawber was born in Detroit, Michigan, the daughter of Thelma M. (née Fisher) and Eugene E. Dawber, a commercial artist.[1] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pam_Dawber]

1951 - Conclusion / German V-2 Rockets - October 29th, 1951: "The launch of the 26th V-2, on October 29,  concluded the use of the German rockets in upper atmosphere testing." [Link: 1]  

1951 - Operation Buster-Jangle / Nevada - November 1st, 1951: "Battlefield effects of blast and fallout are studied during Operation Buster-Jangle in Nevada, where soldiers are exposed to a 21-kiloton test six miles away." [Based on: N.G.M., August 2005, p. 103]

1950s - Nuclear Fallout /  U.S.A. - "A panel of experts is recommending [April 2005] the government open the door to hearing cancer claims from people in all states who think they were affected by nuclear fallout from 1950s weapons tests in Nevada. [....] The data suggest people from as far away as the East Coast could have been exposed to radiation carried from the test sites by wind and weather patterns. Previuously, only people who worked with uranium and residents of certain countries in the region were eligible for the $50,000 to $100,000 lump-sum payments. Currently, anyone who has one of 19 kinds of cancer and who was a child in the 1950s living in one of the designated areas downwind of the Nevada test site is eligible for money. But if the program were expanded as the Board on Radiation Effects Research suggests, victims would have to prove to at least some degree their cancer was caused by radioactive fallout. [....]" [Based on: A.P. article, p. A3, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 04/29/05]

1950s - Trivia / Rioactive Waste, Columbia River, U.S.A. - "[....] According to the EPA (The New York Times, March 28, 1991), the engineers who built the nuclear weapons in the 1950's dumped over 127 million gallons of highly radioactive waste containing Iodine-129, into the ground just a few miles from the Columbia River, the 4th largest river system in the U.S., which flows into the Pacific Ocean. [....]"

[Based on: http://www.rense.com/general39/another.htm]

1951 - Flooding / Midwest U.S.A. - "In 1951, the worst floods in U.S. History Inundated Kansas and Missouri."

1951 - Trivia / Perscription Drugs - "The Durham-Humphrey amendment specifically required that drugs that cannot be used safely without medical supervision be dispensed only by prescription of a licensed practitioner and prohibited refills of prescriptions without the express consent of the prescriber. The amendment also gave guidance to the pharmicist as to what minimal information must be included on the prescription label."

1951 - Notable Songs of 1951 - " 'Happy Trails' (Roy Rogers & Dale Evans)." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 308]

1951 - Flood Trivia / 1951 - "Number of notable floods this year: at least 2. Number of flood deaths: 1,800." [E.M.]

1951 - Earthquake Trivia / 1951 - "Number of notable earthquakes this year: at least 1." [E.M.]

1951 - "Natural Disaster" Deaths / 1951 - "Estimated number of people who died from natural disasters this year: at least 1,800." [E.M.]

1952

1952 - Time Experiments? - In 1952, head of the Soviet secret police organization Lavrenty Beria initiated a case against researchers participating in the experiments, as a result of which 18 professors were executed by shooting and 59 candidates and doctors of physical sciences were sent to camps. The Institute recommenced its activity under Khruschev. But an experimental stand with eight leading researchers disappeared in 1961, and buildings close to the one where experiments were conducted were ruined. After that, the Communist Party political bureau and the Council of Ministers decided to suspend researchers of the Institute for an uncertain period. [Olga Zharina, 03/01/2004, Pravada]    

1952 - Paul Twitchell  / Scientology? - "[....] Therefore, when Scientology started, in 1952, Paul was already proficient at out-of-body projection and was trying to help others learn these techniques. This is completely contrary to David's [David Lane's] story. David's perspective started from the assumption that Paul's teaching was merely a rip-off of Sant Mat, which Paul did not run across until 1955, along with a splattering of what Paul learned from Swami Premananda in the early 50's. [....]" [Based on: Dialogue in the Age of Criticism, Chap. 11]   

*Trivia: "[....] He [Paul Twitchell] said he was 23,000 years old. And he was a Thetan. And he said that he had come from outside of our solar system, but in the physical universe. [....]"

[Based on: http://www.littleknownpubs.com/Dialog_Ch._One.htm]

1952 - Catholic Dogma Revision / Pope Pius XII - "In 1654, more than a century before the Universal History [1779] was published, the Vatican Council had decreed that anyone daring to contradict the 4004 B.C. date [of Creation] was a heretic - an attitude that was not relaxed until Pope Pius XII addressed the 1952 papal Academy of Sciences in Rome. In this address, he announced that theologians must not ignore the discoveries of geological science, and that it was clear that the Earth  had existed for thousands of millions of years."

1952 - Catholic Editors / Dead Sea Scrolls - "One result of the U.N. partition [1947] was that when the team of eight scroll editors was formed in 1952, most of them were Catholic. By order of the Jordanian government, into whose territory the scrolls fell, none of the team could be Jewish. That would change, however, during the 1967 Six Day War when Israeli solders captured the Palestine Archaeological Museum in East Jerusalem, where the scrolls were housed. It was renamed the Rockefeller Museum, and Jewish scholars were added to the team."

1952 - Birth / Maureen Dowd - January 14th, 1952: Born this date in history: Journalist, Maureen Dowd.

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maureen_Dowd
             http://topics.nytimes.com/top/opinion/editorialsandoped/oped/columnists/maureendowd/index.html

1952 - NBC Premiere / The "Today" Show - Entertainment highlights during the week of Jan. 14-20: NBC's "Today" show premiered, featuring Dave Garroway as host. [Based on: A.P. article, p. E5, S.L.P.D., 01/18/07]

1952 - Nato Membership / Greece & Turkey - February 18th, 1952: "The NATO alliance expands to take in Greece and Turkey."

1952 - First Rock Concert / Cleveland, Ohio - March 21st, 1952: "First rock concert, held in Cleveland, Ohio, 1952." [Based on: The Old Farmer's Almanac (2006) by Robert B. Thomas, p. 105]

1952 - Birth / Bob Costas - March 22nd, 1952: "Robert Quinlan 'Bob' Costas is an American sportscaster, on the air for NBC Sports television since the early 1980s. He has been prime-time host of a record 9 Olympic games. [...] He was born in the Queens borough of New York, New York, as a son of Jayne Quinlan, of Irish descent, and John George Costas, an electrical engineer of Greek descent. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bob_Costas]

1952 - Government Seizure / U.S. Steel Mills - April 8th, 1952: "Seizure of nation's steel mills was ordered by Pres. Truman Apr. 8 to avert a strike. Ruled illegal by Supreme Court June 2." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 549]

*Trivia: "[....] Wilson [U.S. President Woodrow Wilson], Congress and the courts supported the Sedition Act of 1918, similar in spirit to the discredited Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798. The 1918 law made it illegal to 'utter, print, write or publish any disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language about' the government, the Constitution, the American flag or 'the uniform of the Army or Navy of the United States.' The law was repealed three years later. President Harry Truman suffered a rare wartime rebuke in 1952, when the Supreme Court blocked the plans for a federal takeover of the steel industry in the Korean War. Truman wanted to avert a strike that he feared would disrupt war supplies. But the court concluded that he needed congressional approval. [....]" [Based on: Knight Ridder Newspapers article (Presidential powers test is long-standing battle), p. A3, S.L.P.D., 12/22/05]

1952 - Project Blue Book - "From June 1947 through December 1969 the Air Force was primarily responsible for investigating unidentified flying object [UFO] phenomena. Investigations were conducted by the Air Technical Intelligence Center [ATIC] at Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio until December 17, 1969. All records of these investigations [known as Project Sign, 1947-1949, Project Grudge, 1949-1952, and Project Blue Book, 1952-1969] were retired to the National Archives and Records Administration and are available to the public on archives microfilm publication T1206 [94 rolls of 35 mm film]." [Link: 12]

1952 - Creation / NSA, U.S.A. - June 1952: "[....] The creation of the NSA was authorized in a letter written by President Harry S. Truman in June of 1952. The agency was formally established through a revision of National Security Council Intelligence Directive (NSCID) 9 on October 24, 1952, and officially came into existence on November 4, 1952. President Truman's letter was itself classified and remained unknown to the public for more than a generation." [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Security_Agency]

1952 - Unearthed / Tomb of Pacal Votan - June 15th, 1952: "Pacal’s final resting place was in a tomb below the Temple of Inscriptions. Archeologists encountered this tomb after they discovered a secret stairway that let down into the heart of the pyramid. The tomb was unearthed in 1952 AD after three years of work removing boulders that had been used to block the entrance of the stairway. Within the tomb, archeologists encountered a 30 ft by 13 ft wide stone slab which appeared to be an alter resting on the floor. This stone turned out to be the sarcophagus lid of Pacal Votan. The sarcophagus lid depicts a very interesting image. In the center of this image is the figure of Pacal Votan. Extending from Pacal’s umbilicus is a representation of the Sacred Tree, also known as the Tree of Life. Resting at the top of this tree is a quetzal bird which symbolizes the spirit world as well as the origin of the Universe."  

1952 - Earthquake / Kern County, California - June 21st, 1952: "Earthquake location: Kern County, California. Earthquake magnitude: 7.3. Number of recorded fatalities: 12."  

1952 - Passed / U.S. Immigration & Naturalization Act - June 26th-27th, 1952: "The last racial and ethnic barriers to naturalization removed, June 26-27, with passage of Immigration & Naturalization Act of 1952."

1952 - Birth / Dan Aykroyd - July 1st, 1952: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actor, Dan Aykroyd."

1952 - UFOs Buzz Washington D.C. - July, 1952: "Flying saucers truly did buzz over Washington D.C., in 1952, and there are plenty of photographs and radar reports to substantiate it." [The Day After Roswell, Col. Philip J. Corso, with William J. Birnes] 

1952 - U.S. Nike Rocket - "On July 22, the first production-line Nike rocket made a successful flight." [Link: 1]  

1952 - Commonwealth of Puerto Rico - July 25th, 1952: "Puerto Rico proclaimed commonwealth July 25, after referendum Mar. 3." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 549]

1952 - Summer Olympic Games / Helsinki, Finland - "In 1952, the Summer Olympic Games were held in Helsinki, Finland. The Soviet Union joined the Olympics for the first time. In 1952, the Winter Olympic Games were held in Oslo, Norway."  

1952 - Birth / Patrick Swayze - August 18th, 1952: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actor, Patrick Swayze."

1952 - Birth / Paul Reubens - August 27th, 1952: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actor (Pee-wee Hermann), Paul Reubens."

1952 - Birth / Christopher Reeve - September 25th, 1952: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actor, Christopher Reeve [Superman]."

1952 - British A-Bomb Test / Australia - October 3rd, 1952: "The United Kingdom tests an A-bomb in Australia." [Based on: N.G.M., August 2005, p. 103]

1952 - Birth / Sharon Osbourne - October 9th, 1952: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actress-talk show host, Sharon Osbourne."

1952  - Typhoon / Philippines - "Typhoon date(s): October 22nd, 1952. Number of recorded deaths: 440." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 206]

1952 - 1st Hydrogen Bomb Explosion / Pacific Ocean - November 1st, 1952: "The U.S. tests the world's first hydrogen bomb, code-named Mike, at Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands." [Based on: N.G.M., August 2005, p. 103]

*Trivia: "First hydrogen device explosion Nov. 1 in Pacific." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 549]

1952 - Birth / Roseanne Barr - November 3rd, 1952: "Roseanne Cherrie Barr (born November 3, 1952) is an American actress, comedienne, writer, television producer, director and 2012 presidential nominee of the California-based Peace and Freedom Party. [...] Barr was born in Salt Lake City to a working-class Jewish family. She is the oldest of four children born to Helen (née Davis), a bookkeeper and cashier, and Jerome Hershel 'Jerry' Barr, who[5] worked as a salesman.[6] Barr's grandparents and great-grandparents were immigrants from Ukraine, Russia, Lithuania and Austria-Hungary, and her paternal grandfather changed his surname from 'Borisofsky' to 'Barr' upon entering the United States.[5][6] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roseanne_Barr]

1952 - National Security Agency / U.S.A. - November 4th, 1952:

The National Security Agency/Central Security Service (NSA/CSS) is United States's cryptologic organization. Officially established on November 4, 1952, it is believed to be the largest U.S. government intelligence gathering agency. Responsible for the collection and analysis of foreign communications, it coordinates, directs, and performs highly specialized activities to produce foreign signals intelligence information; which involves a significant amount of cryptanalysis. It's also responsible for protecting U.S. government communications from similar agencies elsewhere, which involves a significant amount of cryptography.

A component of the Department of Defense, the NSA has always been directed by a three-star flag or general officer. NSA is a key component of the United States Intelligence Community headed by the Director of National Intelligence. [....]

Its eavesdropping mission includes radio broadcasting, both from various organizations and individuals, the Internet, telephone calls, and other intercepted forms of communication. Its secure communications mission includes military, diplomatic, and all other sensitive, confidential or secret government communications. Despite having been described as the world's largest single employer of mathematicians [2], and the owner of the single largest group of supercomputers, it tried to keep a low profile. For many years its existence was not even acknowledged by the U.S. government. It was often said, half-jokingly, that "NSA" stood for "No Such Agency", and also, as "Never Say Anything", primarily for its employees. [....]

The creation of the NSA was authorized in a letter written by President Harry S. Truman in June of 1952. The agency was formally established through a revision of National Security Council Intelligence Directive (NSCID) 9 on October 24, 1952, and officially came into existence on November 4, 1952. President Truman's letter was itself classified and remained unknown to the public for more than a generation.

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Security_Agency]

1952 - Earthquake / Kamchatka, Russia - November 4th, 1952: "Earthquake location: Kamchatka, Russia. Earthquake magnitude: 9.0. Number of recorded fatalities: 0."  

1952 - Birth / Lou Ferrigno - November 10th, 1952: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actor, Lou Ferrigno."

1952 - Volcanic Eruption / Krenitzyn Peak - November 12th, 1952: "[....] The only historical eruption at Krenitzyn Peak occurred in 1952 [Nov. 12-19], a week after a magnitude 9.0 earthquake along the subduction fault. [....]" [Based on: geology.com article (Tao-Rusyr Caldera, Onekotan Island, Kuril Islands)] - [T.D. - 01/08/11]

*Link: http://geology.com/nasa/onekotan-island/
*Links: http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0900-31=&volpage=erupt

1952 - "The Nine principles" - December 1952: [....] In December 1952, Puharich brought into his laboratory an Indian mystic named Dr. D G Vinod, who began to channel The Nine or 'the Nine Principles'. In the months before Vinod returned to India, a group met regularly to hear The Nine's channeled wisdom. Never known for their modesty, The Nine proclaimed themselves to be God, stating "God is nobody else than we together, the Nine Principles of God."

http://www.world-enlightenment.com/The-Order-of-Things/CIA-Andrija-Puharich-Council-of-Nine.htm

*Links: http://www.uri-geller.com/books/maverick/maver5.htm

1952 - "Operating Thetan" / L. Ron Hubbard - December 1952: "L. Ron Hubbard delivers a series of over 50 lectures in Philadelphia on processes for attaining a state he calls 'Operating Thetan' (OT), described as a being stably exterior from the body and able to perceive, communicate, and operate in the physical universe without reliance on the sense channels or mechanics of a body. [21]  [....]"

[Based on: http://www.sc-i-r-s-ology.pair.com/rvtimeline/index.html] - [T.D. - 10/25/08]

1952 - Typhoon Trivia / 1952 - "Number of notable typhoons this year: at least 1. Number of typhoon deaths: 440." [E.M.]

1952 - Earthquake Trivia / 1952 - "Number of notable earthquakes this year: at least 2. Number of earthquake deaths: 12." [E.M.]

1952 - "Natural Disaster" Deaths / 1952 - "Estimated number of people who died from natural disasters this year: at least 452." [E.M.]

1953

1953 - Katun 17:11 ETZNAB - 1953-1973: "Planetary Ruler: Lunar Neptune. Stage 11. LAMAT Cycle. Harmonic Index: 1850400. A.D. 1953-1973. Morphogenetic Pattern Shows Beginning of Dissipative Structures. [....]" [Based on: The Mayan Factor, by Jose Arguelles (Copyright 1987), p. 144]

1953 - Termination Resolution - "Congress passed the Termination Resolution that provided for the end of the special federal relationship with certain American Indian tribes."

1953 - Birth / Pat Benatar - January 10th, 1953: "Born this date in history: Singer, Pat Benatar."

*Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pat_Benatar

1953 - U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower - January 20th, 1953: "The 34th American President, Dwight D. Eisenhower [Republican], begins his term."

1953 - Flooding / W. Europe - "Flood date(s): January 31st, 1953. Number of recorded deaths: 2,000." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207]

1953 - Discovered / DNA - February 28th, 1953: "We've discovered the secret of life." [Francis Crick, 28 February 1953] - [Based on: GENOME, The Aurobiography of a Species in 23 chapters, by Matt Ridley (Copyright 1999), 2000 paperback edition, p. 39 - Chap. 3 (History) introductory quote]

1953 - Earthquake / NW Turkey - March 18th, 1953: "Earthquake location: NW Turkey. Earthquake magnitude: 7.2. Number of recorded fatalities: 1,200."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 208]

1953 - Academy Awards Trivia - Entertainment highlights during the week of March 18th-24, 1953: The Academy Awards ceremony was televised for the first time. "The Greatest Show On Earth" was named best picture. [Based on: A.P. article (THAT WAS THE WEEK THAT WAS), p. D5, S.L.P.D., 04/28/07]

1953 - MKULTRA - April 15th, 1953: "Headed by Dr. Sidney Gottlieb, MKULTRA was started on the order of CIA director Allen Dulles in April 13, 1953, largely in response to alleged Soviet, Chinese, and North Korean uses of mind-control techniques on U.S. prisoners of war in Korea. The CIA wanted to use similar methods on their own captives. The CIA was also interested in being able to manipulate foreign leaders with such techniques, and would later invent several schemes to drug Fidel Castro. In 1964, the project was renamed to MKSEARCH. The project attempted to produce a perfect truth drug for use in interrogating suspected Soviet spies during the Cold War, and generally to explore any other possibilities of mind control. Because most of the MKULTRA records were deliberately destroyed in 1972 by order of the Director at that time, Richard Helms, it is impossible to have a complete understanding of the more than 150 individually funded research projects sponsored by MKULTRA and the related CIA programs. [....] Experiments were often conducted without the subjects' knowledge or consent. [....] A secretive arrangement granted a percentage of the CIA budget. The MKULTRA director was granted 6% of the CIA operating budget in 1953, without oversight or accounting."

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Project_MKULTRA#Origins]

1953 - MKDELTA -

MKDELTA, like its successor MKNAOMI, was a mind control operation run by the Central Intelligence Agency. It involved the use of biochemicals in clandestine operations.

According to the Church Committee report (Book I, Chapter XVII):

A special procedure, designated MKDELTA, was established to govern the use of MKULTRA materials abroad. Such materials were used on a number of occasions. Because MKULTRA records were destroyed, it is impossible to reconstruct the operational use of MKULTRA materials by the CIA overseas; it has been determined that the use of these materials abroad began in 1953, and possibly as early as 1950.

Drugs were used primarily as an aid to interrogations, but MKULTRA/MKDELTA materials were also used for harassment, discrediting, or disabling purposes

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MKDELTA]

1950s - MKNAOMI -

MKNAOMI was the code name for a joint Department of Defense / CIA research program lasting from the 1950s through the 1970s. Unclassified information about the MKNAOMI program and the related Special Operations Division is scarce. It is generally reported to be a successor to the MKDELTA project and to have focused on biological projects including biological warfare agents - specifically, to store materials that could either incapacitate or kill a test subject and to develop devices for the diffusion of such materials. [....] In 1970, Project MKNAOMI was dissolved and on November 25, 1969, President Richard Nixon abolished any military practice involving biological weapons. On February 14, 1970, a presidential order was given to outlaw all stockpiles of bacteriological weapons and non-living toxins. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MKNAOMI]

1953 - Birth / Rick Moranis - April 18th, 1953: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actor, Rick Moranis."

1953 - Birth / Tony Blair - May 6th, 1953: "Reportedly born on this date in history: British Prime Minister, Tony Blair."

1953 -  U.S. Aid / Indochina War - May 8th, 1953: "Pres. Dwight D. Eisenhower announced May 8 that U.S. had given France $60 mil for Indochina War. More aid was announced in Sept." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 549]

1953 - Operation AJAX / Iran - June, 1953: "By the summer of 1953, the British and American governments initiated a joint Anglo-American plan for the covert overthrow of Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh, the Prime Minister of Iran. The plan called Operation AJAX with Kermit Roosevelt, the CIA Mideast Agent in charge [a grandson of Theodore Roosevelt and a distant cousin of Franklin Delano Roosevelt]. 'So this is how we will get rid of the madman Mossadeq in Iran' announced John Foster Dulles to a group of top Washington policy makers in June 1953. The U.S. Secretary of State held in his hand a plan of operation to overthrow the Prime Minister of Iran. There was scarcely any discussions amongst the high powered men in the room, no probing questions and no legal or ethical issues raised."

1953 - Underground Missile Launch / White Sands - June 5th, 1953: "A missile was fired from an underground launch facility in White Sands on June 5. The facility was constructed by the Army Corps of Engineers." [Link: 1]  

1953 - Birth / Tim Allen - June 13th, 1953: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Comedian, Tim Allen."

1953 - Execution / Julius & Ethel Rosenberg - June 19th, 1953: "Julius and Ethel Rosenberg executed in the Sing Sing Prison electric chair, Ossining, NY, June 19, for betraying nuclear secrets to Soviet Union." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 549]

1953 - Birth / Cindy Lauper - June 22nd, 1953: "Cynthia Ann Stephanie Lauper (born June 22, 1953 in Queens, New York) is an American singer, songwriter and actress. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cindy_Lauper]

1953 - First Recording / Elvis Presley - Entertainment highlights during the week of July 13-19, 1953: Elvis Presley recorded "My Happiness" as a gift for his mother. It was his first recording. [Based on: A.P. article (THE WEEK THAT WAS), p. E2, S.L.P.D., 07/15/08]

1953 - Revolution Born / Cuba - July 26th, 2006: "It was the summer of 1953, and dozens of young men and women huddled before dawn in a red-and-white farmhouse listening to a young Fidel Castro detail their impossible mission. The Cuban revolution was born that July 26 when the group attacked the Moncada military barracks in the eastern city of Santiago. Though the assault failed and many militants died, Castro went on to oust his nemisis, dictator Fulgencio Batista. [....]"

[Based on: A.P. article (Castro to honor revolution / As he nears age 80, Cuban leader's mission is to show the movement lives on.), p. A8, S.L.P.D., 07/26/06]

1953 - Signed / Korean War Armistice - July 27th, 1953: "Korean War armistice signed July 27." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 549]

*Trivia: ""Korea cease-fire talks began in July [1951]; lasted 2 years. Fighting ended July 27, 1953." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 549]

1953 - Birth / Geddy Lee - July 29th, 1953: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Rock singer-musician (RUSH), Geddy Lee."

1953 - Birth / Donny Most - August 8th, 1953: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actor, ('Happy Days'), Donny Most."

1953 - Birth / Hulk Hogan - August 11th, 1953: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Wrestler-actor, Hulk Hogan."

1953 - Birth / Kathie Lee Gifford - August 16th, 1953: "Reportedly born on this date in history: TV Host, Kathie Lee Gifford."

1953 - Exiled / Shah of Iran - August 16th, 1953: "The decision was made in June 1953 to replace Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh with General Fazlollah Zahedi; one of those arrested in February 1953 on charges of plotting to overthrow the nationalist government. Kermit Roosevelt, the CIA Mideast Agent, traveled secretly to Iran to coordinate the Operation AJAX with the Shah and the Iranian military, which was led by General Fazlollah Zahedi.
   "In accordance with the plan, on August 16, 1953, the Shah violated the Iran's Monarchy Constitution and dismissed Dr. Mossadegh and his nationalist cabinet without the parliament's approval and appointed General Fazlollah Zahedi as the new Prime Minister. The chief of the Royal Guards, Colonel Nematollah Nassiri, served Dr. Mossadegh with a formal dismissal notice. In addition, he was ordered to occupy Dr. Mossadegh's house by the Royal troops and hold him in his house until further instructions, but the Prime Minister's guards forced them to quit.
   "The coup d'état was publicized and caused major disappointment and dissatisfaction amongst the people throughout the country. In a matter of hours, massive rioting erupted in Iran in wide support of Dr. Mossadegh; and the Shah fled to Italy. The people's protest and demonstration continued for two days and led to pull down the statues of the Shah and his father all over the country."

1953 - Restored / Shah of Iran - August 19th, 1953: "On August 19th, 1953, the British Intelligence Service [MI6] and the United States Central Intelligence Agency [CIA], engineered to perform the next phase of their plan against the Iranian national government of Dr. Mossadegh. On that tragic day, a group of tanks led by General Fazlollah Zahedi moved through Tehran and surrounded Dr. Mossadegh's residence. The forces behind the coup d'état also managed to pull a large number of bribed hooligans into the streets to rally against Dr. Mossadegh. Finally the army and police forces let the mob reach the Prime Minister's residence and after hours of bombarding and fighting a bloody battle with the small group of Dr. Mossadegh's loyal guards, they entered the house and after plundering it, they burned it down. In a matter of hours Dr. Mossadegh and his top cabinet leaders surrendered themselves to the coup d'état Prime Minister, General Fazlollah Zahedi, and the Shah flew back to Iran, as a U.S. puppet.
   "On August 19th, 1953 [28th day of Mordad 1332, Persian calendar]; the Shah's dictatorship restored. 'I owe my throne to the God, my people, my army and to you', the Shah reportedly told the CIA Mideast Agent, Kermit Roosevelt."
   "Dr. Mossadegh remains a figure of tremendous stature in the history of modern Iran. As an individual he had a reputation for honesty, integrity, and sincerity. He strongly opposed British and, later, American influence in Iran. He was an eloquent, impassioned orator, and his speeches are still widely read in Iran.
   "During Dr. Mossadegh's trial in the Shah's military court, he publicized the secrets of two military coup d'état attempts against his government. He was sentenced to three years imprisonment; thereafter he was transferred to his country house in Ahmad-Abad at the age of 74 and lived there under house arrest until his death. On March 4, 1967, Dr. Mossadegh died of cancer at the age of 84. His body was buried in one of the rooms of his residence. He was survived by 2 sons and 3 daughters.
   "The Iranian people never forgave the Shah for the 1953 illegitimate and bloody coup d'état against the Iranian national hero, Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh and his nationalist cabinet. The Iranian people deeply suffered under the Shah's dictatorship, corruption, phony elections, heavy censorship on the public media, torture and execution of thousands of dissenters until the 1979 Revolution." [Links: 1]

1953 - U.S. Redstone Missle - August 20th, 1953: "The first launch of the Army's Redstone missile, on August 20th, was conducted at Cape Kennedy by Redstone Arsenal Personnel." [Link: 1]  

1953 - Birth / Dennis Miller - November 3rd, 1953: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Comedian, Dennis Miller."

1953 - Birth / Kevin Nealon - November 18th, 1953: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Comedian, Kevin Nealon."

1953 - Birth / Kim Basinger - December 8th, 1953: "Kimila Ann 'Kim' Basinger ... is an American actress, singer, and former fashion model. [...] Basinger was born in Athens, Georgia on 8 December 1953.[1] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Basinger]

1953 - Russian Agriculture - "Despite the terrible blow to agriculture by Stalin's forced collectivisation in the early 1930s, from which agriculture never fully recovered, progress was made, allowing Russia to feed her population adequately. Such economic advance, in so short a time, has no parallel anywhere in the world. The amount of cultivated land was increased in just three years, between 1953 and 1956, by a staggering 35.9 million hectares, an area equivalent to the total cultivated land of Canada." [Link: 1]

1953 - Independence / Laos - "In 1953, France Granted Laos Full Independence. Vietminh Forces Pushed into Laos."

1953 - Nikita Kruschev / USSR - "Stalin was so powerful in the USSR that no one would dare oppose him when he was alive. After his death [1953], though, many in the USSR talked of returning to Lenin's original ideals and introducing more freedom to the people of the country. A man who was very influential in the Politburo was able to take power after Stalin died. He promised reforms to the Communists, but quickly went back on these promises and began to create the most powerful military the world had ever known. His name was Nikita Kruschev."

1953 - GULAG Population / USSR - "After Stalin died in 1953, the GULAG population was reduced significantly, and conditions for inmates somewhat improved. Forced labor camps continued to exist, although on a small scale, into the Gorbachev period, and the government even opened some camps to scrutiny by journalists and human rights activists. With the advance of democratization, political prisoners and prisoners of conscience all but disappeared from the camps. [NOTE: The communists had their concentration camps in service since 1919 all the way up to and including the Gorbachev period.]" [Link: 1]

1953 - Debut / Playboy Magazine - " 'Playboy' Magazine Debuts."

1953 - DHEW - "The Federal Security Agency became the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare [DHEW]. The Factory Inspection Amendment clarified previous law and required the FDA to give manufacturers written reports on inspections and analyses of factory samples."

1953 - Discovered / DNA - 1953: "Reportedly discovered this date in history: DNA."

1953 - Notable Songs of 1953 - "Your Cheatin Heart" (Hank Williams)

1953 - Flood Trivia / 1953 - "Number of notable floods this year: at least 1. Number of flood deaths: 2,000." [E.M.]

1953 - Earthquake Trivia / 1953 - "Number of notable earthquakes this year: at least 1. Number of earthquake deaths: 1,200." [E.M.]

1953 - "Natural Disaster" Deaths / 1953 - "Estimated number of people who died from natural disasters this year: at least 3,200." [E.M.]

1954

1954 - Aberree - "The Aberree was a 'zine, or newletter, published from 1954 through 1965. The editor, Alphia Hart, and the publisher, Agnes Hart, put out ten issues a year. [....]"

*Link: http://www.aberree.com/ - [T.D. - 05/16/10]

1954 - "Mars Patrol" - "In 1954, when Mars made one of its close approaches to Earth, the National Geographic Society and Lowell Observatory, arranged for the first worldwide 'Mars Patrol.' This effort, directed by Dr. Earl Slipher of the lowell Observatory, attempted to gather better information and photographs of features on the surface of Mars. The results once again seemed to show what appeared to be major canal lines across the surface of Mars, as well as evidence of vegetation that seemed to grow and then die back in connection to the Martian seasons. News of the photographs was leaked to astronomy journals such as Sky and Telescope, but the long-awaited public announcement of the 'Mars Patrols' results never came." [Tim Swartz, The Lost Journals of Nikola Tesla, p. 39]

1954 - Avatar Meher Baba - "[....] In 1954, when Baba was sixty years old, he said to others that he was the Avatar. In the ancient language of Sanskrit, the word "Avatar" means one who has come down from God. Baba said that the Avatar is born on Earth every 700-1400 years, and comes to help others find God. Meher Baba said that in the past the Avatar had been on Earth as Zoroaster, Rama, Krishna, Buddha, Jesus, and Muhammad. [NP] Meher Baba's most famous quote is "Don't Worry, Be Happy," partly because it appeared in a popular song by Bobby McFerrin. Others know of him because of the song "Baba O'Reilly" written by Pete Townshend who is a follower of his and named the song partly after Baba. [NP] He wrote two important books. In Discourses, Meher Baba wrote about how to live a good life, how to meditate, and how to love God. In God Speaks, Meher Baba wrote about how the soul seeks God over many lifetimes. He said, "Real happiness lies in making others happy." He showed his followers that the best path is to love God at all times by loving your fellow man. [NP] He also said he had not come to start a new religion -- that it was better to truly follow one's own religion. Because of this, he has followers who are Zoroastrians, Christians, Jews, Hindus, Muslims, Sufis, Buddhists, and Sikhs. There are also atheists and agnostics who do not necessarily believe in God, but who are attracted purely to his simple philosophy of leading an honest and loving life. [....] [Based on: http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meher_Baba] - [T.D. - 04/24/10]

1954 - First Church of Scientology - 1954: "[....] Given the inherently religious nature of Mr. Hubbard’s work through these years, it was only natural that those surrounding him would come to see themselves not only as students of a new philosophy but also as students of a new religion. And so, in 1954, Scientologists in Los Angeles established the first Church of Scientology. L. Ron Hubbard founded the subject — early Scientologists began the Church. [....]" [Based on: http://lron.hubbard.org/pg010.html] - [T.D. - 09/13/08]

1954 - Vietminh Offensive / Dien Bien Phu - "In 1954, a force of 40,000 heavily armed Vietminh lay seige to the French garrison at Dienbienphu. Using Chinese artillery to shell the airstrip, the Vietminh make it impossible for French supplies to arrive by air. It soon becomes clear that the French have met their match."

1954 - Status / Native American Protection - "In 1954, Congress removed federal services and protection from sixty-one Native American Indian tribes, bands, and communities."

1954 - "Under God" Added / U.S. Pledge of Allegience  - "A campaign by the Knights of Columbus, a Roman Catholic organization, and other religious leaders said the pledge of allegiance needed to be distinguished from similar orations that were used by 'godless communists.' The prospect of atomic war between world superpowers reportedly moved President Dwight Eisenhower [to direct congress] to add the words 'Under God' to the pledge in 1954. The original pledge of allegiance, minus the reference to God, was adopted in 1942. The phrase, 'Under God', would later [in October, 2003] come under Supreme Court review."

*Trivia: "The director of religious outreach for the Democratic Party [Rev. Brenda Bartella Peterson] says she resigned this week [August 2004] because of criticism over her support for removing the words 'under God' from the Pledge of Allegiance. [....] The Catholic League, a conservative anti-defamation group based in New York, critisized the political views of Peterson, an ordained minister in the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), in three statements issued over the first three days of the week. On Wednesday [08/04/04], Peterson resigned and cited 'recent negative publicity' from the amicus brief in the pledge case that she and 31 other clergy members signed. [....] The 350,000-member Catholic League called Peterson a 'left-wing activist.' It also critisized her for her role in the Clergy Leadership Network, a coalition of anti-Bush religious liberals for which she served as executive director." [Based on: A.P., 08/07/04]

1954 - Birth / Howard Stern - January 12th, 1954: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Radio personality, Howard Stern."

1954 - Launched / Nautilus - January 21st, 1954: "Nautilus first atomic-powered submarine, was launched at Groton, CT, Jan. 21." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 549]

1954 - Birth / Oprah Winfrey - January 29th, 1954: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Talk show host, Oprah Winfrey."

1954 - Religious Views? / Albert Einstein - January 1954: "A letter in which Albert Einstein dismissed the idea of God as the product of human weakness and the Bible as 'pretty childish' has sold at auction [05/15/08] for more than $400,000. [....] The letter was written to philosopher Eric Gutkind in January 1954, a year before Einstein's death. In it, Einstein said that 'the word of God is for me nothing more than the expression and product of human weaknesses, the Bible a collection of honorable but still primitive legends which are nevertheless pretty childish.' [....]" [Based on: A.P. article (Einstein letter dismissing idea of God is auctioned), p A8, S.L.P.D., 05/18/08]

1954 - Birth / Christie Brinkley - February 2nd, 1954: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Model, Christie Brinkley."

1954 - Birth / John Travolta - February 18th, 1954: "John Joseph Travolta ... is an American actor, dancer, and singer. [...] Travolta, the youngest of six children,[2] was born and raised in Englewood, New Jersey, an inner-ring suburb of New York City. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Travolta]

1954 - Birth / Ron Howard - March 1st, 1954: "Ronald William 'Ron' Howard ... is an American film director, producer and former child actor. [...] Howard was born in Duncan, Oklahoma, the son of Jean Speegle Howard, an actress, and Rance Howard, a director, writer and actor. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ron_Howard_%28director%29]

1954 - Birth / Catherine Bach - March 1st, 1954: "Catherine Bach ... is an American actress. [...] Bach was born in Warren, Ohio,[1] the daughter of Norma Kucera, an acupuncturist, and Bernard Bachman, a rancher. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catherine_Bach]

1954 - Birth / Nancy Wilson - March 16th, 1954: "Nancy Lamoureaux Wilson ... is an American guitarist, songwriter, composer, singer, actress and producer. She and her older sister Ann have become the core of the Seattle/Vancouver rock band Heart. [...] Nancy Wilson was born in San Francisco, California. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nancy_Wilson_%28rock_musician%29]

1954 - Color Television - March 25th, 1954: "Radio Corporation of America began manufacturing color television sets at its Bloomington, Ind. plant. It built 5000 sets with 12-inch screens, known as the model CT-100 color receiver. They sold for $1,000 each." [A.P., March, 2004]

1954 - Telemundo - March 28th, 1954: "WKAQ-TV launched the Telemundo brand on March 28, 1954." [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telemundo]

1954 - Earthquake / Spain - March 29th, 1954: "Earthquake location: Spain. Earthquake magnitude: 7.9. Number of recorded fatalities: 0."  

1954 - Birth / Jackie Chan - April 7th, 1954: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actor, Jackie Chan."

1954 - Birth / Dennis Quaid - April 9th, 1954: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actor, Dennis Quaid."

1954 - Birth / Michael Moore - April 24th, 1954: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Bush / 911 video-maker, Michael Moore."

1954 - Birth / Jerry Seinfeld - April 29th, 1954: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Comedian, Jerry Seinfeld."

1954 - Geneva Conference - May 8th, 1954: "Geneva Conference opens. Two months later, French sign cease-fire." [Based on: S.L.P.D., p. A5, o4/25/05]

*Trivia: "Delegates from nine nations convene in Geneva to start negotiations that will lead to the end of hostilities in Indochina. The idea of partitioning Vietnam is first explored at this forum. Vietminh General Ta Quang Buu and French General Henri Delteil sign the Agreement on the Cessation of Hostilities in Vietnam. As part of the agreement, a provisional demarcation line is drawn at the 17th parallel which will divide Vietnam until nationwide elections are held in 1956. The United States does not accept the agreement, neither does the government of Bao Dai."

1954 - Ruled Unconstitutional / U.S. Segregated Education - May 17th, 1954: "The U.S. Supreme Court rules [Brown vs. Board of Education] that segregated education is unconstitutional."

1954 - Earthquake / Rainbow Mountain, Nevada- July 6th, 1954: "Earthquake location: Rainbow Mountain, Nevada. Earthquake magnitude: 6.6. Number of recorded fatalities: 0."  

1954 - Birth / Steve Morse - July 28th, 1954: Reportedly born on this date in history: Guitarist Steve Morse (of Deep Purple). [Based on: News Services article (CELEBRITY BIRTHDAYS), p. A15, S.L.P.D., 07/28/09]

1954 - U.S. Lacrosse 'Group A' Missle - "On August 17th, the first firing of a Lacrosse 'Group A' missile was conducted at the White Sands facility." [Link: 1] 

1954 - Flooding / Farahzad, Iran - "Flood date(s): August 17th, 1954. Number of recorded deaths: 2,000." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207]

1954 - Birth / Al Roker - August 20th, 1954: "Reportedly born on this date in history: 'Today' show weatherman, Al Roker."

1954 - Earthquake / Stillwater, Nevada - August 24th, 1954: "Earthquake location: Stillwater, Nevada. Earthquake magnitude: 6.8. Number of recorded fatalities: 0."    

1954 - Birth / Elvis Costello - August 25th, 1954: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Rock singer, Elvis Costello."

1954 - Hurricane Carol / Northeastern U.S.A. - "Hurricane date(s): August 30th, 1954. Number of recorded deaths: 68." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 206]

1954 - NBC Debut / "The Tonight Show" - Entertainment highlights during the week of Sept. 23-29, 1954: "The Tonight Show made its debut on NBC with host Steve Allen. [Based on: A.P. article (THAT WAS THE WEEK THAT WAS), p. E2, S.L.P.D., 09/25/07]

1954 - Birth / Stevie Ray Vaughan - October 3rd, 1954: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Blues guitarist, Stevie Ray Vaughan."

1954 - Birth / David Lee Roth - October 10th, 1954: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer, David Lee Roth."

1954 - Hurricane Hazel / E Canada, U.S.; Haiti - "Hurricane date(s): October 5th-18th, 1954. Number of recorded deaths: 347." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 206]

1954 - Birth / Yanni - November 4th, 1954: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Pianist, Yanni."

1954 - Birth / Bruce Hornsby - November 23rd, 1954: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer, Bruce Hornsby."

1954 - Earthquake / Fairview Peak, Nevada - December 16th, 1954: "Earthquake location: Fairview Peak, Nevada. Earthquake magnitude: 7.1. Number of recorded fatalities: 0."  

1954 - Earthquake / Dixie Valley, Nevada - December 16th, 1954: "Earthquake location: Dixie Valley, Nevada. Earthquake magnitude: 6.8. Number of recorded fatalities: 0."  

1954 - Birth / Annie Lennox - December 25th, 1954: "Ann 'Annie' Lennox, OBE (born 25 December 1954) is a Scottish singer-songwriter, political activist and philanthropist. [...] Lennox was born ... in Summerfield Maternity hospital, Aberdeen. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Annie_Lennox]

*Songs: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8AY7vGNCMO0&feature=related

1954 - Birth / Denzel Washington - December 28th, 1954: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actor, Denzel Washington."

1954 - Founded / "Bilderberg" - 1954: "[....] Like Round Table and the Trilateral Commission, Bilderberg's purpose is to coordinate American and European foreign policy. The annual Bilderberg meeting of the top 120 European-American movers and shakers is the world's most secretive and exclusive foreign policy making forum. There are no published minutes and only recently have the meetings been mentioned in the mainstream press. [....]" [Based on: http://www.policestateplanning.com/chapter_3_.htm]

1954 - The Way of the Saints - "Reportedly first published in 1954, by Kirpal Singh."  

1954 - Notable Songs of 1954 - "Shake, Rattle and Roll" (Joe Turner)

1954 - Flood Trivia / 1954 - "Number of notable floods this year: at least 1. Number of flood deaths: 2,000." [E.M.]

1954 - Hurricane Trivia / 1954 - "Number of notable hurricanes this year: at least 2. Number of hurricane deaths: 415." [E.M.]

1954 - Earthquake Trivia / 1954 - "Number of notable earthquakes this year: at least 5. " [E.M.]

1954 - "Natural Disaster" Deaths / 1954 - "Estimated number of people who died from natural disasters this year: at least 2,415." [E.M.]

1955

1955 - Physics Trivia - "Einstein died at the end of the next [measuring from 1930] quarter century, in 1955. By then we had learned how to consistently combine quantum theory with the special theory of relativity; this was the great accomplishment of the generation of Freeman Dyson and Richard Feynman. We had discovered the neutron and the neutrino and hundreds of other apparently elementary particles. We had also understood that the myriad phenomena in nature are governed by just four forces: electromagnetism, gravity, the strong nuclear force (which holds atomic nuclei together), and the weak nuclear force (responsible for radioactive decay)." [Based on: Lee Smolin, The Trouble with Physics, p. x (3rd paragraph - Introduction), copyright 2006]

1955 - U.S. Oil Monopoly - "By 1955, through proxy American regimes in Iran and Iraq, American corporations ended up controlling over 50 percent of Middle East oil reserves, and provided Europe with over 90 percent of its oil imports." [Links 1]

1955 - Nazi Scientists? / U.S.A. - "[....] Military Intelligence "cleansed" the files of Nazi refrences. By 1955, more than 760 German scientists had been granted citizenship in the U.S. [Project (Operation) Paperclip] and given prominent positions in the American scientific community. Many had been longtime members of the Nazi party and the Gestapo, had conducted experiments on humans at concentration camps, had used slave labor, and had comitted other war crimes. [....] President Truman, who had explicitly ordered no comitted Nazis to be admitted under Project Paperclip, was evidently never aware that his directive had been violated. State Department archives and the memoirs of officials from that era confirm this. In fact, according to Clare Lasby's book Operation Paperclip, project officials "covered their designs with such secrecy that it bedeviled their own President; at Potsdam he denied their activities and undoubtedly enhanced Russian suspicion and distrust," quite possibly fueling the Cold War even further. [....] Project Paperclip was stopped in 1957, when West Germany protested to the U.S. that these efforts had stripped it of "scientific skills." There was no comment about supporting Nazis. Paperclip may have ended in 1957, but as you can see from Licio Gelli and his international dealings with the CIA in Italy/P2, and Heinrich Rupp with his involvement in October Surprise, the ramifications of Paperclip are world-wide. The Nazis became employed CIA agents, engaging in clandestine work with the likes of George Bush, the CIA, Henry Kissenger, and the Masonic P2 lodge. This is but one of the results of Operation Paperclip. Another umbrella project that was spawned from Paperclip was MK-ULTRA. [....]

[Based on: http://www.thirdworldtraveler.com/Fascism/Operation_Paperclip_file.html]

1955 - Investigation Trivia / The Philadelphia Experiment - Carlos Miguel Allende, claimed in the 1950s to have been a witness to a test at sea of a ship being made optically invisible using strong electromagnetic force fields when he was a sailor onboard the merchant marine vessel SS Furuseth in 1943. He also claimed that during another test that went wrong, some of the men caught fire, went mad, and - the most bizarre of all, some were embedded halfway into the deck of the ship. Others phased in and out of this reality, only kept here by the laying on of hands. Allende wrote a series of strange letters in 1955 to Morris K. Jessup, a researcher who had written the book 'The Case For The UFO.' It was Allende's fear that the same technology that was responsible for the disasters of the Philadelphia Experiment was the secret behind the propulsion method used successfully by UFOs. Jessup had called for research into such force fields of UFOs without having any knowledge of the navy experiment, and this alarmed Allende." [Link: 1]

1955 - Birth / Kevin Costner - January 18th, 1955: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actor-director, Kevin Costner."

1955 - Birth / Paul Rodriguez - January 19th, 1955: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Comedian, Paul Rodriguez."

1955 - Birth / Eddie Van Halen - January 26th, 1955: "Edward Lodewijk 'Eddie' Van Halen ... is a Dutch-American guitarist, keyboardist, songwriter and producer. He is best known as the lead guitarist and co-founder of the eponymous hard rock band Van Halen. [...] Born ... in Nijmegen, the Netherlands, Edward Lodewijk van Halen is a son of clarinetist, saxophonist and pianist father Jan van Halen and mother Eugenia. Eugenia van Halen was originally from Indonesia which was a former Dutch colony; Eugenia was half Dutch and half Indonesian. [... .]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eddie_Van_Halen]

1955 -  Man From Mars? - February, 1955: "In a pamphlet titled, The Truth About Mars, written in 1956, author Ernest L. Norman claimed to have contacted the inhabitants of planet Mars. In his booklet, Norman stated that he would spend an hour each evening in meditation, and that due to his meditations he was contacted in February of 1955 by a man from Mars. [....] The Martians explained to Norman that more than 100,000 years ago Mars was much like Earth. There was air, water, and an abundance of plant and animal life." [Based on: Tim Swartz, The Lost Journals of Nikola Tesla, pp. 40-41]

1955 - U.S. Training / South Vietnamese Army - February 12th, 1955: "U.S. agreed Feb. 12 to help train South Vietnamese army." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 550]

1955 - Birth / Arsenio Hall - February 12th, 1955: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actor-former talk show host, Arsenio Hall."

1955 - Birth / Kelsey Grammer - February 21st, 1955: "Kelsey Grammer ... is an American actor and comedian. Grammer is most widely known for his two-decade portrayal of psychiatrist Dr. Frasier Crane on the hit NBC sitcoms Cheers, Wings, and Frasier. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kelsey_Grammer]

1955 - Chiron in Aquarius - February 28th, 1955: "On this date in history, the planet Chiron entered the sign of Aquarius." [E.M.]

1955 - Birth / Gilbert Gottfried - February 28th, 1955: "Gilbert Gottfried ... is an American actor, voice actor and stand-up comedian best known for his trademark comedic persona of speaking in a loud, grating tone of voice and squinting. [...] At age fifteen, Gilbert Gottfried began doing amateur stand-up in New York City and, after a few years, became known around New York as 'the comedian's comedian.' [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gilbert_Gottfried]

1955 - Television Debut / Elvis Presley - "Entertainment highlights during the week of March 5-11: Elvis Presley made his TV debut, appearing on the regional TV show 'Louisiana Hayride.' " [Based on: A.P.]

1955 - Birth / Bruce Willis - March 19th, 1955: "Walter Bruce Willis ... is a German-born American actor, producer, and musician. His career began in television in the 1980s and has continued both in television and film since, including comedic, dramatic, and action roles. [...] Willis was born in Idar-Oberstein, West Germany. [...] After being discharged from the military in 1957, Willis's father took his family back to Carneys Point, New Jersey. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bruce_Willis]

1955 - Birth / Reba McEntire - March 28th, 1955: "Reba Nell McEntire ... is an American country music artist and actress. [...] Reba Nell McEntire was born on March 28, 1955, in McAlester, Oklahoma ... ."

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reba_McEntire]

1955 - Warsaw Pact - May 14th, 1955: "In response to West Germany's NATO membership [May 5th, 1955], the Soviet Union forms the eight-nation Warsaw Pact as an Eastern European counterweight." [Sources: NATO, The Associated Press, the World Book, the Encyclopedia Britannica]

1955 - Birth / Olga Korbut - May16th, 1955: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Soviet gymnast, Olga Korbut."

1955 - Birth / Dana Carvey - June 2nd, 1955: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Comedian, Dana Carvey."

1955 - First Single / Johnny Cash - "Entertainment highlights during the week of June 18-24, 1955: Johnny Cash released his first single. "Hey, Porter." [Based on: A.P.]

1955 - "Rock Around the Clock" / Bill Haley & the Comets - "Entertainment highlights during the week of June 25th-July 1st, 1955: "Rock Around the Clock" by Bill Haley and the Comets hit No. 1 on the singles chart. [Based on: A.P. article, p. E2, S.L.P.D., 06/28/06]

1955 - Remote Viewing Trivia - July, 1955: "Factions of the U.S. government are making efforts to 'seize Scientology in the United States.' " [Based on: http://www.sc-i-r-s-ology.pair.com/rvtimeline/index.html] - [T.D. - 09/09/08]

1955 - Disputes / Geneva Agreements, Vietnam - July 6th, 1955: Ngo Dinh Diem disputes Geneva Agreements, refuses to plan open elections in Vietnam." [Based on: S.L.P.D., p. A5, 04/25/05]

*Trivia: "Diem Rejects Conditions of Geneva Accords, Refuses to Participate in Nationwide Elections. China and Soviet Union Pledge Additional Financial Support to Hanoi. Britain, France, and United States covertly urge Diem to respect Geneva accords and conduct discussions with the North. Diem defeats Bao Dai in rigged election and proclaims himself President [10/26/1955] of Republic of Vietnam."

1955 - "Underway" / Nuclear Navy, U.S.A. - July 15th, 1955: "In July 1951, Congress authorized construction of the world's first nuclear-powered submarine. Four years later, on the morning of July 17, 1955, the Nautilus's first commanding officer, Commander Eugene P. Wilkinson, ordered all lines cast off and signaled the memorable and historic message, 'Underway on nuclear power' - and the age of the nuclear Navy had begun." [Leo Laporte's 2005 Technology Almanac, p. 19]

1955 - Plans for Unmanned Satellites - "The White House announced, on July 29th, that President Eisenhower approved plans to launch unmanned satellites to circle the earth, as participation in the International Geophysical Year.  The Russians soon made similar announcements." [Link: 1  

1955 - Birth / Billy Bob Thornton - August 4th, 1955: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actor-screenwriter, Billy Bob Thornton ."

1955 - Hurricane Diane / Eastern, U.S.A. - "Hurricane date(s): August 7th-21st, 1955. Number of recorded deaths: 400." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 206]

1955 - Hurricane Connie / NC, SC, VA, MD, U.S.A. - "Hurricane date(s): August 12th-13th, 1955. Number of recorded deaths: 43." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 206]

1955 - CBS Premier / "Gunsmoke" - Entertainment highlights during the week of Sept. 10-16, 1955: "Gunsmoke" premiered on CBS. "Gunsmoke" began on radio in 1952. The program ran for nearly 20 years on TV. [Based on: A.P. article [THAT WAS THE WEEK THAT WAS], p. B4, S.L.P.D., 09/11/06]

1955 - Hurricane Hilda / Mexico - "Hurricane date(s): September 19th, 1955. Number of recorded deaths: 200." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 206]

1955 - Paul Twitchell / Ruhani Satsang? - September 1955: "[....] After five years at Swami Premananda's ashram, Paul left in 1955 under somewhat cloudy circumstances (including separating from his wife, Camille). After a respite in Florida, He returned to the D.C. area where, in September of that year, He attended a series of satsangs held by Sant Kirpal Singh Ji Maharaj. This was to serve as perhaps the key pivotal point in His life for, at the end of the Satsangs, He received initiation into Surat Shabd Yoga. Paul pays homage to Kirpal Singh early in The Flute of GOD: [....]"

http://tinyurl.com/346slmc
http://groups.google.com/group/alt.religion.eckankar/msg/48499411d2eba9f9

1955 - Flooding / Farahzad, Iran - "Flood date(s): October 7th-12th, 1955. Number of recorded deaths: 1,700." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207]

1955 - The Urantia Book - October 12th, 1955: "The Urantia Foundation first published The Urantia Book in 1955 in English. The organization has translated it into eleven other languages, with new translations in process.[3] [....] The Sadlers and others involved, now all deceased, claimed[11] that the papers of the book were physically materialized from 1925 until 1935 in a way that was not understood even by them, with the first three parts being completed in 1934 and the fourth in 1935. The last Forum gathering was in 1942. Also documented are methods of reception that Sadler denied as the way the papers were received.[8] [....] The communications purportedly continued for another two decades while members of the Forum studied the book in depth, and according to Sadler and others, permission to publish it was given to them in 1955. The Urantia Foundation was formed in 1950 as a tax-exempt educational society in Illinois,[14] and through privately raised funds, the book was published under international copyright on October 12, 1955. [....]"

*Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urantia

1955 - Earthquake / Concord, California - October 24th, 1955: "Earthquake location: Concord, California. Earthquake magnitude: 5.4. Number of recorded fatalities: 1."  

1955 - First Recording / Barbara Streisand - Entertainment highlights during the week of December 24 - 30th, 1955: Barbara Streisand made her first recording, "You'll Never Know." She was 13. [Based on: A.P. article (THAT WAS THE WEEK THAT WAS), S.L.P.D., 12/26/06]

1955 - President Ngo Dinh Diem / Republic of South Vietnam - October 26th, 1955: "Diem proclaims South Vietnam as Republic of Vietnam and himself as president." [Based on: S.L.P.D., p. A5, 04/25/05]

1955 - Birth / Bill Gates - October 28th, 1955: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Microsoft chairman, Bill Gates."

1955 - Paul Twitchell / Initiation? - November 1955: [At link, click: Sat Sandesh, 1955, November, page search for Paul Twitchell.]

*Links: http://www.derallmaechtigekirpal.com/eng/index.html
              http://www.ruhanisatsangusa.org/tours/55/SS55_11.htm

1955 -  Commissioned / U.S. Guided-Missle Cruiser - "On November 1st, the first guided-missile-equipped cruiser was placed in commission at the Philadelphia Naval Yard."  [Link: 1]    

1955 - Birth / Maria Shriver - November 6th, 1955: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Maria Shriver."

1955 - U.S. IRBM Programs - "On November 8th, the Secretary of Defense approved the Jupiter and Thor Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile (IRBM) programs." [Link: 1]   

1955 - Birth / Whoopi Goldberg - November 13th, 1955: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actress-comedian, Whoopi Goldberg."

1955 - Soviet Hydrogen Bomb Detonation / Kazakhstan - November 22nd, 1955: "The Soviet Union successfully tests a hydrogen bomb, detonating a 1.6-megaton device in Kazakhstan." [Based on: N.G.M., August 2005, p. 103]

1955 - Signed by RCA Records / Elvis Presley - November, 1955: "Entertainment highlights during the week of Nov. 20-26: "Elvis Presley was signed by RCA records." [A.P., 11/21/05]

1955 - Birth / Billy Idol - November 30th, 1955: "William Michael Albert Broad[1] (born 30 November 1955[1]), better known by his stage name Billy Idol, is an English rock musician. [...] Idol was born in Stanmore, Middlesex, England. The name Billy Idol was inspired by a schoolteacher's description of Broad as 'idle' .[3] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Billy_Idol]

1955 -   U.S. ICBM & IRBM Missles - December 1st, 1955: "President Eisenhower placed highest priority on Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) and the Thor and Jupiter IRBM programs on December 1st." [Link: 1]  

1955 - Trivia / Rosa Parks, U.S.A. - December 1st, 1955: "Rosa Parks refused Dec. 1 to give her seat to a white man on a bus in Montgomery, AL. Bus segregation ordinance declared unconstitutional by a federal court following boycott organized by Rev. Martin Luther King Jr." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 550] 

1955 -  AFL-CIO / U.S.A. - December 5th, 1955: "America's second largest labor organizations merged Dec. 5, creating the AFL-CIO." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 550] 

1955 - "Metteya" / L. Ron Hubbard? - "[....] L. Ron Hubbard, founder of Dianetics and Scientology, suggested he was 'Metteya' (Maitreya) in the 1955 poem Hymn of Asia. His editors indicated, in the book's preface, specific physical characteristics said to be outlined -- in unnamed Sanskrit sources -- as properties of the coming Maitreya; properties which Hubbard's appearance supposedly aligned with. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Teacher] - [T.D. - 12/20/08]

1955 - God Speaks / Meher Baba - 1955: "God Speaks, The Theme of Creation and Its Purpose (ISBN 978-0-915828-02-9) is the principal book by Meher Baba and the most significant religious text used by his followers. It exhaustively covers Meher Baba's view of the process of Creation and its purpose and has been in print continuously since 1955.[1]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/God_Speaks] - [T.D. - 04/24/10]

1955 - Introduction to his Teachings / Kirpal Singh - 1955:

In 1955, Sant Kirpal Singh wrote an introduction to his teachings especially intended for Westerners, called Man, Know Thyself. The principle teaching expounded the underlying thread of the esoteric Sound Current (Shabd, Naam, or Word) as the root experience of the Saints, which is discussed in the scriptures and continues to be available. He also stressed the importance of a living Master or Guru, as one can derive nothing from past Masters (i.e., Saints or Masters who have died.)

He expressed no interest in creating a new religion (see "No New Faith, Mind That" [3]) and would generally quote his Master who said "plenty of wells have already been dug. There is no need to dig another." His self-stated intention was to

revive the original knowledge, which is to be found in the core of all religions, and gave an experience of the true nature of man whose aim it is to return to his Source - God. By this experience every individual regains his inherent value and dignity and can reach the highest goal of human life.

During fourteen years he was repeatedly elected president of the World Fellowship of Religions which came into being in 1957. On three world tours in 1955, 1963, and 1972 He visited major cities in the Western world, where he met religious leaders, politicians, and personalities of society. He preached about the importance of self-knowledge and God-knowledge and emphasized the need of selfless service as a form of devotion.

[....]

Sant Kirpal Singh's legacy may lie chiefly in the wealth of books he wrote during his lifetime; the Master made all of these works available without copyright, saying "the gifts of God, like sunlight, are all free."

[....]

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kirpal_Singh]

*Trivia: "RUHANI SATSANG —A gathering of purely spiritually minded persons. Satguru Kirpal Singh Ji, constituted it as a Common Forum for the meeting of representatives from all religions, who believe in the efficacy of the Science of Soul as panacea for all the ills of the world."

[Based on: http://www.ruhanisatsangusa.org/gloss.htm]

1955 - Notable Songs of 1955 - "Rock Around the Clock" (Bill Haley & The Comets); "Hey, Porter" (Johnny Cash); "Sixteen Tons" (Tennessee Ernie Ford)

1955 - Flood Trivia / 1955 - "Number of notable floods this year: at least 1. Number of flood deaths: 1,700." [E.M.]

1955 - Hurricane Trivia / 1955 - "Number of notable hurricanes this year: at least 3. Number of hurricane deaths: 643." [E.M.]

1955 - Earthquake Trivia / 1955 - "Number of notable earthquakes this year: at least 1. Number of earthquake deaths: 1." [E.M.]

1955 - "Natural Disaster" Deaths / 1955 - "Estimated number of people who died from natural disasters this year: at least 2,344." [E.M.]

1956

1956 - Relocation Act - "The Relocation Act creates job training centers in urban areas for Native Americans. The purpose of the act was to force Native Americans off the reservation by offering job training opportunities only in urban areas. Native Americans participating in the job training programs were required to sign formal agreements that they would not return to their reservations."

1956 - French Leave Vietnam - "The French leave Vietnam. The US Military Assistance Advisor Group [MAAG] assumes responsibility, from French, for training South Vietnamese forces. Cold War tensions between the US and the USSR heat up as Nikita Khrushchev announces to Western ambassadors, 'History is on our side. We will bury you!' "

1956 - Birth / Mel Gibson - January 3rd, 1956: "Mel Colm-Cille Gerard Gibson, AO ... is an Australian-American actor, film director, producer and screenwriter. He was born in Peekskill, New York, moved with his parents to Sydney, Australia, when he was 12 years old, and later studied acting at the Australian National Institute of Dramatic Art. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mel_Gibson]

1956 - Birth / Bill Maher - January 20th, 1956: "William 'Bill' Maher, Jr. ... is an American stand-up comedian, television host, political commentator, author and actor. [...] Maher was born in New York City, the son of Julie (née Berman), a nurse, and William Maher, Sr., a network news editor and radio announcer.[6] He was raised in his Irish American father's Catholic religion, remaining unaware that his mother was Jewish until his early teenage years. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bill_Maher]

1956 - First National TV Appearance / Elvis Presley - Entertainment highlights during the week of Jan 28 - Feb. 3, 1956: Elvis Presley made his first national TV appearance on "The Dorsey Brothers Show" on CBS. After the appearance, sales of his "Heartbreak Hotel" single skyrocketed. [Based on: Article (THAT WAS THE WEEK THAT WAS), p. E5, S.L.P.D., 01/30/07]

1956 - Blizzard / W Europe - "Blizzard date(s): February 1st-29th, 1956. Number of recorded deaths: 1,000." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 206]

1956 - Birth / Paula Zahn - February 24th, 1956: "Paula Ann Zahn ... is an American journalist, newscaster, former news anchor on ABC News, CBS News, Fox News, and CNN. [...] Paula Zahn was born in Omaha, Nebraska, to a schoolteacher/artist mother and an IBM sales executive father. [... .]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paula_Zahn]

1956 - Southern Resistance / U.S. Desegration Rules - March 12th, 1956: "Massive resistance to Supreme Court desegragation rulings was called for Mar. 12 by 101 Southern congressmen." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 550]

1956 - Desegrated Intrastate Buses / U.S.A. - April 23rd, 1956: "U.S. Supreme Court Apr. 23, unanimously ruled against racial segregation on intrastate buses." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 550]

1956 - First Godzilla Movie - April 23rd-29th, 1956: Entertainment highlights during the week of April 23-29: The first Godzilla movie, "Godzilla, King of the Monsters," premiered in New York." [Based on: A.P. article, p. C5, S.L.P.D., 04/24/06]

1956 - Founded? / "Priori of Zion" - May 1956: "Letter dated 8 June 1956 by the Mayor of Annemasse to the Sub Prefect of St Julien-en-Genevois disclosed information that Pierre Plantard had broken sections of the French Penal Code relating to crimes and offences against property and was sentenced to six months imprisonment by the Tribunal of St Julien-en-Genevois in December 1953. The Priory of Sion had been formed in May 1956 and was originally dedicated to the defence of Low-Cost Housing, also backing the opposition Candidate at the local Annemasse Council elections – the Priory of Sion also attacked the Annemasse property developers in the pages of its journal, Circuit. The letter dated 8 June 1956 by the Mayor of Annemasse was part of an investigation into the Priory of Sion headed by the local Annemasse Council and the Sub Prefecture of St Julien-en-Genevois into Pierre Plantard and the first three issues of Circuit following the formation of the Priory of Sion in May 1956. Three recent letters dated 22 March 2004, 20 April 2004 and 10 May 2004 from Monsieur Serge Champanhet, the Secretary General of the Sub-Prefecture of St Julien-en-Genevois (4 Avenue de Geneve, 74164 Saint Julien-en-Genevois, Haute-Savoie), have both confirmed the existence of the 1956 letter and Plantard’s conviction."

[Based on: http://priory-of-sion.com/psp/convchron.html - See: June 1956]

1956 - Birth / Sugar Ray Leonard - May17th, 1956: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Boxing Hall-of-Famer, Sugar Ray Leonard."

1956 - Birth / Kenny G - June 5th, 1956: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Saxophonist, Kenny G."

1956 - Earthquake / N. Afghanistan - June 10-17th, 1956: "Earthquake location: N. Afghanistan. Earthquake magnitude: 7.7. Number of recorded fatalities: 2,000."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 208]

1956 - Interstate Highway System / U.S.A. - June 29th, 1956: "Federal-Aid Highway Act signed June 29, inaugurating interstate highway system." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 550]

1956 - Birth / Montel Williams - July 3rd, 1956: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Talk show host, Montel Williams."

1956 - Birth / Tom Hanks - July 9th, 1956: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actor, Tom Hanks."

1956 - Elivis Presely / Ed Sullivan Show - September, 1956: "Elvis Presley made the first of three appearances on the 'The Ed Sullivan Show.' "

1956 - Activation / 1st Transatlantic Telephone Cable - September 25th, 1956: "First transatlantic telephone cable activated Sept. 25." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 550]

1956 - Birth / Linda Hamilton - September 26th, 1956: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actress, Linda Hamilton."

1956 - Birth / Martina Navratilova - October 18th, 1956: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Tennis player, Martina Navratilova."

1956 - Pluto / Virgo - October 20th, 1956: Pluto at 0 degrees Virgo. ...

*Link: http://www.astro.com/swisseph/ae/1900/ae_1956.pdf

1956 - Birth / Bo Derek - November 20th, 1956: "Bo Derek ... is an American film and television actress, movie producer, model, and sex symbol, perhaps best-known for her role in the 1979 film 10. [...] Bo Derek was born Mary Cathleen Collins in Long Beach, California. She is of Irish, French, Dutch and Welsh descent. [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bo_Derek]

1956 - Play-Doh - "Color and size available in 1956: off-white Play-Doh in a 1.5 pound can." [Based on: Everyday section, p. E1, S.L.P.D., 05/02/06]

1956 - Olympic Games / Melbourne, Australia - "In 1956, the Summer Olympic Games were held in Melbourne, Alaska. The Summer Games ran from November to December, because the seasons are reversed in the Southern Hemisphere. In 1956, the Winter Olympic Games were held in Cortina d' Ampezzo, Italy."  

1956 - Dialogues With The Master - "Paul [Paul Twitchell] wrote Dialogues With The Master around 1956, from the references I have seen, but didn't publish it until 1970. Paul also wrote The Flute of God in 1959, but didn't put it into print until 1966, in the Orion Magazine series. This pattern is similar to Paul's writing of The Far Country in 1963, which wasn't published until 1970." [Based on: Doug Marman, Dialogue in the Age of Criticism, Chap. 6]  

1956 - Notable Songs of 1956 - "Blueberry Hill" (Fats Domino); "I Walk the Line" (Johnny Cash); "Heartbreak Hotel" (Elvis Presley)

1956 - Hurricane Trivia / 1956 - "Number of notable hurricanes this year: at least 1. Number of hurricane deaths: 1,000." [E.M.]

1956 - Earthquake Trivia / 1956 - "Number of notable earthquakes this year: at least 1. Number of earthquake deaths: 2,000." [E.M.]

1956 - "Natural Disaster" Deaths / 1956 - "Estimated number of people who died from natural disasters this year: at least 3,000." [E.M.]

1957

1957 - Established / Fatah  - "Fatah, also known as Al-Fatah, is an acronym for Palestine National Liberation Movement; the word itself means 'conquest'. Founded in the 1950s by, among others, Yasser Arafat, its goal is the creation of a Palestinian state."

1957 - Assassinations / South Vietnam - "Communist insurgent activity in South Vietnam begins. Guerrillas assassinate more than 400 South Vietnamese officials. Thirty-seven armed companies are organized along the Mekong Delta. Thirteen Americans working for MAAG and US Information Service are wounded in terrorist bombings in Saigon."

1957 - U.S. Military Nurses / Vietnam War - 1957-1975: "Seven women die in the line of duty while serving in the war zone." [Based on: Article, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p. A10, 07/10/05]

1957 - Birth / Katie Couric - January 7th, 1957: "Reportedly born on this date in history: 'Today' show co-host, Katie Couric."

1957 - Pluto Platter [Frisbee] - January 13th, 1957: "The first plastic flying disc was actually manufactured back in 1948, by Fred Morrison, a California carpenter and building inspector. In 1955 Morrison joined the Wham-O company, and on this date [January 13th] in 1957 Wham-O introduced the toy as the Pluto Platter. The name was changed to Frisbee the following year, and over the next 50 years Wham-O sold more than 200 million of them." [Leo Laporte's 2005 Technology Almanac, p. 15]

1957 - Pluto / Virgo - January 15th, 1957: Pluto at 0 degrees Virgo, R.; August 19th, D. ...

*Link: http://www.astro.com/swisseph/ae/1900/ae_1957.pdf

1957 - Birth / Geena Davis - January 21st, 1957: "Virginia Elizabeth 'Geena' Davis ... is an American actress, film producer, writer, former fashion model, and a women's Olympics archery team semi-finalist. [...] Davis was born in Wareham, Massachusetts. Her mother, Lucille (née Cook), was a teacher's assistant, and her father, William F. Davis, was a civil engineer and church deacon; her parents had both been from small towns in Vermont. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geena_Davis]

1957 - Birth / LeVar Burton - February 16th, 1957: "Levardis Robert Martyn Burton, Jr. ... professionally known as LeVar Burton, is an American actor, presenter, director, producer, and author. [...] Burton was born to American parents at the U.S. Army Landstuhl Regional Medical Center in West Germany. [...] Burton and his two sisters were raised by his mother in Sacramento, California.[4] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LeVar_Burton]

1957 - Birth / Vanna White - February 18th, 1957: "Vanna White (born Vanna Marie Rosich; February 18, 1957)[2] is an American television personality and film actress best known as the hostess of Wheel of Fortune since 1982. [...] White was born in 1957 in Conway, South Carolina[3] the daughter of Joan Marie and Miguel Angel Rosich. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vanna_White]

1957 - That'll Be the Day" / Buddy Holly & the Crickets - February, 1957: "Entertainment highlights during the week of Feb. 19-25: "Buddy Holly & the Crickets recorded 'That'll Be the Day.' " [Based on: A.P., 02/20/06]

1957 - Earthquake / Andreanof Island, Alaska - March 9th, 1957: "Earthquake location: Andreanof Island, Nevada. Earthquake magnitude: 9.1. Number of recorded fatalities: 0."  

1957 - Birth / Shannon Tweed - March 10th, 1957: "Shannon Lee Tweed ... is a Canadian actress and model. [...] Tweed was born in St John's, Newfoundland, to a mink rancher[2] and was raised on a mink ranch in Markland. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shannon_Tweed]

1957 - Approved / U.S. Civil Rights Bill - April 29th, 1957: "Congress approved first civil rights bill for blacks since Reconstruction, Apr. 29, to protect voting rights." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 550]

1957 - Hurricane Audrey/ Texal to Alabama, U.S.A. - "Hurricane date(s): June 25th-30th, 1957. Number of recorded deaths: 390." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 206]

*Trivia: "[....] Hurricane Audrey and a subsequent tidal wave killed 531 people in Louisiana and Texas. [....]" [St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p. A4, 01/17/05]

1957 - Earthquake / N. Iran - July 2nd, 1957: "Earthquake location: N. Iran. Earthquake magnitude: 7.4. Number of recorded fatalities: 1,200."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 208]

1957 - Surgeon General Report / Cigarette Smoking - July 12th, 1957: "The U.S. surgeon general July 12 said studies showed a 'direct link' between cigarette smoking and lung cancer." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 550]

1957 - Birth / Jon Lovitz - July 21st, 1957: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Comedian, Jon Lovitz."

1957 - "Tonight" Show Host / Jack Paar - Entertainment highlights during the week of July 23-29, 1957: Jack Paar made his debut as host of NBC's "Tonight" show. [Based on: Article (THAT WAS THE WEEK THAT WAS), p. D5, S.L.P.D., 07/24/06]

1957 - ICBM Test / Soviet Union - August 1957: "Soviets successfully test an intercontinental ballistic missle (ICBM)." [Based on: N.G.M., August 2005, p. 106]

1957 - Birth / Gloria Estefan - September 1st, 1957: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer, Gloria Estefan."

1957 - U.S. Underground Nuclear Test / Nevada Desert - September 19th, 1957: "U.S. conducts its first underground nuclear test in the Nevada desert." [Based on: N.G.M., August 2005, p. 106]

1957 - Birth / Fran Drescher - September 30th, 1957: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actress, Fran Drescher."

1957 - 1st Earth Satellite / Sputnik I - October 4th, 1957: "First Earth orbiter, Soviet Sputnik 1, 370 mile high orbit, 184-lb. - October 4, 1957, the Soviet Union stunned the world by placing the first satellite, Sputnik, into space. The Russian spacecraft orbited around the earth in great, amorphous loops. Americans reacted to the Russian Sputnik with amazement and awe.  Many doubted that it was really in space, some top minds reported it as unimportant and useless. Some saw it as an object to be blown out of the sky, in truth it was nothing more than a dummy space ship." [Link: 1]  

*Trivia: " 'Reds fire "moon" into sky' was how this newspaper [Chicago Tribune] announced that the Russians had won the race to be the first into space 50 years ago Thursday [10/04/07]. The 'moon,' launched Oct. 4, 1957, was actually a 184-pound satellite, a 'co-traveler' - 'sputnik' in Russian. [....]" [Based on: Chicago Tribune article (Beep ... beep ... beep ...), p. C10, S.L.P.D. (Opinion Page), 10/05/07]

1957 - Radioactive Material / England - October 7th, 1957: "A fire in the Windscale plutonium production reactor N of Liverpool, England, released radioactive material; later blamed for 39 cancer deaths." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 210]

1957 - Sputnik 2 - November 3rd, 1957: "Sputnik 2 was launched on November 3 with the dog, Laika, the first animal in space - Unsuccessful Vanguard firing [12/06/57] in the USA." [Link 1

1957 - United Kingdom Hydrogen Bomb Test / Line Islands, Pacific - November 8th, 1957: "The United Kingdom successfully tests a hydrogen bomb in the Line Islands of the Pacific." [Based on: N.G.M., August 2005, p. 106]

1957 - Birth / Kevin Eubanks - November 15th, 1957: "Reportedly born on this date in history: 'Tonight Show' bandleader, Kevin Eubanks."

1957 - Earthquake / Gobi-Altai, Mongolia - December 4th, 1957: "Earthquake location: Gobi-Altai, Mongolia. Earthquake magnitude: 8.1. Number of recorded fatalities: 30."  

1957 - Earthquake / W. Iran - December 13th, 1957: "Earthquake location: W. Iran. Earthquake magnitude: 7.3. Number of recorded fatalities: 1,130."  [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 208]

1957 - Birth / Ray Romano - December 21st, 1957: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actor-comedian, Ray Romano."

1957 - Birth / Samuel L. Jackson - December 21st, 1957: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actor, Samuel L. Jackson."

1957 - Birth / Matt Lauer - December 30th, 1957: "Reportedly born on this date in history: NBC newscaster, Matt Lauer."

1957 - Birth / Osama bin-Laden - "Reportedly born [Saudi Arabia] this year in history: Osama bin-Laden."

1957 - Radioactive Contamination / Rocky Flats, Colo. - "Demolition began Thursday [07/15/04] on what has been called 'the most dangerous building in America,' where workers at the Rocky Flats nuclear plant once handled highly radioactive plutonium used in triggers for nuclear weapons. Leaks, spills and a 1957 fire plagued the building, and part of it was closed 30 years ago because radiation levels were off the charts. The building was called the workhorse of the weapons factory, 16 miles northwest of Denver. The Department of Energy called the building its 'greatest vulnerability' in 1994 because of the buildup of contamination over five decades." [News Services, 07/16/04]

1957 - Radioactive & Chemical Waste / Weldon Spring, MO - In the 1940s Weldon Spring was the world's largest munitions plant, producing TNT and other explosives. From 1957 to 1966, pure uranium was manufactured on the site for nuclear weapons and as fuel for nuclear power plants. The cleanup that was largely completed at Weldon Spring cost $900 million over 17 years and included burial of 1.5 million cubic yards of radioactive materials and chemicals in a seven-story hill." [Post-Dispatch Washington Bureau, 11/16/03]

1957 - Trivia / U.S. Food & Drugs - "In US vs. Adolphus Hohensee, the US Court of Appeals held that oral representations may be used to show the intended purpose of a drug to establish that it is misbranded."

1957 - Stopped? / Project Paperclip, U.S.A. - "[....] Project Paperclip was stopped in 1957, when West Germany protested to the U.S. that these efforts had stripped it of 'scientific skills.' There was no comment about supporting Nazis. Paperclip may have ended in 1957, but as you can see from Licio Gelli and his international dealings with the CIA in Italy/P2, and Heinrich Rupp with his involvement in October Surprise, the ramifications of Paperclip are world-wide. The Nazis became employed CIA agents, engaging in clandestine work with the likes of George Bush, the CIA, Henry Kissenger, and the Masonic P2 lodge. This is but one of the results of Operation Paperclip. Another umbrella project that was spawned from Paperclip was MK-ULTRA. [....]

[Based on: http://www.thirdworldtraveler.com/Fascism/Operation_Paperclip_file.html]

1957 - Notable Songs of 1957 - "At The Hop" (Danny & the Juniors); "West Side Story (album)", original cast.; "Great Balls of Fire" (Jerry Lee Lewis); "That'll Be the Day" (Buddy Holly & the Crickets)

1957 - Hurricane Trivia / 1957 - "Number of notable hurricanes this year: at least 1. Number of hurricane deaths: 390." [E.M.]

1957 - Earthquake Trivia / 1957 - "Number of notable earthquakes this year: at least 4. Number of earthquake deaths: 2,360." [E.M.]

1957 - "Natural Disaster" Deaths / 1957 - "Estimated number of people who died from natural disasters this year: at least 2,750." [E.M.]

1958

1958 - Economic Superpower Status / Japan - "1958-1970  Japan achieves economic superpower status. Restrictions on foreign travel are removed and huge numbers of Japanese begin to travel abroad."

1958 - Birth / Shawn Colvin - January 10th, 1958: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer, Shawn Colvin."

1958 - Birth / Christiane Amanpour - January 12th, 1958: "Reportedly born on this date in history: News correspondent, Christiane Amanpour."

1958 - Birth / Ellen DeGeneres - January 26th, 1958: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Comic, Ellen DeGeneres."

1958 - 1st American Satellite / Explorer I - January 31st, 1958: "Explorer 1 became America's first satellite on January 31, 1958. Following the Soviet success with Sputnik and the embarrassing failure in December [6th] 1957 of the first American attempt to launch a satellite, the U.S. Army launched a scientific satellite using a rocket that had been developed to test guided missile components. Explorer 1 carried an instrument package developed by a team at the State University of Iowa under the direction of Professor James A. Van Allen. Data returned by Explorer 1 and Explorer 3 [launched in March 1958] provided evidence that the Earth is surrounded by intense bands of radiation, now called the Van Allen radiation belts. This was the first major scientific discovery of the space age."

1958 - No 2 Hit / "Great Balls of Fire" - February 3rd, 1958: "Great Balls of Fire" - Jerry Lee Lewis.

[See: NEWSDAY article by Andy Edeistein, p. E3, S.L.P.D., 01/04/08]

1958 - Blizzard / NE U.S.A. - "Blizzard date(s): February 15th, 1958. Number of recorded deaths: 171." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 206]

1958 - Birth / Sharon Stone - March 10th, 1958: "Sharon Vonne Stone ... is an American actress, film producer, and former fashion model. [...] Stone was born in Meadville, Pennsylvania. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sharon_Stone]

1958 - Inducted / Elvis Presley - March 24th, 1958: "ELVIS IS INDUCTED INTO THE ARMY"

[Based on: NEWSDAY article by Andy Edeistein, p. E3, S.L.P.D., 01/04/08]

1958 - Russia Declares Halt / Atomic Tests - March 31st, 1958: "Moscow declared a halt on all atomic tests and asked other nations to follow."

1958 - "Johnny B. Goode" / Chuck Berry - "Entertainment highlights during the week of March 26-April 1: Chuck Berry released the single 'Johnny B. Goode.' " [Based on: A.P.]

1958 - Pluto / Virgo - April 12th, 1958: Pluto at 0 degrees Virgo, R.; June 11th, D. ...

*Link: http://www.astro.com/swisseph/ae/1900/ae_1958.pdf

1958 - Birth / Andie MacDowell - April 21st, 1958: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actress, Andie MacDowell."

1958 - 1st Single / Dion and the Belmonts - Entertainment highlights during the week of April 22-28, 1958: Dion and the Belmonts' first single, "I Wonder Why" backed with "Teen Angel," was released. [Based on: A.P. article, p. D4, S.L.P.D., 04/23/07]

1958 - Birth / Michelle Pfeiffer - April 29th, 1958: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actress, Michelle Pfeiffer."

1958  - 1st Black Graduate / Arkansas Public School - May 8th, 1958: "President Eisenhower ordered National Guard out of Little Rock as Ernest Green became the first black to graduate from an Arkansas public school."

1958  - Arab Federation Established - May 13th, 1958: "Jordan & Iraq formed the Arab Federation."

1958 - "Come On, Let's Go" / Ritchie Valens - "Entertainment highlights during the week of May 14th-20th, 1958: "Ritchie Valens recorded 'Come On, Let's Go,' at his first recording session, in Los Angeles." [Based on: A.P. article, p. C4, S.L.P.D., 05/15/06]

1958  - Established / NORAD - May 19th, 1958: "The United States and Canada formally established the North American Air Defense Command [NORAD]." 

1958 - Earthquake / Huslia, Alaska - April 7th, 1958: "Earthquake location: Huslia, Alaska. Earthquake magnitude: 7.3. Number of recorded fatalities: 0."  

1958 - Birth / Drew Carey - May 23rd, 1958: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actor-comedian, Drew Carey."

1958 - "Purple People Eater" / Sheb Wooley - Entertainment highlights during the week of May 28-June 3, 1958: "Sheb Wooley's 'Purple People Eater' hit the top of the pop charts and stayed there for six weeks." [Based on: A.P. article, p. A5, S.L.P.D., 05/29/06]

1958 - Birth / Prince - June 7th, 1958: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer-songwriter, Prince."

1958 - Alaska Statehood / United States - July 7th, 1958: "Alaska became the 49th state in the Union."

1958 - Birth / Kevin Bacon - July 8th, 1958: "Kevin Norwood Bacon[1] (born July 8, 1958) is an American film and theater actor ... ." [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kevin_Bacon]

1958 - Earthquake / Fairweather, Alaska - July 10th, 1958: "Earthquake location: Fairweather, Alaska. Earthquake magnitude: 7.7. Number of recorded fatalities: 5."  

1958  - "Regime Change" / Iraq - July 14th, 1958: "The army of Iraq overthrew the monarchy. The Hashemite King Faisal was assassinated."

1958  - U.S. Involvement / Lebanon  - "July 15, President Eisenhower ordered 5,000 U.S. Marines to Lebanon, at the request of that country's president, Camille Chamoun, in the face of a perceived threat by Muslim rebels; to help end a short-lived civil war."

*Trivia: "Six-month civil war between Muslims and leftists loyal to Egyptian President Gamal Nasser." [A.P., 02/15/05]

1958 - Charles / Prince of Wales - July 26th, 1958: "The Queen created Prince Charles The Prince of Wales on July 26, 1958. The Prince can trace his descent through the Tudors to the original native Princes of Wales, though the title's use for the heir to the English throne began with Edward II, who had been created Prince of Wales by his father Edward I in 1301." 

1958  - Created / NASA - July 29th, 1958: "President Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, which created NASA."

1958 - Exoatmospheric Nuclear Test - August 1st, 1958: "HARDTACK-Teak was an exoatmospheric nuclear test performed during Operation Hardtack I. On 1 August 1958, the shot detonated at an altitude of 76.8 km. [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hardtack_Teak] - [T.D. - 12/12/09]

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_artificial_radiation_belts

1958 - "Poor Little Fool" / Rick Nelson - August 4th, 1958: "Ricky Nelson had the No. 1 song ['Poor Little Fool'] on Billboard's "Hot 100" when it made its debut on Aug. 4, 1958." [Based on: Everyday page article, p. E3, S.L.P.D., 04/19/06]

1958 - Birth / Deborah Norville - August 8th, 1958: "Reportedly born on this date in history: TV personality, Deborah Norville."

1958 - Birth / Thomas Dolby - August 14th, 1958: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer-musician, Thomas Dolby." [check date]

1958 - Birth / Madonna - August 16th, 1958: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer, Madonna."

1958 - Birth / Belinda Carlisle - August 17th, 1958: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer, Belinda Carlisle."

1958 - Birth / Scott Hamilton - August 28th, 1958: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Olympic gold-medal figure skater, Scott Hamilton."

1958 - Birth / Michael Jackson - August 29th, 1958: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer, Michael Jackson."

1958 - Westerns Rule TV / U.S.A. - SEPTEMBER: WESTERNS RULE TV / The TV schedule features 28 oaters, including seven of the season's Top 10 shows: "Gunsmoke," "Wagon Train," "Have Gun - Will Travel," "The Rifleman," Maverick," "Tales of Wells Fargo" and "The Life and Legend of Wyatt Earp."

[Based on: NEWSDAY article [SEPTEMBER: WESTERNS RULE TV] by Andy Edeistein, p. E3, S.L.P.D., 01/04/08]

1958 - "GIGI" - September 11th, 1958: We can still whistle "The Night They invented Champagne" from this best-picture Oscar winner about a turn-of-the-century French girl (Leslie Caron) groomed to be a courtesan."

[Based on: NEWSDAY article [SEPT. 11: 'GIGI'] by Andy Edeistein, p. E3, S.L.P.D., 01/04/08]

1958 - Birth / Kevin Sorbo - September 24th, 1958: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actor, Kevin Sorbo."

1958 - Birth / Shaun Cassidy - September 27th, 1958: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer, Shaun Cassidy."

1958 - Birth / Vladimir Putin - Octber 7th, 2008: "Reportedly born this date in history, Vladimir Putin."

1958  - U.S. Leaves Lebanon - October 25th, 1958: "The last U.S. troops left Beirut."

1958 - Birth / Jamie Lee Curtis - November 22nd, 1958: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actress, Jamie Lee Curtis."

1958 - Airline Passenger Service / U.S.A. - December 10th, 1958: "First domestic jet airline passenger service in U.S. opened by National Airlines Dec. 10 between New York and Miami." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 550]

1958  - Pope John XXIII - "In 1958, Pope Pius XII died and Pope John XXIII was elected."

1958  - Minted / Last Wheat Penny - "The US minted its last Wheat Ear penny."

1958 - Stray Hydrogen Bomb / Georgia Coast? - September 30th, 2004: "SAVANNAH, Ga. - The U.S. government is sending a team of 20 scientists [September 2004] to check out a report of unusual radiation readings that could be coming from a hydrogen bomb that was lost off the Georgia coast in 1958. [....] The bomb, believed buried in 10 to 15 feet of mud at the bottom of the sea, became one of 11 'Broken Arrows' - nuclear bombs lost during air or sea accidents, according to U.S. military records. The Air Force has long insisted that there is no risk of a nuclear blast from the bomb off Georgia because the plutonium capsule needed to trigger an explosion was removed before the ill-fated flight. Duke [Derek Duke] who lives in Statesboro, Ga., has disputed that point over the years. He sites a Pentagon memo from 1996 that referred to the bomb as a 'complete weapon.' The Air Force has said that memo was wrong. Duke approached Air Force officials more than three years ago [2000?], but they decided at the time not to renew the search for the bomb. The Air Force argued that it was better left undisturbed, because it contains uranium and 400 pounds of conventional explosives." [Russ Bynum, A.P., 09/30/04]

1958  - Invented / Laser - "AT&T Bell Labs scientists invented the laser. In 1981, Arthur Schawlow [d.1999 at 77] of Stanford won the Nobel Prize in Physics. He with his brother-in-law and Charles Townes of UC Berkeley shared credit for inventing the laser. They developed the laser in the 1950s and made a working model in 1960 whiled working for Bell Laboratories."

1958 - Invented / Integrated Circuit - "In 1958, Mr Kilby [Jack Kilby, d. 06/20/05] built the first integrated circuit, in which all the components were fabricated in semiconductor material half the size of a paper clip. He also co-invented the hand-held calculator. Mr. Kilby's invention, a forerunner of the microchip used in today's computers [2005], replaced the bulky and unreliable switches and tubes that had been used in the first computing devices. Later, Robert Noyce of Fairchild Semiconductor received a patent for a similar but more complex circuit made of silicon." [Based on: A.P. article, S.L.P.D., p. A7, 06/22/05]

1958 - The Nuclear Double Standard - 1958: "The controlled press ignores the fact that the three European nations seeking [2005] to prevent Iran from becoming a nuclear state have all assisted in the creation of the Middle East's only nuclear arsenal - Israel's. [....] On the one hand, Iran is abiding by its legal obligations under the treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). Iran, like every other nation in the Middle East with the exception of Israel, has ratified the NPT and forsworn the pursuit of nuclear weapons. [....] The BBC recently reported that in 1958 Britain had secretly sold Israel 20 tons of 'heavy water,' a key ingredient for its nuclear program. The shipment of deuterium oxide was reported as being 'vital to plutonium production' at Israel's top-secret Dimona nuclear reactor in the Negev Desert. Construction of the Dimona facility began in the late 1950s as the result of a secret agreement with France, which provided assistance with reactor design and construction. While the story of Britain's shipment of heavy water to Israel was reported by the BBC and elsewhere, The New York Times, whose motto is 'All the news that's fit to print,' did not even mention it. A call to the Times asking about the omission was not returned. Senior ministers in then Prime Minister Harold Macmillan's government were reported to have been unaware of the deal, which was supposedly conducted by lower-level civil servants. The shipment was also kept secret from the Americans. [....] Robert McNamara, U.S. secretary of defense from 1961-68, told the BBC he was 'astonished' by the coverup. 'It is very surprising to me we were not told because we shared information about the nuclear bomb very closely with the British,' he said. The heavy water had been bought by Britain from Norway and has been presented in the past as a deal between Israel and Norway. [....] More recently, Germany provided Israel with submarines that had their forward compartments modified, at Israel's request, for the launch of long-range cruise missles. The subs were free. Providing Israel with submarines equipped with the means to deliver nuclear-tipped cruise missles is a clear violation of the NPT by the German government." [Based on: American Free Press (Volume V, # 35, 08/29/05) article by Christopher Bollyn, p. 5] - [Paragraph indents removed to save space - E.M.]

1958  - Vancomycin - "The vancomycin antibiotic was developed. It became the best weapon against bacteria that were no longer vulnerable to other drugs. In 1988 bacteria resistant to vancomycin began to be detected."

1958 - Cost of Mailing a Letter? / U.S.A. - "Cost of stamp for mailing a letter in U.S.A.: 4 cents." [Based on: S.L.P.D. article (Cost of mailing a letter will jump to 39 cents next week [January 2006]), p. C1, S.L.P.D., 01/03/06]

1958 - Notable Songs of 1958 - "I Wonder Why" (Dion and the Belmonts); "Johnny B. Goode" (Chuck Berry); "Poor Little Fool" (Ricky Nelson); "Teen Angel" (Dion and the Belmonts)

1958 - Blizzard Trivia / 1958 - "Number of notable blizzards this year: at least 1. Number of recorded deaths: 171." [E.M.]

1958 - Earthquake Trivia / 1958 - "Number of notable earthquakes this year: at least 2. Number of earthquake deaths: 5." [E.M.]

1958 - "Natural Disaster" Deaths / 1958 - "Estimated number of people who died from natural disasters this year: at least 176." [E.M.]

1959

1959 - Fidel Castro / Cuba - January 1st, 1959: "Fidel Castro seized Havana and was joined by Che Guevara. Castro took over Cuba. Fidel Castro led Cuban revolutionaries to victory over Fulgencio Batista, who fled to the Dominican Republic."

1959 - Fidel Castro / Cuban Army - January 3, 1959: "Castro took command of the Cuban army."

1959 - Alaska - January 3rd, 1959: "The 49th American state."

1959 - CBS Premier / "Rawhide" - Entertainment highlights during the week of January 6th-12th, 1959: "Rawhide" premiered on CBS. [Based on: A.P. article, p. E3, S.L.P.D., 01/08/08]

1959 - U.S. Recognition / Cuban Government - January 7th, 1959: "The United States recognized Fidel Castro's new government in Cuba."

1959 - Birth / Linda Blair - January 22nd, 1959: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actress, Linda Blair."

1959 - American Airlines / U.S.A. - January 25, 1959: "American Airlines opened the jet age in the United States with the first scheduled transcontinental flight of a Boeing 707."

1959 - "The Day The Music Died" / Iowa - February 3rd, 1959: "The fatal crash of a four-seater light plane outside Mason City, Iowa, in February 1959, was reported around the world. On board, on their way to a concert in North Dakota, were Buddy Holly, Jiles 'Big Bopper' Richardson, and 17-year-old sensation Richie Valens. It was, as Don Maclean later sang, the day the music died."

*Trivia: "Buddy Holly, Ritchie Valens and the Big Bopper made what would be their last public appearance, in Clear Lake, Iowa [Feb. 2nd, 1959]." [Based on, A.P.]

1959 - Test-Fired / U.S. Titan ICBM - February 6, 1959: "The United States successfully test-fired for the first time a Titan intercontinental ballistic missile from Cape Canaveral."

1959 - Status / Fidel Castro, Cuba - "1959  February 16, Fidel Castro took the oath as Cuban premier in Havana after the overthrow of Fulgencio Batista."

1959 - Chinese Tibet - March 17, 1959: "Tibet rebelled [03/10/59] against Chinese control. China reacted harshly, arrested tens of thousands and held strict control until the late 1970s. The Chinese forced the Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso, and many of his followers to flee [March 17th] to India. The Communists destroyed 6,500 monasteries. About 250 monks of the Drepung Loseling Monastery escaped to India and established a replica of their ancient institution."

1959 - Selected / U.S. Astronauts - April 9, 1959: "NASA announced the selection of America's first seven astronauts for the US first orbital flight in 1962 under the Mercury program: Scott Carpenter, Gordon Cooper, John Glenn, Gus Grissom, Wally Schirra, Alan Shepard and Donald Slayton."

1959 - First Single / Dolly Parton - Entertainment highlights during the week of April 15-21, 1959: The first single by 13-year-old Dolly Parton was released on Gold Band Records. It was called "Puppy Love." [Based on: A.P. article, p. B3, S.L.P.D., 04/16/07]

1959 - Birth / Sheena Easton - April 27th, 1959: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Pop singer, Sheena Easton."

1959 - Birth / Brian Williams - May 5th, 1959: "Reportedly born on this date in history [Elmira, New York] : NBC News anchor, Brian Williams."

1959 - Group 559 / Vietnam - May 19th,  1959: "The formation of the Peoples' Army of Vietnam's Military Transportation Group 559 on May 19, 1959, the 69th birthday of Vietnamese revolutionary leader Ho Chi Minh, ultimately resulted in the creation of the Ho Chi Minh Trail. The trail was intended to facilitate the infiltrating of troops and transporting supplies from North Vietnam to support the revolution in South Vietnam."

1959 - Launched / 1st U.S. ICBM Submarine - 1959  June 9th, 1959: "The first ballistic missile carrying submarine, the USS George Washington, was launched."

1959 - Died / George Reeves ["Superman"] - June 17th, 1959: "On June 17, 1959, millions of American youngsters were devestated by the news: Superman was dead. George Reeves, whose work as TV's Man of Steel set the Superman screen standard for decades, died in his Benedict Canyon home from a gunshot to the head. The coroner ruled it suicide. The new film 'Hollywoodland,' which opens today [09/08/06], suggests Reeves might have been murdered. Considering the drama that surrounded Reeves' life and death, its surprising that Hollywood hadn't explored his saga before. He was born George Basselo on April 6, 1914, in Woodstock, Iowa. At 15, he moved to Southern California and became a championship wrestler on the Pasadena City College team. [....]" [Based on: A.P. article (Suicide or Murder?) by Bob Thomas, p. E1, S.L.P.D., 09/08/06]

1959 - Foreign Relations / U.S. & South Vietnam - "President Dwight Eisenhower commits to keeping South Vietnam independent." [Based on: S.L.P.D., p. A5, 04/25/05]

1959 - Birth / Suzanne Vega - July 11th, 1959: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer, Suzanne Vega."

1959 - Kitchen Debate - July 25th,  1959: "Vice President Richard Nixon squared off against Soviet Premier Nikita Khruschev during the so-called Kitchen debate in Moscow."

1959 - Birth / Joe Elliott - August 1st, 1959: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Rock singer (Def Leppard), Joe Elliott."

1959 - Birth / Rosanna Arquette - August 10th, 1959: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actress, Rosanna Arquette."

1959 - Earthquake / Hebgen Lake, Montana - August 18th, 1959: "Earthquake location: Hebgen Lake, Montana. Earthquake magnitude: 7.3. Number of recorded fatalities: 28."  

1959 - U.S. Statehood / Hawaii - August 21st, 1959: "The 50th American state." [Link: 1]

1959 - NBC-TV Premier / "Bonanza" - "Entertainment highlights during the week of Sept. 11-17: 'Bonanza,' starring Lorne Greene, Michael Landon, Dan Blocker and Pernell Roberts, premiered on NBC." [Based on: A.P.]

1959  - 1st Moon Probe - September 14th, 1959: "The Soviet space probe Luna 2 became the first man-made object to reach the moon as it crashed onto the lunar surface."

1959 - Moon Photos / Luna 3 - "Far side of the Moon photographed with the probe 614 - lb. Soviet Luna 3." [Link: 1]  

1959 - Typhoon Sara / Japan, South Korea - "Typhoon date(s): September 17th-19th, 1959. Number of recorded deaths: 2,000." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 206]

1959  - Trivia / SETI - September 19th, 1959: "Nature ran a paper by Giuseppe Cocconi and Philip Morrison that said terrestrial radiotelescopes were sensitive enough to detect radio signals from other stars. This was later seen as the beginning of SETI, the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence."

1959 - Trivia / Gravity Probe B - 1959: "[....] The conceptual design for this mission was first proposed by an MIT professor, George Pugh, who was working with the U.S. Department of Defense in 1959 and later discussed by Leonard Schiff (Stanford) in 1960 at Pugh's suggestion, based partly on a theoretical paper about detecting frame dragging that Schiff had written in 1957. It was proposed to NASA in 1961, and they supported the project with funds in 1964. This grant ended in 1977 after a long phase of engineering research into the basic requirements and tools for the satellite. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gravity_Probe_B]

1959 - Typhoon Vera / Honshu, Japan - "Typhoon date(s): September 27th, 1959. Number of recorded deaths: 4,466." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 206]

1959 - CBS Debut / "The Twilight Zone" - "Entertainment highlights during the week of October 1st-7th: "The Twilight Zone," created and hosted by Rod Sterling, made its debut on CBS. [Based on: A.P. article (That Was The Week That Was), p. B2, S.L.P.D., 10/02/06]

1959 - No. 1 Song (U.S.A.) / "Mack the Knife" - "Entertainment highlights during the week of October 1st-7th: "Mack the Knife" by Bobby Darin hit No. 1 on the pop charts. [Based on: A.P. article (That Was The Week That Was), p. B2, S.L.P.D., 10/02/06]

1959  - Operation Lorraine / Vietnam - October 29th, 1959: "French forces launched Operation Lorraine against Viet Minh supply bases in Indochina."

1959 - Flooding / W Mexico - "Flood date(s): November 1st, 1959. Number of recorded deaths: 2,000." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207]

1959  - CIA Headquarters / Virginia - November 3, 1959: "President Eisenhower laid the cornerstone for the CIA headquarters building in Langley, Virginia."

1959 - U.S. Food Stamps - September 11th, 1959: "US Congress passed a bill authorising food stamps for low-income Americans." [Link: 1]

1959 - Birth / Marie Osmond - October 13th, 1959: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer, Marie Osmond."

1959 - Birth / Sarah Ferguson - October 15th, 1959: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Britain's Duchess of York, Sarah Ferguson."

1959 - Birth / "Wierd Al" Yankovic - October 23rd, 1959: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Parodist, 'Wierd Al' Yankovic."

1959 - Birth / Bryan Adams - November 5th, 1959: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Singer, Bryan Adams."

1959 - Flooding / Frejus, France - "Flood date(s): December 2nd, 1959. Number of recorded deaths: 412." [Based on: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2005, p. 207]

1959 - Birth / Val Kilmer - December 31st, 1959: "Reportedly born on this date in history: Actor, Val Kilmer."

1959 - Translation / Kay-Dee Iverlet - "Reportedly died this year in history: Kay-Dee Iverlet, the sister of Paul Twitchell [The modern day founder of Eckankar]." [E.M.]  

1959 - Discovery / Ancient Bones, Channel Islands - "In 1959, the partial skeletal remains of an ancient woman estimated to be 10,000 years old were unearthed in Arlington Springs on Santa Rosa Island, one of the eight Channel Islands off the southern California coast. They were discovered by Phil C. Orr, curator of anthropology and natural history at the Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History. The remains of the so-called Arlington Springs woman were recently reanalyzed by the latest radiocarbon dating techniques and were found to be approximately 13,000 years old. The new date makes her remains older than any other known human skeleton found so far in North America."  

*Trivia: "In 1959-60, two femurs were excavated at a site called Arlington Springs on Santa Rosa Island. Responsible for the digs was Phil C. Orr, Curator of Anthropology at the Museum of Natural History in Santa Barbara. He published his findings in Science 135, 3499 (1962): 219 and American Antiquity 27, 3 (1962): 417-419, followed up by full account in Prehistory of Santa Rosa Island (Santa Barbara, 1968). Jon Erlandson reviews the evidence Orr collected at Arlington Springs in Early Hunter-Gatherers of the California Coast (New York: Plenum, 1994), pp. 184-186. [....] The main discovery is that Arlington Springs Man was in fact a woman and significantly earlier than previously thought. Radiocarbon dating has moved Orr's estimate of 10,000 years ago back to 13,000 B.P."  

1950s- Minamata Disease / Japan - "Japan's top court ordered the government Friday [10/15/04] to pay $703,000 in damages to victims of the Minamata Bay mercury poisining. The ruling came 22 years after the case was filed [1982?] over an industrial pollution disaster that killed more than 1,700 people and caused mothers to give birth to deformed babies.
   "The Minamata poisoning incident was Japan's worst case of industrial pollution. Since the 1950's, hundreds of people have contracted Minamata disease - a neurological disorder caused by mercury poisoning - from eating tainted fish. The disease was first discovered in the 1950s and named for Minamata Bay in southern Japan, where a company dumped tons of mercury compounds.
   "The court said the government and Kumamoto prefecture (state) failed to stop chemical manufacturer Chisso Corp. from dumping tons of mercury compounds into Minamata Bay beginning in the 1930s." [News Services, 10/16/04]

1959  - 1st Barbie - "The Barbie Doll No. 1 was introduced by Mattel Toy Company for $3. It sold for $4000 in 1994 as a collector's item."

1959  - Pantyhose - "Pantyhose first came out."

1959  - Hula Hoops - "Americans bought 100 million Hula Hoops."

1959  - Xerox  Copier - "The Xerox model 914 copier had a single green button and a fire extinguisher, 'scorch eliminator', in case paper caught fire."

1959 - Notable Songs of 1959 - "Mack the Knife" (Bobby Darin); "Take Five" (Dave Brubeck)

1959 - Notable Albums of 1959 - "Kind of Blue" (Miles Davis)

1959 - Flood Trivia / 1959 - "Number of notable floods this year: at least 2. Number of flood deaths: 2,412." [E.M.]

1959 - Typhoon Trivia / 1959 - "Number of notable typhoons this year: at least 2. Number of typhoon deaths: 6,466." [E.M.]

1959 - Earthquake Trivia / 1959 - "Number of notable earthquakes this year: at least 1. Number of earthquake deaths: 28." [E.M.]

1959 - "Natural Disaster" Deaths / 1959 - "Estimated number of people who died from natural disasters this year: at least 8,906." [E.M.]

1950s - "Natural Disaster" Deaths / 1950-1960 - "Estimated number of people who died from natural disasters this decade: at least 26,569." [E.M.]

1960-1970 A.D.

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Page last updated 10/26/14