For centuries scholars have been playing with history like school children working on a complicated puzzle. In some places the "puzzle pieces" appear out of place, twisted, or more or less contrasted with reality. As such, history portrays a work of art beginning like a hallway of children's drawings evolving toward higher grades. It reflects a collection of attitudes ranging from free imagination to stolid ignorance.
The following timeline offers a "framework" for world history, with the objective of isolating a generic outline of prevalent information to fashion an adequate "launchpad" for future discovery. My general tendency (when adding data) is to believe that more is better. However, after initial stages of edification I should like to "distill" the facts and "jetison" the garbage for each entry. For the time being, however, I can admit but a crude image of metamorphosis to illustrate the facts about world history - a literal cesspool of human preoccupation. Be that as it may, below one can find a "crucible" of literary artifacts "excavated" from around the world. Colored highlights are used to catagorize data and facilitate a quicker review of events. [E.M.]
15 Billion B.C. - 4 Million B.C. 11,000 B.C. - 9,000 B.C. 9,000 B.C. - 3,000 B.C. 3,000 B.C. - 1 A.D.
Historical Summary: 3000 B.C - 1 A.D. Historical Summary: 500-year Neptune / Pluto Cycles
Timeline: 1 A.D. - Present
Historical Summary: 1 A.D. - Present
Besides quoting Max Muller I shall give a few extracts from writers on the subject whom science calls authorities.
Kant and Schiller both assert that "A myth does not represent debasement, or a sinking down from original perfection, not a victory of sensuality over reason, but on the contrary, it manifests the advancement of a man from a state of comparative rudeness to freedom and civilization."
I am not in accord with these ideas because common reasoning tells me the case should be reversed. Fully ninety-nine percent of the myths are traceable to legends. Legends are history orally handed down. History is a record of facts, so that myths instead of "manifesting advancement" manifest a retrogression; for they show that history, a part of civilization, is being forgotten. Therefore that civilization has declined. [Based on: Col. James Churchward, The Sacred Symbols Of Mu (First Published in 1933, Reprinted 1992), p. 24-25]
*Color Code Index
???? - The Beginning? - "History Begins with creation." * Further Reading ...
*Trivia - Genesis 1:1 - Brasyt bra alhym at hsmym vat harts:
In [b] the beginning [rasyt] God [alhym] created [bra] the [h] heaven [smym] and [v] the [h] earth [arts].
*Trivia: God: 1 supreme being 2 being with supernatural powers [Based on: Webster's Vest Pocket Dictionary (Copyright 1981), by Merriam-Webster Inc., p. 135] * Further Reading ...
*Trivia: "[....] God is most often conceived of as the supernatural creator and overseer of the universe. Theologians have ascribed a variety of attributes to the many different conceptions of God. The most common among these include omniscience (infinite knowledge), omnipotence (unlimited power), omnipresence (present everywhere), omnibenevolence (perfect goodness), divine simplicity, and eternal and necessary existence. [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/God] - [T.D. - 01/22/11]
*Trivia: "[....] The Catholic Church no longer teaches creationism - the belief that God created the world in six days as described in the Bible - and says that the account in the book of Genesis is an allegory for the way God created the world. [NP] But it objects to using evolution to back an atheist philosophy that denies God's existence or any divine role in creation. It also objects to using Genesis as a scientific text."
[Based on: Science on MSNBC.com article (God was behind Big Bang, pope says / 'The universe is not the result of chance, as some would want to make us believe' ) by Philip Pullella, Reuters (see link) - updated 1/6/2011 10:10:20 AM ET] - [Brackets text (NP = New paragraph) added to save space. See link for context. - E.M.]
*Trivia - Genesis 1:2 - vharts hyth thv vbhv vchsk al-pny thvm vrvch alhym mrchpt al-pny hmym:
And [v] the [h] earth [arts] was [hyth] without form [thv] and [v] void [bhv]; and [v] darkness [chsk] was upon [al] the face [pny] of the deep [thvm]. And [v] the spirit [rvch] of God [alhym] moved [mrchpt] upon [al] the face [pny] of the [h] waters [mym].
*Trivia - Genesis 1:3 - vyamr alhym yhy-avr vyhy-avr:
And [v] God [alhym] said [amr], "Let there be [yhy] light [avr]:" And [v] there was [yhy] light [avr].
13.7 Billion - Big Bang Theory? - "Strange as it may seem, the laws of physics suggest that immediately after the Big Bang, all the matter suddenly created should have been obliterated by an equal amount of antimatter, the strange and slightly distorted mirror image of normal matter." [Based on: DISCOVER article for August 2004, p. 67] * Further Reading ...
*Commentary: "Gee, how many years of college does it take to become smart like that?" [- E.M.]
13.2 Billion - Dark Age of the Universe?
THE DARK AGES BEGIN When the cosmos was about 400,000 years old, it had cooled to about the temperature of the surface of the Sun, allowing subatomic particles to combine for the first time into atoms. The last burst of light from the Big Bang shone forth at that time; it is still detectable today  in the form of a faint whisper of microwaves streaming from all directions in space. The discovery of those microwaves in 1964 confirmed the existence of the Big Bang.
[Based on: Time Magazine illustrated article (Illuminating a Dark Age / How the universe grew from a murky soup to twinkling galaxies), pp. 44-45, September 4th, 2006 issue]
*Trivia: "[....] Known as the Dark Ages of the universe, it's the 200 million-year period (more or less) after the last flash of light from the Big Bang faded and the first blush of sun-like stars began to appear. What happened during the Dark Ages set the stage for the cosmos we see today, with its billions of magnificent galaxies and everything that they contain - the shimmering gas clouds, the fiery stars, the tiny planets, the mammoth black holes. When the Dark Ages began, the cosmos was a formless sea of particles; by the time it ended, just a couple hundred million years later, the universe was alight with young stars gathered into nascent galaxies. It was during the Dark Ages that the chemical elements we know so well - carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and most of the rest - were first forged out of primordial hydrogen and helium. And it was during this time that the great structures of the modern universe - superclusters of thousands of galaxies stretching across millions of light-years - began to assemble. [....]
[Based on: Time Magazine article (Let There Be Light / 400,000 YEARS AFTER THE BIG BANG, THE COSMOS WENT BLACK. HERE'S WHAT HAPPENED NEXT, by Michael D. Lemonick, pp. 42-51, September 4th, 2006 issue]
*Trivia: - Genesis 1:6 - vyamr alhym yhy rqya btvk hmym vyhy mbdyl byn mym lmym:
And [v] God [alhym] said [amr]: "Let there be [yhy] a firmament [rqya] in [b] the midst [tvk] of the [h] waters [mym], and [v] let [yhy] it separate [bdyl] the waters [mym] from [byn] the waters [mym]."
*Trivia: "The First Command: 'Let the gases, which are scattered throughout space and without form and order, be brought together and out of them let worlds be formed.' Then the gases were brought together in the form of whirling masses." [Col. James Churchward, The Sacred Symbols Of Mu, p. 96]
DARK MATTER Accounting for a bigger portion of matter than ordinary atoms, dark-matter particles were spread unevenly through the cosmos; areas of higher concentration drew in hydrogen and helium gas, gradually forming the first stars dense enough to burst into thermonuclear flame
[Based on: Time Magazine illustrated article (Illuminating a Dark Age / How the universe grew from a murky soup to twinkling galaxies), pp. 44-45, September 4th, 2006 issue]
FIRST STARS The earliest stars were massive, weighing in at 20 to more than 100 times the mass of the sun. The crushing pressures at their cores made them burn through their nuclear fuel in only a million years or so and caused them to spew radiation so intense that it kept other stars from forming. The first "galaxies" might have consisted of clouds of hydrogen and helium surrounding just one mega-star
[Based on: Time Magazine illustrated article (Illuminating a Dark Age / How the universe grew from a murky soup to twinkling galaxies), pp. 44-45, September 4th, 2006 issue]
*Trivia: - Genesis 1:14 - vyamr alhym yhy mart brqya hsmym lhbdyl byn hyvm vbyn hlylh vhyv latt vlmvadym vlymym vsnym:
And [v] God [alhym] said [amr]: 'Let there be [yhy] lights [mart] in [b] the firmament [rqya] of the [h] heaven [smym] to [l] separate [bdyl] from [byn] the [h] day [yvm] and [v] from [byn] the [h] night [lylh]; and [v] let them be [hyv] for [l] signs [att], and [v] for [l] seasons [mvadym], and [v] for [l] days [ymym] and [v] years [snym];
THE END OF THE DARK AGES The death of the mega-stars triggered the formation of normal stars, creating the first recognizable dwarf galaxies. Their radiation in turn burned through the remaining shrouds of hydrogen, bringing the dark ages to a close
*Trivia: "Scientists have just found  the most energy-efficient engines in the universe - black holes, those whirling super-dense centers of galaxies that suck in nearly everything. The jets of energy spurting from older ultra-efficient black holes also seem to be playing a crucial role as zoning cops in large galaxies, preventing too many stars from sprouting, according to scientists using NASA's Chandra X-Ray Observatory. That explains why there aren't as many burgeoning galaxies chock full of stars as previously expected, they said Monday [04/24/06]. [....] These black holes are in galaxies bigger than ours, the Milky Way, and are 50 million to 400 million light-years away. The black hole at the center of our galaxy wasn't studied because it wasn't gas-rich or big enough to allow scientists to measure what was going in and coming out, Allen [Steve Allen] said." [Based on: A.P. article (Black holes' energy use is totally green), p. A7, S.L.P.D., 04/25/06]
10.2 Billion - Galaxy Cluster JKCS041 - "The most distant galaxy cluster yet has been discovered by combining data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and optical and infrared telescopes. The cluster is located about 10.2 billion light years away, and is observed as it was when the Universe was only about a quarter of its present age. [NP] The galaxy cluster, known as JKCS041, beats the previous record holder by about a billion light years. Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound objects in the Universe. Finding such a large structure at this very early epoch can reveal important information about how the Universe evolved at this crucial stage. [NP] JKCS041 is found at the cusp of when scientists think galaxy clusters can exist in the early Universe based on how long it should take for them to assemble. Therefore, studying its characteristics - such as composition, mass, and temperature - will reveal more about how the Universe took shape. [....] [Based on: chandra.harvard.edu article (Galaxy Cluster Smashes Distance Record) - For Release: October 22, 2009]
[Based on: http://chandra.harvard.edu/press/09_releases/press_102209.html]
10 Billion - Galaxies - "By 10 billion years after it had come into existence, the Universe had become a mighty extent of galaxies, almost as large as what we see about us today. However, even after 10 billion years, our Sun and its family of planets did not yet exist." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov, Copyright 1991, p. 4]
*Trivia: "The Second Command: 'Let the gases solidify and let the earth be formed.' Then the gases solidified. Volumes were left on the outside of the crust, from which the waters and the atmosphere were to be formed; and volumes were left enveloped within the crust. Darkness prevailed, and there was no sound for as yet neither the atmosphere nor the waters were formed." [Based on: Col. James Churchward, The Sacred Symbols Of Mu, p. 96]
*Trivia: "The Milky Way is considerably larger, bulkier and spinning faster than astronomers once thought, and is equal to the galaxy Andromeda, scientists say. [NP] Scientists mapped the Milky Way in a more detailed, three-dimensional way and found it is denser than thought, with 50 percent more mass. The findings were presented Monday [01/05/09] at the American Astronomical Society's convention in Long Beach, Calif." [Based on: News Services article (WASHINGTON / New Milky Way map shows galaxy is denser), p. A3, S.L.P.D., 01/06/09]
5.0 Billion - Archeozoic Era - "The Archeozoic [Ancient Life] Era is the earliest era known to man. The Archeozoic began between 4 and 5 billion years ago when the formation of the Earth was taking place. During this era, the earliest recorded rocks were formed. There is no record of life on land during the Archeozoic Era. According to popular science, after knowing the decay rate of various radioactive elements, it is possible to measure the age of any rock that contains such elements. Incidentally, Uranium-238, the most common type of Uranium, has a half life of 4.51 billion years. That is, in any given quantity of Uranium-238, half of it will have decayed in 4.51 billion years." [Link: 1]
*Commentary: "Is this the reason popular science declares the solar system, meteorites, moon rocks and planet Earth to be no more than 5 billion years old? Because the half life of Uranium-238 is only 4.51 billion years?" [- E.M.]
*Trivia: "From that part of the Archaean Time when cooling commenced, down to the end of the Tertiary Era [1.8 million B.C.], the surface of the earth has been gradually and systematically cooling; that is, volumes of the Heat force have been gradually leaving the earth's solid body, passing out into the atmosphere, there interchanging and equalizing. This went on until the earth's crust had solidified deep enough to form a neutral zone." [Based on: Col. James Churchward, Cosmic Forces of Mu, Volume Two, p.121]
4.6 Billion - Solar system - Estimated date when our solar system assumed its present form. Meteorites reportedly yield a date of 4.6 billion years. - E.M. [See: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 5]
*Trivia: "4,600: Formation of planets" [Based on: N.G.M. (Dec. 2006) illustrated timeline (ROAD TO LIFE), p. 61]
*Trivia: "Today's cold, dry climate on Mars evolved about 3.5 billion years ago, ending a period when that planet had seen moist conditions, research indicates. An international team of scientists developed a timeline for Mars' geological evolution, reporting in today's issue [04/21/06] of the journal Science that the planet had three distinct eras. If Mars had been hospitable to life, it would only have been in its early, wet years, according to the researchers led by JeanPierre Bibring of France's Institute for Space Astrophysics. The planet formed about 4.6 billion years ago. During the first era, clay materials, which need abundant water and moderate temperatures, formed, the researchers said. Then, starting about 4 billion years ago a second era began, marked by volcanic activity spewing sulfur into the environment. That was the start of the drying out of the planet. Between 3.2 billion years ago and 3.5 billion years ago, the third era began. It was marked by minerals dominated by ferric oxides, which have not been formed or altered by water, the researchers said. The researchers from France, Italy, Russia, Germany and the United States developed their timetable by studying data from Mars Express. This mission by the European Space Agency carried an instrument capable of determining the mineral composition of the planet's surface. The research was funded by the space and research agencies in all five countries." [Based on: A.P. article (Scientists: Mars could have supported life only eons ago), p. A7, S.L.P.D., 04/21/06] - [Paragraph indents left untranscribed - E.M.]
4.6 Billion - Hadean Eon - "The Hadean ... is the geologic eon before the Archean. It started at Earth's formation about 4.6 billion years ago (4,600 Ma), and ended roughly 3.8 billion years ago, though the latter date varies according to different sources. The name 'Hadean' derives from Hades, Greek for 'Underworld', referring to the conditions on Earth at the time. The geologist Preston Cloud coined the term in 1972, originally to label the period before the earliest-known rocks. W. Brian Harland later coined an almost synonymous term: the "Priscoan period". Other older texts simply refer to the eon as the Pre-Archean. [....]"
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hadean]
4.5 Billion - Heavy Bombardment Period? - [....] From the time the earth formed, 4.5 billion years ago, until about 3.8 billion years ago, large meteorites slammed into the earth. Geologists have a name for it: the Heavy Bombardment Period. [....]" [Based on article by Eric Hand, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p. A5, 03/29/05]
4.5 Billion - Earth's Moon - "4,600: Formation of moon" [Based on: N.G.M. (Dec. 2006) illustrated timeline (ROAD TO LIFE), p. 61]
*Trivia: Rocks on earth's moon have been estimated at over 4 billion years old. - E.M. [See: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov, Copyright 1991, p. 5]
4.0 Billion - Earth Rocks - "Oldest known rocks (Canada)." [Based on, St. Louis Post-Dispatch timeline diagram, p. A5, 03/29/05]
*Trivia: "[....] The oldest known intact rock is the four-billion-year-old Acasta gneiss in Canada's Northwest Territories. This rock formed deep underground and bears no information about conditions on the surface. Most investigators assumed hellish conditions at the planet's surface must have obliterated any rocks that formed earlier. The oldest rocks known to have originated underwater (and thus in relatively cool environs) did not form until 3.8 billion years ago. Those sediments, which are exposed at Isua in southwestern Greenland, also contain the earliest evidence of life [see "Questioning the Oldest Signs of Life," by Sarah Simpson; SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, April 2003]. Single crystals of zircon began to add new information about the early earth in the 1980s, when a few rare grains from the Jack Hills and Mount Narryer regions of Western Australia became the most ancient terrestrial material known at that time - the oldest dating back almost 4.3 billion years. But the information these zircons carried seemed ambiguous, in part because geologists were unsure of the identity of their parent rock. Once formed, zircon crystals are so durable that they can persist even if their parent rock is exposed at the surface and destroyed by weathering and erosion. Wind or water can then transport the surviving grains great distances before they become incorporated into deposits of sand and gravel that may later solidify into sedimentary rock. [....] It was not until 1999 that technological advances allowed further study of the ancient zircon crystals from Western Australia - and challenged conventional wisdom about the earth's earliest history. [....] Finding high oxygen isotope ratios in the Jack Hills zircons implied that liquid water must have existed on the surface of the earth at least 400 million years earlier than the oldest known sedimentary rocks, those at Isua, Greenland. If correct, entire oceans probably existed, making the earth's early climate more like a sauna than a Hadean fireball. [....]" [Based on: Scientific American magazine (October 2005) article by John W. Valley (Entitled: A Cool Early Earth?), pp. 58-63] - [Paragraph indents removed to save space - E.M.]
4.0 Billion - Trivia / RNA - "[....] Back before the first dinosaurs, before the first fishes, before the first worms, before the first plants, before the first fungi, before the first bacteria, there was an RNA world - probably somewhere around four billion years ago, soon after the beginning of planet earth's very existence and when the universe itself was only ten billion years old. We do not know what these 'ribo-organisms' looked like. We can only guess at what they did for a living, chemically speaking. We do not know what came before them. We can be pretty sure that they once existed, because of the clues to RNA's role that survive in living organisms today.(8) [....]"
(8) Gesteland, R.F. and Atkins, J.F. (eds) (1993). The RNA world. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, New York.
[Based on: GENOME, The Aurobiography of a Species in 23 chapters, by Matt Ridley (Copyright 1999), 2000 paperback edition, p. 18 (& 316)]
4.0 Billion - Trivia / Human Genome - "[....] I began to think about the human genome as a sort of autobiography in its own right - a record, written in 'genetish', of all the vicissitudes and inventions that had characterised the history of our species and its ancestors since the very dawn of life. There are genes that have not changed much since the very first single-celled creatures populated the primeval ooze. There are genes that were developed when our ancestors were worm-like. There are genes that must have first appeared when our ancestors were fish. There are genes that exist in their present form only because of recent epidemics of disease. And there are genes that can be used to write the history of human migrations in the last few thousand years [1000 B.C - 2000 A.D.]. From four billion years ago to just a few hundred years ago [1700 A.D.], the genome has been a sort of autobiography for our species, recording the important events as they occurred. [....]" [Based on: GENOME, The Aurobiography of a Species in 23 chapters, by Matt Ridley (Copyright 1999), 2000 paperback edition, p. 5] - [Brackets text added - E.M.]
*Trivia: "[....] ... We have no fossil record of the way life was four billion years ago. We have only this great book of life, the genome. The genes in the cells of your little finger are the direct descendants of the first replicator molecules; through an unbroken chain of tens of billions of copyings, they come to us today still bearing a digital message that has traces of those earliest struggles of life. If the human genome can tell us things about what happened in the primeval soup, how much more can it tell us about what else happened during the succeeding four million millennia. It is a record of our history written in the code for a working machine." [Based on: GENOME, The Aurobiography of a Species in 23 chapters, by Matt Ridley (Copyright 1999), 2000 paperback edition, p. 22]
3.9 Billion - Earth Rocks Containing Carbon - "Oldest known rocks containing carbon, a signature of life (Greenland)." [Based on, St. Louis Post-Dispatch timeline diagram, p. A5, 03/29/05]
3.8 Billion - Archean Eon - "The Archean ... also spelled Archaean; formerly Archaeozoic ... also spelled Archeozoic or Archæozoic) is a geologic eon before the Paleoproterozoic Era of the Proterozoic Eon, before 2.5 Ga (billion years ago, or 2,500 Ma). Instead of being based on stratigraphy, this date is defined chronometrically. The lower boundary (starting point) has not been officially recognized by the International Commission on Stratigraphy, but it is usually set to 3.8 Ga, at the end of the Hadean Eon. In older literature, the Hadean is included as part of the Archean. The name comes from the ancient Greek ... (Arkhe-), meaning 'beginning, origin'. [....]"
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaean]
3.8 Billion - End / Heavy Bombardment Period? - [....] From the time the earth formed, 4.5 billion years ago, until about 3.8 billion years ago, large meteorites slammed into the earth. Geologists have a name for it: the Heavy Bombardment Period. [....]" [Based on article by Eric Hand, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p. A5, 03/29/05]
3.5 Billion - Prokaryotes - "Bacteria are 'parkoyotes,' from Greek words meaning 'before the nucleus.' [....] The oldest rocks in which these prokaryote traces have been found may be as much as 3.5 billion years old and that is what tells us that life must have existed that long ago - at least. It may even have existed at somewhat earlier periods." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov, Copyright 1991, p. 6]
*Trivia: "[....] ... Thanks to some brilliant detective work by three New Zealanders published in 1998, we can suddenly glimpse the possibility that the tree of life, as it appears in virtually every textbook, may be upside down. Those books assert that the first creatures were like bacteria, simple cells with single copies of circular chromosomes, and that all other living things came about when teams of bacteria ganged together to make complex cells. It may much more plausibly be the exact reverse. The very first modern organisms were not like bacteria; they did not live in hot springs or deep-sea volcanic vents. They were much more like protozoa: with genomes fragmented into several linear chromosomes rather than one circular one, and 'polyploid' - that is, with several spare copies of every gene to help with the correction of spelling errors. Moreover, they would have liked cool climates. As Patrick Forterre has long argued, it now looks as if bacteria came later, highly specialised and simplified descendants of the Lucas, long after the invention of the DNA-protein world. Their trick was to drop much of the equipment of the RNA world specifically to enable them to live in hot places. It is we that have retained the primitive molecular features of the Lucas in our cells; bacteria are much more 'highly evolved' than we are. [....]" [Based on: GENOME, The Aurobiography of a Species in 23 chapters, by Matt Ridley (Copyright 1999), 2000 paperback edition, pp. 20-21]
*Trivia: "[....] The oldest rocks known to have originated underwater (and thus in relatively cool environs) did not form until 3.8 billion years ago. [....]" [Based on: Scientific American magazine (October 2005) article by John W. Valley (Entitled: A Cool Early Earth?), p. 60]
*Trivia: "Harvard University is launching  a research project to study how life began. The team of researchers will receive $1 million in funding annually from Harvard over the next few years. 'My expectation is that we will be able to reduce this to a very simple series of logical events that could have taken place with no divine intervention,' said David R. Liu, a professor of chemistry and chemical biology at Harvard. The 'Origins of Life in the Universe Initiative' is still in its early stages, scientists told the Boston Sunday Globe. Harvard has told the research team to make plans for adding faculty members and a collection of multimillion-dollar facilities." [Based on: News Services article, p. A3, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 08/15/05]
*Trivia: - Genesis 2:6 - vad yalh mn-harts vhsqh at-kl-pny hadmh:
But [v] there went up [alh] a mist [ad] from [mn] the [h] earth [arts], and watered [sqh] the whole [kl] face [pny] of the [h] ground [admh].
*Trivia: "The Third Command: 'Let the outside gases be separated and let them form the waters and the atmosphere.' And the gases were separated. One part went to form the waters, the remainder formed the atmosphere. The waters settled upon the face of the Earth so that no land appeared anywhere.
"The gases which did not form the waters, went to form the atmosphere. And the shafts of the Sun met the shafts of the earth's light contained in the atmosphere, which gave birth to light. Then there was light upon the face of the earth.
"And the shafts of the Sun met the shafts of the Earth's heat which was contained in her atmosphere and gave it life. Then there was heat to warm the face of the earth." [Based on: Col. James Churchward, The Sacred Symbols Of Mu, pp. 97-98]
*Trivia: "The Fourth Command: 'Let the fires that are within the earth raise land above the face of the waters.' Then the fires of the underneath lifted the land on which the waters rested until the land appeared above the face of the waters - this was the dry land." [Based on: Col. James Churchward, The Sacred Symbols Of Mu, p. 98]
*Trivia: "The Fifth Command: 'Let life come forth in the waters.' And the shafts of the Sun met the shafts of the earth in the mud of the waters, and out of the particles of mud formed cosmic eggs. From these eggs life came forth as commanded." [Based on: Col. James Churchward, The Sacred Symbols Of Mu, pp. 98-99]
3.5 Billion - Volcanic activity / Mercury - 'Planetary scientists at Brown University and participating institutions have discovered vast, smooth plains around Mercurys north pole that were created by volcanic activity more than 3.5 billion years ago. The lava flows were epic: They filled craters more than a mile deep and cover 6 percent of Mercurys surface, an area that would cover nearly 60 percent of the continental United States, the scientists write in the journal Science. [....] To confirm the plains were caused by very rapid volcanism, the researchers looked at a feature about 125 miles outside the volcanic zone. There, they saw evidence of a fissure vent, with wide river-like channels emanating from the crack. 'These features are similar to lava flows and very fluid flows that erode much of the surrounding terrain,' said Debra Hurwitz ... who studies similar features on the Moon and Mars and is a contributing author on the paper. [....]" [Based on: Brown University article (Epic volcanic activity flooded Mercurys north polar region) September 29, 2011 | Contact: Richard Lewis ] - [The NASA Discovery Program funded the research.]
3.49 Billion - Bacteria / Australia - "Scientists analyzing Australian rocks have discovered traces of bacteria that lived a record-breaking 3.49 billion years ago, a mere billion years after Earth formed. The find could move scientists one step closer to understanding the first chapters of life on Earth and could also spur the search for ancient life on other planets." [Based on: DIGEST article (Ancient bacteria found on rocks), p. A8, S.L.P.D., 01/01/13]
3.4 Billion - Lake on Mars? - "Scientists say new images suggest Mars had a sizable lake on its surface billions of years ago. University of Colorado researchers estimate the lake, which probably formed 3.4 billion years ago, was 80 square miles and up to 1,500 feet deep." [Based on: News Services article (Evidence of lake found on Mars), p. A6, S.L.P.D., 06/19/09]
3.4 Billion - Single-cell Life - "The hunt for the most ancient example of life on Earth has a pungent new contender: Sulfur-belching microbes fossilized in 3.4-billion-year-old western Australian sandstone. [NP] The find bodes well for the search for life on Mars, researchers say. [...] 'At last we have good solid evidence for life over 3.4 billion years ago,' senior researcher Martin Brasier of Oxford University said in a statement. 'It confirms there were bacteria at this time, living without oxygen.' [....]"
[Based on: The Washington Post article (Oldest microfossils raise hopes for life on Mars) by Brian Vastag, Published: August 21]
3.4 Billion - Algae / Eobacterium - "On this day [10/23/77] in 1977, American paleontologist Elso S. Barghoorn announced the discovery of Pre-Cambrian spherical one-celled algae microfossils (named Eobacterium). These fossils were 3.4 billion years old, making them Earth's earliest life forms." [Based on: Leo Laporte's 2005 Technology Almanac, p. 343]
2.7 Billion - Huronian Ice Age? - "There have been at least four major ice ages in the Earth's past. Outside these periods, the Earth seems to have been ice-free even in high latitudes. [NP] The earliest hypothesized ice age, called the Huronian, was around 2.7 to 2.3 billion years ago during the early Proterozoic Eon. [....]"
[Based on: http://2012wiki.com/index.php?title=Ice_Age] - [T.D. - 08/13/09]
2.7 Billion - Photosynthetic Algae - "[....] About 2.7 billion years ago, photosynthetic algae in the oceans started making their mark, taking in carbon dioxide as fuel and sending the by-product - oxygen - skyward. The sun's ultraviolet rays split some of these oxygen molocuels, and the freed elemental oxygen combined with normal oxygen to create ozone. Over time, the new molecuels piled up and formed the ozone layer, a natural sunscreen floating a few tens of miles above the ground. Shielded from harmful UV rays, which would otherwise eat away at DNA, plant life thrived. [....]" [Based on: DISCOVER magazine (June 2007) article (BLOWING IN THE WIND / Cosmic dust, cockroach parts, Ceasar's breath: There's a lot of history in the air.) by Bregory Mone, p. 38]
2.5 Billion - Proterozoic Era - "The Proterozoic [First Life] Era began about 2.5 billion years ago. There is no evidence of life on land during this era, although there are some fossils of simple plants and worms that lived in the oceans. There was also great volcanic activity, lava flows, and the metamorphism of rocks." [Link: 1]
2.5 Billion - Microbial Life? -"[....] Four years ago [2001?], geologist Timothy Kusky of St. Louis University found 2.5-billion-year-old rocks clinging to a Chinese mountain. The rocks were originally formed along an ancient ocean ridge. Now, he has evidence that some of them contain fossilized microbial life - the oldest example of life along seafloor vents. [....] The seafloor fossils support what many scientists believe: that life began at the bottom of oceans near these super-heated vents. [....]" [Based on article by Eric Hand, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p. A5, 03/29/05]
*Trivia: "[....] Kusky next wants to push the timeline for life-bearing sea floor rocks back by another billion years. He wants to go to the Pilbara region of western Australia, where he thinks he might find sea floor rocks 3.5 billion years old. If he's lucky, he'll bag some black smoker chimneys. [....]" [Based on article by Eric Hand, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p. A5, 03/29/05]
*Trivia: "Oldest [2.5 billion] known ocean crust with microfossils (China)." [Based on, St. Louis Post-Dispatch timeline diagram, p. A5, 03/29/05]
2.4 Million - Oxygenated Atmosphere - "Oxygenated atmosphere [Earth]" [Based on: N.G.M. (Dec. 2006) illustrated timeline (ROAD TO LIFE), p. 61]
1.8 Billion - Algae - "First algae [Earth]" [Based on: N.G.M. (Dec. 2006) illustrated timeline (ROAD TO LIFE), p. 61]
1.4 Billion - Eukaryotes - "These more complex cells are called eukaryotes (from Greek words meaning 'good nuclei,' because separate nuclei are partitioned off inside the cell). [....] The earliest signs of eukaryotes have been located in rocks that are about 1.4 billion years old, so that eukaryotes have only existed during the last 30% of earth's existence." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov, Copyright 1991, p. 7]
850 Million - Cyrogenian Period? - "[....] The earliest well-documented ice age, and probably the most severe of the last 1 billion years, occurred from 850 to 630 million years ago (the Cryogenian period) and may have produced a Snowball Earth in which permanent ice covered the entire globe. This ended very rapidly as water vapor returned to Earth's atmosphere. It has been suggested that the end of this ice age was responsible for the subsequent Ediacaran and Cambrian Explosion, though this theory is recent and controversial. [....]" [Based on: http://2012wiki.com/index.php?title=Ice_Age] - [T.D. - 08/13/09]
800 Million - Multicellular Life - "Again, we don't know the details, but in 1930, a German paleontologist, Georg J. E. Gurich, and in 1947, an Australian paleontologist, R.C. Sprigg, found traces of multicellular life in rocks that were as old as 800 million years." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov, Copyright 1991, p. 8]
750 Million - Single continent / Rodinia - "[...] Until about 750 million years ago, the Earth's landmass was gathered into a vast single continent called Rodinia. [... .]"
[Based on: BBC News article (Fragments of ancient continent buried under Indian Ocean) by Rebecca Morelle Science reporter, BBC World Service) - 02/24/13]
600 Million - Animals With Shells - "About 600 million years ago, animals with shells and other hard parts proliferated and began to leave behind fossils that were large enough to be seen without a microscope ... [....]." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov, Copyright 1991, p. 8]
550 Million - Chordata Phylum - "The phylum [tribe] to which we belong is 'Chordata', and we are 'chordates.' [....] ... for even very primitive chordates, the first of which, from which all others (including ourselves) have evolved, seems to have made its appearance about 550 million years ago. Chordates have existed on Earth, therefore, only during the last eighth of its existence." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov, Copyright 1991, p. 9]
*Trivia: The early forms of Chordata evolved into amphibians [from Greek words meaning 'double life'], whose modern descendants are frogs, toads, and salamanders. [See: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov, Copyright 1991, p. 11]
540 Million - Phanerozoic Eon - "The Phanerozoic Eon represents the time during which the majority of macroscopic organisms, algal, fungal, plant and animal, lived. When first proposed as a division of geologic time, the beginning of the Phanerozoic [approximately 540 million years ago] was thought to coincide with the beginning of life. In reality, this eon coincides with the appearance of animals that evolved external skeletons, like shells, and the somewhat later animals that formed internal skeletons, such as the bony elements of vertebrates. The time before the Phanerozoic is usually referred to as the Precambrian, and exactly what qualifies as an 'eon' or 'era' varies somewhat depending on whom you talk to. The Phanerozoic also consists of three major divisions... the Paleozoic, the Mesozoic, and the Cenozoic Eras."
540 Million - Paleozoic Era - "Reportedly, the Paleozoic [Ancient Life] Era [540-240 million] began about 540 million years ago. At the beginning of the Paleozoic Era, there were already living organisms on the earth. The earth's temperature had long ago dropped low enough for clouds to form and rain to fall, and this had set the stage for the development of organic compounds and-eventually-cells with chlorophyll that had the ability to photosynthesize." [Links: 1, 2]
540 Million - Cambrian Period - "The Cambrian Period [540-500 million] is the time when most of the major groups of animals first appear in the fossil record. Sometimes called the 'Cambrian Explosion', this period is the time when the rate of evolution occured very quickly. A large number of species develop rapidly and we see the first animals with 'hard parts.' Among these is the trilobite, which is the closest ancestor to the horseshoe crab. At the end of the Cambrain, there is a mass extinction of 50% of all animal families, including the trilobites, which is believed to be caused by glaciation." [Links: 1, 2]
*Trivia: "The geological Glacial Period is one of those bizarre, fantastic, mythical theories that has taken strong root in the minds of our present-day scientists. The Glacial Period is history repeating itself. Such scientific misconceptions have pervaded the scientific world all through history and even back beyond historical times, as is shown by the symbolical Tower of Babel; and when there was Atlas disturbing the scientific fraternity until they clubbed together and unceremoniously buried him in the Northwest corner of Africa. The Glacial Period is really modern and up-to-date, for it boasts of having a family of little glaciations, so that there will be some support for it in its old age. Agassiz and his assistants, who framed the Glacial Period Theory and surrounded it with such a corrollary of impossibilities, never studied the origin and workings of forces or natural laws, otherwise they would never have foisted such a raw scientific proposition on an unsuspecting public." [Based on: Col. James Churchward, Cosmic Forces of Mu, Volume Two, pp.114-115]
*Trivia: "To have had the various glaciations spoken of in recent geological works, the earth must have had a period, unnamed in geology: the Temperature Sandwich or Layer Cake Period. First a layer or period of warm temperature, followed by an extremely cold snap, then another warm day of a few thousands of years, followed by an equal length of time of extreme frigidity. Following, again came a hot time, and so on." [Based on: Col. James Churchward, Cosmic Forces of Mu, Volume Two, p.120]
500 Million - Ordovician Period - "The Ordovician Period [500-438 million] is best known for the presence of its diverse marine invertebrates, including graptolites, trilobites, brachiopods, and some early vertebrates. A typical marine community consisted of these animals, plus red and green algae, primitive fish, cephalopods, corals, crinoids, and gastropods. Evidence also suggests that plants invaded the land at this time." [Links: 1, 2]
470 Million - Land Plants - "First land plants [Earth]" [Based on: N.G.M. (Dec. 2006) illustrated timeline (ROAD TO LIFE), p. 61]
*Trivia: "Plant life may have begun to cling to the land about 450 million years ago." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov, Copyright 1991, p. 10]
460 Million - Minor Ice Age ? - "[....] A minor ice age, the Andean-Saharan, occurred from 460 to 430 million years ago, during the Late Ordovician and the Silurian period. There were extensive polar ice caps at intervals from 350 to 260 million years ago, during the Carboniferous and early Permian Periods, associated with the Karoo Ice Age. [....]"
[Based on: http://2012wiki.com/index.php?title=Ice_Age] - [T.D. - 08/13/09]
440 Million - Ordovician Extinction? - "Astronomers are suggesting that a supernova exploded within 10,000 light years of the earth, destroying the chemistry of the atmosphere and allowing the sun's ultraviolet rays to cook fragile, unprotected life forms. All this happened about 440 million years ago and led to what is known as the Ordovician extinction, the second most severe of the planet's five great periods of extinction. [....] The Ordovician was the first of the five great extinctions in history." [Based on: The Associated Press, January 2004]
438 Million - Silurian Period - "The Silurian Period [438-408 million] was a time when the Earth's climate changed and the erratic temperature fluctuations that preceeded this period stabilized. One result of this was the melting of large glaciers, with a subsequent rise in the sea levels as the ice melted." [Links: 1, 2]
408 Million - Devonian Period - "The world's first great flush of vegetative growth appears in the Devonian Period [408-360 million], with huge ferns and forests of scale trees. Fish and land plants become abundant and diverse and there is evidence of wingless insects and scorpions." [Links: 1, 2]
*Trivia: - Genesis 1:11 - vyamr alhym tdsa harts dsa asb mzrya zra ats pry ash pry lmynv asr zrav-bv al-harts vyhy-kn:
And [v] God [alhym] said [amr]: 'Let the [h] earth [arts] put forth [dsa] grass [dsa], herb [asb] yielding [mzr] seed [zra], and fruit [pry]-tree [ats] bearing [ash] fruit [pry] after [l] its kind [myn], wherein is [asr] the seed [zra] thereof, upon [al] the [h] earth.' And [v] it was [yhy] so [kn].
*Trivia: "The Sixth Command: 'Let Life come forth on the land.' And the shafts of the Sun met the shafts of the earth in the dust of the land and out of the particles of dust formed cosmic eggs. From these cosmic eggs life came forth as commanded." [Based on: Col. James Churchward, The Sacred Symbols Of Mu, p. 99]
375 Million - Link Between Fish & Animals? - "An international team of scientists has discovered [2004?] a long-sought missing link between fish and the first animals to walk on land. [....] It would have been able to haul itself out of shallow water and push itself along the shore, like an awkward seal, in what's now Artic Canada about 375 million years ago, the scientists report in this week's Nature magazine. [....] The scientists named the new species Tiktaalik (tick-TAH-lick), a native Inuit word for 'large freshwater fish.' They think it was able to survive on land for short periods but had to return to the water to stay alive. [....]" [Based on: Knight Ridder Newspapers article (Fossil link between fish and land animals is found in Canada / The creature had scales and fins like a fish, but a neck, ribs and limbs like a land creature. It could breathe through both its snout and gills.), p. A5, S.L.P.D., 04/06/06]
370 Million - Fish - "By 370 million years ago, the chordates had developed as fish, which now dominated the seas. They became amphibians [from Greek words meaning 'double life'] whose modern decendants include frogs, toads, and salamanders." [Based on: Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World]
*Trivia: - Genesis 1:20 - vyamr alhym ysrtsv hmym srts nps chyh vavp yavpp al-harts al-pny rqya hsmym:
And [v] God [alhym] said [amr]: "Let the waters [mym] swarm [srts] with swarms [srts] of living [chyh] creatures [nps], and [v] let the fowl [avp] fly [avp] above [al] the [h] earth [arts] in [al] the open [pny] firmament [rqya] of the [h] heaven [smym]."
*Trivia: - Genesis 1:21 - vybra alhym at htnynm hgdlym vat kl-nps hchyh ][ hrmst asr srtsv hmym lmynhm vat kl-avp knp lmynhv vyra alhym ky-thvb:
And [v] God [alhym] created [bra] the great [gdvlym] sea-monsters [tnyn], and [v] every [kl] living [chy] creature [nps] that creepeth [rms], wherewith [asr] the waters [mym] swarmed [srts], and after its kind [myn], and every [kl] winged [knp] fowl [avp] after [l] its kind [myn]; and God [alhym] saw [ra] that [ky] it was good [thvb].
370 Million - Arthropoda - "The first animal life to reach the land were various members of the phylum 'Arthropoda' [Greek for 'joint-footed'], such as spiders, scorpions, and primitive insects." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov, Copyright 1991, p. 10]
*Trivia: - Genesis 1:24 - vyamr alhym tvtsa harts nps chyh lmynh bhmh vrms vchytv-arts lmynh vyhy-kn:
And [v] God [alhym] said [amr]: "Let the earth [arts] bring forth [ytsa] the [h] living [chy] creature [nps] after its kind [myn], cattle [bhmh], and [v] creeping [rms] thing, and beast [chy] of the earth [arts] after [l] its kind [myn]." And [v] it was [yhy] so [kn].
*Trivia: - Genesis 1:23 - vyas alhym at-chyt harts lmynh vat-hbhmh lmynh vat kl-rms hadmh lmynhv vyra alhym ky-thvb:
And [v] God [alhym] made [ash] the beast [chy] of the earth [arts] after its kind [myn], and [v] the cattle [bhmh] after their kind [myn], and [v] every [kl] thing that creepeth [rms] upon the ground [admh] after its kind [myn]; and God [alhym] saw [ra] that [ky] it was good [thvb].
360 Million - Devonian Extinction? - "The Devonian [extinction], 360 million years ago, killed 60 percent of all species." [Based on: The Associated Press, January 2004]
360 Million - Carboniferous Period - "The Carboniferous Period [360-280 million] was so-named because of its widespread coal swamps. The period is marked by a tropical climate and the development of many large tree ferns, which often reached heights of 50-70 feet." [Links: 1, 2]
*Trivia: "All through the Silurian, Devonian and Carbonic Eras, swamps were being formed as a prelude to terrestrial animal life. All through the Triassic and Jurassic, but little improvement is shown on the late Carbonic. About the middle of the Cretaceous the swamps begin to drain out appreciably, the land becomming marshy instead of slushly, and so this drainage went on to the end of the Cretaceous, when the bulk of the swamps had become marshland with hard dry ridges. When any land was actually uplifted, it was only temporary, and the prelude to the submergence of the land again. The actual draining of the swamps was brought about by the blowing out of Archaean Gas Chambers. When a chamber blew out, its roof went crashing pell-mell to the floor, which reduced the level of the waters; and as the level went down, so the swamps drained out." [Based on: Col. James Churchward, Cosmic Forces of Mu, Volume Two, p. 87-88]
325 Million - Insects with wings - "[....] Fragments of flying insects - usually just the wings - have been found dating to 325 million years ago. [....]" [Based on: New York Times article (Leaving an Impression That Has Lasted Forever) by KENNETH CHANG, 04/04/11]
*Trivia: "[....] Fossilized insects of enormous size have been found from the Paleozoic Era, including giant dragonflies with wingspans of 55 to 70 cm (2228 in). The most diverse insect groups appear to have coevolved with flowering plants. [....]"
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insect]
310 Million - Reptiles - "First reptiles [Earth]" [Based on: N.G.M. (Dec. 2006) illustrated timeline (ROAD TO LIFE), p. 61]
300 Million - Eggs - "About 300 million years ago, however, certain amphibia developed an egg that was surrounded by a protective shell of thin limestone. The shell was permeable to air, but not to water. Air could reach the developing embryo inside, but water could not leave it." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov, Copyright 1991, p. 11]
280 Million - Permian Period - "By the beginning of the Permian Period [280-248 million], the motion of the Earth's crustal plates had brought much of the total land together, fused in one supercontinent." [Links: 1, 2]
252 Million - Permian Extinction - "[....] This extinction killed off more than three-quarters of life on the planet in an event scientists have called the Great Dying. The Chinese dig sites provide new dates and details of the event, which occurred at the end of the Permian Era. It happened 252 million years ago and may have lasted less than 100,000 years, far shorter than scientists had thought, according to the study published Thursday [11/17/11] in the journal Science. [....]" [Based on: Article (Study details world's worst die-off: hell on Earth), 11/17/11] Online: Science: http://www.sciencemag.org / The Associated Press
250 Million - Trivia / Ancient Celluose - "If Martian life existed a few billion years ago, scientists think any plant-like microbes would have left behind a stringy fuzz of fibers. [....] That's because here on Earth, researchers now say  they have found such ancient fuzz, called cellulose, preserved in chunks of salt deposited more than 250 million years ago making it the oldest biological substance yet recovered. The announcement comes about a week after a team of planetary scientists announced discovering evaporated salt deposits on Mars and adds another element of hope to the search for alien life or signs of its past biology. [....] Until the team's discovery, protein recovered from a 68 million-year-old Tyrannosaurus rex fossil owned the oldest-known biological material. The 253-million-year-old cellulose fibers Griffith and others found are essentially the same stringy molecules that give wood its toughness. [NP] 'Cellulose is like the bacteria's house, the biofilm surrounding them,' Griffith said. 'Plants adopted cellulose as their structural entity.' [NP] He explained that the samples found survived not only because of their exceptional sturdiness, but also due to the salty environment: it killed off bacteria, preventing the cellulose from being chewed up as food. [NP] 'Cellulose fibers are just strings of glucose sugar molecules stuck together, end on end,' Griffith said. 'You can dissolve glucose, but as cellulose it resists some of the harshest chemicals and conditions out there.' He thinks the micro fibers likely came from plant-like algae cells that thrived in a lake similar to Utah's Great Salt Lake. [NP] 'The algae may have deposited this stuff as the lake evaporated,' he said, entombing it until the scientists dug it out of the Salado Formation an ancient salt bed in New Mexico and nuclear waste repository and analyzed it under an electron microscope. 'It's very eerie down there. You get a real sense of how old the place is.' [....]"
[Based on: Article (Microscopic Fuzz May Be Best Evidence of Martians) By Dave Mosher, Staff Writer / posted: 31 March 2008, 07:00 am ET] - [See Link]
*Link: http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/080331-mm-cellulose-life.html [T.D. - 04/05/08]
250 Million - Permian-Triassic Extinction? - "The Permian-Triassic [extinction], 250 million years ago, killed 90 percent of all life." [Based on: A.P. article, January 2004]
*Trivia: "An ancient version of global warming may have been to blame for the greatest mass extinction in Earth's history. In an event known as the 'Great Dying,' some 250 million years ago - before the time of the dinosaurs - 90 percent of all marine life and nearly three-quarters of land-based plants and animals became extinct. Researchers led by Peter Ward of the University of Washington now think the answer is global warming caused by volcanic activity. Their conclusions are reported in Thursday's [01/20/05] online edition of the journal Science. [....] Ward's team believes the extinctions were caused by global warming and oxygen deprivation over long periods of time. Massive volcanic flows in what is now Siberia brought on the warming while, at the same time, geologic action caused global sea levels to drop, Ward said in a telephone interview. 'Once you expose a huge amount of underwater sediment to the atmosphere, two very bad things happen - a huge amount of carbon in the sediments is released, and also methane. Once (methane) hits the atmosphere, its the most efficient greenhouse gas on the planet,' he said. Currently , the atmosphere consists of about 21 percent oxygen, but the addition of gases at that time could have lowered levels to 16 percent or less, Ward said. 'If you didn't live on the sea level you didn't live,' he commented, reflecting the fact that oxygen concentrations decline with altitude. The result would have been to eliminate half the living space on the planet, said Ward. [....] The more recent mass extinction that killed the dinosaurs - 65 million years ago - has been linked to an impact by a large asteroid or comet that struck in an area off the coast of what is now Mexico and left a distinctive layer of dust worldwide. Some researchers have argued that the Great Dying might also have resulted from such an impact, but Ward's team said it could find no evidence of such an event." [Based on: A.P. article, 01/21/05]
248 Million - Mesozoic Era - "The Mesozoic [Middle Life] Era [248-65 million] is divided into the Triassic, Jurrasic and Cretaceous Periods. These are the dinosuar periods. The Mesozoic Era occurs between the Paleozoic [Ancient Life] and the Cenozoic [Recent Life] Era's." [Link: 1]
248 Million - Triassic Period - "The first dinosaurs appear during the Triassic Period [248-208 million], along with some of the first mammals, but the dominant animals at the beginning of this epoch are reptiles like turtles and 'fish lizards' called ichthyosaurs." [Links: 1, 2]
*Trivia: "[....] In fact, the scientists said, T. rex shared more of its genetic makeup with ostriches and chickens than with living reptiles, like alligators. On this basis, the research team has redrawn the family tree of major vertebrate groups, assigning the dinosaur a new place in evolutionary relationships. [The research was published today (04/25/08) in the journal Science.] [....]" [Based on: New York Times article (Molecular tests support birds-dinosaurs link / A Tyrannosaurus rex is said to be genetically more like an ostrich than an alligator.), p A2, S.L.P.D., 04/25/08]
220 Million - Triassic Extinction? - "The late Triassic [extinction], 220 million years ago, killed half of all species." [Based on: The Associated Press, January 2004]
210 Million - Mammals - "First mammals [Earth]" [Based on: N.G.M. (Dec. 2006) illustrated timeline (ROAD TO LIFE), p. 61]
*Trivia: "[....] ... by about 220 million years ago, they [reptiles] had evolved into animals that had differientated teeth, as we do; that had hair; that were warm blooded; that laid eggs containing partially developed embryos (and eventually went on to develop mechanisms for giving birth to the embryos themselves); and that produced milk to feed their young." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov, Copyright 1991, p. 12]
208 Million - Jurassic Period - Dinosaurs dominated the land fauna during the Jurassic Period [208-146 million]. The largest of them were the gigantic herbivorous sauropods [which are the largest land animals in all of our history]. Other plant-eating dinosaurs included the plated stegosaurs, but there were many carnivorous dinosaurs, also. The Jurassic also saw the first birds evolve. They were the Archaeopteryx, which was actually an intermediate form between reptiles and birds." [Links: 1, 2]
164 Million - Trivia / Castorocauda lutrasimilis - castoro - "The discovery of a furry, beaverlike animal that lived at the time of the dinosaurs has overturned more than a century of scientific thinking about Jurassic mammals. The find shows that the role of mammals in the time of dinosaurs was far greater than previously thought, says Zhe-Xi Luo, curator of vertebrate paleontology at Carnegie Museum of Natural History in Pittsburgh. [....] Now, a research team that included Luo has found that 164 million years ago, the newly discovered mammal was swimming in lakes and eating fish. It has a flat scaly tail like a beaver's vertebra like an otter's and teeth like a seal's. [....] Thomas Martin of Germany's Research Institute Senckenberg said the discovery pushed back the mammal conquest of the waters by more than 100 million years. [....] Modern semi-aquatic mammals such as beavers and otters, and aquatic mammals like whales, first appeared between 55 million years ago and 25 million years ago, according to the researchers. [....]" [Based on: A.P. article (Furry mammal from Jurassic era upends scientific thought), p. A14, 02/24/06]
146 Million - Cretaceous Period - "The Cretaceous Period [146-65 million] had a climate that was radically different than any climate since that time. Temperatures on Earth were warmer with none below freezing, which meant no glaciers and less seasonal characteristics. Flora and fauna thrived around the polar regions as well as the equator." [Links: 1, 2]
*Trivia: "During the Cretaceous Period all forms of life were radically changed: animals, birds, fishes and vegetation - the most radical of its kind shown in the earth's history. All forms of life and life in all forms show that: a tremendous drop in temperatures had taken place between the beginning and the end of this geological period. [....] During the Cretaceous Period the general temperature of Temperate North America dropped from a hot super-tropical down to a warm temperature with winters. At the opening of the Cretaceous Period the great reptilian life was at its zenith, dominating the earth, with its great expansion both as regards numbers and size. Flying Saurians filled the air, Sea Saurians were the terrors of the deep, the great dinosaurs were kings and ruled the swamps. At the end of the Cretaceous period they were all blotted out; they had become lives of the past. [....] The first great change shown by fossils took place about the middle Cretaceous when plants related to palms appeared, thus showing that the swamps were beginning to be drained out." [ Based on: Col. James Churchward, Cosmic Forces of Mu, Volume Two, pp. 84-85]
125 Million - Mammals - "About 100 million years ago ... some mammals improved the child-bearing system and made it more complex. The embryo remained within the mother's body, nourished by a placenta [from Greek words meaning 'flat cake' because of its shape]." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov, Copyright 1991, p. 12]
*Trivia: "Researchers have discovered the earliest known ancestor of the group of mammals that give birth to live young. The finding is based on a well-preserved fossil of a tiny, hairy 125-million-year-old shrewlike species that scurried about in bushes and the low branches of trees." [Based on News article - 04/24/02]
*Trivia: "The 130 million-year-old fossils, announced Wednesday [01/12/05] by Chinese Paleontologists, challenge conventional thinking and lead to a new and more diverse perception of mammal life in the Mesozoic era, 280 million to 65 million years ago. [....] 'Our discoveries,' the scientists wrote in the journal report [journal Nature], 'constitute the first direct evidence that some of these mammals were carnivorous and fed on small vertebrates, including young dinosaurs, and also show that Mesozoic mammals had a much greater range of body sizes than previously known.' [....]" [New York Times, 01/14/04]
110 Million - Early Bird / Gansus yumenensis - "Well-preserved fossils of early loon-like birds found in China support the idea that modern birds descended from waterfowl. Early Birds: Well-preserved fossils of early loon-like birds found in China support the idea that modern birds descended from waterfowl. / Gansus yumenensis: Oldest known member of the bird group that includes all modern birds and their fossil ancestors / 110 million-year-old fossil: Feathers, foot webbing suggest bird dove for food, similar to today's loons and grebes " [Based on: Title & Picture article for Washington Post article (Fossils of bird ancestor unearthed in China), p. A13, S.L.P.D., 06/16/06]
110 Million - Ancient Crocodile / Sahara River - "Scientists have unearthed the remains of an ancient crocodile that was as long as a city bus and as heavy as a small whale. The giant creature lived 110 million years ago in a river that once flowed through what is now the Sahara. Its jaws and teeth were so powerful it may have eaten small dinosaurs as well as fish." [Source? / Link?]
90 Million - Snake With Legs? - "A newly discovered fossil [2006?] - found in Argentina - of the most primitive snake known, shows a crawling creature with two legs, and it provides new evidence, researchers say, that snakes evolved on the land rather than in the sea. The creature, which lived about 90 million years ago, wasn't more than 3 feet long, researchers say. It's the first time scientists have found a snake with a sacrum, a bony feature supporting the pelvis. That feature was lost as snakes evolved from lizards, and since this is the only known snake that hasn't lost it, it must be the most primitive known, the researchers say." [Based on: A.P. article (Primitive snake had legs), p. A5, S.L.P.D., 04/20/06]
80 Million - Grasses? - "A new discovery debunks the old theory that grass first appeared long after the dinosaurs had died off. Fossilized dung tells the story. The most prominent plant-eating dinosaurs were digesting different variities of grass anywhere from 65 million to 71 million years ago, researchers write in today's issue [11/18/05] of the journal Science. [....] The dinosaurs ate only small amounts of grass, the evidence shows. But grasses must have originated considerably earlier - well over 80 million years ago - for such a wide variety to have evolved and spread to the Indian subcontinent, the researchers concluded. [....]" [Based on: A.P. article (In a surprise to scientists, dung shows that dinosaurs dined on grass), p. A11, S.L.P.D., 11/18/05]
73 Million - Tiny Raptor? - "Pint-sized dinosaur fossils ['discovered among fossils that had been collected a quarter-century ago and remained in a museum drawer'] found  / Tiny meat-eating raptor ['cousin of velociraptor'] probably lived in Canada's swamps 75 million years ago." [Based on: Title for A.P. article by Randolph E. Schmid, p. A5, S.L.P.D., 03/17/09]
70 Million - Primates - "Some 30 million years after the placental mammals first made their appearance, a new subdivision or 'order' evolved. These were the 'primates' (from the Latin word for 'first,', since the order includes human beings)." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov, Copyright 1991, p. 13]
70 Million - Dino-Bird? - "A dinosaur claw fossil found in Brazil [2006?] reinforces the theory of an evolutionary link between dinosaurs and birds, a new study says. Brazilian scientists dubbed the dinosaur the dino-bird, which they said was found in Minas Gerais state, about 370 miles northwest of Rio. Ismar de Souza Carvalho, who co-authored the study, said Thursday [05/18/06] that it probably belonged to an unknown group of dinosaurs that walked the earth some 70 million years ago. 'The anatomic structure of this claw shows, quite possibly, the link between carnivore dinosaurs and birds that exist today,' said Carvalho, a member of the Paleontological Investigation Center at Minas Gerais state university." [Based on: News Services article ('Dini-bird' fossil backs theory, study says), p. A29, S.L.P.D., 05/20/06]
65 Million - Dinosaur Extinction - "The Cretaceous-Teritary event destroyed the dinosaurs and half of all other species about 65 million years ago." [Based on: A.P. article, January 2004]
*Trivia: "About the middle of the Cretaceous the swamps begin to drain out appreciably, the land becomming marshy instead of slushly, and so this drainage went on to the end of the Cretaceous, when the bulk of the swamps had become marshland with hard dry ridges. When any land was actually uplifted, it was only temporary, and the prelude to the submergence of the land again. The actual draining of the swamps was brought about by the blowing out of Archaean Gas Chambers. When a chamber blew out, its roof went crashing pell-mell to the floor, which reduced the level of the waters; and as the level went down, so the swamps drained out." [Col. James Churchward, Cosmic Forces of Mu, Volume Two, p. 87-88]
*Trivia: "It took just a single meteorite impact to do in the dinosaurs, according to a University of Missouri at Columbia geologist [Ken MacLeod]. [NP] A growing body of evidence shows that a massive meteorite, crashing into Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula, triggered the mass extinctions of 65 million years ago." [Based on: Article & Illustration (Dinosaurs' demise / New samples support theory that single meteorite wiped them out / Dinosaur doomsday: New rock samples support the theory that a single meteorite impact, 65 million years ago at Chicxulub crater, killed off dinosaurs.) by Eric Hand, p. A14, S.L.P.D., 11/30/06]
65 Million - Cenozoic Era - "The Cenozoic [Recent Life] Era is truly the Age of Mammals. At its beginning, the world is without any larger-sized terrestrial mammals. The next 65 million years brings marine mammals, such as whales and porpoises, as well as the land mammals, including Homo sapiens, that we know today. The Cenozoic is divided into two main sub-divisions: the Tertiary and the Quaternary. Most of the Cenozoic is the Tertiary, from 65 million years ago to 1.8 million years ago. The Quaternary includes only the last 1.8 million years. Tertiary age rocks were recognized in the Paris Basin, which is the area around Paris, France. In the 1820's and 1830's Charles Lyell, a noted English geologist who had a great influence on Charles darwin, subdivided the Tertiary rocks of the Paris Basin on their fossils. Lyell came up with an ingenious idea. He noticed that the rocks at the top of the section had a very high percentage of fossils of living mollusc species. Those at the bottom of the section had very few living forms. He deduced that this difference was because of the extinction of older forms and the evolution of living forms during the time that the rocks were being deposited. He divided the Tertiary rocks into three sub-ages: the Pliocene, the Miocene, and the Eocene. 90% of the fossil molluscs in Pliocene rocks were living today. In the Miocene rocks, only 18% of the molluscs were of living species, and in Eocene rocks, only 9.5%. These subdivisions of the Tertiary have been correlated around the world using the fossil species in them. Rocks with the same species as Lyell's Eocene, are considered to be the same age as those in the Paris Basin. The same goes for the other subdivisions. Some time later it was noted that in areas other than the Paris Basin, there were rocks that seemed to be from time periods that were not represented in Lyell's sequence. This was because during those periods there had been no deposition in what would later be the Paris Basin. These two periods, later designated Oligocene and Paleocene, were inserted into the Tertiary in their proper places." [Links: 1, 2]
65 Million - Paleocene Period - "At the beginning of the Paleocene Period [65-54 million], the world was practically without larger sized terrestrial animals." [Links: 1]
55 Million - Trivia / Global Warming - "Scientists have found something about the North Pole that could send a shiver down Santa's spine: It used to be downright balmy. In fact, 55 million years ago, the Arctic was once a lot like Miami, with an average temperature of 74 degrees, alligator ancestors and palm trees, scientists say. The conclusion is based on first-of-their-kind core samples extracted from more than 1,000 feet below the Artic Ocean floor. It is contained in today's issue of the journal Nature. [....] Scientists believe that a simple fern may have been responsible for cooling things back down by sucking up massive amounts of the carbon dioxide responsible for the warming. But this natural solution wasn't exactly quick: It took about a million years. The Earth went through an extended period of natural global warming, capped off by a supercharged spike of carbon dioxide that accelerated the greenhouse effect even more about 55 million years ago. [....]" [Based on: A.P. article (Artic once had climate like Miami, scientists say / Core samples show that the average temperature was 74.), p. A7, S.L.P.D., 06/01/06]
54 Million - Eocene Period - "The Early Eocene Period [54-38 million] is thought to have had the highest temperatures of the entire Cenozoic [about 30° C] and high precipitation in a world that was essentially ice free. In the middle Eocene, Antarctica and Australia separate, creating a deep water passage bewteen the two and changing oceanic circulation patterns. This results in a global cooling towards the end of the epoch. The lower temperatures and increased seasonality cause the body size of mammals to increase, and create an increasingly open savanna-like vegetation, with a corresponding reduction in forests." [Links: 1, 2]
40 Million - Monkeys - "About 40 million years ago ... a suborder of primates developed, which are called the 'Anthropoidea' (from Greek words meaning 'man-like'). [....] Their descendants today are 'monkeys,' a word which may possibly come from homunculus, which is Latin for 'little man'. " [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov, Copyright 1991, p. 14]
40 Million - Present Ice Age? - "[....] The present ice age began 40 million years ago with the growth of an ice sheet in Antarctica. It intensified during the late Pliocene, around 3 million years ago, with the spread of ice sheets in the Northern Hemisphere, and has continued in the Pleistocene. Since then, the world has seen cycles of glaciation with ice sheets advancing and retreating on 40,000- and 100,000-year time scales. The most recent glacial period ended about ten thousand years ago. [....]"
[Based on: http://2012wiki.com/index.php?title=Ice_Age] - [T.D. - 08/13/09]
38 Million - Oligocene Period - "A cooling trend prevalent throughout the Oligocene Period [38-24 million] affected the lives and habitats of many organisms. In the oceans, marine life capable of withstanding cooler temperatures congregated to places further from the warmer equator. The cooling trend was also responsible for a reduced diversity in marine plankton, the foundation of the food chain. On land, mammals such as horses, deer, camel, elephants, cats, dogs, and primates begin to dominate. Broad-leaved evergreen plants become increasingly confined to lower latitudes in Eurasia, and broad-leaved forest becomes common over large regions of the Northern Hemisphere." [Links: 1, 2]
36 Million - Penguin / Peru - "[....] Researchers unearthed remains of a nearly 5-foot-tall penguin that roamed what is now Peru about 36 million years ago [See: journal Science - 09/30/10], and they also discovered fossilized feathers that show that, back then, the flightless bird was a more motely mix of reddish-brown and gray. [....]" [Based on: A.P. article (Fossil shows tall, reddish penguin once roamed Peru / Feather find is stroke of luck; they are rarely preserved.), p. A25, S.L.P.D., 10/01/10]
24 Million - Miocene Period - The Miocene Period [24-5 million] was a time of warmer global climates than those in the preceeding or following epochs. By the end of the Miocene, 95% of modern seed families existed." [Links: 1, 2]
*Trivia: "Apparently about the end of the Miocene Period, the earth had become habitable for man, but as yet there were no mountains, but vast dry cultivatable plains. The temperature had dropped to a point where hard winters were experienced." [Based on: Col. James Churchward, The Children Of Mu, p. 53]
18 Million - Volcanic Disasters? / East Africa - "Whole communities of ape-like creatures may have been killed in volcanic disasters that struck East Africa 18 million years ago, according to new research. It follows a study of rock deposits close to the once active volcano Kisingiri. These contained fossils of what is believed to be a forerunner of humans called Proconsul. These creatures livid in a semi-arid environment close to the mountain and the research suggests they may have been caught by a pyroclastic flow. These are clouds of hot gas, dust and rubble which travel at huge speeds from erupting volcanoes. Scientists, who report their findings in the Journal of the Geological Society, believe the abundance of the hominoid fossils may represent 'death assemblages' - whole populations wiped out simultaneously by 'glowing cloud' eruptions. Primates are thought to have evolved and thrived mainly in forest habitats from the Eocene age, through part of the Miocene age. During the Miocene age, conditions became more open, culminating in the expansion of grasslands. The fossils of the Rusinga Formation form a crucial link between the early primates of the forest habitats, and human forerunners of the more open-country habitat. The new research on the fossils shows that these human forerunners lived in drier conditions than had been supposed, on a landscape that experienced repeated volcanic eruption." [Source? link?]
17 Million - Apes - "About 17 million years ago ... the subfamily 'Ponginae' evolved. (The word is from a Congolese term for apes.)." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov, Copyright 1991, p. 14]
17 Million - Started Forming? / The Grand Canyon - March 7th, 2008: "[....] The Grand Canyon often is referred to as about 6 million years old - but its western half actually began to open at least 17 million years ago, a University of New Mexico team reports today in the journal Science. [....] Dating the canyon's carving has been difficult because it has largely depended on evidence from exposed rock and mineral deposits that themselves erode over time. [NP] The University of New Mexico team tried a new technique: Testing formations inside the numerous caves that line the Grand Canyon - protected formations less susceptible to erosion that form at the water table. Cave specialist Carol Hill said they should provide a record of how the water table dropped over time as the canyon was cut deeper and deeper. [....] The findings: The western side of what is now the Grand Canyon started forming about 17 million years ago, and initial erosion was fairly slow and steady - a couple of inches every thousand years. [....]" [Based on: A.P. article (Grand Canyon may be older than generally thought / It may also have started out as two canyons.) by Lauran Neergaard, p A4, S.L.P.D., 03/07/08]
13 Million - Ica Stones? - "One of the great enigmas of planet Earth revolves around a collection of approximately 15,000 pre-Columbian artifacts - the ancient carved gliptolithic rock-library known as the Ica Stones. Geologists have confirmed that based on current computer projections, the shapes indicated on the rocks are indeed accurate for the planet Earth, as it was, about 13,000,000 [million] years ago - pre-stone age." [Link: 1]
13 Million - Common Ancestor? / Humans & Apes - "A nearly 13 million-year-old ape [Pierolapithecus catalaunicus] discovered late last year  in Spain is the last probable common ancestor to all living humans and great apes, a research team says in today's issue [11/19/04] of Science Magazine." [Based on: A.P.,11/19/04]
10 Million - Trivia / Mayan Calendars - "The Maya understood 17 different calendars based on the Cosmos. Some of these calendars go back as far as ten million years and are so complex that an astronomer, astrologer, geologist, and mathematician would be needed just to work out the calculations. The Mayas also made tables predicting eclipses and the orbit of the planet Venus. [....]"
[Based on: http://www.astraltraveler.com/calendars/maya.html] - [T.D. - 12/25/06]
10 Million - Evolutionary Divergence / Gorillas & Humans - "A research team from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute have concluded that there are more similarities between the genomes, or genetic makeup, of humans and gorillas than previously known, and that their respective evolutionary lines diverged approximately 10 million years ago, consistent with interpretations of the fossil record. Their finds confirm that, although the human and chimpanzee are more closely related genetically, there are portions of the human genome that more closely resemble the gorilla genome than they do that of the chimpanzee. [...] The study confirms that the respective evolutionary lines of gorillas and humans diverged approximately 10 million years ago. It is thought that chimpanzees and humans diverged about 4.5 - 8.0 million years ago. [...] The detailed report of the findings is included in the paper, Scally et al, Insights into hominid evolution from the gorilla genome sequence, published in Nature, March 8, 2012 (DOI: 10.1038/nature10842). [....]"
[Based on: Article (Genome Research on Gorillas Sheds New Light on Human Evolution / The evolution of gorillas and humans diverged about 10 million years ago, study confirms.) Wed, Mar 07, 2012]
7 Million - Oldest Human Ancestor? / Chad - "Anthropologists in Chad say they have unearthed the oldest human ancestor yet [July 2002 A.D.], a 6-7 million year old skull."
6.3 Million - Trivia / Humans & Chimps - "Humans and chimps diverged from a single ancestral population through a complex process that took 4 million years, says a new study that compared DNA from the two species. [....]" [Based on: A.P. article (Study finds we're human-chimp hybrid / Conclusions: Humans and chimps diverged from a single ancestral population through a process that included mating to form a third population. / Process: After analyzing about 800 times more DNA than previous studies, researchers think the two species arose sometime after 6.3 million years ago.), p. A1, S.L.P.D., 05/18/06]
6 Million - Earliest Human Ancestor? / East Africa - "A team of scientists led by an anthropologist at the University of California-Berkeley has discovered the fossilized remains of what they believe is humanity's earliest known ancestor, a creature that walked the wooded highlands of East Africa nearly 6 million years ago. The remains include a jawbone with teeth, hand bones and foot bones, fragments of arms, and a piece of collarbone. But most important, the bones also included a single toe bone. Its form provides strong evidence that the pre-human creatures walked upright, the scientists said. The toe bone is a crucial clue to the earliest days of human evolution as it developed soon after the ancestral lines of apes and humans split apart, perhaps 6 million to 8 million years ago."
5 Million - Pliocene Period - "The Pliocene Period [5-1.8 million] was a time of global cooling after the warmer Miocene. The cooling and drying of the global environment may have contributed to the enormous spread of grasslands and savannas during this time. Populations of many grazing animals, such as zebras and horses, increase and spread over these grasslands. The first hominids [australopithecines] evolve." [Links: 1, 2]
5 Million - Trivia / "The Zodiac" -
The antiquity of the zodiac is much in dispute. To contend that it originated but a mere few thousand years before the Christian Era is a colossal mistake on the part of those who have sought to compile data, concerning its origin. The zodiac necessarily must be ancient enough to go backward to that period when its signs and symbols coincided exactly with the positions of the constellations whose various creatures in their natural functions exemplified the outstanding features of the sun's activity during each of the twelve months. One author, after many years of deep study on the subject, believed man's concept of the zodiac to be at least five million years old. In all probability it is one of the many things for which the modem world is indebted to the Atlantean or the Lemurian civilizations. About ten thousand years before the Christian Era there was a period of many ages when knowledge of every kind was suppressed, tablets destroyed, monuments torn down, and every vestige of available material concerning previous civilizations completely obliterated. Only a few copper knives, some arrowheads, and crude carvings on the walls of caves bear mute witness of those civilizations which preceded this age of destruction. Here and there a few gigantic structures have remained which, like the strange monoliths on Easter Island, are evidence of lost arts and sciences and lost races. The human race is exceedingly old. Modern science counts its age in tens of thousands of years; occultism, in tens of millions. There is an old saying that "Mother Earth has shaken many civilizations from her back," and it is not beyond reason that the principles of astrology and astronomy were evolved millions of years before the first white man appeared. [....]
[Based on: http://www.sacred-texts.com/eso/sta/sta12.htm]
5 Million - Australopithicus ramidus - "Australopithicus ramidus was believed to have existed 5 to 4 million years B.C." [Links: 1, 2]
4.5 Million - Alteration? / Earth's Magnetic Field - "Reportedly, an alteration in the Earth's magnetic field occurred about this time. Such 'Magnetic alterations' were of regular occurence during the formative years of earth history."
4.5 Million - Hominine Fossils / Ethiopia - "The earliest known hominine fossils come from the Afar region of Ethiopia and are 4.5 million years old. [....]" [Based on: Compact History Of The World, edited by Geoffrey Parker, copyright 2003, p. 12] - [First published by Times Books (as The Times Compact Atlas of World History) 1995 - updated and reprinted 2002]
4.4 Million - Ardipithecus ramidus - "Skeleton ['Ardi, short for Ardipithecus ramidus] opens window on past / African specimen [fragments found in 1992] dating back 4.4 million years walked upright." [Based on: Title for New York Times article, p. A21, S.L.P.D., 10/02/09]
4 Million - "Lucy" - "[....] ... a large fraction of a skeleton of an australopithecine [southern ape] was located in east-central Africa by an American anthropologist, Donald Johanson. It seemed to be a skeleton of a woman, so it was nicknamed 'Lucy.' It was at least 3 million, and possibly 4 million years old." [Based on: Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov, Copyright 1991, p. 16]
4 Million - Josephoartigasia monesi - "[....] Uruguayan scientists say they have uncovered fossil evidence of the biggest species of rodent ever found, one that scurried across wooded areas of South America about 4 million years ago, when the continent was not connected to North America. [....] Its huge skull, more than 20 inches long, suggested a beast more than 8 feet long and weighing between 1,700 and 3,000 pounds. [....] An Argentine fossil collector identified as Sergio Viera donated the skull to Uruguay's National History and Anthropology Museum almost two decades ago, said museum director Arturo Toscano. [....]" [Based on: A.P. article (Fossil hints at rodent of unusual size / Prehistoric behemoth likely scurried along rivers through South America.) by Raphael G. Satter, p. A11, S.L.P.D., 01/17/08]
4 Million - Australopithicus afarensis - "Australopithicus afarensis is a recently discovered Hominid species which lived in north east Africa, in the Hadar region of Ethiopia. Until 1995, this species was the earliest known member of the Hominid family. Australopithicus afarensis lived from approximately 4 to 2.7 million years ago along the northern Rift valley of east Africa, and perhaps even earlier." [Links: 1, 2]
*Trivia: "We now know that the bipedal species known as Australopithecus afarensis [the species of Lucy and the First Family] dates back more than 3.5 million years, not 800,000 years as our reference books indicated before the late 1970s. We also know that there were four emergent hominoid groups, styled to be known as Australopithecus africanus, Australopithecus robustus, Australopithecus boisei, and homo habilis. From which of these the latter homo erectus was descended [if from any], scientists are still disputing. In reality, these species appear to have been, to some extent, contemporary, thereby denoting that they were different breeds and not descendant breeds." [Based on: Laurence Gardner, Genesis Of The Holy Grail, pp. 71-72]
4 Million - First Walking Human Ancestor? - "A team of U.S. and Ethiopian scientists have discovered the fossilized remains of what they believe is humankind's first walking ancestor, a hominid that lived in the wooded grasslands of the Horn of Africa nearly 4 million years ago. The bones were discovered in February  at a new site called Mille, in the northeastern Afar region of Ethiopa, said Bruce Latimer, director of the Cleveland Museum of Natural History in Ohio. They are estimated to be from 3.8 to 4 million years old. [....] The findings have not been reviewed by outside scientists or published in a scientific journal. [....] The specimen is the fourth partial skeleton ever discovered that is older than 3 million years." [Based on: A.P. article]
4 Million - 4 Million-Year-Old Whale Skeleton / Tuscan Countryside - "Italian researchers have excavated the skeleton of a 4 million-year-old whale [dating to the Pliocene epoch] in the Tuscan countryside [about six miles east of the Mediterranean] , a discovery that could help reconstruct the prehistoric environment of the sea that once covered the region, officials said Tuesday [04/03/07]. [....]" [Based on: A.P. article (Whale find in Italy offers glimpse of prehistoric sea), p. A8, S.L.P.D., 04/04/07]
4-3 Million - Mammoth - "Reportedly, the Mammoth first appeared in Africa. They have 58 chromosomes and are believed to be cousins of elephants, who have 56. - E.M.
Post-4 Million B.C.
Last page update 02/25/13