"Big Bang Theory" - Further Reading

*Trivia: "[....] The expansion of the universe, set in motion by the Big Bang some 13.7 billion years ago, appears to be accelerating, whereas, given the observed matter plus the calculated amount of dark matter, it should be doing the opposite - decelerating. [....]" [Based on: Lee Smolin, The Trouble with Physics, p. 15 (3rd paragraph), copyright 2006]

*Trivia: "Recent measurements reveal a universe consisting mostly of the unknown. Fully 70 percent of the matter density appears to be in the form of dark energy. Twenty-six percent is dark matter. Only 4 percent is ordinary matter. So less than 1 part in 20 is made out of matter we have observed experimentally or described in the standard model of particle physics. Of the other 96 percent, apart from the properties just mentioned, we know absolutely nothing." [Based on: Lee Smolin, The Trouble with Physics, p. 16 (2nd paragraph), copyright 2006]

*Trivia: "Another issue plaguing cosmologists about the Big Bang is called the horizon problem.[11] With our modern telescopes we can view deep into space to see areas of the universe that are 24 billion light years apart. These areas are similar in consistency and temperature, with similar distribution of galaxies ect. However, the universe is only about 12 billion years old and light has not had time to travel from one side to another. Why is the universe so homogenous?" [Based on: Punk Science, Inside the Mind of God (Copyright 2006), p. 193, by Dr Manjir Samanta-Laughton / [11] - Magueijo J. Faster than the speed of light. (Arrow) 2004.]

*Trivia: "A group of astronomers in 1999 concluded that the universe was about 12 billion years old based on data from the Hubble telescope. This group calculated the Hubble constant at 70 km per sec. Other astronomers still argued for an age from 14 to 18 billion years."

*Trivia: "According to a four-part NOVA presentation called 'Origins' that aired on September 28th, 2004, the universe [according to the W-MAP satellite] began about 13.7 billion years ago." [- E.M.]

*Trivia: "By the faint cosmic glow of the oldest known light, physicists say they have found evidence that the universe grew to astounding proportions in less than the blink of an eye. In that trillionth of a second after the big bang, the universe expanded from the size of a marble to a volume larger than all of observable space, through a process known as inflation. At the same time, seeds were planted for the formation of stars, galaxies, planets and every other object in the universe. [....]  'It amazes me that we can say anything at all about what transpired in the first trillionth of a second of the universe,' said Charles Bennett, a Johns Hopkins University physicist who presented the research along with Lyman Page and David Spergel, both of Princeton. Earlier studies of WMAP data have concluded that the universe is 13.7 billion years old, give or take a few hundred thousand years. [....] The researchers say the findings also confirm that only 4 percent of the universe is composed of the familiar atoms that make up what we see around us. Another 22 percent is dark matter - a gravitational force made up of cold particles - and 74 percent is dark energy, a force that appears to be causing the universe to expand. The measurements are scheduled to be published in a future issue of the Astrophysical Journal." [Based on: A.P. article (Scientists more sure how universe began), p. A1 & A5, S.L.P.D., 03/17/06]

*Trivia: "Two Japanese scientists [Makoto Kobayashi & Toshihide Maskawa] and an American [Yoichiro Nambu] won the 2008 Nobel Prize in physics on Tuesday [10/07/08] for theoretical advances that help explain the behavior of the smallest particles of matter. [....] An important example of broken symmetry arose immediately after the big bang, when just a tiny bit more matter than antimatter was created. Because these two kinds of particles annihilate each other when they meet, that excess of matter was responsible for seeding the visible parts of the universe. [NP] Nambu introduced his description of so-called spontaneous broken symmetry into particle physics in 1960. The Nobel citation said his theories now permeate the Standard Model of physics, which is the basic theory of how the universe operates. [NP] In 1972, Kobayashi and Maskawa explained why an earlier experiment had found that some subatomic particles called kaons failed to follow the rules of symmetry. Their explanation correctly predicted the existence of a new family of quarks, which are a kind of subatomic particle." [Based on: A.P. article (U.S. Nobel winner says he'd 'almost given up'), p A13, S.L.P.D., 10/08/08]

*Trivia: "[...] David Wiltshire, a physicist at the University of Canterbury in New Zealand and a visitor to Barbour's [Julian Barbour] College Farm, thinks the reason dark energy is so mysterious is that it is an illusion. Wiltshire's argument is that most physicists essentially ignore one of the major principles at the heart of general relativity: that clocks in different parts of the universe can run at different rates. Einstein held that there is no such thing as universal time and that matter affects the rate at which clocks tick, such that time slows near massive objects. Accordingly, Wiltshire notes, the flow of time near galaxies could be slower than the flow of time in empty space. 'In a truly relativistic view, the age of the universe differs from place to place,' he says. 'In empty space, over 18 billion years have elapsed since the Big Bang, but within galaxies only about 15 billion years have passed.' (because Wiltshire starts from a separate set of physical assumptions, his numbers are different from the now canonical 13.7 billion years for the age of the universe.) [....]" [Based on: DISCOVER article (Gravity of the Grid / From a farmhouse in the English village of South Newington, a gentelman scientist plots to upend Einstein's model of space, time, and gravity - and send physics off on a bold new course.)  for March 2012, by Zeeya Merali), p. 49.]

Last page update 03/12/12